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BTEN 3184

BIOTECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING LAB IV


DR. MAIZIRWAN MEL

EXPERIMENT 3
CROSS FLOW FILTRATION PROCESS

AMIRUL IZWAN BIN RAMLAN


1614807

Content Mark

Introduction 5
Objectives 3
Procedures 4
Result and Discussion 10
Conclusion 5
References 3

Total 30 pts
INTRODUCTION
In cross flow filtration, an incoming feed stream passes across the surface of a cross
flow membrane, and two exiting streams are generated. The permeate stream is the portion of
the fluid that passes through the membrane. This filtered fluid will contain some percentage
of soluble and/or insoluble components from the initial feed stream that are smaller than the
membrane removal rating. The remainder of the feed stream, which does not pass through the
cross-flow membrane, is known as the retentate stream. The principle of micro filtration and
ultra-filtration is physical separation. The extent to which dissolved solids, turbidity and
microorganisms are removed is determined by the size of the pores in the membranes.
Substances that are larger than the pores in the membranes are fully removed. Substances that
are smaller than the pores of the membranes are partially removed, depending on the
construction of a refuse layer on the membrane. Micro filtration and ultra-filtration are
pressure-dependent processes, which remove dissolved solids and other substances from
water to a lesser extent than Nano filtration and reverse osmosis. Membranes with a pore size
of 0.1 – 10 µm perform micro filtration. The pores of ultra-filtration membranes can remove
particles of 0.001–0.1µm from fluids.

OBJECTIVES
To study the cross-flow filtration mechanism and factors affecting filtration process.

PROCEDURE
1. The membrane was inserted at its position and was made sure the equipment can be run
well and smoothly.

2. The membrane is wetted by flushing 1 L deionized water into the system. The filtration
was run and measured the time for every 50 ml water from permeate tubing.
3. The filtration system was ran using a sample at recommended condition.

4. The permeation rate was measured by putting a volumetric cylinder at the end of permeate
pipe and determine the time for every 50 ml sample liquid.
5. The filtration rate was measured according to the table and graph is drawn
6. The cross flow as cleaned by 0.5 NaOH for 30 to 60 minutes.

7. Finally, it was flush with deionized water (many times), the permeation rate and water pH
were checked.
RESULT
1) Microfiltration

Vol (mL) Time (s) Time Flow rate Flux


(min) (mL/s) (L/m2.h)
50 75 1.25 0.667 57.17
100 147 2.45 0.680 58.37
150 232 3.31 0.647 55.46
200 326 5.43 0.613 52.54
250 424 7.07 0.590 50.57
300 531 8.85 0.565 48.43
350 645 10.75 0.543 46.54
400 759 12.65 0.527 45.17
425 858 14.3 0.495 42.43

[Pin= 9 psi] [Pout= 8psi] [As=420 cm2 = 0.042 m2] [L/s =

1) Ultrafiltration

Vol (mL) Time (s) Time Flow rate Flux


(min) (mL/s) (L/m2.h)
50 598 9.97 0.0836 27.36
100 1305 21.75 0.0766 25.07
150 2078 34.60 0.0722 23.63
200 2895 48.25 0.0691 22.61
250 3735 62.25 0.0669 21.89
300 4565 76.08 0.0657 21.50

[Pin= 10 psi] [Pout= 9 psi] [As=110 cm2 = 0.011 m2] [L/s =


DISCUSSION
Filtration can be achieved with various processes and materials, including running the
stream though sand, clay, filter presses, or even using sedimentation, to name a few, but both
MF and UF utilize membranes to filter out contaminating substances. Membranes are a
semipermeable material that allow various particle sizes to either flow through or be trapped
by the membrane, and the degree of separation largely depends on particle size. Membranes
remove finer particles (generally less than 2 μm in size) than media filtration (which can
remove particles 1 to 2 μm in size and greater). Membrane filtration can remove various
particulates, bacteria, viruses, organic material, and certain dyes, improving odour, taste,
colour, etc., and are used for various process separation, purification, and concentration
processes.

When it comes to understanding the difference between MF and UF, and since they
can be made, configured, constructed, and used similarly, it’s important to understand that the
main difference is simply pore size (microfiltration membranes range from 0.1 to 10 μm, and
ultrafiltration membranes range from 0.1 to 0.01 μm), which affects which particles can get
through. This helps designate whether MF or UF would be a suitable solution.

In the experiment, the volume and time of the filter was recorded, which are then
divided to obtain the flow rate. The graph of flow rate vs time was drawn for both the
microfiltration and ultrafiltration.
1) Microfiltration flow rate vs time

Flow rate (mL/s) vs Time (min)


0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4 y = -0.0139x + 0.6936


0.3

0.2

0.1

0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16

2) Ultrafiltration flow rate vs time

Flow rate (mL/s) vs Time (min)


0.09
0.08
0.07
0.06 y = -0.0003x + 0.0833
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.01
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80