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ANSI/IEEE Std 519-1981

IEEE Guide for

Harmonic Control and Reactive Compensation of
Static Power Converters

Published by The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc 345 East 47th Street, New York, N Y 10017, USA
SHO 7 9 71
April 27, 1981
Std 519-1981

A n American National Standard

IEEE Guide for Harmonic Control and

Reactive Compensation of
Static Power Converters

Static Power Converter Committee of the
Industry Applications Society

Approved December 20, 1979

IEEE Standards Board

Approved April 29,1983

American National Standards Institute

@Copyright 1981 by

The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc

345 East 47th Street, New York,NY 10017

N o part of this publication may be reproduced in any f o r m ,

in an electronic retrieval system o r otherwise,
without the prior written permission of the publisher.
Approved December 20,1979
IEEE Standards Board
Joseph L. Koepfinger, Chairman Irvin N. Howell, Jr, Vice Chairman
Ivan G . Easton, Secretary
G. Y. R. Allen Harold S. Goldberg J. E. May
William E. Andrus Richard J. Gowen Donald T. Michael*
C. N. Berglund H. Mark Grove R. L.Pritchard
Edward Chellotti Loering M. Johnson F. Rosa
Edward J. Cohen Irving Kolodny Ralph M. Showers
Warren H. Cook W. R. Kruesi J. W. Skooglund
R. 0. Duncan Leon Levy W. E. Vannah
Jay Forster B. W. Whittington

*Member emeritus

(This Foreword is not a part of IEEE Std 519-1981, IEEE Guide for Harmonic Control and Reactive Compensa-
tion of Static Power Converters.)

This guide was prepared by the Harmonic and Reactive Compensation Subcommittee of the IEEE
Static Power Converter Committee. The subject is not new; it has been theoretically and experi-
mentally investigated for more than fifty years. Widespread use of converters, accentuation of prob-
lems, and involvement of nonspecialized personnel are, however, new. When work was started in
1974, static power converters using solid state devices had been used in industry for about ten years.
The technology had progressed to a state that promised increased use of these devices in application
from home use t o heavy industrial use. The need for a guide t o set practical limits on power system
noise from these devices became apparent.
During the past five years, patterns have been established where the interaction between static
power converters and reactive compensation equipment have led t o practices for correcting prob-
lems that occur. This guide has application guidelines t o control interaction between these two
types of equipment.
At the time it approved this guide the IEEE Subcommittee on Harmonic and Reactive Compensa-
tion of Static Converters of Electric Power had the following membership:

Ray P. Stratford, Chairman

D. L. Ashcroft 0. Johnson W. E. Newellt
W. H. Bixby A. Kirsh J. H. Ottevangers
J. H. Galloway S. T. Kohn R. G. Schieman
N. C. Herndon A. Kusko D. E. Steeper
D. Human E. J. Luoma L. F. Stringer
A. J. Humphrey* D. McLellont R. V. Wachter

- *past secretary

This guide was prepared by a working group of the IEEE Subcommittee on Harmonic and Reactive
Compensation of Static Converters of Electric Power. The membership of the working group was:

R. P. Stratford, Chairman
D. L. Ashcroft 0. Johnson D. H. Potter
W. H. Bixby A. F. Kirsch R. G. Schieman
W. R. Caputo A. Kusko J. Simons
R. Edward A. Ludbrook H. M. Schlicke
J. H. Galloway E. J. Luoma D. E. Steeper
H. A. Gauper H. A. McColeman L. F. Stringer
N. C. Herndon D. McLellont R. V. Wachter
D. Human W. E. Newellt D. C. Washburn
A. J. Humphrey J. H. Ottevangers J. A. 1. Young
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1. IntroductionandScope ...................................................... 7
1.1 Introduction .......................................................... 7
1.2 Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2. Definitions and Letter Symbols ................................................ 7
2.1 Definitions ........................................................... 7
2.2 Letter Symbols ........................................................ 9
3. References ................................................................ 11
3.1 Standards References ................................................... 11
3.2 References ............................................................ 11
4. Converter Theory and Harmonic Generation ...................................... 11
4.1 Introduction 11
5. Reactive Power Compensation and Harmonic Control Techniques ..................... 15
5.1 Converter Power Factor ................................................. 15
5.2 Reactive Power Compensation ............................................ 17
5.3 Problems and Control of Harmonics ........................................ 21
6 . Calculation Methods ........................................................ 22
6.1 Calculation of Harmonic Currents .......................................... 22
6.2 System Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
6.3 Telephone Interference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
6.4 Line Notching Calculations (For Low Voltage Systems) ......................... 24
6.5 Distortion Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
6.6 System Calculation (Low Voltage, Below 1000 V) ............................. 26
6.7 Power Factor Improvement Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
7. Measurements ............................................................. 28
7.1 LineNotching ......................................................... 29
7.2 Harmonics ............................................................ 30
7.3 Telephone Interference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
7.4 Flicker ............................................................... 31
7.5 Power Factor Correction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
8. Recommended Practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
8.1 LineNotching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
8.2 Power Factor Correction ................................................. 34
8.3 Harmonics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
8.4 Telephone Interference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
8.5 Flicker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
9 . Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
9.1 Books and General Discussion ............................................. 42
9.2 Real and Wattless Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
9.3 Waveform Analysis and Measurement Techniques .............................. 44
9.4 Standards and Engineering Recommendations ................................ 44
9.5 Waveform Analysis and Means for Harmonic Suppression/Power Averaging . . . . . . . . . . 45
9.6 Effects on Components and Systems ........................................ 48

Current and Voltage Wave Forms Delta. Six.Phase. Y.Double Way . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12


Fig 1
Fig 2 Relations Among Angles Used in Converter Theory ............................ 14
Fig 3 Theoretical and Typical Values of Harmonic Current For a Six-Pulse Converter . . . . . . . 15
Fig 4 Relationship Between Distortion Displacement and Total Power Component . . . . . . . . . 15
Fig 5 Total Power Factor of Six-Pulse and Twelve-Pulse Converters. a = 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Fig 6 Determination of Displacement Power Factor
(Neglecting Transformer Exciting Current) ................................... 16
Fig 7 Reactive Power Versus dc Volts of Converter ................................. 17
Fig 8 Effect of Reactive Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Fig 9 Capacitors Switched in Binary Values ....................................... 18
Fig 10 Static VAR Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Fig 11 Three-phase Diagram of One Bank of Capacitors ............................... 19
Fig 12 Self Saturating Reactor Scheme ............................................ 19
Fig 13 Power System Showing Harmonic Current and Voltage Influences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Fig 14 Impedance Diagram of Power System ....................................... 23
Fig 15 Three-phase Full Wave Converter .......................................... 24
Fig 16 Voltage Notches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Fig17 InductanceDiagram .................................................... 25
Fig 18 Typical Power System and Equivalent Diagram ................................ 27
Fig 19 Power-Reactive Triangle for Power Factor Correction ........................... 28
Fig 20 Test Circuit for Measuring Current and Voltage
Using Potential Transformer and Current Transformer .......................... 29
Fig 21 Notch Depth Reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Fig 22 Simplified Diagram. Power Distribution System ............................... 32
Fig 23 Converter Connection t o Distribution System ................................. 33
Fig 24 Power System Showing Paralleling Between System .
and Shunt Capacitance Reactances ......................................... 34
Fig 25 Power System with Shunt Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Fig26 Shuntpower Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Fig 27 Theoretical Voltage Distortion Versus Short-circuit Ratio
for Six- and Twelve-Pulse Rectifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Fig 28 1960 TIF Weighting Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Fig 29 Maximum Permissible Voltage Fluctuations .................................. 41


Table 1 Harmonic Currents Present in Input Current t o a Typical

Static Power Converter in Per-Unit of the Fundamental Current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Table 2 Low Voltage System Classification and Distortion Limits for 460 V Systems . . . . . . . . 34
Table 3 Typical Filter Configuration Versus System Size .............................. 36
Table 4 Voltage Distortion Limits for Medium and High Voltage Power Systems . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Table 5 1960 Single Frequency TIF Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Table 6 Typical 1.T Values for 48 V dc Converters .................................. 39
Table 7 Typical 1.T Values for 48 V dc Ferroresonant Converters ....................... 39
Table 8 Balanced I * TGuidelines for Converter Installations. Tie (Supply) Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
A n American National Standard
IEEE Guide for Harmonic Control and
Reactive Compensation of
Static Power Converters

1. Introduction and Scope frequencies. Additional useful definitions will

be found in ANSI/IEEE Std 100-1977,Standard
Dictionary of Electrical and Electronic Terms,
1.1 Introduction. Static power converters of
IEEE Std 223-1966, Standard Definitions of
electric power are widely used in industry for Terms for Thyristors, IEEE Std 59-1962, Stan-
dard Semiconductor Rectifier components,
a variety of purposes, such as electrochemical
ANSI C34.2-1968, Practices and Requirements
power supplies, adjustable speed drives, and un-
for Semiconductor Power Rectifiers, and
interruptible power supplies. These devices are ANSI/IEEE Std 444-1973, Standard Practices
useful because they can convert ac to dc, dc to and Requirements for Thyristor Converters and
ac, and ac to ac. This characteristic, however, Motor Drives: Part I -- Convertersfor DC Motor
changes the sinusoidal nature of the ac power Armature Supplies.
current (and consequently the ac voltage drop),
resulting in the flow of harmonic currents in commutation. The transfer of unidirectional
the ac power system that can cause interference current between thyristor (or diode) converter
with communication circuits and other equip- circuit elements that conduct in succession.
ments. When reactive power compensation is
used with converters, resonance conditions can converter. An equipment that changes electrical
cause high harmonic voltages and currents energy from one form to another. A semicon-
when they occur at a harmonic associated with ductor converter is a converter that uses thy-
the converter. ristors or diodes as the active elements in the
conversion process.
1.2 Scope. This guide applies to all types of
static power converters used in industrial and deviation from a sine wave. A single number
commercial power systems. The purpose is to measure of the distortion of a sinusoid due to
discuss the problems, be an application guide, harmonic components. It is equal to the ratio
and recommend limits of disturbances to the ac of the absolute value of the maximum differ-
power distribution system which affect other ence between the distorted wave and the funda-
equipments and communications. This guide is mental to the crest value of the fundamental.
not intended to cover the effect of radio-
deviation from a sine wave, maximum theoret-
frequency interference.
ical. For a nonsinusoidal wave, the ratio of the
arithmetic sum of the amplitudes (rms) of all
harmonics in the wave to the amplitude (rms)
of the fundamental.
2. Definitions and Letter Symbols
distortion factor (harmonic factor). The ratio
of the root-mean-square of the harmonic con-
2.1 Definitions. Definitions given herein are tent to the root-mean-square value of the funda-
tailored specifically to the harmonics generated mental quantity, expressed as a percent of the
by static power converters at utility system fundamental.


sum of squares of amplitudes integral multiple of the fundamental frequency.

of all harmonics
square of amplitude
*loo% NOTE: For example, a component, the frequency of
which is twice the fundamental frequency, is called a
of fundamental second harmonic.

harmonic, characteristic. Those harmonics pro-

filter. A generic term used in describing those
duced by semiconductor converter equipment
types of equipment whose purpose is t o reduce
in the course of normal operation. In a six pulse
the harmonic currents or the voltage flowing in
converter, the characteristic harmonics are the
or being impressed upon specific parts of an nontriple odd harmonics, for example, the 5th,
electrical power system, or both. 7th, l l t h , 13th, etc.
filter, damped. A filter generally consisting of h=kqk1
combinations of capacitors, reactors, and resis- k = any integer
tors which have been selected in such a way as q = pulse number of converter
t o present a low impedance over a broad range
of frequencies. The filter usually has a relatively harmonic, noncharacteristic. Those harmonics
low Q ( X / R ) . which are not produced by semiconductor con-
verter equipment in the course of normal opera-
filter effectiveness (shunt). Defined by two tion. These may be a result of beat frequencies,
terms : a demodulation of characteristic harmonics and
pf = the impedance ratio which determines the fundamental, or unbalance in the ac power
the per unit current which will flow into system or unsymmetrical delay angle.
the shunt filter
harmonic factor. The ratio of the root-mean-
ps = the impedance ratio which determines
square (rms) value of all the harmonics t o the
the per unit current which will flow into
root-mean-square value of the fundamental.
the power source
pf should approach unity and ps should be
very small at the tuned frequency. harmonic factor
(for voltage)
= 4ES2+ ES2+ El2.. .
filter, high-pass. A filter having a single trans-
mission band extending from some cutoff
frequency, not zero, up t o infinite frequency.

filter, series. That type of filter which reduces

harmonics by putting a high series impedance impedance ratio factor. The ratio of the source
between the harmonic source and the system impedance at the point in the system under
t o be protected. consideration to the equivalent total imped-
ance from the source t o the converter circuit
filter, shunt. That type of filter which reduces elements which commutate simultaneously.
harmonics by providing a low impedance path
to shunt the harmonics from the source away I T product. The inductive influence expressed
from the system t o be protected. in terms of the product of its root-mean-square
magnitude in amperes ( I ) times its telephone
filter, tuned. A filter consisting generally of influence factor (TIF).
combinations of capacitors, inductors, and
resistors which have been selected in such a
way as t o present a relative minimum (maxi-
kV T product. Inductive influence expressed
mum) impedance t o one or more specific fre- in terms of the product of its root-mean-square
quencies. For a shunt (series) filter the imped- magnitude in kilovolts (kV) times its telephone
ance is a minimum (maximum). Tuned filters influence factor (TIF).
generally have a relatively high Q ( X / R ) .
line voltage notch. The dip in the supply voltage

harmonic. A sinusoidal component of a periodic to a converter due t o the momentary short-

wave or quantity having a frequency that is an circuit of the ac lines during a commutation


interval. Alternatively, the momentary dip in telephone influence factor (TIF). Of a voltage
- supply voltage caused by the reactive drops in or current wave in an electric supply circuit,
the supply circuit during the high rates of the ratio of the square root of the sum of the
change in currents occurring in the ac lines squares of the weighted root-mean-square values
during commutation. of all the sine-wave components (including
alternating current waves both fundamental
power factor, displacement. The displacement and harmonic) t o the root-mean-square value
component of power factor; the ratio of the (unweighted) of the entire wave.
active power of the fundamental wave, the
watts, t o the apparent power of the funda- 2.2 Letter Symbols. The following set of letter
mental wave, in volt-amperes (including the symbols is used in thyristor converter circuit
exciting current of the thyristor converter analysis and calculation of converter character-
transformer). istics.
2.2.1 Subscripts
power factor (total). The ratio of the total 0 = a t no load; for example, Ed0
power input in watts t o the total volt-ampere
1 = at rated load, or fundamental; for ex-
input t o the converter.
ample Ed1 or Il
NOTES: (1) This definition includes the effect of har- d = direct current and voltage
monic components of current and voltage, the effect of h = order of harmonic
phase displacement between current and voltage, and
the exciting current of the transformer. Volt-amperes is i = ideal
the product of rms voltage and rms current. 1 = converter side of transformer, phase-to-
( 2 ) The power factor is determined at the ac line phase, el
terminah of the converter.
L = line side of transformer
p = inherent
pulse number. The total number of successive pu = per-unit quantities
nonsimultaneous commutations occurring with- s = converter side of transformer, phase-to-
in that converter circuit during each cycle
- when operating without phase control. It is
2.2.2 Letter Symbols
also equal t o the order of the principal har-
a = delay angle
monic in the direct voltage, that is, the number
y = margin angle (for inverter operation)
of pulses present in the dc output voltage in
p = commutation angle
one cycle of the supply voltage.
p f = impedanceratio
quality factor. Two K times the ratio of the ps = impedanceratio
maximum stored energy t o the energy dissipated cos @1 = displacement power factor (including
per cycle at a given frequency. An approximate transformer exciting current)
equivalent definition is that the Q is the ratio cos 6 = distortion component of power factor
of the resonance frequency to the bandwidth Uh = amplitude of sine term for the h har-
between those frequencies on opposite sides of monic in Fourier expansion (crest
the resonance frequency where the response of value)
the resonant structure differs by 3 dB from bh = amplitude of cosine term for the h
that at resonance. If the resonant circuit com- harmonic in Fourier expansion (crest
prises an inductance L and a capacitance C in value)
series with an effective resistance R , the value Ch = amplitude of resultant for the h har-
of Q is: monic in Fourier expansion (crest
Dx = commutating reactance transforma-
Q = L ( L $5) tion constant (applies only t o the first
R C mode of operation after the light load
short-circuit ratio. Of a semiconductor con- E,, = crest working voltage
verter is the ratio of the short-circuit capacity Ed = average direct voltage under load
of the bus in MVA at the point of converter Edo = theoretical direct voltage (average
connection t o the rating of the converter in direct voltage at no load or light
MW. transition load, assuming zero phase


control and zero forward voltage Pd = output power, in watts

drop) g = pulse number of a converter
Ed1 = direct rated voltage Rc = line-to-neutral commutating resis-
= commutating voltage tance for a set of commutating
Ef = total forward voltage drop per circuit groups, in ohms
element Rcn = equivalent line-to-neutral commutat-
Eii = initial reverse voltage ing resistance, in ohms, for a set of
EL = ac system line-to-line voltage commutating groups referred t o the
En = ac system line-to-neutral voltage ac (primary) winding of a converter
Er= direct-voltage drop caused by resis- transformer
tance losses in transformer equip- R, = line-to-neutral commutating resis-
ment, plus interconnections not in- tance, in ohms, for a single commu-
cluded in Ef tating group
E, = transformer dc (secondary) winding R, = effective resistance of the ac (primary)
line-to-neutral voltage (rms) winding
Ex = direct-voltage drop caused by com- R, = effective resistance of the direct-
mutating reactance current (secondary) winding
f = frequency of ac power system S = circuit factor [l for single-way; 2 for
F, = IcXc/Es commutating reactance factor bridge (double-way)]
IC1 = transformer dc winding (secondary) Xc = line-to-neutral commutating reac-
coil rms current tance, in ohms, for a set of commu-
Id = average dc load current of the recti- tating groups
fier, in amperes Xcpu = per-unit commutating reactance
le = transformer exciting current Xcn = equivalent line-to-neutral commu-
I, = direct current commutated between tating reactance, in ohms, for a set of
two rectifying elements in a single commutating groups referred t o the

Ih =
commutating group
harmonic component of I of the order
ac (primary) winding of a converter
transformer (Xcn= D,Xe)
indicated by the subscript X, = line-to-neutral commutating reac-
tance, in ohms, for a single commu-
IH = tating group
X L = reactance of supply line, in ohms (per
equivalent totalized harmonic com- line)
ponent of IL X L , ~= per-unit reactance of supply line, ex-
IL = alternating line current (rms) pressed on base of rated volt-amperes
Im = alternating line current (crest value) a t the line terminals of the trans-
I, = transformer ac (primary) winding coil former ac (primary) windings
current X T , ~= per-unit reactance of transformer, ex-
IpL = alternating line current corresponding pressed on base of rated volt-amperes
t o the current in the ac (primary) a t the line terminals of the trans-
winding during load loss test in ac- former ac (primary) windings
cordance with ANSI/IEEE 2, = line-to-neutral commutating imped-
Std 444-1973 ance, in ohms, for a set of commu-
Is = transformer dc winding (secondary) tating groups
line rms current Zcn = equivalent line-to-neutral commu-
I1 = fundamental component of IL tating impedance, in ohms, for a set
power component of I1, in watts of commutating groups referred t o
Ilp =
reactive component of I1 the ac (primary) winding of a con-
IlQ =
Ld = inductance of the dc reactor, in verter transformer
henrys 2, = line-to-neutral commutating imped-
n = number of simple converters ance, in ohms, for a single commu-
pulse number of commutating group tating group
P =
Pr = transformer load losses, in watts (in-
NOTE: Commutating reactances due to various circuit
cluding resistance and eddy current elements may be indicated by subscript as in X,, X c 2 ,
losses) or X c and
~ X c for
~ transformers and line, respectively.


3. References [14] JOHNSON, E. R., Static High Speed VAR

Control for Arc Furnace Flicker Reduction.
[l]CHRISTENSEN, E. F., Analysis of Recti- Proceedings American Power Conference, vol
fier Circuits. AIEE Transactions, vol 63,1944, 34,1972, pp 1097-1105.
pp 1048-1058. [ 151 ANSI C34.2-1968 (R 1973), Practices and
[2] READ, J. C. The Calculation of Rectifier Requirements for Semiconductor Power Recti-
and Converter Performance Characteristics. fiers'
Journal IEE, vol92, pt 11,1945, pp 495-509. [16] ANSI/IEEE Std 18-1980, Shunt Power
[31 PELLY, B. R. Thyristor Phase-Controlled Capacitors
Converters and Cycloconverters. New York: [17] ANSI/IEEE Std 100-1977, Standard
John Wiley, 1971. Dictionary of Electrical and Electronics Terms
[4] TRUXAL, J. G. Automatic Feedback Con- [ 181 ANSI/IEEE Std 444-1973, Standard Prac-
trol System Synthesis. New York: McGraw- tices and Requirements for Thyristor Converters
Hill, 1955, pp 375-390. and Motor Drives: Part I - Converters for dc
[5] KIMBARK, E. W. Direct Current Trans- Motor Armature Supplies
mission - vol I, New York: Wiley-Interscience, [19] IEEE Std 59-1962, Standard for Semi-
1971 (see Ch 8, Harmonics and Filters, which conductor Rectifier Components
includes a list of 62 references).
[20] IEEE Std 223-1966, Standard Definitions
[ 61 AIEE COMMITTEE REPORT. Inductive of Terms for Thyristors
Coordination Aspects of Rectifier Installations.
AIEE Transactions, vol65, 1946, pp 417-436. [ 211 ANSI/IEEE Std 368-1977, Recommended
Practice for Measurement of Electrical Noise
[7] Survey of Arc-Furnace Installations on and Harmonic Filter Performance of High-

Power Systems and Resulting Lamp Flicker. Voltage Direct-Current Systems.

Subcommittee Report, AIEE Transactions, vol
76, pt 11, Sept 1957, pp 170-183. [22] IEEE Std 469-1977, Recommended Prac-
tice for Voice-Frequency Electrical-Noise Tests
[8] CONCORDIA, C., Selection of Buffer Re- of Distribution Transformers
actors and Synchronous Condensers on Power
Systems Supplying Arc-Furnace Loads. AIEE
Transactions, vol 76, pt 11, Jul 1957, pp 123-
4. Converter Theory and Harmonic Generation
[9] KENDALL, P. G. Light Flicker in Relation
t o Power-System Voltage Fluctuation. Proceed-
ings IEE, ~ 0 1 1 1 3 , 1 9 6 6pp
, 471-479. 4.1 Introduction. A power converter by defini-
tion changes electrical energy from one form t o
[ 101 MULCAHY, J. A. and LUDBROOK, A. A. another. This change is accomplished by peri-
New Flicker Correcting System for Arc Fur- odic switching in the conducting circuits of the
naces. Journal of Metals, Apr 1967, pp 63-66. converter. A three-phase bridge converter (see
[ll] FRANK, H. and LANDSTROM, B. Power- Table 6, Circuit No 23, ANSI C34.2-1968,
Factor Correction with Thyristor-Controlled [15] ), for example, connects the line-voltage
Capacitors. ASEA Journal, vol 44, 1971, pp with the highest instantaneous value of voltage
180-1 84. t o the load. (See Fig 1.) The switches in the
example of Fig l ( a ) are thyristors. Combina-
[ 121 Thyristor-Switched Capacitors Curb Fur- tions of one odd and one even numbered thy-
nace Flicker. Electrical Review, Aug 9, 1974, ristor will connect the ac source t o the load.
pp 164-166.
[13] OLTROGGE, A. R. Fundamental Criteria 'ANSI documents are available from the American
for Large Arc Furnace Power Systems. Journal National Standards Institute, 1430 Broadway, New
of Metals, Jan 1971, pp 53-64. York, N. Y. 10018.


I,E L 4

(a) Table 6, Circuit No 23 [ 151 DC WINDING

R. R"

(b) Transformer dc Winding Volts

(c) Current in Rectifying Elements

(a) Voltage Across No 1 [15]

Rectifying Element

(e) Current in dc Winding Rt


(g) ac
Table CircuitsIfl
Line6,Current Nofor
24 and No 25 [ 151 2Ia ES

fi Id E.

(f) ac Line Current Hl for

Table 6, Circuits No 23 and No 26 [ 151
I- ?,"4

Fig 1
Current and Voltage Wave Forms Delta A,
Six-Phase, Y, Double Way


The resulting unidirectional voltage is made up 29, 31, etc are 180' out of phase, thereby
of the tops of sinusoidal waves, each top sixty cancelling these currents when they are used in
degrees wide. It is a dc voltage with superim- a circuit such as Table 6, Circuit No 31 [15].
posed high-frequency ripple. Harmonic analyses The square current waves of Fig l ( c ) are
show that the ripple voltage consists of the based on the assumption that the line current
supply voltage with a frequency of multiples of will transfer instantaneously when the higher
six times the fundamental frequency. ac voltage causes a diode to start conducting. In
The dc load circuit and the dc load itself con- practice there will be reactance in the circuit
tain inductance which will flatten the load cur- which will cause the current transfer to be
rent. In converter theory, for convenience sake, more gradual (Fig 2), reducing the slope of the
the dc current is considered to be constant. As leading and trailing edges of the square waves
shown in Fig l(f), the line currents at the ac and reducing the magnitude of the ac current
side will consist of flat topped waves. Power, harmonics. The time to transfer current is
the product of current and voltage, at the dc called the commutating angle ( p ) . Figure 3
side contains harmonics due to the harmonics shows the relationship of theoretical value to a
in the voltage. Since no energy storage can take typical value of harmonic current.
place in the elements of a converter, the power The switching elements of the bridge in Fig
balance of input and output requires harmonics l ( a ) are diodes. They will start conducting as
in the input power, and thus harmonic currents soon as a voltage is applied in the forward, or
will flow in the supply lines. Energy balance current-carrying, direction. Thyristors not only
considerations show, and Fourier analysis of need a forward voltage, but also a firing pulse
the square waves confirms, that each 6n har- t o start conducting. Output voltage can be con-
monic in the dc voltage requires harmonic cur- trolled by delaying the firing pulse with refer-
rents of frequencies 6n + l and 6n - l in the ac ence to the voltage cross-over time. Firing
line. The magnitude of the harmonic current delay influences the manner in which current
is inversely proportional to the harmonic is transferred from phase-to-phase, and thus
I number. also influences the magnitude of the current
harmonics. The delay angle is called a.
h = kq+1 This example of one use of a semiconductor
= I1 device demonstrates the production of harmonic
Ih -
h currents. These currents flowing in the circuits
where of a power system can cause problems if a
h = harmonic order resonant circuit exists at the frequency of any
k = any integer of these currents. These currents can excite
q = pulse number of circuit
these resonant circuits and produce large oscil-
I1 = fundamental current lating currents which can overload circuit ele-
ments causing failure or operation of protective
Therefore, for a 6-pulse converter, such as equipment. These higher than fundamental fre-
Table 6, Circuits 23, 25, or 25 [15] the har- quency currents can produce noise on com-
monic currents in the ac power supply would munication circuits, either voice or data trans-
theoretically be: mission, by electrostatic or electromagnetic
Harmonic Order and The ability of the thyristor to delay the com-
Current Magnitude in Per Unit mutation of the current t o the more positive
of the Fundamental phase (operation at reduced voltage output)
5 7 11 13 17 19 23 25
increases the angle by which the voltage leads
0.2000 0.1429 0.0909 0.0769 0.0588 0.0526 0.0435 0.0400
the current, and thus reduces the power factor.
Some installations compensate for this reduc-
A transformer connection of Y-Y (Table 6, tion in power factor by capacitors; this increases
Circuit No 24) [15] or A-A (Table 6, Circuit the chance of setting up parallel resonances.
No 25) [15] would reflect an ac line current The electrical circuit within an industrial
- as shown in Figure l(g). This has the same plant is not isolated from the utility providing
harmonics as Table 6, Circuit No 23 and the electric power. The resonant conditions
Circuit No 26 [15] except the 5, 7, 17, 19, described in this Guide are a result of the



Fig 2
Relations Among Angles
Used in Converter Theory


A twelve pulse converter has theoretical value

of approximately 0.988.
q sin =
pF = - -
= q
d m
0 0
: g
0 0
q # 1
0 0 mu3
For purpose of calculations, transformer
magnetizing current is neglected. With com-
mutation overlap and phase retard, the equa-
tion becomes:

5th 7th 11th 13th 17th 19th 23rd 25t.h


Fig 3
Theoretical and Typical Values of
Harmonic Current where
For a Six-Pulse Converter Ed' = Ed + + Ef
Ed = average direct voltage under load
= resistance drop
combination of inductive and capacitive reac-
tances in the total circuit. Resonant problems E f = total forward drop per circuit element
I d = d < load current supplied by the con-
that arise must be solved by a joint effort
between the industrial user and the utility by verter, in average amperes

approaching the problem on a system basis. EL = primary line-to-line r m s voltage

This guide suggests limits of voltage distortion
and recommends practices t o minimize the Fig 4
effects of the harmonic currents from static Relationship Between Distortion
power converters. Displacement and Total Power
5. Reactive Power Compensation and
Harmonic Control Techniques 0.98

5.1 Converter Power Factor. The power factor
of a converter is made up of two components: 0.94
displacement and distortion. The effect of the
two are combined into the total power factor. 0.92
Their relationship is shown in Fig 4.
The displacement component is the ratio of 0.90
the active power of the fundamental wave, in
watts, to the apparent power of the funda- 0.88
mental wave, in voltamperes. This is the power
factor as seen by the utility metering by watt- 0.86
hour and varhour meters. The distortion com-
ponent is that part associated with the har- 0.84
monic voltages and currents present. 0 10 20 30 40
The power factor of a six pulse converter on
a theoretical square wave current basis is: - =-Ex
E, E, (%I
PF = 3/, = 0.955 (a= 0 )


IL= ac primary line current, in rms amperes ing current. Transformer magnetizing current
a = commutation angle (Imag) correction is approximately
p = angle of overlap or commutating angle
Ed0 = theoretical dc voltage
E, = direct voltage drop due t o commutating
reactance where
cos = displacement power factor, not in-
cluding transformer magnetizing cur-
sinp [ 2 + cos ( p + 2 a ) ]
-p [l + 2 cos a cos ( p + a ) ] Static power converters need a supply of
f(p,a)= [ 2 71 cos a cos ( p + a)]2 reactive power whether they are rectifying or
inverting. In both cases the thyristor can only
The displacement factor, turn the current on after the voltage has be-
come more positive than the previous phase
sin2p voltage. The closer the operation is t o zero volts
cos 4; = ( a =0)
( p 2 + sin'p - 2p sin p COS^)^ dc (Fig 7), the more reactive power is required
with the same output current. The reactive
Displacement power factor is the power factor power requirements of commonly used con-
that is measured by metering equipment, and is verter circuits is a function of load and output
the one on which utility billing is based. voltage and may be calculated.
The distortion power factor (cos 6 ) is the It is possible to reduce reactive power require-
ratio of the fundamental component of ac line ments of static power converters by:
current t o the total line current (I~/IL). (1)Limiting the amount of phase control
Figure 6 shows the relationship between dis- required during normal operation (limit a)
placement power factor and system reactance. (2) Lower reactance of converter transform-
This does not allow for transformer magnetiz- ers (limit p )
(3) Asymmetrical or sequential control of
Fig 5 converters (limit a)
Total Power Factor of Six-Pulse and
Twelve-Pulse Converters, a = 0 Fig 6
Determination of Displacement Power Factor
(Neglecting Transformer Exciting Current)

0.98 1


0.92 -


0.88 0.72



0 5 10 0 5 10 15
E, ( 7 )
EX (7cJ
Ed 0 h o


5.1.1 Limiting Phase Control. Static power using any of the above methods. Voltage con-
converters are usually designed t o operate from trol by regulating transformer can reduce the
a power system whose voltage range is from amount of voltage control required by phase
+lo% t o - 5%of nominal. If the converter is t o retard in the converter. A lower reactance con-
invert, it is usually designed to operate with a verter transformer may mean that the short
*lo% voltage. This means that the power sys- circuit levels in the converter are too high.
tem voltage can vary over &lo% and stili have Asymmetrical or sequential control may be
satisfactory operation of the converter. If some economical if the application requires large
other means of voltage control is used t o main- enough converters so that two converter
tain the power system voltage in a narrower sections are needed.
range, the secondary voltage of the converter
transformer can be chosen so that, during 5.2 Reactive Power Compensation. The rate
normal operation, the converter is operated structures electric power utility companies
more nearly fully phased on (less retard). are made up of two main components: demand
If the load that the converter is feeding re- charge and energy charge. The first is a result
quires a wide range of voltage, voltage control of the investment in equipment t o furnish that
from transformer taps will limit the amount of amount of total power t o the customer. The
phase control used by the converter. second is the result of fuel that must be ex-
5.1.2 Lower Reactance Transformer. Reactive pended t o generate the energy used.
power is required t o furnish the magnetizing The total power (kVA) is made up of two
component of current t o transformers. If the components in quadrature.
transformer is designed to have a minimum If the kVA can be reduced by furnishing reac-
reactance, the reactive power requirement is tive power locally, the demand charge can be
also minimum and it reduces the commutation minimized.
Reactive power sources are:
5.1.3 Asymmetrical or Sequential Control. (1)Static power capacitors
By designing a static power converter to oper-
(2) Synchronous machines

ate with two converter sections in series, it is (3) Force commutated static power converters
possible to operate one section fully phased 5.2.1 Reactive Power Compensation Using
on and the second section adding or subtract- Static Power Capacitors. Power capacitors are
ing from the voltage of the first section. Be- an inexpensive source of reactive power (leading
cause a smaller part of the total static con- vars). The vars are proportional to the square
verter is operating with phase control, a smaller of the applied voltage. The reactance of a capa-
amount of reactive power is required. citor bank varies inversely with the frequency
5.1.4 Other Considerations. The ability to re- 1
duce the reactive power requirements of a static Xcap= -
power converter is sometimes limited by the
number of units involved and the economics of So for high frequencies they provide low im-
pedance. The leading current drawn by the
capacitors give a voltage rise through the induc-
Fig 7 tive reactance of the power system which raises
Reactive Power Versus dc Volts of Converter the operating voltage level. They cannot by
themselves control reactive power and voltages.
They must be switched in groups to provide

Fig 8
Effect of Reactive Power



variable reactive power. Four methods of con-

trolling vars using capacitors, in the order of
complexity are :
(1)Switching by power circuit breaker or
vacuum switches
(2)Back-to-back phase control thyristor
switching of a reactor in parallel with the
capacitor bank T T T T
(3) Back-to-back thyristor switching of capa-
citors which will turn on or off at current zero
Fig 9
(4) Saturable reactor in parallel with capa-
Capacitors Switched in Binary Values
citor bank Switching Power Capacitors by Cir-
cuit Breakers or Vacuum Switches. For con- switching the current t o the reactor, the prob-
trolling reactive power on a continuous basis lems of switching leading current is avoided.
switching power capacitors by circuit breakers Thyristor switching of a balanced three-phase
or vacuum switches requires a switching device load causes 5 , 7, etc harmonic currents. There-
that can be operated with high frequency and fore, the capacitors may be divided into three
can interrupt at current zero with a high volt- or more sections with tuning reactors to filter
age across the contacts without reignition. Be- these harmonics. The reactor var rating is
cause of these requirements, this method is normally equal t o the capacitor rating t o ob-
used only for switching larger banks once or tain full control. More capacitors can be sup-
twice a day when the demand changes from plied if a bias of vars is needed on the system.
normal t o light load conditions. The switching Back-to-Back Thyristor Switching
device has the special requirement of being able of Capacitors at Zero Current. Back-to-back
t o interrupt a current which leads the voltage thyristor switching of capacitors at zero cur-
by 90". Where the limitations are not an oper- rent leaves the capacitor charged with either a
ating disadvantage, this method of controlling positive or negative full charge on the capacitor.
vars is most economical. The thyristor's fine control allows the switching- Back-to-Back Phase Control Thy- on of the capacitor when the system voltage
ristor Switching of Reactor. Back-to-back phase equals the charged capacitor voltage. This elim-
control thyristor switching in parallel with inates any transients on the system. The capa-
capacitors has the advantage of smooth var citors are switched in finite steps as reactive
control over the range of the equipment. By power is needed. The switched capacitors can

Fig 10
Static VAR Control
NOTE: This system can control vars on a per-phase basis.


5 7 11 13


synchronous condenser is often used with a

- be tuned with a reactor to filter harmonics on
the system. This system can also be used with a fixed capacitor bank equal to the machine
fixed bias of capacitors t o provide a base vars vars. This will allow a total range of operation
with the switched capacitors to be used for from zero t o twice the machine rating for lead-
variable vars. This system can be regulated on a ing vars with proper adjustment of the field
per-phase basis. The control of this equipment excitation.
is more complicated than switching a paralleled A synchronous motor can be sized to provide
reactor. leading vars. When the system includes synchro- Saturable Reactor in Parallel with a nous motors, consideration should be given to
Capacitor Bank. A saturable reactor in parallel this possibility since the incremental cost of
with a capacitor bank provides a variable var providing leading vars can be quite attractive.
supply that requires no external control cir- Further, with proper control strategy, the vars
cuitry. This system consists of a self-saturating can be adjusted t o the system requirements
reactor in parallel with a capacitor bank which (power factor regulator).
can be arranged into tuned series circuits. The When synchronous machines are used t o pro-
self-saturating reactor draws heavy currents at vide power factor compensation, the following
overvoltages so that the voltage drop through technical areas of interest should be considered:
the system reactance counteracts the voltage (1)Time profile of the var and kW demand
rise at the load. As the system voltage decreases, on the bus to be protected
the reactor draws less current and the paralleled (2) Allowable voltage deviation on this bus
capacitors furnish the vars needed at the load. (transient and steady-state)
The harmonics generated by iron saturation are (3) Time profile of the vars the synchronous
somewhat compensated by the winding config- machine must provide in order to maintain the
uration; however, the paralleled capacitor is voltage deviation limits
usually furnished with series tuned circuits t o NOTE: The synchronous machine, by virtue of its
the major harmonics, 5, 7, etc. stored magnetic energy, will be able t o provide instan-
5.2.2 Reactive Power Compensation Using taneous attenuation of a voltage disturbance. The field
must be adjusted to provide complete attenuation. The
Rotating Machinery. Synchronous machines time required can be reduced by field forcing with a
can be made t o operate with either a leading or static power converter field exciter.
lagging power factor by controlling the field
(4)Compatibility with static power converters
excitation. This property can be used to pro-
in such areas as:
vide reactive power compensation on a dynamic (a) Voltage unbalance sensitivity
basis with the appropriate control strategy. (b) AC line harmonic heating
A synchronous machine is referred t o as a (c) Bearing currents
synchronous condenser when it is dedicated
(5) Control limits that will avoid:
solely to reactive power compensation. It will
(a) Exceeding machine pullout torque cap-
have no mechanical load and all the machine
power will be available as reactive power. A
(b) Exceeding machine thermal limit
Fig 11
Three-phase Diagram of Fig 12
One Bank of Capacitors Reactive Power Compensation
Using Rotating Machinery

HAKMOhlC I l l T t R 5


5.2.3 Reactive Power Compensation Using Harmonic voltage generation can be controlled
Forced Commutated Converters. The technique by the use of a number of different cancella- -.
of forcing commutation t o a different phase tion techniques, such as pulse multiplication
before the voltage has become more positive and step wave which cancel the lower order
produces leading vars. An example of this type harmonic pairs. Treatment of the remaining
of converter is an inverter using a fuel cell or harmonics is quite different with the forced
battery as an energy source. commutated converter. The inductance on the
ac side of forced commutated converters offers
Forced-commutated converters incorporate a high impedance to the passage of the higher
their own means for commutation and can harmonic currents. In cases where the ac sys-
commutate independently of the line voltage. tem is stiff relative t o the ac side reactance, no
The conversion parts of these systems are control of harmonic voltages at the ac bus is
voltage sources rather than current sources as required. With weak ac systems, some filtering
in linecommutated conversion. The forced may be required. A small, high-pass shunt filter
commutated converter functions nearly the or a small capacitance bank suffices with 18-or
same as a conventional utility generator; that 24-pulse configurations since the ac side induc-
is, a voltage source behind an impedance. The tance restricts harmonic current flow.
converters have essentially no inductance on Selfcommutated converters do not require
the dc side but do require additional inductance reactive compensation (they can generate vars)
on the ac side. Reactive compensation is not and filters for the uncancelled harmonics are
required. small.

Fig 13
Power System Showing Harmonic Current and Voltage Influences
(a) Schematic Diagram; (b) Impedance Diagram





- 5.3 Problems and Control of Harmonics. The

diagram of Fig 13 shows a converter C supplied
ous operation of these systems. Proper shield-
ing or isolation of the signal leads can prevent
from a power source G over a three-phase line most of these problems.
L,. The reactance of the source XG + xi2 and On utility systems feeding domestic loads,
the line L, are in series with the converter trans- interference with TV video signals by the har-
former reactance Xt. If a harmonic current Ih monic currents generated by converters is usu-
flows between the converter and the source ally the first indication of harmonic problems.
there will be harmonic voltage Eh = Ih Xh at Metering and instrumentation are affected by
location A. ( x h is the reactance of the source harmonic currents, particularly if resonant con-
at the harmonic frequency h). When there is an ditions occur which cause high harmonic volt-
extension L, for supplying other loads, the har- age on the circuits. Induction disk devices such
monic voltage at A will cause a harmonic cur- as watthour meters and overcurrent relays
rent to flow over that line as well, although the normally see only fundamental current, but
power to the rectifier is supplied only over line phase unbalances caused by harmonic distortion
L, . The higher the value of x h , the greater will can cause erroneous operation of these devices.
be the harmonic voltage at A and the higher On critical loads, torque pulsations caused by
the magnitude of the harmonic currents flow- harmonic currents on ac motors can be harmful
ing over line L,. Actually, the harmonic cur- t o the process. They can also set up resonant
rents from a converter can flow into any part conditions if the natural frequency of the
of an ac system to which it is connected, as mechanical system is excited by the harmonics.
determined by the impedances of the various Ballasts for fluorescent or mercury lighting
branches of the system at the harmonic fre- sometimes have capacitors which, together
quencies. The harmonic voltages and currents with the inductance of the ballast and circuit,
can be calculated. have a resonant point. If this corresponds t o
Inductive coupling between the ac power line one of the generated harmonics, excessive heat-
and the telephone lines induces harmonic volt- ing and failure can result.
- ages on the telephone system which may cause
noise levels high enough that it is impossible to
Carrier systems that control remote devices
can operate erroneously if the harmonics are
understand messages being transmitted on the generated close to the carrier signal frequency.
telephone lines. In recent years such telephone Carrier systems for time clocks and off-peak
techniques as carrier devices (high frequency) control are two examples.
facilities and the use of shielded cables have Harmonic current can be controlled by several
minimized the susceptibility of these communi- techniques. These include :
cation circuits t o harmonics on power lines. (1)Shunt filters
There are still many cases where the pole line is (2)Phase multiplication
shared by both the voice frequency telephone (3)Harmonic compensation or injection
and power distribution systems so that har- 5.3.1 Shunt Filters. Shunt filters for reduc-
monics can cause harmful affects on the com- tion of harmonic currents flowing into an ac
munication system. power system consist of one or more tuned cir-
Harmonic currents can cause excessive heat- cuits consisting of series L-C circuits. The filter
ing in rotating machinery. The harmonic cur- commonly used on HVDC transmission con-
rents of Izq + l are positive phase sequence cur- sists of individual circuits tuned for the 5, 7,
rents and Izq - l are negative phase sequence 11 and 13 harmonics plus a high pass filter
currents. On synchronous machines, these two tuned near the 17 harmonic. Filters in indus-
currents add directly, causing additional heat- trial systems can be simpler because of the
ing in the solid rotor of large synchronous higher damping in the lower voltage systems.
machines. This limits the amount of converter The need t o filter the higher order harmonics is
load that can be carried by synchronous gen- related to the system short-circuit levels. The
erators. The converter loads frequently are damping factor is dependent upon the X/R
small compared to the electric utility generator ratio of the circuit.
sizes, but local generation (for example, the 5.3.2 Phase Multiplication. Single-phase con-
user) may suffer severely. verters are commonly used for small loads. For
-_ Noise from harmonic generation operating on lowest initial cost, a half wave circuit may be
regulating and control systems can give errone- used where current requirements are small. For


greater output and less generation of harmonics Table 1

a full wave circuit can be used. Harmonic Currents Present in Input Current
The basic polyphase converter is a six-pulse t o a Typical Static Power Converter in
unit. Theoretically, a twelve-pulse unit will Per-Unit of the Fundamental Current
eliminate the 5, 7, 17, 19, etc harmonic fre-
Converter Harmonic Order
quencies. Further phase multiplication will
Pulses 5 7 11 13 17 19 23 25
reduce other harmonic currents. For example,
a 36-pulse circuit is usually constructed with 6
0.175 0.11
0.026 0.016
0.045 0.029 0.015 0.010 0.009 0.008
0.045 0.029 0.002 0.001 0.009 0.008
six 6-pulse bridges, each of which is phase 18 0.026 0.016 0.007 0.004 0.015 0.010 0.001 0.001
24 0.026 0.016 0.007 0.004 0.002 0.001 0.009 0.008
shifted 10" from the other transformers by a
separate phase shifting transformer or addi-
tional coils in the primary windings. If one 6- monics are 25% of those computed for a six-
pulse unit is out of service, the harmonic cur- pulse converter. The 25% factor appears t o be
rent equivalent to that unit will be present. on the high side. A range of 15%t o 25% would
Large installations may require addition of be more accurate depending upon the equip-
shunt filters to minimize harmonic currents. ment. These unbalances might be caused by:
Phase multiplication is most effective for an (1)Variations in voltage or impedance line-
installation where converters operate such that line in three-phase systems (possibly k2.596)
equal sizes are operated with equal loading and (2) Differences in transformer winding ratios
phase retard. for Y and A connections
5.3.3 Harmonic Injection. Harmonic currents (3) Differences in thyristor firing pulse angles
can be eliminated by inducing harmonic fluxes between multipulse circuits
in a core of a transformer with a 180" phase (4) Variations in thyristor turn-off times.
shift from the harmonic fluxes induced by the 6.1.1 Diversity Factors. A need exists to de-
current flowing on the transformer secondary. velop either diversity factors or a statistical
method for calculating the harmonic current
amplitudes of more than one converter con-
nected t o a bus.
6. Calculation Methods
6.1.2 Harmonic Currents from Semiconverters
and Cycloconverters. To estimate harmonic
This section recommends calculating methods current amplitudes for semiconverters and
for harmonic currents and voltages generated other infrequently used circuits, it is recom-
by converters, including their effect on tele- mended that the wave shape be estimated or
phone circuits and power systems. The effects obtained by test and standard Fourier analysis
on telephone circuits are described by TIF and computer programs be used. Approximations
1.T product. The effects on power systems are can be used as described in [3] and [ 4 ] .
described by distortion factor and line notch-
6.2 System Analysis. The circuit of Fig 1 4
ing. Low-voltage system calculations use both
should be analyzed at each frequency of interest
distortion factors and line notching methods.
by calculating series and parallel resonances.
6.1 Calculation of Harmonic Currents. Har- 6.2.1 Impedance as a Function of Frequency.
monic current amplitudes are a function of the The major impedance elements in the above cir-
delay angle (a)and the commutating reactance cuit respond differently as frequency changes.
(Xc). The basic equations for calculating the The impedance of transmission lines is a com-
amplitude are given in [ 11 ? Curves showing the plex relationship between the inductive and
changes in amplitude as a function of a and X , capacitive reactances. Using the fundamental
are contained in [ 2 ] . Typical values for har- frequency resistance and inductance of the
monic analysis are shown in Table 1. transmission line, however, gives good results
Theoretically, a 12-pulse converter does not [ 51 . For most industrial systems, Z, and 2 , can
produce 5, 7, 1 7 and 1 9 harmonics; but due to be approximated by the short-circuit imped-
unbalances, some will be present. Reference [ 21 ance. The impedance versus frequency charac-
recommends the assumption that these har- teristic of a transformer depends upon design,
size, voltage, etc. Its load loss, I'R, will consti-
'Numbers in brackets correspond t o those in the Ref- tute 75% to 85% of the total transformer loss -
erences, Section 3. and about 75% of this is not frequency depend-


- F

11 hf ISSIOIi
ZC =I Zf

ent. The remainder varies with the square of the Define two ratios as follows:
frequency. The no load (core loss) constitutes
between 15% and 25% of the total loss and,
depending upon flux density, the loss varies as
frequency t o the three halves (f") power t o
the frequency cubed ( f 3 ) . From this, with reac-
tance increasing directly with frequency (in-
ductance constant), it can be seen that the Then Eq 3 and Eq 4 become:
harmonic X / R ratios will be less than the fun-
damental frequency X / R ratio. If fundamental 4 = PsIh (Eq 7)
frequency X / R ratios are used, there will be
less damping of the high-frequency current If = PfIh (Eq 8)
than in actuality.
Because of Eq 1 , it is evident that
- 6.2.2 Adjacent Capacitor Banks. If there are
large capacitor banks or filters connected t o PS+Pf = 1 (Eq 9)
the utility system, it is necessary t o consider
their effect. Note that ps and pf are complex quantities.
6.2.3 Converter as a Harmonic Generator. At the various harmonics, Eq 7 shows that it
The converter is usually considered to be a is desirable that p, be small. Typical values for a
generator of harmonic currents ih, and is con- series tuned filter are (at the tuned frequency):
sidered to be a constant current source. Then
2, is very large and is ignored. If the converter p, = 0.045 1-80.6"
is a constant voltage source, 2, should be in-
pf = 0.994 /+2.6"
6.2.4 Circuit Analysis. Using Ohm's and
Kirchhoff's laws, the following is evident: Parallel resonances occur between Zf and Z,,
and typical values are:
Let p, = 16.67 1-92.9'
2, = z,+ 2, pf = 16.75 /+83.6'
Ih =4 + If (Eq 1)
The approximate 180° difference emphasizes
IfZf = I,Z, (Eq 2) why a parallel resonance cannot be tolerated at
a frequency near a harmonic current generated.
Solve Eq 2 for If,substitute into Eq 1,and re-
A current of the resonance frequency will
arrange, giving:
excite the circuit and a 16.67 per unit current
will oscillate between the two energy storage
units (system inductance and capacitors).
A plot of p, versus h is a useful display of
filter performance. Frequently a plot of log
p, is more convenient.


The harmonic voltage V, is: three-phase full-control converter bridge. The

thyristors operate in pairs t o convert three- .
phase ac t o dc by switching the load among the
The distortion factor is: various thyristor pairs 6 times per cycle. During
the process, a brief short-circuit produces a
sum of squares of amplitudes notch in the line-to-line voltage waveform.
of all harmonic voltages
square of amplitude of
fundamental 1 x 100%
(Eq 11)
6.3 Telephone Interference. T w o equations are
in general use in North America.
The current in the converter of Fig 1 5 has
been flowing from Phase A through thyristor
1. When thyristor 3 fires (Fig 16(a), (b), and
(c)) at time t (30' on the line-to-line voltage
base), the current begins to transfer from Phase
A t o Phase B. Source reactance prevents instan-
6.3.1 Voltage Telephone Influence Factor. taneous transfer: the commutating time (angle)
The voltage telephone interference factor VTIF required becomes the notch width ( p ) .
is : The resulting notch is shown on a line-to-
neutral basis in Fig 16(a) and on a line-to-line
basis in Fig 16(b). The latter clearly illustrates
the shorting action when both thyristors 1and
3 are conducting simultaneously; the other
notches reflect the action of the thyristor on
where the other legs of the ac circuitry.
V, = fundamental L-N voltage (rms) 6.4.1 Notch Area Calculations. The area of
Ih= harmonic current into power system the notch is dependent upon the volt-seconds
&=power system impedance at harmonic absorbed in the circuits from the source to the
order h point of the circuit which is of interest. The
Th = telephone interference weighting factor area of the notch is an indication of the effect
(TIF) [1960 curves currently in use] the static power converter will have on other
hh = upper limit of harmonics, 5000 Hz loads.
The notch area is calculated (refer t o Fig 17)
6.3.2 I*T Product. The other equation fre- as follows:
quently used is the 1.T product:

6.4 Line Notching Calculations (For Low-

Voltage Systems). Figure 1 5 shows a typical

Fig 15
Three-phase Full Wave Converter
XL 1 3 5 1, 2 , 3 9 4 , 5 , 6
m A

m B

m C



NOTE: The two other phases are similar to A-B. Width of notches is exaggerated and ringing omitted for clarity.

Fig 16
Voltage Notches

r---- - - - -I


Fig 17
Inductance Diagram


where 6.5.1 Relationship Between Line Notching

and Distortion Factor (See Figs 16 and 17). .
VN = notch depth in volts (L-L) of the deeper
notch of the group
tN = width of notch in microseconds
Id = converter dc current in amperes
e = instantaneous voltage (L-L) just prior t o
L = inductance in henrys per phase
AN = notch area in volt-microseconds
Combining the above equations:

6.4.2 Calculation of Source Inductance, P

Transformer Inductance (600 V and below).
Dry type transformers used in converters at
this voltage have approximately equal reac- From the above:
tance and resistance when considering the tran-
sient characteristics of the commutating
The following equation can then apply:
For fi = 60 Hz and EL = 460 V
transformer - 2 EL
inductance fi28f'fi11 DF- = 0.0744 P %
where where
2 =transformer nameplate per unit imped-
p = t h e ratio of the total inductance to the
common system inductance
EL = rated line-to-line voltage fi = power circuit frequency
Il = rated ac full load VH = sum of harmonic voltages
f = line frequency
See 6.4.1 for other terms.
The above assumes XL= RL
6.4.3 Calculation of Line Inductance. Typi- 6.6 System Calculated (Low Voltage, Below
cally the per-phase line inductance on a three- 1000 V). A typical plant distribution system
phase ac line can be considered t o be 0.3 pH is shown in Fig 18(a) and a simplified diagram
per foot of line, or about 1pH/m. in Fig 18(b). The system can then be considered
an RLC circuit. Since the rectifier can be con-
6.5 Distortion Factor. The distortion factor is
used t o define the effect of harmonics on the sidered a short circuit, during commutation, this
can be replaced by a knife switch in the simpli-
power system voltage. It is used in low-voltage,
fied circuit. The equivalent impedance of the
medium-voltage, and high-voltage systems. It is
transformer needs t o be considered when the
expressed as a percent of the fundamental and
simplified sketch is drawn up.
is defined as:
6.6.1 System Damping Factor. In most sys-

DF =( sum of the squares of

of all harmonic voltages
square of the amplitude
of the fundamental voltage
x 100%
tems, the rectifier transformer plus line im-
pedance is much larger than the distribution
transformer impedance so that the distribution
transformer can be neglected in calculating the
damping factor and the natural frequency.
In a series resonant circuit the following
equations can be employed :

Damping factor = E
See Section 4 for harmonics.




r RT2

Fig 1 8
Typical Power System and Equivalent Diagram

information t o size a cost saving power capa-

Natural frequency o,=
lk rad/s citor. Utility company rate clauses differ with
respect t o reactive power so that each must be

studied and evaluated on an individual basis.
-. Natural frequency f = Lc Hz Detailed knowledge of the operating mode of
the individual drives in a group may be used t o
For low-voltage equipment, the damping fac- establish a target value of kvars t o add for
tor of the system should be greater than 0.5 reactive compensation. Each drive kW and kvar
when the natural frequency of the system is value is derived from load and speed character-
less than 2100 Hz (35 harmonic on 60 Hz). istic data, taking into account basic variations
At frequencies greater than 2100 Hz, the sys- in operating mode. Summation of these kW
tem losses, such as skin effect, provide damping and kvar values along with similar data for
t o the system. other loads will provide an overall basis upon
which t o size supplemental kvar requirements.
6.7 Power Factor Improvement Calculation. If the converters are used for purposes other
Because reactive power varies on a given thy- than motor drives, similar considerations will
ristor motor drive depending upon operating be required for the loading in each case.
speed and torque, requirements may increase Below is an example illustrating this ap-
more than 100% from top speed down t o low proach, which is based upon loading in a partic-
speed. N o single capacitance value can be ap- ular plant. For conciseness, the actual plant
plied t o a single drive t o maintain near constant loading is consolidated in this listing.
reactive power throughout its operating range.
However, a group of such drives may, by Induction motors:
1200 kW at 0.80 PF = 900 kvars
their diversity, reflect a more uniform kilovar
requirement. Recording wattmeter and var- 900 kW at 0.70 PF = 918 kvars
meter data obtained over a representative period Thyristor dc drives:
of time would establish the feasibility of apply- 600 kW at 0.70 PF = 612 kvars
ing nonswitched capacitors for power factor 1100 kW at 0.50 PF = 1905 kvars
improvement of the thyristor drive group. In
- many cases utility company billing (from
which power, real and reactive, and power
1300 kW at 0.90 PF = 630
factor (PF) may be derived) will provide this 5100 kW 4965 kvars


5100 kW


( =
0 4 C , 5100 ( = r,loc,
= 095

= 0.7165 ixsiw:i) I X J . \ D

Fig 1 9
Power-ReactiveTriangle for
Power Factor Correction

Figure 1 9 illustrates the low power factor per phase and a current carrying capability at
(0.7165) associated with this load and that an least equal t o that required by the capacitor.
added 3289 kvars are necessary t o improve the The question sometimes arises as to the
power factor to 0.95. The amount of reactive effect that power capacitor banks have on the
compensation, will depend upon the economics response of the converter. No adverse effect
of compensation with regard t o utility company on response time should be expected as long as
billing. A given rate structure may make com- harmonic resonance is not present at a charac-
pensation to unity power factor economical. teristic harmonic. Actually, a power capacitor
A 3300 kvar capacity bank is easily made up bank does stiffen the ac power system transient
of standard units. Assuming such a bank is response which would theoretically enhance
applied in a plant on a 4160 V supply bus, response time. Practically speaking, such effect
fifth harmonic resonance will occur if the short is negligible.
circuit capacity is approximately 80 MVA.
Similarly, 7 harmonic resonance will occur at
approximately 150 MVA. Depending upon the
actual system short-circuit level or experience,
7. Measurements
or both, a tuning reactor may be required. If
required, it should be selected for 5 harmonic Techniques for measuring the extent and
suppression. Changing the capacitor size can effect of harmonics and reactive compensation
control the resonance point. are readily available. They differ from ordinary
The tuning reactor is sized t o take into con- power system measurement techniques pri-
sideration the actual capacitor bank kvar, marily in the bandwidth required. Whereas
which averages up t o 5% above the nameplate. most of the ordinary measurements of voltage,
The capacitor reactance (Xcw fundamental current, and power can be accomplished with
frequency) is : attention t o a narrow band of frequencies near
the distribution frequency (for example, 50 Hz
kV2 4.16* or 60 Hz), measurement of the effect of har-
= (3.3) (1.05) monics requires attention to a substantially
= 4.99 52 wider bandwidth. For most applications this
bandwidth is limited to radio frequencies up t o
30 kHz. (The extremely rare situation where
the minuscule radio frequency powers generated
by converters is of interest will be ignored in
where this treatment. Applicable techniques are those
Xr= reactance of tuning reactor of this guide extrapolated to the frequency
1.05 = tolerance of capacitors band of interest.)
In general, it is desired to measure the effect
Thus, the tuning reactor should have 0.20 !2 of converter operation on the remainder of the


distribution (or transmission) system. Figure most interest where it can be most pronounced,
20 represents a generalized approach to this that is, on distribution systems of 600 V or
measurement. In Fig 20 it should be noted that less. Voltage dividers and current shunts are
the ac supply may be single or three phase. The frequently used, rather than transformers. In
apparatus under test is a power converter, but the lower voltage systems, these quantities can
may include transformers, inductors, capacitors, be coupled directly t o the instruments.
switches, etc, which are either necessary to the To measure the notch width and depth, an
function of the converter or have been added oscilloscope is required. It is desirable that the
to reduce the effect of the converter on the oscilloscope have single sweep and storage cap-
remainder of the power system. Potential trans- ability so as t o assure cleanly defined notch
formers may or may not be required, depend- areas which can be measured after the event
ing on the supply voltage and the nature of the has been recorded. Photographic records are
voltage coupler. Generally, voltages higher than also desirable, t o allow comparison of condi-
480 V require either a transformer or voltage tions before and after compensating techniques
divider to allow safe operation of the measur- have been applied. The oscilloscope must be
ing instruments. The current transformer may moderately wide-band, say 25 MHz, t o allow
in most cases be replaced with a noninductive suitable fidelity of measurement. The voltage
shunt, if circumstances indicate the desirability divider probe available as an accessory t o the
of doing so. Voltage coupler and current oscilloscope normally suffices as a voltage
coupler may be simply suitable conductors, or coupler. Differential input is preferred, in order
they may be networks, amplifiers, etc added t o to avoid grounding problems. Operation of the
allow measurement by a given instrument. In oscilloscope with chassis ungrounded or float-
many cases, the couplers are either an accessory ing constitutes a serious safety hazard, and
of, or built into, the measuring instrument. should be avoided? Measurement of notch
Some measurements, specifically those involv- width and depth can be made by scaling the
ing wattmeters, will require both voltage and
- current inputs, rather than one or the other as
3The Tektronix 7313 oscilloscope with 7A13 vertical
implied by Fig 20. amplifier and P6007 probes is adequate for most mea-
The discussions of specific measurement re- surements on industrial systems up to 1500 V. (Note
quirements below are organized to correspond that the mention of specific manufacturers' model
numbers here and later are intended to be for example
to the topics discussed in Section 8. only. In each case there are many other suitable
measuring schemes which will be apparent to those
7.1 Line Notching. This phenomenon is of skilled in the art.)

Fig 20
Test Circuit for Measuring Current and Voltage
Using Potential Transformer and Current Transformer




time duration and voltage excursion of the in- kHz are usually of interest, and in some cases
dividual notches from the oscilloscope trace. even higher harmonics may be of concern. The
When planning the installation of a converter bandwidth of interest in a given case depends
in an existing distribution system, it is necessary on the susceptibility of apparatus in the spe-
to determine the Thevenin equivalent of the cific distribution system. Generally, the com-
power source as seen by the converter input. monly available line frequency sensors and
This knowledge allows a prediction of the ex- instruments, such as those used for system
tent of probable uncompensated notching, and operation, are not suitably broadband?
determines the extent of compensation re- No special voltage or current couplers are re-
quired. The Thevenin source may be known or quired for harmonic distortion measurements.
deduced from existing data in most cases; in Good practice would include the use of either
some cases it may be necessary t o make some coaxial cable or shielded twisted pair conduc-
measurements to determine it. The measure- tors between voltage and current sensors and
ments are those of no load voltage and voltage instruments. Current transformers will require
and current with a known load. It is normally suitably noninductive resistor burdens as re-
desired to know the phase angle between volt- commended by the transformer manufacturer.
age and current, as well as their absolute values.
An ac industrial analyzer accurate t o 1% is suf- 7.3 Telephone Interference. The measurement
ficient for measurements of this type. Potential of TIF may be accomplished in two ways. The
transformers or current transformers are not first involves the use of a current transformer
required for voltages up t o 600 V or currents and a frequency-selective voltmeter! Using this
to 125 A? method the individual harmonics are recorded,
the appropriate TIF/C Message Weighting ap-
In higher voltage systems, the notching phe-
plied and the individual weighted harmonics
nomenon becomes less pronounced and more
summed on a root-mean-square basis. This
difficult t o measure accurately by observation
method has the advantage of identifying partic-
of an oscilloscope trace. In these cases, mea-
ular harmonics which could be suppressed by
surements of harmonic voltages and currents
filtering or other means.
are made, as described below. The second method involves a direct measure-
7.2 Harmonics. Measurements of harmonic ment? The details of the measurements are
currents and voltages are made to determine
total harmonic distortion which can be used as
'To measure total harmonic distortion directly, a
a figure of merit to describe the effect of the distortion analyzer, such as the Hewlett-Packard Model
converter(s) on the distribution system. A simi- 331A, may be used. This instrument may also be used,
lar figure of merit called TIF (telephone influ- in its voltmeter mode of operation, to read amplitudes
of individual harmonics, though not as accurately as
ence factor) can also be determined. TIF mea- might be done with a frequency-selective voltmeter
surements have had substantial engineering designed for that purpose. The advantage of the distor-
attention in the past, meriting a separate tion analyzer is that it indicates the total harmonic
distortion directly. As an alternative, a frequency selec-
paragraph below for discussion. Measurements tive voltmeter, such as the Hewlett-Packard Model
of the individual harmonics are desirable to aid 3590A, can be used to measure the amplitude of the
in selecting suppression techniques, inasmuch fundamental and each of the harmonics. The total har-
monic distortion can then be calculated. To use either
as the amplitudes actually generated frequently the distortion analyzer or frequency-selective volt-
differ considerably from those indicated by meter, system voltages and currents must be divided or
simplified theory. transformed to levels compatible with the instruments'
allowable input levels. Wideband current transformers,
A primary consideration in measuring har- such as the Pearson Model 301X, and voltage dividers,
monics is the provision of suitably wide-band such as the ITTJennings Model JP-2000, may be used
sensors and instruments. Frequencies up to 6 for this purpose. Normally, harmonic distortion is
measured on either voltage or current, but not both.

Most practitioners favor the voltage measurement,

4The Weston Model 639 AC Industrial Analyzer is probably because voltages are generally more accessible
sufficiently accurate (1%) for most measurements of for sensing.
this type. For higher voltage systems, instrument
transformers, such as the Weston Model 327 for cur- 6Examples of a frequency-selective voltmeter are the
rent and Westinghouse Type PTM for voltage, may be Hewlett Packard Model 302A or Wilcom Products
used. These are relatively narrow bandwidth trans- Model T132 analyzer.
formers, suitable for Thevenin measurement, but not 7A Western Electric 106A current coupling unit is
generally suited for faithful measurements where connected t o a Western Electric 3 Type noise measur-
harmonics are present, as in the case of notch measure- ing set or alternatively a Hewlett Packard Model 3555
ment previously described. transmission measuring set.

given in ANSI/IEEE Std 368-1977 [21] and however, should be mentioned. When power
_- IEEE Std 469-1977[22]. factor correction networks are installed, it is
TIF measurements are applicable to telephone frequently required that the harmonic cur-
circuits which are voice frequency and involve rents into the networks be measured. This is
electro-acoustic transducers. There are an in- necessary t o assure that components of such
creasing number of telephone services which do networks are being utilized within their rating.
not benefit from the C Message weighting (for Since these are harmonic currents, the tech-
example, data circuits) and others which operate niques and instruments discussed in 7.2 are
above the voice band (for example, carrier sys- applicable.
tem) which have the potential for interference
from power lines. For these situations un-
weighted single frequency measurements must
be taken and the results analyzed t o predict 8. Recommended Practices
interference levels.
7.4 Flicker. The measure of flicker is the fre- Industrial and commercial application of con-
quency and severity (amplitude) of voltage var- verters can be divided into two broad cate-
iation. Unlike most of the measurements dis- gories :
cussed herein, this is a narrow band measure-
ment. It can be made with instrument trans- (1)Large drives and electrochemical processes
formers normally used in the distribution sys- operated from a medium-voltage (2.4-69 kV)
tem and needs no special voltage coupler. or high-voltage (above 115 kV) power source
Where the phenomenon is periodic or nearly (2) Small drives and miscellaneous power
periodic, the measurement can be made with a supplies operated from a low-voltage (below
voltmeter and a stop watch, or in the case of 600 V) source
periods shorter than a few seconds, an oscillo- The effects on both systems are similar. Analy-
- scope or oscillograph. Some care should be
taken t o ensure that instrument damping (or
sis follows the same procedure. The XIR ratios
are higher in medium-voltage systems, so the
lack of it) does not distort the measurements. resonant phenomenon is less damped. The
Where the phenomenon is nearly random, and notching phenomenon is more important in
specifically where it is desired t o establish sta- low-voltage systems.
tistics over periods longer than a few hours, an This section includes discussion and the re-
event recorder may be used? commended practices for:
(1) Line notch limits
7.5 Power Factor Correction. The measure- (2) Voltage distortion limits
ments required for power factor correction are (3) Telephone influence limits
the sort of measurements normally made with- (4)Flicker limits
in the distribution system. That is, ordinary Part of the discussion is how these limits can
measurements of voltage, current, and power be met by good design
at 50 Hz or 60 Hz are those required. The
object in applying power factor correction 8.1 Line Notching. Line notching occurs when
techniques is t o increase the ratio of real power current commutates from one phase t o another.
t o volt-amperes as viewed from the utility During commutation these two phases are
source. This can be done by utilizing instru- connected (short circuited) by the converter
ments and measuring techniques used for sys- through the ac impedance (which is very low)
tem cost metering and operation. These are and thus causes the voltage t o drop t o near
well-known and established and need not be zero (Fig 21).
described here. One aspect of the application These line notches can excite the natural
resonance of the power distribution system in
the audio (15 to 20 000 Hz) frequency range.

'For example, the Dranetz Model 606 Power-Line

Disturbance Analyzer will afford a printed record of The higher frequencies are easily filtered with
voltage excursion amplitudes versus time of occur- resistor capacitor networks if any problem
rence. This allows the flicker statistics to be recorded
- without operator attendance, a useful attribute when
event occurrences are randomly separated by several
arises. The energy associated with oscillations
excited by commutation notches is small.
minutes or even hours. Many converters are designed to use a single






Fig 21
Notch Depth Reduction

pulse t o gate the thyristor. If the line notch is design of the gate firing pulse. A discussion of
wider than the gate pulse, the thyristor may recommended practices follows.
not continue in conduction and the converter Distribution System. The impedance
will suffer a commutation failure if in the in- as seen by a converter includes the power
verting mode. stability may be affected if in source (utility system), stepdown transformer,
the rectifying mode. Other equipment, such as cables, and isolation transformer. The isolation
digital equipment, may also be affected. transformer represents the largest single imped-
Line notching is particularly evident in low- ance.
voltage systems. The discussion that follows is Figure 22(a) represents a typical distribution
written for low-voltage systems or systems system. The incoming voltage is stepped down
where the X/R ratios are low, below 6. Values t o plant utilization voltage, EL,by the main
given are typical. transformer. Power then flows through the line
8.1.1 Design Practices for Minimizing Notch- isolation transformer t o the converter. Voltage
ing Effects. Line notching and its effects are EL distributes power t o other equipment.
directly affected by the plant distribution sys- Figure 22(b) shows the equivalent system im-
tem, the power and control wiring, and the pedance diagram. 2, and Z, are the impedances

Fig 22
Simplified Diagram,
Power Distribution System

(a) (b)







of the main and isolation transformers, respec- other circuits at the point of common coupling.
~ -. tively. The junction of impedances Z,and Z, is Power Wiring Practice. The power
the plant bus which carries line voltage ELand wiring t o the converter equipment should be
distributes power throughout the building. isolated from control wiring to minimize the
During commutation the voltage on the load inductive capacitive coupling between the
side of the isolation transformer goes to zero. two. The sharp wave fronts of the notches and
However, the short circuit is isolated from the currents present on the power wiring can in-
plant bus by the transformer impedance so that duce noise on adjacent circuits.
the effect of the notch on the plant bus is greatly If an isolation transformer is provided, it
diminished. The amount of notching that gets should be placed as close as possible to the con-
through to the plant bus can be computed by verter.
analyzing the equivalent circuit voltage divider Design of Gate Triggering Circuit.
formed by the transformer impedances. It can Since line notching cannot always be avoided,
be shown that the line notch amplitude at the the gate triggering pulses on industrial equip-
bus is: ment should have such design criteria that inter-
ference is not encountered in most applications.
76 Notch Depth = ____
4 100 As a recommended practice, equipment should
&+Z, be designed so as t o be capable of performing
i 100 on supply systems containing notches of
250 ps wide (5.4 electrical degrees) and a notch
If there is no isolation transformer, Z,is zero, depth of 0.7 of the rated maximum line voltage.
and there will be no impedance drop between 8.1.2 Limits of Line Voltage Notching. Three
the converter and the bus so the voltage will classes have been established on low-voltage
drop t o zero momentarily. systems to determine the limits of distortion
Figure 23 illustrates good and bad practice, that may be allowed from static power con-
respectively. Figure 23(b) has the converter verters. The criteria for measurement in these
- sharing the same lines as other equipment,
allowing ready propagation of the harmonic
systems include:

currents throughout the system. Figure 23(a) DF = voltage distortion factor

minimizes the effect of the converter on other AN =area of the commutation notch in volt-
loads in the power system. microseconds
Impedance inserted into the converter circuit p =impedance ratio of total impedance t o
lessens the depth of the notch as seen by the impedance at common point in system

Fig 23
Converter Connector to Distribution System
(a) Recommended Configuration; (b) Poor Practice





(a) (b)


Table 2 high impedance to current at the resonant

Low-Voltage System Classification and frequency. Series resonance is low impedance.
Distortion Limits for 460 V Systems If the parallel resonance is at or near one of the
characteristic harmonic frequencies produced
Class p voltmicroseconds % by the converter, the tank circuit can be ex-
Special Application* 10 16 400 3 cited and large oscillating currents can flow
General System 5 22 800 5 between the inductive reactance of the power
Dedicated System 2 36 500 10 system and the capacitive reactance of the
*Special applications are those where the rate of capacitors. These currents add t o the harmonic
change of voltage of the notch might mistrigger an voltage drop, causing a much larger voltage dis-
tortion factor. It is this resonant condition
that causes problems involving conductive and
inductive interference. Hence, capacitors should
be sized t o avoid a resonance near a characteris-
For notch area (AN) the voltage and current are tic harmonic frequency.
referred t o the point of common coupling. The The parallel resonant frequency can be calcu-
dimensions are expressed in voltmicroseconds
lated as:
which are easily measured on an oscilloscope
screen. system short circuit MVA
8.2 Power Factor Correction. The question of
f, = fl capacitor Mvar
whether or not t o apply one or more of the
power factor correction techniques noted in
5.2 is almost entirely answered by the econom-
ics of a specific converter installation. The rec-
ommended practice is then simply t o use power
factor correction t o the degree economically
justifiable. However, there are two caveats in- where
volving the use of capacitance. These are the X, = reactance of capacitor bank, per unit or
system sink phenomenon and the resonant i2
phenomenon, described below. zc= reactance of power system, per unit or
8.2.1 System Sink Phenemenon. Power factor i2
correcting capacitors are placed across the fi = fundamental frequency
utility’s transmission system, frequently with L,, = inductance of power system, H
very little isolating impedance. As a conse- C = capacitance of capacitor bank, F
quence, any harmonics present on the incom-
ing voltage are imposed on the capacitors. Thus, 8.3 Harmonics. The harmonic voltage drop
the capacitors can be subjected t o large har- caused by the flow of harmonic current through
monic currents, generated elsewhere in the an impedance distorts the fundamental sine
power system, in some cases sufficient t o wave of voltage (see 5.3). This voltage distor-
destroy them. Prudence dictates a preliminary tion causes harmonic currents t o flow in cir-
measurement t o determine the existence and cuits other than those which normally have
degree of such harmonics. If they exist t o a converter loads. These currents can have a con-
substantial degree, either the capacitors must ductive effect in the circuit in which they flow
be decoupled (with resistance or inductance in
series) or the power factor correction effort Fig 24
abandoned. Power System Showing Paralleling Between
8.2.2 Resonant Phenomenon. When static System and Shunt Capacitance Reactance
capacitors are connected t o a system for volt-
age or reactive power control (power factor
correction), there is a frequency at which the SYSTEM _L SHUNT
capacitors are in parallel resonance with the
power system reactance. Figure 24 illustrates
this when the converter is considered a source
of harmonic currents. Parallel resonance is a



Fig 25
Power System with Shunt Filters

or an inductive effect on circuit conductors sum of Ih of all converters connected

- which parallel the circuit conductor.
Ih =

H = harmonic t o which the filter is tuned

8.3.1 Shunt Filters. The application of a shunt (tuned harmonic)
filter to a power system is effective t o remove
harmonics generated by solid-state converters. Vc = Ii X ci + IHX CH
When connected t o the converter bus, the flow VL = 11XL, 4- IH x L ~
of harmonic current is so controlled that the
harmonic voltages in other parts of the circuits The volt-ampere rating of the capacitor is
are very low. Figure 25 shows a typical arrange- then: IF Vi
ment. Because the filters will absorb almost all Under maximum conditions (system voltage
of the harmonic currents generated by the con- above normal or overload on the converters),
verter, the filter must be sized t o take these the volt-ampere loading of the capacitor can-
currents, as well as any other currents not iso- not exceed 1.35 per unit with a maximum of
lated from the filter with impedance. 1.1per unit V. (See ANSI/IEEE Std 18-1980.) Filter Rating. The capacitor in the Table 3 lists the filter configuration for dif-
filter must be of such a rating as t o enable it to ferent size power systems. Other factors t o be
considered are capacitor size for reactive com-
withstand the arithmetic sum of the funda-
mental and tuned harmonic voltages in the
filter. (See Fig 26.) Fig 26

The voltage and current ratings of the reactor Shunt Power Filter
and capacitor are then: vs


h where xc T vc
V,= system nominal voltage (fundamental) I f

Table 3 where
Typical Filter Configuration Versus System Size
vh = Ih &
System Short-circuit Capacity Tuned Filter V, = fundamental voltage
0 - 250 MVA 5th H = 50 or any harmonic less than 0.01 V,
251 - 750 MVA 5th. 7th
751 1500 MVA 5th; 7th, 11th
1500- MVA 5th, 7th, l l t h , 13th Theoretical values of distortion factors are
plotted in Fig 27 for different pulse number
converters as a function of the ratio of system
impedance t o converter size (short-circuit
pensation, number of capacitor equipments,
ratio) where:
local factors influencing choices, and the total
converter load on the power system. Parallel Resonances. For each tuned system short-circuit MVA
filter there will be a parallel resonance between Short-circuit Ratio =
converter MW
the filter and the power system reactance. This
parallel resonant point will be lower than the
filter frequency and above the next lowest On industrial power systems, the voltage dis-
tuned filter. For this reason, it is not practical tortion not be greater than listed in
t o apply filters tuned t o the higher order har- 4-
monics and not t o the lower orders. For ex-
If voltage distortion is kept within the above
ample, if an 11 harmonic filter is applied on a
limits, other equipment will operate satisfac-
normal twelve-pulse rectifier, the parallel res-
onant point will be below the 11 harmonic. If
this is a t the 7 harmonic, any 7 harmonic cur- 8.4 Telephone Interference. The presence of
rent flowing into the high impedance at the harmonic currents or voltages in circuitry asso-
parallel resonance will cause high 7 harmonic ciated with power conversion apparatus can
oscillating currents between the 11 harmonic produce magnetic and electric fields that will
filter and the power system. This condition will impair the satisfactory performance of com-
overload the capacitors in the filter, causing munication systems which, by virtue of their
fuses t o fail and detuning the circuit. Therefore, proximity and susceptibility, can be disturbed.
filters should be applied and connected t o the For a given physical arrangement it is apparent
power system starting with the lowest order that the disturbance is a function of both the
and added upon. Conversely, if the total kvar amplitude and the frequency of the disturbing
of capacitance must be reduced, the highest component in the conversion apparatus.
order filter should be switched off first, etc. The study of means for minimizing the inter-
Once filters are connected t o the system, ference which power systems might cause in
there will be a low impedance path for the cur- communication systems is a proper subject of
rents of the tuned frequencies. If there is a inductive coordination which has been actively
harmonic component of voltage in the power pursued by a Joint Subcommittee for Develop-
supply system corresponding t o the filter fre- ment and Research of the Edison Electric Insti-
quency, this harmonic voltage will cause addi- tute and The Bell Telephone System. Since a
tional current in the filter. primary source of interference is the presence
8.3.2 Limits on Harmonics. The amount of of harmonic currents or voltages in the power
voltage distortion that can be tolerated on a system, a task force of the above joint subcom-
power system is dependent upon the equip- mittee has revised the weighing factors to be
ment connected t o it and this equipment’s placed upon the harmonic frequency com-
susceptibility t o nonsinusoidal wave shapes. ponents t o bring them up-to-date with the
The distortion is a function of the amount of improved state of the communication systems
harmonic currents flowing through the imped- in 1960, following the introduction of the 500-
ance t o the source. type telephone set. By subjective and objective
listening tests on a group of individuals, relative
I H weights were established for the various har-
monic frequencies which indicate the disturb-
ance t o voice frequency communication that



Table 4
Voltage Distortion Limits for Medium and
High-Voltage Power Systems
Power System
Voltage Dedicated* System General
Level Converter Power System
2.4 - 69 kV 8% 5%
115 kV and above 1.5% 1.5%

*A dedicated system is one servicing only converters

or loads not affected by voltage distortion.

Definition of Buses for Table 4



TO VOLTAGE NOTE: Bus A is a general power system.
CONVERTER DISTORTION Buses B and C are considered dedicated





-6 -
Ed ff
10% 80"
100% 31" -
I \\ \ 120% 0"

10 20 30 40 3
NOTE: The voltage distortion on industrial power systems should not be greater than that listed in Table 4.

Fig 27
Theoretical Voltage Distortion Versus Short-circuit Ratio
for Six- and Twelve-Pulse Rectifiers

the injection of a signal of the harmonic fre-

quency into the communication network will
produce relative t o that which would be pro-
duced by a 1000 Hz signal similarly injected. or equivalently :
8.4.1 TIF Weighting Factor. The TIF Weight-
ing is a combination of the C Message Weight-
ing characteristic, which accounts for the rela-
tive interferring effect of various frequencies
in the voice band (including the response of the
TIF = dE(q
telephone set and the ear), and a capacitor, where
which provides weighting which is directly pro- X, = total rms voltage or current
portional t o frequency t o account for the as- X,= single frequency rms current or voltage
sumed coupling function. TIF is a dimension- at frequency f
less quantity which is indicative of the wave- W,= single frequency TIF weighting at fre-
form and not the amplitude, and is given by: quency f


The TIF weighting function, W,, which re- Multiphasing of the Conversion
flects the present C Message Weighting and the Equipment. Increasing the number of phases
coupling (proportionality component) normal- or pulse number of the conversion system will
ized t o 1 kHz, is given by: generally reduce certain harmonic components
in the leads t o the converter.
w,=5 4f Residual or Ground Return Cur-
where rents. Telephone circuits are particularly sus-
ceptible t o the influence of ground return cur-
5 = constant rents. Special care should be exercised in hold-
4 = C message weighting at frequency f ing these t o an absolute minimum. As long as
f = frequency under consideration both conductors of a telephone circuit have
equal exposure t o a balanced three-phase
As an example, the TIF Weighting at 1kHz is
power circuit, as is the case with twisted pairs,
5000 since the C message attenuation is unity,
the induced harmonic voltages and currents
that is:
W,= (5) (1)(1000)= 5000 Commutation Effects. Presence of
reactance in the utility source and reactance in
In practice, telephone interference is often the converter transformers, both of which can
expressed as a product of the current and the contribute t o the commutating reactance of
TIF, that is, the I - T product, where the I is rms the converter, will cause the I * T product and
current in amperes and T i s TIF. Alternatively, the kV-T product at the line terminals of the
it is sometimes expressed as a product of the converter t o increase rapidly with the angle of
voltage and the TIF weighting, where the volt- phase retard. To minimize the inductive influ-
age is in rms kV, that is, the kV * T product. ence it is desirable, where practicable, t o main-
The single frequency TIF values are listed in tain the angle of phase retard of commutation
Table 5. The curve of Fig 28 plots the values. in the converter as small as possible.
-- Filtering. The influence of currents
and voltages in the utility system caused by
Table 5 harmonic components in the converter can be
1960 Single Frequency TIF Values reduced by a judicious choice of series and
FREQ TIF FREQ TIF FREQ TIF FREQ TIF shunt reactive filters placed at the connecting
60 0.5 1020 5100 1860 7820 3000 9670 interface between the two systems.
180 30 1080 5400 1980 8330 3180 8740
300 225 1140 5630 2100 8830 3300 8090 Extreme care and caution must be exercised
360 400 1260 6050 2160 9080 3540 6730 in the application of such filters t o avoid possi-
420 650 1380 6370 2220 9330 3660 6130
540 1320 1440 6650 2340 9840 3900 4400 ble resonant conditions resulting from unex-
660 2260 1500 6680 2460 10340 4020 3700
720 2760 1620 6970 2580 10600 4260 2750 pected harmonics which might appear at some
780 3360 1740 7320 2820 10210 4380 2190 future time in the utility system causing
900 4350 1800 7570 2940 9820 5000 840
catastrophic damage.
8.4.3 Limits of Interference. It is difficult t o
8.4.2 Methods of Reducing Interference. place specific limits on the telephone influence
Where the power conversion equipment is di- which the harmonic components of current
rectly connected t o a utility system, most of and voltage in converter systems can inflict.
the interference will result from harmonic cur- The actual interference t o voice communica-
rent and voltage disturbances which are placed tion systems in proximity t o the power system
upon the utility network by the converter. This supplying the converter is dependent upon a
is due t o the proximity and greater exposure number of factors not under the control of the
which the communication circuits will have t o designer of the converter system. These factors
this network. Other exposures t o the converter will vary from location t o location and from
interference are more closely contained within time t o time as the state-of-the art of inductive
the industrial complex and their interfering coordination progresses.
effects can be held t o negligible levels by suit- There is some data available which related t o
the I * Tperformance of large converters used in
_- able placement and shielding of the wiring. The
disturbance to the communications system can telephone offices t o charge batteries. It should
be reduced by the following means. be noted that the values shown in Table 6 are



Fig 28
1960 TIF Weighting Values

given for illustrative purposes and are not to be larly where the battery plant is to be associated
considered as requirements. Furthermore, the with an electronic switching office.
values shown are applicable to the secondary For the case of ferroresonant units which do
distribution within the telephone building and not utilize phase shifting, the I * T is typically
the I * T on the primary system would be re- much lower, as indicated in Table 7.
duced by the turns ratio in the distribution As discussed previously in 8.4.1,the I - T on
transformer, which is typically in the range of the primary transmission is of most interest t o
(40 to 60):l. Thus, an I*T of 100 000 for a the telephone company inductive coordination
240 V, 1600 A converter would be about 2000 engineer. Although there are no specific require-
on the primary distribution, which, of course, ments, experience with interference problems
is important since the exposure t o the primary over the years have provided some guidelines
feed will be greater in length. which may be useful.
These converters were of the 6-pulse type Noise sensitive installations fall in Category I.
with phase-shifting taps to permit two con- Commercial buildings and industrial plants fall
verters t o be operated in parallel on a 12-pulse in Category 11. Unrestricted areas fall in Cate-
basis or four converters t o be operated on a 24- gory 111.
pulse basis. Recently there have been expressed It should be pointed out that the above guide-
desires to lower the specified maximum values lines are applicable t o balanced rather than re-
t o one-half or less of the above figures, particu- sidual components on power systems. Table 8

Table 7
Table 6 Typical I * T Values for 48 V DC
Typical 1-T Values for 48 V DC Converters Ferroresonant Converters
Three Phase Rectifier Full Load I*T Three Phase
Line-to-Line Output Current On Secondary Line-to-Line Converter Full Load I-T
Voltage Rating Distribution Voltage output On Secondary
(Secondary) Current Rating Distribution
2081240 V 400 25 000
800 50 000 2081240 V loo* 7 50
1600 100 000 400 1500

480 V 400 12 000 480 V loo*

800 25 000
1600 50 000 *Single Phase Rectifiers


Table 8 as in the case of jogging or manual spot-welding.

Balanced I*T Guidelines for Converter A source may also be periodic, as in the case of
Installations, Tie (Supply) Lines an automatic spot-welder.
Category Description I*T
Flicker intensity (that is, the magnitude of
the voltage variation) is determined by power
I Levels most unlikely Up t o 10 000
to cause interference source impedance and load peak power require-
11 Levels that might cause 10 000 to 50 000 ments. When planning t o install pulsed con-
interference verters, the effects of the pulse load on other
I11 Levels that probably greater than parts of the distribution system should be cal-
will cause interference 50 000 culated. This requires knowledge of:
NOTE: These values of I-T product are for circuits (1)The volt-ampere requirements of the
with an exposure between overhead systems, both pulsed load, magnitude and frequency
power and telephone. Within an industrial plant or (2)The impedance of the source(s) within
commercial building, the exposure between power
distribution in cables and telephone lines in cable with the distribution system back to a supply of
twisted pairs is extremely low and no interference is such stiffness that variations can be considered
normally encountered. I-T products similar to those of truly inconsequential
Table 6 should be used within plants and buildings.
(3) Whether or not apparatus or beings sus-
ceptible to flicker are within the exposed
provides representative I *T guidelines for elec- distribution sector and their degree of sus-
tric lines which tie industrial and commercial ceptibility
converter installations t o primary distribution 8.5.1 Limits of Flicker. Frequently the de-
and .transmission line networks [6]. Similar gree of susceptibility is not readily determin-
1.T guidelines for H V and EHV transmission able. Figure 29 is offered as a guide in planning
lines were recently updated and published in for such applications. This curve is derived
from empirical studies made by several sources
ANSI/IEEE Std 368-1977 [21].
[ 71 -[ 141 , There are several such curves exist-
~ -- 8.5 Flicker. This phenomenon is a result of
applying a load on the converter, then releas-
ing which have approximately the same vertical
scale. Figure 29 represents the least conserva-
ing it, reapplying it some time later, etc. The tive of available curves; that is, it allows ap-
converter does not in itself cause flicker. If proximately three times the voltage variation
this process is carried out at a frequency to considered tolerable by more conservative
which the human eye is susceptible, and if the authorities.
resulting system voltage drop is great enough, 8.5.2 Compensation for Flicker. Methods for
a modulation of the light level of incandescent compensating for existing or potential flicker
or fluorescent lamps will be detected. This is are much the same as those used t o compensate
the effect which gives the phenomenon its for subtransient disturbances, such as those
name, and one which may be a matter of con- evidenced by notching or harmonic currents.
cern. In modern power systems, however, there The simplest and generally most effective tech-
may be other apparatus, such as computers, nique is to provide a sufficiently stiff source of
instrumentation, and communication equip- power so that the effect is negligible at the
ment, which suffer deleterious effects. For point where the flicker source is tapped off
some cases, these deleterious effects may exist from the rest of the power distribution system.
even though the flicker of incandescent lamps Compensatory methods are used t o emulate
is not discernible. the stiff source: series capacitors, thyristor
The measure of flicker is the amount of sys- switching of inductors with shunt capacitors
tem voltage variation involved and the fie- (static var control), saturating shunt inductors,
quency at which the variation recurs. The synchronous condensers, and switched shunt
frequency may be a pure single frequency, but capacitors may be used to maintain a relatively
is more often a frequency band. Sources of steady voltage at the tie point. As in cases where
flicker in industrial power distribution systems such schemes are used t o provide subtransient
can be, for instance, the somewhat random compensation, the possibility of overall distri-
variations of load typified by an arc furnace bution system instability must be thoroughly
melting scrap steel or elevator motor starts and investigated before one can confidently apply
stops. A flicker source may be nearly periodic, the technique.


Fig 29
Maximum Permissible Voltage Fluctuations

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