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SOCIO 101 REVIEWER Ideas change when their situations or conditions

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change
I. Introduction to Sociology Cosmopolitan – “…much less far-reaching in its implications.”
- The foundation of other motifs
Peter Berger - Openness to other ways of thinking and acting without
- Austrian-born American sociologist prejudice with empathy
- wrote books on the sociological theory, the sociology - A broad, open, and emancipated view on human life
of religion, and Third World development - We all have to be open-minded in looking at truths
- 88 years old
II. Introduction to the Sociological Imagination
Bakit natin pinag-aaralan ang Sociology?
- Patuloy natin pinag-aaralan ang lipunan dahil parte Charles Wright Mills
tayo nito at kabilang tayo dito - Social scientists should not merely be disinterested
observers engaged in research and theory but assert
Sociology their social responsibility
- “Sociology is more like a passion…., an intro to - The Promise
sociology is therefore an invitation to a very special - “neither the life of the individual and the history of the
kind of passion society can be understood without understanding
- Scientific study of human life, social groups, whole both.”
societies and the human world as such o We need to develop a way of understanding
o Man > groups > societies (from micro to the interaction between individual lives and
macro) society
- Distinguished through viewing human actions as o Hence, the birth of the Sociological
elements of wider figurations; that is of a non-random Imagination: the quality of mind which allows
assembly of actors locked together in a web of mutual one to grasp ‘history and biography and the
dependency relations between the two within society
o Lahat tayo ay parte ng lipunan. Bawat action o >> in trying to find a solution to a problem,
natin ay makaaapekto dito. wider social issues related to the problem
- Reveals what is hidden should be tackled and recognized
The Promise
Four Motifs of Sociological Consciousness - Personal troubles of milieu
- Public issues of social structure
Debunking – “…the sociologist will be driven time and again by
the very logic of his discipline to debunk the social system he is *May sociological imagination if Nakita ang
studying.” interconnectedness
- We can question what is already there; we can debunk *To formulate issues and troubles, we must ask what values
and show evidence; but stay theoretically informed are cherished yet threatened, and what values are cherished
and empirically driven and supported, by the characterizing trend of our period.
Unrespectability – “…closely related to debunking… - its *The sociological imagination is becoming, I believe, the major
fascination with the unrespectable view of society.” common denominator of our cultural life and its signal feature.
- We can be unrespectable and debunk the accepted
views (e.g. two-gender society, dapat maputi tayo) III. Development of Sociological Theory
- We should first be knowledgeable of the
respectable/accepted view then we can give the George Ritzer
unrespectable alternative Ibn Khaldun – “Blindly following ancient customs and traditions
- Exposing any taken for granted belief or position doesn’t mean that the dead are alive but that the living are
Relativizing – “…sociology is so much in tune with the temper dead.” – hindi maganda na we just follow everything
of the modern era precisely because it represents the Social Forces in the Development of sociological theory
consciousness of a world in which values have been so radically  Political revolutions
relativized.”  Industrial revolution and the rise of Capitalism
- Realization that an individual’s or a group’s
 Rise of socialism
views/values/ways are NOT absolute, are NOT
 Feminism
“truth/normality” itself
 Urbanization
o Massive migration from rural areas to urban - Growing new literature on women that makes visible
areas all aspects of women’s unconsidered lives and
o Rise of the Chicago school experiences
 Religious change Structuralism and Poststructuralism
 Growth of science *PostStructuralism – precursor to Postmodernism
Postmodernism
Intellectual Forces and the Rise of Sociological Theory Synthesizers
 The Enlightenment - Micro-macro integration
 The Conservative Reaction to the Enlightenment - Structure-agency integration
 Development of French Sociology - Theoretical synthesis
o Mix of conservatism and radicalism – Claud
Henri Saint-Simon IV. Karl Heinrich Marx
o Auguste Comte
 coined the term sociology (from social Karl Marx – wrote Communist Manifesto with Engels; got
physics and positivism) evicted from Paris and Brussels because of his revolutionary
 Law of Three Stages (Theological ideas and views; financially supported by Engels
Stage, Metaphysical Stage, Scientific
Stage/Positive Stage) Capitalism – a historically specific way of organizing commodity
 Emile Durkheim of production
 Development of German Sociology - Mode of production based on unequal private
o Karl Marx ownership on the means of production
o Max Weber - Profit ang focus
o George Simmel Bourgeoisie – they own and monopolize the means of
 British Sociology production; sa kanila galling ang puhunan/capital; nakakagain
 Italian Sociology sila ng profit mula sa labor ng mga employees
Proletariat – wage-workers who work hard to meet production
The Chicago School demands
- Department of sociology was founded by Albion Small *The proletariat work to convert raw materials to commodities
- American Sociological Society was changed to which are sold by capitalists for profit – these profit are then
American Sociological Association in 1905 used to expand their ownership of private property while the
workers continue to work for minimal wages – kaya sabi ni
Women in early Sociology: Marx, ang problem ay palaki na nang palaki ang gap between
(Jane Addams, Charlotte Gilman, Anna Julia Cooper, Ida Wells- the two classes.
Barnett, Marianne Weber, Beatrice Potter Webb) *He predicted today’s global economy: expansion of capitalism
- Emphasis on women’s lives, works, and experiences create capitalist societies whose progress is defined by the
(these are as important as men’s) extent of their bourgeoise capitalist culture – ‘yung kakayahan
- Awareness that they spoke from their own standpoint nilang mameet ang demands ng capitalism sa pagproduce ng
- Purpose of sociology and sociological theory is social commodities for local and global consumption
reform *Marx’s theory is often called historical materialism (because
- Claims that the chief problem for development in their he focuses on the economic conditions in society and how
time is inequality these determine social structures and social relations
*He predicted that the expansion of capitalism with its
Contemporary Sociological Theory endless pursuit for profit will lead to its own downfall –
Structural Functionalism – (SEARCH!) capitalism produces economic crises that threaten its very
Marxian Sociology (Frankfurt School) – (SEARCH!) foundation – with these crises, the working class would
Symbolic Interactionism develop a class consciousness – this would propel wage-
- the sociology of everyday life workers to revolt against capitalism – to overthrow it and usher
- Exchange theory a new society
- Dramaturgy *despite the many crises created by capitalism, it has
- Phenonmenological Sociology also developed ways on how to prevent its predicted downfall
- Ethnomethodology *he predicted that an expansion of capital would also
Feminist Sociology increase the need for laborers and that with a large population
of laborers which he also predicted to remain poor didn’t occur
because of technological advancements and whilst there is still - Since capitalism is the accumulation of profit, profit
inequality and a widening gap between the rich and the poor, comes from the extra value or the surplus value
the working class are still relatively well-off. created by the wage-workers’ labor
Dialectical Materialism - Wage-workers are paid less than their use-value
Dialectic – dialegein (to argue) - Wages are determined through the actual cost of
- This method follows a pendulum-like thesis- production
antethesis-synthesis form
- The more productive the workers are, the more
- Means that historical change is the result of conscious
capitalists earn profit
human activity emerging from and acting on the
socially experienced contradictions of historically Division of Labor – dominant feature of a capitalist society
conditioned economic forces and relations in order to - Marx argues that individuals have the ability to do a
produce a new form of social existence. lot of things or develop lots of hobbies and skills but
Communism division of labor leads to specialization where
- Believed by Marx to emerge followed by the individuals are reduced to a specialized activity which
overthrow of capitalism he has the most use-value in the production of capital
- The abolition of private property, profit, division of and hinders them to be more productive in many
labor and social classes different fields.
- Requires everyone to contribute labor to supply *commodification of labor power (workers are reduced to
everyone’s needs commodities) produces alienation
- There would be equality between people (no rich, no
Alienated Labor - result of the economic and social
poor)
organization of capitalism, of capitalism’s production
- Labor would no longer be converted into capital, rent,
objectives and processes such as the division of labor
money, social power capable of being monopolized
- No one class would rule and control the means of 4 Kinds of Alienation
production  Alienation of workers from products they produce –
- Leads to a universal human emancipation estranged from the products they produce, they are
Human Nature not his/her own
*Our ability to produce an economic and social existence  Alienation of workers in the production process –
(food, tools, entertainment) is what distinguishes us as labor is coerced and performed for capitalists
humans  Alienation of workers from their species being –
*We live with nature, we act on nature, we produce and production process reduces humans to objects
continually reproduce our means of economic life  Alienation of individuals from one another – work
*we create and recreate a mode of existence that is becomes the individual’s life rather than the means by
compatible to us which individuals enjoy their life with others; it
*Marx is not against work – he rather thinks that it is integral becomes demanding
to being human; however, he is against division of labor Ideology – everyday ideas that permeate the society;
Capitalism as a distinctive social form determined by the ruling economic class
*Capitalists only employ wage workers and make use of them Ideology of consumption – Consumption pervades our
up to the extent that they are useful in the production of existence, that is why a lot work hard so that they can buy the
profit. Once they have nothing to contribute, capitalists can things they want
easily dismiss them - The power of money to buy all things we do not
*they only care about wage workers as long as they have possess lures us to reproduce capitalism through
their use-value consumption
*Use-value is the extent to which wage workers can be put to - We are enchanted with consumption because that is
use to produce something useful that would result in capital what is real to us
and profit Fetishism of commodities
*Wage-workers are not actually free, their labor power is a - We see the commodities as the objects itself not
commodity bought and sold for other people’s profit recognizing what it really is: raw materials
Surplus Value transformed by human labor for other’s profit
- Surplus value = use value – exchange values (wages) Capitalist Superstructure
Superstructure – non-economic social institutions whose Non-Rational Action
routine institutional practices and activities promote the Emotion – determined by the actor’s specific
beliefs, ideas, and practices that are necessary to maintaining feeling states
and reproducing capitalism Tradition – motivated by customs and habits
Economic Base – the economic structure or the mode of Power, authority, and domination
production of material life in capitalist society Three ideal types of domination/authority:
Legal/Rational Authority – authority in modern
V. Maximilian Karl Emil Weber society; rule-grounded; ruled by state and other
*domain of sociology is subjective meaningful action bureaucracies
Verstehen – German for “understanding”; refers to the Traditional Authority – feudal societies and other
process by which sociologists seek interpretive understanding traditional societies; loyalty to estate lord and loyalty to
of the subjective meanings that individuals and collectives community’s traditions secure individual obedience and
give to their behavior/social action compliance
- Putting self in shoes of others, having empathy for Charismatic Authority – charisma – special charm that
others gives an individual power over others; always resides in a
*Weber probed the historical and cultural origins of social particular individual
phenomena and the particular institutional practices they
produced *Legal/rational authority is institutionalized through
The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism – his most bureaucracy
famous book; link between religion and economics; relation
between this-worldly and other-worldly concerns VI. David Emile Durkheim
*through empirical observation, Weber finds that, historically Functionalism/Structural Functionalism – society as a complex
in modern capitalism, Protestants rather than Catholics system whose component parts or structures are all
predominated in business…. that Catholics tend to opt for interrelated but whose independent functioning is necessary
non-business occupations to the functioning of the whole society
Protestant Ethic: the earning of money within the economic *for him, sociology is the science of civilization
order, so long as it is done legally, is a calling and an Social facts – external and collective ways in which society
obligation to please God. shapes, structures, and constrains our behavior
- Embracing work as duty with its own intrinsic reward *Society is more than the individuals that comprises it; it
of giving glory to God, and thus working hard, includes social relationships, social patterns, and forms of
preceded the expansion of capitalism social organizations
*Living a life of simplicity and asceticism *Society has its own reality – sui generis reality – a collective
- this work ethic got harnessed by capitalism to a disciplined, reality that exerts its own force independent of individuals
methodical rationality toward the pursuit of profit Methodological Rules
*Economic success became the objective Sociological Objectivity – social facts exist I society
Calvinism – the doctrine of predestination – individual’s and can be studied
salvation was already predetermined Data-centered sociology – analysis of social
- They took it as their duty to demonstrate their phenomena is based on statistics; research proceeds from
salvation to themselves through material success. things/data to ideas and not reverse
- Diligence in business Social problems are normal
Ideal Types – exhaustive description of the characteristics *The core task of sociology is analyzing morality – formal and
distinctive to, and expected of a given phenomenon informal social rules that regulate individuals’ behavior
Rational Social Action *Social solidarity emerges from social rules and other social
Value-Rational Action – when an individual, group, structures
organization, or a whole society values some idea or belief *Humans have certain selfish biological drives but as a social
such that they decide to rationally act on that value, to species, we take account of other individuals
demonstrate their commitment to that value - we are able to cooperate with others and be
Instrumental-Rational Action – strategic, cost-benefit attached to something other than ourselves
action *Cooperation as key to social life
*we are taught how to socialize(interact and behave as social
beings) – to sacrifice an amount of self-interest to the interest
of the collectivity
*society exists independent of the individual, and it
necessarily constrains individual and group behavior
*although social change occurs, it is not simply willed by
individuals – accomplished collectively and in tune with
collective forces
Mechanical Solidarity – structural and cultural sameness that
characterizes the beliefs and social relationships in traditional
societies
Organic Solidarity – interdependence that is required by and
results from the highly specialized division of labor
Density of social interaction
Physical density: the number of people we encounter
during the day
Moral density: interaction with more people means
more constraint to social and moral norms
(e.g. walking on a busy street, we make sure not to bump to
someone, same way goes with others – reciprocity and
cooperation)
*Social cohesion results from the interdependence of
individuals, each with his or her own specialty
Suicide
- Different societal contexts produce different
conditions leading to suicide
4 types
Altruistic – failure in fulfilling community’s
expectations
Egoistic –
Anomic - absence of established norms