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Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 95

LIBRARi

by

Hunter Rouse

1929

for the Degree of

from the

1932

mittee on Graduate Students . 0 000 0 * ~ 000

Cambridge, Massachusetts

May 25, 1932

Professor A. L. Merrill

Secretary of the Faculty

Mass. Institute of Technology

Cambridge, Massachusetts

I herewith submit a

thesis entitled

"The Distribution of Hydraulic

Energy in Weir Flow with Re-

lation to Spillway Design"

for the degree of Master of Science in

Civil Engineering.

Hunter Rouse

183 077

A word of appreciation to Professor G. E. Russell

for his patience, interest, and encouragement

Summary

sion of potential and pressure energy into kinetic

shown.

After a general, non-mathematical discussion

adapted to basic examples of weir discharge, and

the discussion.

T A B L X OF 0 0 N T E N T S

TAB OF CONTENTS

curving flow ................ 3

3. Methods of attack .................. . 5

to basic weir sections 7- 48

elementary spill sections ................... 30

b. Horizontal floor with abrupt, ventilated

fall . .. . ........ .......... . ....... 37

c. Effect of non-ventilation on weir

discharge . . . . . . . ............... 44

Bibliography

1

I Introduction

1. Discussion of past practice

this type of water motion, with the result that their nearest

2

of channel cross-section occurs) is ignored; instead of

change of section. How much more these men could have under-

the discharge face, and time has proven that the assumptions

are safe (see Creager5). But they accomplish little in im-

4

the vertical section; he further showed that the introduction

experiments.

5

thesis.

3. Methods of attack

solving a problem of flow through a varying section. Need-

the graphical solution depends upon trial and error and re-

6

be combined intelligently with experience to produce effi-

The latter principles are based largely upon Bernoulli's

7

to basic weir sections

equations follows.

forces acting upon this volume are gravity and the pressure

J d -dS~ 9+ -CO 5c

8

Hence d. dSad 0

and 0: (k)

On the basis of this general equation we may now state:

w equation 1 becomes

g

the sum (P+ h) in that direction.

W

In general, the velocity of any particle is a function

ordinate system,

v. a fl(x,y,z,T)

vy = f2 (x,yz,T)

Vz* f3 (xy,z,T)

If, instead of the Cartesian, we use the natural co-

9

may be expressed d V

dT

The component of this acceleration in the direction a

then becomes

-CT + DT

cT

at point o due to a differential change in time.

-n - V^'

I + V

dT V DT

time: 0 _v__

3T

10

coordinates:

Z Wt 30C)

6T ns w

-~ - (b)

V 1nz: c .~ (4')

Hence the total energy is seen to be constant along a given

11

3b, the right side will be seen to contain the differential

_ ;(Z

o~)n and()

(0 Z a

_

or o V = 9 l + C whence V C-e )

x1 Xf '3 9D w

± T

x -Y + V X~4l

12

thickness or z dimension is unity, we see from Figure

are found for the other two faces. The difference between

the fluid leaving and the fluid entering this element will

be (+ ) dX

tinuity: rbV -)

+ M 0 T

We have already seen that the velocity component in any

direction, for steady flow, may be expressed as a function

of the coordinates. This function is called the 4-function,

and is such that:

_-Aj

constant along a trajectory cutting all stream filaments

at right angles.

Similarly the stream function is such that its

value is constant along any stream filament, and may be

expressed by the following relations:

v - V = (9)

x o t ad

By combining the equations 7 and 8 the familiar equa-

t ion of Laplace results:

7 0 (10)

and has a constant value over a curve that is normal to

vs = = 2 - va = '= = 0 (00)

14

tive of the corresponding constant.

With these relationships we now have sufficient equa-

15

of any discharge simply by adjusting the stream and velocity

potential lines so that they will divide the profile into

approximate squares. This is further facilitated if the

pressure distribution along the boundaries of the profile

is known through measurement: from Bernoulli's theorem

the velocities may be found at various points along the

boundaries; then, since the velocity is inversely propor-

tional to the side of each square (see equation 11), the

accuracy of the construction may be checked.

In Figure 5 is shown such a flow net constructed for

8

a profile of a model siphon8. Coloring matter introduced

into the water showed the actual stream filaments, corres-

ponding almost exactly with the theoretical lines of con-

stant .

This graphical method a y also be used, independent of

all measurements, to solve a discharge problem completely,

provided the flow approximates that of an ideal fluid -

that is, provided there is no excessive turbulence, and

no three-dimensional motion 9 If the water surface is ex-

posed to the atmosphere, its probable curve must be assumed;

if it flows between fixed surfaces, the boundaries are of

course already determined. The profile is now divided into

strips of approximately equal discharge through drawing by

eye, as has already been explained, assumed stream lines;

where the flow is linear, these stream lines will divide

Figure 5. Comparison between theoretical and

actual stream lines, from an experiment with

a model of a siphon made at Hannover, Germany

16

the profile into equal sections (see Figure 6). The approx-

(equation 6).

17

through use of Euler's equations and the theory of poten-

For cases of ideal, straight-line flow, the pressure

18

loss, is commonly applied to pipe flow and lineal flow in

when both are unknown. For this we must depend upon equa-

tion 5.

duction in the floor reaction to the weight of the water -

19

the surface.

From the foregoing discussion it is not difficult to

20

also by a pressure drop; the same is true for any weir dis-

c(jX

it will be seen that a horizontal acceleration may still

21

potential head does not change and the total energy must

and potential heads, the total head still remaining unchanged.

flow.

the pressure gradient and the pipe axis always equals the

22

when the flow is linear. Hence the energy line lies .above

10

tion, a factor CXu must, strictly speaking, be used to

2

correct the value Vm , so that the true average velocity

I

head km becomes

V d v dD (04

The factor 0( may vary from 1.0 in the ideal case of

23

the above conditions hold true. But once the stream fila-

values as follows:

W zD

These values are shown graphically in Figure 7. Since

vr = Q

n

=: a

T Cos 0(

w

24

be expressed: D H- D I - Q15)

the pressure intensity at the bottom of the stream (the

relation

Q= V =D T(H-D) (ii)

is differentiated with respect to D and the result placed

and

M~ D (9

25

and that at which the velocity is greater as "shooting

occurs.

However, this value is a mean of the velocities over

In certain cases, which will be discussed later in this

linear and curved flow. Yet this is not true for sudden

26

only in case of static pressure distribution.

-w

that the pressure head equaled the depth below the water

equal wave velocity. Yet one must not forget that the

is more complete.

27

28

Horizontal

COS b D

d + P co3

~P - Pv a w Q2b \A/ (20)

Vertical

first, the transition is assumed smooth and rapid, os that

the effect of floor friction in retarding the acceleration

may be neglected; second, the term OXu already mentioned,

to correct the error involved by using the square of the

average velocity, has been omitted, since it is a trouble-

some factor and yet will not cause more error than the

29

+

tP' oa b Y A b- b

2Z zg?2

since the floor no longer affects the acceleration; simi-

2

Ra t Va

29

= b+ V

2g

and hence depends upon energy loss to preserve equilibrium

7a + a b 4 Yb

4 Zg 4 g

Should the transition be such that the flow actually

point. Since

Y

W

= 7N Q and z

wD

(z5)

in which H. is the height of the energy line above the

30

be closely approximated.

Q C- } (2)

where H is the height of the energy line above the weir

31

in the formQ

Q~CK Vh (Z0)

wherein 3I/

the direction of approach. For a weir of infinite height,

of the crest (see Figure 9), where each stream filament will

12 7I

theoretically to equal the value or 0.6110.

For a weir of finite height (Figure 10) the water will not

D

to 1. The coefficient K for the weir of great height

upon the physical proportions of water depth awd weir height,

the principle of geometrical similitude shows that for a

D

same, regardless-of the discharge. In reality, however,

32

in question.

the discharge in cubic meters per second. For the develop-

D

formula applies accurately only to values of this ratio

h between the limits 0.0 and 1.0, it will be seen that

D

will ascend to infinity before the limit = 1.0 is reached.

In Figure 12 such a graph is shown; it is interesting to

12

note that the theoretical curve of von Mises and the

13

empirical curve of Rehbook give practically the same

shape of the profile at the crest; on the other hand, C

D

Let us now consider the action which causes contrac-

34

accelerate more slowly and the lower ones more rapidly than

the filaments become more nearly parallel and the pressure

of the nappe will remain constant (see Figure 9), denoting

this point has been reached may the profile of the nappe

surface becomes less; for the limiting case, the lower sur-

36

the channel - that is, the depth beyond the limit of the

tion coefficient; the variation in velocity of approach

approach.

and channel floor. If we designate this difference by H,

practically horizontal some distance downstream from the

line flow.

39

channel.

ual slope between the channel entrance and the critical seo-

the discharge will depend in all actual cases upon the length

40

accompanying discussion 2

(I+ (.4j5

hence C -. 1

the ratio between the depth at the crest and the critical

41

12

i.e. the force of gravity is neglected. Hence the actual

Figure 12) must really represent the final point on the

Once the discharge and stream profile are known, this varia-

42

the entire profile:

the sheet, and H the height of the energy line above this

the crest equals the height of the weir crest above the

be 0.611 (see page 31). Substituting the proper values

in equation 25, we find the following discharge:

i-. th t = . Hx .x =76.93 es.

/ 3 '8 02,- ) .C

Similarly a weir of zero height at the end of a long,

Q 2 ( z. 6.0 .

the requirements:

is the fact that while the acting head on the crest may vary

44

equal heads on weirs of greatly different heights, the

rection as well.

Two results are at once obvious: the nappe is forced

that the head on the weir must decrease; if on the other

hand the supply head is constant, then the discharge must

increase. That the discharge over an unventilated, broad-

crested weir will not change, is obvious from the fact that

section, but the critical depth will still have the same

magnitude.

face of the weir as long as the pressure did not approach the

air to enter the sheet so that it tears itself away from the

way.

obviously change not only the stream profile but also the

46

will not be changed; that is, the falling sheet will be-

not hold; similarly, any other form of curved face for the

head on the weir than that for which the curved face was

47

48

will be no fixed space into which air can force its way

49

III Experimentation

ples discussed in the prededing pages, the author wishes

involving the ventilated, sharp-crested weir of variable

be described.

50 cm wide, 70 cm deep, and 5 meters long (Photo 1). In an

additional section at the upstream end of the flume was lo-

50

meter well and vernier hook gage reading to 0.01 cm. The

and still not cause undue turbulence at the measuring weir,

one wall of the channel, a concrete wall was built into the

above the floor of the experimental canal, terminating in

face. The latter face was ventilated by means of a li-inch

pipe leading into the atmosphere below the flume. The tem-

meter borings.

51

ters, consisting of 2-mm brass tubing soldered in holes

then being set into the concrete floor flush with the sur-

flow - 125 liters per second per meter of crest - was seleo-

52

second per meter - the first two being chosen to give res-

Qa La(ia

010 Lb)

in which Q represents discharge per unit length of crest,

and L represents any linear measurement.

On the completion of these experiments, the downstream

end of the dam was given a straight slppe of 1 horizontal

to 2 vertical (Photo 7), and similar runs were made with

identical discharge quantities. The slope was then changed

to it horizontal to 1 vertical (Photo 6), and the measure-

ments repeated, and finally a fourth group of runs was

conducted with a downstream face in the form of a quarter

circle with a radius of 20 centimeters (Photo 5). Inlets

for wall piezometers had previously been arranged so as to

provide measurements in seven different vertical sections

for each model form and discharge. Two more sections of

piezometers just above and below the crest would have been

ence with the flow caused by too many openings in the wall

Photo 3.

54

the Karlsruhe laboratory, .l under a discharge of 125 liters

weir (developed by means of geometrical similitude from a

flow) for the same discharge quantity as that of the other

head over various vertical sections throughout the transition

uniform velocity distribution according to equation 19;

rollers.

Let us first consider the sharp-crested weir. It was

55

below the static head. This reduction is best seen from the

the lowest regions, this would also reduce the pressure head

level of the crest; here the pressure readings were almost

vertical dimension from this section on, showing that the

horizontal component of velocity no longer increases.

the foot of the upstream weir face, where eddies and whirls

57

sure below the static due to curvature of the filaments

does not occur until the critical section has been passed.

face, for the computed critical depth will be found in each

case In approximately the same vicinity above the crest.

the pressure reduct ion caused by the rate of curvature of

importance.

comparison of Photos 7 and 8 will show that the aerated

space has exactly the same form as is shown by the coloring

matter in the roller. The effect of easy curvature is shairn

by the face rounded on the fairly large radius of 20 cm.

sharp angle, and even a smooth, easy curve could not lead

may be obtained by the avoidance of abrupt change in weir

discussed further.

60

that the pressure head upon the upstream face has as a maxi-

mum value the total head of the flow, or the sum of pressure

61

however, that the curve will not reach zero at the crest

terned after the ventilated nappe: furthermore, this will

It has long been the custom (see Creager , Hanna and

Kennedy

15 to design the lower spill face according

to the

trajectory of free fall based upon the assumed velocity at

to round the upstream edge of the normal crest will cause

62

but also in reduction of the discharge section; if the

roller is of some magnitude, it may cause a pronounced

break in the coefficient curve at a certain point in the

(atmospheric) pressure will no longer exist at the spill

to a downward slope will produce another cushioning roller,

roller here indicates pressure below the atmospheric, and

point lower down, for the air is partially swept away again

by the rush of the water; but this process will recur con-

entire structure.

bear in mind that although approximation of the profile

principal thing to be avoided is an abrupt change of

pressure, the sheet is not likely to ventilate itself

and the spill face.

investigated in the hydraulic laboratory of Professor

16

Camichel, at Toulouse, France . In the first case only

(see Photograph of stream filaments in Figure 20); this

This possibility of vibration due to intermittent par-

Figure 20. Study of stream filaments on -a model of the

Puehabon spillway at the Toulouse laboratory, France,

under the direction of Professor Camichel. The model is

constructed of brass at very small scale, and the stream

paths photographed by means of a suspension of aluminum

particles in the flowing water under strong overhead i-

lumination. The photograph shows not only the converging

filaments at the crest section, but also the turbulent

region just above the spillway, and the great possibility

for the sheet to spring loose at the point of formation

of the ground roller at the beginning of the abrupt slope.

64

Unless the spillway profile follows absolutely the

structures.

65

is to be preferred.

after the weir nappe has its maximum elevation some distance

66

horizontal floor.

67

suit both the demands of the flowing water and the require-

Bibliography

Formulae". Water Supply and Irrigation Paper No.

200, Washington, 1907

accompanying discussions. Proceedings of the Am. Soc.

G. E., Part 1, September, 1930

3. Creager, W. P., "Engineering for Masonry Dams".

yohn Wiley and Sons, New York, 1917

dabei auftretenden KrAften". Julius Springer,

Berlin, 1926

spiegellage bei AbstUrzen und Sohwellen unter besonderer

Bertoksichtigung der dabei auftretenden Zusatzspannungen",

Wasserkraft und Wasserwirtsohaft, Heft 2/3, 1929, Munich

Drtcke an Wehrrftaken infolge des abstffrzenden Wassers",

Die Wasserwirtschaft, Heft 5, 1929, Vienna

der Druokverteilung bei Wasserabfluss mit gekrlmmten

Stromfaden im Falle eines einfachen Absturzes".

Dissertation for the Doctorate from the Karlsruhe

Technisohe Hoohschule, 1932

Berlin, 1931

volume 1. Julius Springer, Berlin, 1931

bei fliessenden Gewassern mit Hilfe des Gesohwindigkeits-

hohen - Ausgleichwertes". Der Bauingenieur, Heft 15,

1922, Berlin

betten", Der Bauingenieur, Heft 4/5, 1928, Berlin

12. von Mises, R., "Berechnung von Ausfluss- und Ueberfall-

zahlen". Zeitschrift des V.D.I., May, 1917, Berlin

13. Rehbook, Th., "Wassermessung mit scharfkantigen Ueber-

fallwehren". Zeitschrift des V.D.I., Bd. 73, Nr. 24,

Berlin, 1929

for Suppressed Weirs". University of Washington Engin-

eering Experiment Station, Bulletin No. 22, 1923

McGraw-Hill, New York, 1931

la similitude des fluides inoompressibles pesants".

Dissertation for the Doctorate under Camichel St the

University of Toulouse, France, 1929

Investigation to Determine the Effect of Angularity

and Depth of Approach on the Discharge over Spill-

ways". Thesis for the degree of Master of Science

from-M.I.T., 1932

I

les

.Ar1

in Karlsruhe laboratory looking downstream from meas-

aring weir. At extreme left is gage well for weir,

and at lower end of flume may be seen the stream

profile at a discharge of 125 1/s/a over circular orest;

standpipe apparatus for piezometer readings is stand-

ing next to model.

Photo 2. View of experimental flume from above, look-

ing over spill crest upstream toward measuring weir.

Brass strips holding floor piezometers, plate-iron wall

with wall piezometers, gage carriage with Pitotube,

and general layout are clearly visible.

Photo 3. Sharp-orested weir (M.I.T. laboratory) discharging

125 1/s/m, Movable plate piezometer and standpipe with hook

gage for pressure readings may be readily seen.

measured floor pressures. Wall inlets visible through nappe.

Photo 5. Discharge of 125 1/s/m, radias of curvature of down-

stream face 20 am. Standpipes show pressures on weir face

through entire transition.

standpipes show pressures on weir floor and slope through

entire transition; color shows limits of roller.

Photos 7 and 8. Discharge of 125 1/s/a, slope of weir face

2:1. Standpipes shDw pressures over floor and downstream

face. Roller in above photo is colored with dye; in lower

picture air has entered, displacing water in roller.

p.fdA

p

dA

W= w.ds.dA

c

(p+4~.ds) dA

CJS

C05 0(

Fi g.v I

m y

dy

0

+avx-dx

ax

TI v

0 X

Fig. 2. Fig. 5.

I ljou,.

conA4 C5t.t

Vx

vs= _

_

3n a s_

Fi gc, 6.

OU,-E-

Enerqy Gradien+

Fi. 7

Energy distribution

asuming constant

Soliall points

(Ideal flow)

N

Q

/

/ z D

/

Ii

Fiq. 7b

Acual d5iribuiton

of enerqj if friction

is considered

Q )N /

Area'a' Area'b'

A

Momentum; force5 actinQ to

accelerate an isolacte d portion

of, the strear

T V

2Q

Zvclz

+ _ p, Z.Dvb AM= v -_

wzg wa23z~ aD

Fig. 3b. Law of Momentum as applied to the

Hydrau I ic Jump; cjraphical representation of

'5upporhnq Force s " after Rehbock 3~

Q 17.6) ft

Fiq 11.

/ft.N

406 z 1,060

4i0& KW 145

0.90

ji

Yalues after

von Mises

Rehbock

0G.5W haccia

(a C

,

C- 0.715

S-0.70.

D0 *1~

IL0.611 .0

OUs~3~'

5urface Iev41 in

approach chdnnel

Energt Gradient

Presure heado measured

'by movabl plo1k pirometer

h H

w

-~4

vZ

2p

w 05co*

D-h= p= 40 cm

Pressure heads

maeured b Fig.15. Prof ile of shorp-

Egt ae fw, r created w'eir discharging

I251/s/m / howing presurt

distribution over weir fact

and throughout falling sheet

Diogram developed b

eemetrica\ cim±h~1e-

from dda for Q =122 1~

+20

nergyGradient-.

_______________________

-i - - I

_________________________

___________________________

Pressure head

Wall piezome~ter5

0

4-

U

10

+40 +20 +1

Flogor Pazomeers

under 126itersper second per

mneter diseha rge. BDiogmreshows

location of piezometers in wall

and floor, and measured pressures

-10 -20

5cole

1OV/fr

1.

----------

-----------

Lnerqy Gradi nt

Curve of

floor preooure

44d

Wall piezometero

Q Po~ijive pressures

(F)

Q

4-

Floor pie zometer6

125 1 /rm It

downstream face. Diaqracm show5

location of piezometers in wall

and floor, and measured pressures

p loed normal 'lotted verticol ly

to circular f ace- from pillTace

Floor pre53ureb. o-

I 4

_nergy Oradient

- Wall pi~zometer~

positive to left and

negative to ri ht

4- of ver tica[ sec ion

Roler

Curve of floor

pressures plattd

verhCaIly from

surface of weir -

crested weir with I :1 downatream

face under discharge of 125A1/s/m

Diagram shows 'location of wall

and floor piezometers, meoured -1o

pressure>, and ma9nitude of roller

-20

/ Icale-

No

U/L64

*1 I

_nermyGradient

Wall piezometers

Crit ico I Preosre heode are

Sec ion plotted positive to

ot+49cm left and negative

to right of sectiorn

+

Cuorve of floor:

ig.v17. Profile 0f broad-created Cureoplotd

weir.edowidren fo opinq verticoul from

*urfaoce oweir

under a discharge of 1250

Diagram showS ocation of f oor

and wall piezompters, mneafure

prcessureo. and mognitude of roller

tQ -to -- 20

Y2cak

5urface level in

approach channel nerg Gradient

Roller

Curva of preasure

on epillwa4 face -

z5m

ploited vertically

above and below

face of Spillwog

5pillway, France, at 5cale5

of 1:300 and 1-.43.3. after

Comichel, Toulouse

30

o.t~-

3urface level in

approach channel

Energy Gradient

Curve of pressure

on spillwatg face

13m

Pressure headb

are plotted

vertically from

apillwaj face

study of Puechabon

pillwaty at 5cales of

4: 4oo and 1: 49.5, after

Comic hel, Toulouse

ROU.fL-

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