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# PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS

PREPARED BY:

(2016975079)

## NUR AIN NAZURAH BINTI MOHD NOOR

(2016789305)

(2016107743)

(2016726471)

DIPLOMA IN SCIENCE

DISTRIBUTED TO:

1
CONTENT

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

## CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION PAGE

1.1 Introduction of experiment……………………………………….4
1.1.1 Probability Concepts and Rules……………………4
1.1.2 Procedures of the experiment……………………..,4
1.2 Background of experiment……………………………………….,4
1.3 Objectives of experiment………………………………………….,4

CHAPTER 2: METHODOLOGY
2.1 Suggestions of Probability Concepts and
Rules…………………………………………………………….. 5
2.1.1 Methods………………………………………………. 5
2.1.2 Rules………………………………………………….. 5

CHAPTER 3: RESULTS
3.1 Tree Diagram………………………………………………………6
3.2 Probability Distribution……………………………………………7 - 8
3.3 Problem Solving…………………………………………………...9 - 14
3.2.1 Question for Tree Diagram…………………………….9 - 14
3.4 Justification ………………………………………………………..14
CHAPTER 4: CONCLUSION
4.1 Report Summary………………………………………………….,15

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Firstly, we are very grateful because we managed to complete the second group project of
Basic Statistics and Probability (STA108) within the time required. This project really help us
in generating critical thinking using probability concepts rules toward the experiment given.
Besides that, we really had a great teamwork while completing the project. This assignment
cannot be completed without the effort and co-operation from our group members, Nor
Syazwani Binti Shahnun, Siti Suraini Binti Ahmad, Nur Ain Nazurah Binti Mohd Noor and Nur
Syuhada Binti Ahmad Termizi. We also sincerely thank our STA108: Basic Statistics and
Probability lecturer Puan Fadzilah Binti Abdol Razak for the guidance and encouragement in
finishing this project and also teaching us in this course.

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CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

-0≤P(X=x)≤1
-ΣP(X=x)=

## - Number of trials = 10 times

- Value of X :
 {1, 2, 3}
 {Green, Yellow, Red}

## 1.2 Background of experiment

Humaira has been traveling to a country in Europe. In Europe there are a variety of mugs
that attract Humaira. The mugs are hard to find in Malaysia because it is made from volcanic
clay. The mugs are the best to be remembered as souvenirs when returning to Malaysia,
she has brought some souvenirs which is 10 exclusive mugs from Europe. There are 10
colored mugs that consists of 4 green, 2 yellow and 4 red. Humaira kept the mugs in the
cupboard because her friends could not come to her house on that day. In the next morning,
Humaira’s mother took out three mugs at randomly to be used.

1.3 Objectives
i. To make an experiment based on the probability concept and probability
distribution.
ii. To solve the problems based on the probability and rules.

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CHAPTER 2: METHODOLOGY

2.1.1 Methods

##  Basic probability concepts

0 ≤ P( X = x ) ≤ 1
 Discrete random variable
ΣP( X = x ) = 1

2.1.2 Rules

## The values of the probability must be 0 t0 1:

0 ≤ P( X = x ) ≤ 1

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CHAPTER 3: RESULTS
3.1 Tree Diagram 2/8
2/8
3/9 4/8
2/9 3/8
1/8
4/8
4/9 3/8
2/8
3/8
4/10

3/8
1/8
4/9 4/8
2/10 1/9 4/8
0/8
4/9 4/8
4/8
1/8
3/8
4/10
3/8
2/8
4/9 3/8
4/8
2/9 1/8
3/8
3/9
4/8
2/8
2/8

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3.2 Probability distribution

## Element of sample space Probability X=x

GGG 4 3 2 1
× × = 1
10 9 8 30

GGY 4 3 2 1
× × = 2
10 9 8 30

GGR 4 3 4 1
× × = 2
10 9 8 15

GYG 4 2 3 1
× × = 2
10 9 8 30

GYY 4 2 1 1
× × = 1
10 9 8 90

GYR 4 2 4 2
× × = 1
10 9 8 45

GRG 4 4 3 1
× × = 2
10 9 8 15

GRY 4 4 2 2
× × = 1
10 9 8 45

GRR 4 4 3 1
× × = 1
10 9 8 15

YGG 2 4 3 1
× × = 2
10 9 8 30

YGY 2 4 1 1
× × = 1
10 9 8 90

YGR 2 4 4 2
× × = 1
10 9 8 45

YYG 2 1 4 1
× × = 1
10 9 8 90

YYY 2 1 0
× × =0 0
10 9 8

YYR 2 1 4 1
× × = 0
10 9 8 90

YRG 2 4 4 2
× × = 1
10 9 8 45

YRY 2 4 1 1
× × = 0
10 9 8 90

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YRR 2 4 3 1
× × = 0
10 9 8 30

RGG 4 4 3 1
× × = 2
10 9 8 15

RGY 4 4 2 2
× × = 1
10 9 8 45

RGR 4 4 3 1
× × = 1
10 9 8 15

RYG 4 2 4 2
× × = 1
10 9 8 45

RYY 4 2 1 1
× × = 0
10 9 8 90

RYR 4 2 3 1
× × = 0
10 9 8 30

RRG 4 3 4 1
× × = 1
10 9 8 15

RRY 4 3 2 1
× × = 0
10 9 8 30

RRR 4 3 2 1
× × = 0
10 9 8 30

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3.3 Problem Solving

= 1/15

= 4/15

## P (at least one green mug)

= P (GGG or GGY or GGR or GYG or GYY or GYR or GRG or GRY or GRR or YGG
or YGY or YGR or YYG or YRG or RGG or RGY or RGR or RYG or RRG)

## (RGG) + P (RGY) + P (RGR) + P (RYG) + P (RRG)

= (1/30) + (1/30) + (1/15) + (1/30) + (1/90) + (2/45) + (1/15) + (2/45) + (1/15) + (1/30)

= 5/6

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OR

## 1 - [(0) + (1/90) + (1/90) + (1/30) + (1/90) + (1/30) + (1/30) + (1/30)]

= 1 – (1/6)

= 5/6

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The probability distribution function for a random variable 𝑋 is:

0, 𝑥<0
1
, 0≤𝑥<1
6
1
, 1≤𝑥<2
𝑓(𝑥) = 2
3
, 2≤𝑥<3
10
1
, 𝑥≥3
{ 30

1 3
= +
6 10

7
=
15

## Find P(𝑋 ≥ 1.5)

= 𝑃 (𝑋 = 2) + 𝑃(𝑋 = 3)

3 1
= +
10 30

1
=
3

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Find the cumulative probability distribution function 𝐹(𝑥) for 𝑋.

0, 𝑥<0
1
, 0≤𝑥<1
6
2
𝐹(𝑥) = 3 , 1≤𝑥<2
29
, 2≤𝑥<3
30
1, 𝑥≥3
{

## Calculate 𝐸(𝑋) and 𝐸(𝑋 2 )

𝐸(𝑋) = ∑ 𝑥. 𝑓(𝑥)
0

1 1 3 1 6
𝐸(𝑋) = [(0 × ) + (1 × ) + (2 × ) + (3 × )] =
6 2 10 30 5

2
2)
𝐸(𝑋 = ∑ 𝑥 2 . 𝑓(𝑥)
0

1 1 3 1
𝐸(𝑋 2 ) = [(02 × ) + (12 × ) + (22 × ) + (32 × )] = 2
6 2 10 30

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Calculate 𝐸(3𝑥 + 2)

## 𝐸(3𝑥 + 2) = 𝐸(3𝑥) + 𝐸(2)

= 3 𝐸(𝑥) + 𝐸(2)
6
= (3 × ) + 2
5
28
=
5

Calculate 𝐸(4𝑋 2 + 𝑋 + 7)

## = 4𝐸(𝑋 2 ) + 𝐸(𝑋) + 𝐸(7)

6
= 4(2) + + 7
5
81
=
5

Find

i. variance of 𝑋.

6
=2−
5

4
=
5

## ii. 𝑣𝑎𝑟 (3𝑥 + 8)

= 32 𝑣𝑎𝑟 (𝑋) + 0
4
=9 ×
5
36
=
5

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Assume 𝑋 = Green mug

𝑋=𝑥 0 1 2 3 ∑ 𝑃 (𝑋 = 𝑥)

1 1 3 1
𝑃 (𝑋 = 𝑥) 1
6 2 10 30
1 6 1 6
E (𝑋) 0
2 10 10 5
1 6 3
E (𝑋 2 ) 0 2
2 5 10

3.4 Justification

Based on the theorem, the function can serve as probability distribution if ∑ 𝑓(𝑥) = 1. The
function can serve as the probability distribution function of a random variable (𝑋). When we
continue our calculation it would results as adding all the results:- 𝑃 (𝑋 = 𝑥) = 1.

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CHAPTER 4: CONCLUSION

4.1 Summary

From the result obtained, it is able to classify the probabilities according to the
specific distribution between discrete and continuous. On that note, it can be learn on how to
solve discrete distribution amd cumulative distribution. The expected value and variance
properties of discrete distribution can be conclude.

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