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PHL 100

Electromagnetic Waves and Quantum Mechanics


Instructor: Arun Kumar

Lecture - 1

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Topics you have already learnt …

• Vector calculus: grad, div, curl, ...


• Electric fields in matter: P, E, D
• Magnetic fields in matter: M, H, B
• Maxwell equations and boundary conditions
• E M wave equation, Plane wave solutions
• Polarization of E M waves,
• Poynting vector and Intensity of E M waves
• Wave packet, Phase and group velocity.

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Topics I will broadly cover …

Electromagnetic waves
6 Lectures + 1 Problem Session
Using Griffiths and Ghatak’s book

Introductory Quantum Mechanics

6 Lectures + 1 Problem Session


Reference text: Eiseberg and Resnick
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Topics you will learn in EM part …
- Reflection and refraction of EM waves at
dielectric interface
- Brewster angle
- Total internal reflection
EM waves in a conducting medium and plasma
- Complex k vector
- Skin depth
- Reflection at metal boundary
- Dispersion
- Plasma frequency

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Recap:
Maxwell equations in terms of free charges/currents

G
∇⋅ D = ρf
G G G
∇⋅ B = 0 D = ε E
G G G
G ∂B
∇×E = − B = μH
∂t
G
G ∂D
∇×H = Jf +
∂t
[ Griffiths 7.3.5]
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Recap:
Boundary conditions

⊥ ⊥
D1 − D2 = σf
Interface
B1⊥ − B2⊥ = 0
G || G ||
E1 − E2 = 0 ε1 , μ1 n̂
G || G || G
H1 − H 2 = K f × nˆ ε 2 , μ2

When there are no free charges/


currents at the interface, all the
r.h.s.’s above are zero. [ Griffiths 7.3.6]
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G G
Recap: Ε ( z , t ) = Ε 0 e i ( k z − ω t )
G G
B ( z , t ) = B 0 e i ( k z − ω t )
Plane wave representation in a dielectric:
G G G G
E-field E ( r , t ) = ξ E0 exp[ i ( k ⋅ r − ω t )
ˆ
G ω
k = xˆ k x + yˆ k y + zˆ k z and k = k x2 + k y2 + k z2 = n
c
G
Transverse waves …
G ξˆ E G
ξˆ ⋅ k = 0 G k
B
B-field
G G 1 ˆ G G c
B( r , t ) = k × E ( r,t ) , v =
v n
Unit vector in direction of k
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Reflection and Refraction of EM waves
at dielectric interface
Snell’s laws
θ1 = θ2

θ2 n1 sin(θ1) = n2 sin(θ3)
θ1
n1
n2

θ3 What about reflected/


transmitted energy?

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Reflection/Transmission at normal incidence
Incident beam
z G
E i = xˆ E0i exp[ i ( k1 z − ω t ) ]
x y G E
B i = yˆ 0i exp[ i ( k1 z − ω t ) ]
v1
G G
Et Reflected beam
ε 2 , μ2 Bt
G
E r = xˆ E0 r exp[ i ( − k1 z − ω t ) ]
G
G
ε1 , μ1 G
Ei
Bi G
Er B r = − yˆ
E0 r
exp[ i ( − k1 z − ω t ) ]
G v1
Br
G
Transmitted beam
E t = xˆ E0t exp[ i ( k2 z − ω t ) ]
G E
B t = yˆ 0t exp[ i ( k2 z − ω t ) ]
v2
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How can we relate the incident, reflected and
transmitted fields?
Boundary conditions …no free charges/currents
⊥ ⊥
D1 − D2 = 0
⊥ ⊥ Not useful since there are no
B1 − B2 = 0 normal components of E, B
G || G ||
E1 − E2 = 0
G || G || Useful for our purpose
H1 − H2 = 0
G || G ||
B1 B2
− = 0
μ1 μ2
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Normal incidence continued …
E-parallel condition at boundary z = 0

E 0i + E 0 r = E 0t

H-parallel condition at boundary z = 0


1 1
( E 0i − E 0 r ) = E 0t
μ1 v1 μ 2 v2
μ1 v1
or E 0i − E 0 r = E 0t = β E 0t
μ 2 v2
Solve simultaneous equations to get reflected and
transmitted field amplitude in terms of incident field.
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Solving simultaneous equations …
⎛ 1− β ⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎞
E 0r = ⎜ ⎟ E 0i , E0t = ⎜ ⎟ E 0i
⎝ 1+ β ⎠ ⎝ 1+ β ⎠

μ1 v1 μ1 n2
where β = =
μ2 v2 μ2 n1

Magnetic permeability is almost same as vacuum


for most materials ...
μ1 n1 n2
β = =
μ2 n2 n1
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Solution in terms of refractive index (μ1 ≈ μ2)

Normal incidence
⎛ n1 − n2 ⎞ ⎛ 2n1 ⎞
E 0r = ⎜ ⎟ E 0i , E0t = ⎜ ⎟ E 0i
⎝ n1 + n2 ⎠ ⎝ n1 + n2 ⎠

Reflection Coefficient Transmission Coefficient


E 0r ⎛ n1 − n2 ⎞ E0t ⎛ 2n1 ⎞
r= = ⎜ ⎟ t= = ⎜ ⎟
E 0i ⎝ n1 + n2 ⎠ E 0i ⎝ n1 + n2 ⎠
n1 > n2: Incident and reflected waves are in phase

n1 < n2: Incident and reflected waves are out of phase


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Transmitted/ Reflected intensity
Average power passing normal to a unit area
1
I = ε v E02
2

Reflection coefficient
2 2
⎛ E0 r ⎞ ⎛ n1 − n2 ⎞
R = ⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ ⎟
⎝ E0i ⎠ ⎝ n1 + n2 ⎠

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Transmission coefficient
2 2
ε 2 v2 ⎛ E0t ⎞ n22 n1 ⎛ 2 n1 ⎞ 4 n1 n2
T = ⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ ⎟ =
ε1 v1 ⎝ E0i ⎠ n12 n2 ⎝ n1 + n2 ⎠ ( n1 + n2 ) 2

Summary of results (normal incidence)

2
⎛ n1 − n2 ⎞ 4 n1n2
R = ⎜ ⎟ , T =
⎝ n1 + n2 ⎠ ( n1 + n2 ) 2

R +T = 1
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Illustration: Air-Glass interface
(normal incidence)

n1 = 1 n2 = 1.5 2
⎛ 0.5 ⎞ 1
R = ⎜ ⎟ =
⎝ 2.5 ⎠ 25

4 % Energy is reflected

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Day/Night setting on rearview car mirror

Glass
Side view

Day/Night Mirror
switch

4%

> 90 %
Day Night 18