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M/S.

KUTCH CHEMICAL
INDUSTRIES LIMITED (UNIT-2)

Draft EIA & EMP Report for Manufacturing


of Caustic Soda, Chlorine, Hydrogen
Peroxide, Synthetic Organic, Inorganic,
Specialty Chemicals & Coal based Captive
Power Plant at Survey No. 169, 170, 175,
190, 191 of Village: Varsana, Taluka: Anjar,
Distt. Kachchh, Gujarat.

SEPTEMBER, 2016

Kadam
Environmental Consultants
www.kadamenviro.com

Environment for Development


M/S. KCIL DRAFT EIA & EMP REPORT – MANUFACTURING OF CAUSTIC SODA,
(UNIT 2) SYNTHETIC ORGANIC, INORGANIC, SPECIALTY CHEMICALS & CPP QUALITY CONTROL SHEET

KUTCH CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES LIMITED (UNIT-2)

Manufacturing of Caustic Soda, Chlorine, Hydrogen


Peroxide, Synthetic Organic, Inorganic, Specialty
Chemicals & Coal based Captive Power Plant.

© Kadam Environmental Consultants (‘Kadam’), September, 2016

This report is released for the use of the Kutch Chemical Industries Limited (Unit-2), Regulators and
relevant stakeholders solely as part of the subject project’s Environmental Clearance process.
Information provided (unless attributed to referenced third parties) is otherwise copyrighted and shall
not be used for any other purpose without the written consent of Kadam.

QUALITY CONTROL
Draft EIA & EMP Manufacturing of Caustic Soda, Chlorine, Hydrogen Peroxide, Synthetic
Name of
Organic, Inorganic, Specialty Chemicals & Coal based Captive Power Plant at Survey No.
Publication
169, 170, 175, 190, 191 of Village: Varsana, Taluka: Anjar, Distt. Kachchh, Gujarat.
September,
Project Number 1624321310 Report No. 1 Version 1 Released
2016
DISCLAIMER
Kadam has taken all reasonable precautions in the preparation of this report as per its auditable quality plan.
Kadam also believes that the facts presented in the report are accurate as on the date it was written. However,
it is impossible to dismiss absolutely, the possibility of errors or omissions. Kadam therefore specifically
disclaims any liability resulting from the use or application of the information contained in this report. The
information is not intended to serve as legal advice related to the individual situation.

KADAM ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS | SEPTEMBER, 2016 I


M/S. KCIL DRAFT EIA & EMP REPORT – MANUFACTURING OF CAUSTIC SODA,
(UNIT 2) SYNTHETIC ORGANIC, INORGANIC, SPECIALTY CHEMICALS & CPP QUALITY CONTROL SHEET

DECLARATION BY EXPERTS CONTRIBUTING TO THE EIA


& EMP REPORT
“I, hereby, certify that I was a part of the EIA team in the following capacity that developed “ Draft EIA
& EMP Report for Manufacturing of Caustic Soda, Chlorine, Hydrogen Peroxide, Synthetic Organic,
Inorganic, Specialty Chemicals & Coal based Captive Power Plant at Survey No. 169, 170, 175, 190,
191 of Village: Varsana, Taluka: Anjar, Distt. Kachchh, Gujarat”.

13 Chlor-alkali industry
EIA Sector Number Name of Sector
Synthetic organic chemicals industry & Thermal power
as per NABET 21 & 4 as per NABET
plants

EIA COORDINATOR

Name Mr. J. A. Rathi Ms. Jitixa Upadhyay Mr. Sangram Kadam


Approved Sector as per
13 21 4
NABET

Signature & Date

Period of involvement February 2016 – July 2016


Address: 871/B/3, GIDC, Makarpura, Mobile No: +91-9824476624
Contact Information
Vadodara. Landline No.: +91-265-300-1000

FUNCTIONAL AREA EXPERTS

S. Functional Name of the Involvement Signature &


No. Areas Expert/s Task Period Date

Site visit, selection of monitoring


locations, conducting AAQM. Evaluation
Sameer March –
1 AP of meteorological data with secondary
Kadam July, 2016
data. Identification of impacts and
suggesting mitigation measures.
Site visit to verify baseline AAQ in
Industrial Estate. Evaluation of measured
Sameer AAQM with secondary data. Air March –
2 AQ
Kadam Dispersion Modeling, Identification of July, 2016
impacts and suggesting mitigation
measures with EMP.
Site Visit, selection of sampling locations
for SW. Preparation of water balance
Sameer March –
3 WP diagrams & ETP Scheme for ZLD.
Kadam July, 2016
Identification of impacts and suggesting
mitigation measures with EMP.

KADAM ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS | SEPTEMBER, 2016 II


M/S. KCIL DRAFT EIA & EMP REPORT – MANUFACTURING OF CAUSTIC SODA,
(UNIT 2) SYNTHETIC ORGANIC, INORGANIC, SPECIALTY CHEMICALS & CPP QUALITY CONTROL SHEET

S. Functional Name of the Involvement Signature &


No. Areas Expert/s Task Period Date

Site Visit. Adequacy check of Solid &


Hazardous Waste Management and
March –
4 SHW J. A. Rathi suggesting disposal plan. Identification of
July, 2016
impacts and suggesting mitigation
measures with EMP.
Ground truth survey to validate the
Dr. Jessica interpreted LULC map from satellite data. May –
5 LU
Karia Supervision in updating LCLU map. July, 2016
Studying the impacts of project.
Site visit in core villages for primary
Anil database. Evaluation of SE status based March –
6 SE
Vishwakarma on the secondary data. Listing possible July, 2016
CSR activities with approximate budget.
Site visit for ecological data. Collection of
secondary data for identification of local
Mitali May –
7 EB flora and fauna. Assessment of the
Khuman July, 2016
impacts & development of green belt
management plan.
Site visit, selection of monitoring
locations. Identifying Noise generation
Oni May –
8 NV equipment & assessment of noise level.
Lokhandwala July, 2016
Identification of impacts and suggesting
mitigation measures with EMP.
Identification of RH. Interpreting RA
Jayesh using PHAST, suggesting measures for May –
9 RH
Makwana safe storage & handling of hazardous July, 2016
chemicals. Preparation of DMP.
Finalization of GW sampling locations.
10 Assessment of sampling results with
Pradeep June –
& HG & GEO secondary data to interpret current
Pofali July, 2016
11 conditions. Identification of impacts and
suggesting mitigation measures.

Assessment of the impacts on the soil. March –


12 SC Dr. B.K. Patel
Identifying mitigation measures. July, 2016

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M/S. KCIL DRAFT EIA & EMP REPORT – MANUFACTURING OF CAUSTIC SODA,
(UNIT 2) SYNTHETIC ORGANIC, INORGANIC, SPECIALTY CHEMICALS & CPP QUALITY CONTROL SHEET

Declaration by the Head of the Accredited Consultant Organization:

I, Sangram Kadam, hereby confirm that the referred experts have prepared the Draft EIA & EMP
Report for Manufacturing of Caustic Soda, Chlorine, Hydrogen Peroxide, Synthetic Organic, Inorganic,
Specialty Chemicals & Coal based Captive Power Plant at Survey No. 169, 170, 175, 190, 191 of
Village: Varsana, Taluka: Anjar, Distt. Kachchh, Gujarat. I also confirm that Kadam shall be fully
accountable for any mis-leading information mentioned in this statement.

Signature :

Name : Sangram Kadam

Designation : Director (Consultancy Department)

Name of EIA Consultant Organization : Kadam Environmental Consultants, Vadodara, Gujarat.

NABET Certificate No. & Issue Date : NABET/EIA/1316/SA 2 001 valid till 16th September, 2016.

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(UNIT 2) SYNTHETIC ORGANIC, INORGANIC, SPECIALTY CHEMICALS & CPP TABLE OF CONTENTS

CONTENTS
1 INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND .............................................................. 1

1.1 PURPOSE OF THE REPORT ........................................................................... 1


1.2 IDENTIFICATION OF PROJECT PROPONENT & PROJECT ....................................... 1
1.2.1 Project Proponent & Existing Unit ............................................................. 1
1.2.2 Proposed Project ................................................................................. 2
1.3 BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT AND ITS IMPORTANCE TO THE COUNTRY &
REGION ......................................................................................................... 2
1.3.1 Brief Description of the Project ................................................................ 2
1.3.2 Importance of Project to the Country and the Region ..................................... 2
1.4 REGULATORY FRAMEWORK ......................................................................... 4
1.4.1 General Clearance and Other Permissions ................................................... 4
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY ................................................................................ 5

2 PROJECT DESCRIPTION ............................................................................. 15

2.1 TYPE OF PROJECT ................................................................................... 15


2.1.1 Condensed Description of Aspects .......................................................... 15
2.2 NEED FOR THE PROJECT ........................................................................... 15
2.2.1 Condensed Description of Aspects .......................................................... 15
2.3 LOCATION OF THE PROJECT ...................................................................... 15
2.3.1 General Location of the Site .................................................................. 15
2.3.2 Specific Location of Site & Project Boundary .............................................. 16
2.3.3 Approach to the Project Site ................................................................. 17
2.3.4 Condensed Description of Aspects .......................................................... 17
2.4 SIZE AND MAGNITUDE OF OPERATION ......................................................... 19
2.4.1 Proposed Plant ................................................................................. 19
2.4.2 Nearby Existing Unit ........................................................................... 21
2.4.3 Condensed Description of Aspects .......................................................... 23
2.5 PROPOSED SCHEDULE FOR APPROVAL AND IMPLEMENTATION ............................ 23
2.6 TECHNOLOGY AND PROCESS DESCRIPTION ................................................... 25
2.6.1 Caustic Chlorine Plant (Caustic Soda, 600 TPD & Caustic Potash – 100 TPD) ....... 25
2.6.2 Hydrogen Peroxide (100% H2O2 Basis) – 100 TPD ....................................... 30
2.6.3 Anhydrous Aluminum Chloride – 100 TPD ................................................. 33
2.6.4 Poly Aluminum Chloride – 50 TPD .......................................................... 33
2.6.5 Calcium Chloride – 175 TPD.................................................................. 35
2.6.6 Para Amino Phenol – 120 TPD ............................................................... 36
2.6.7 Hydrogenation of Hydrocarbon, Nitro & Chloro Hydrocarbon – 10,000 TPM......... 37
2.6.8 Chlorination of Hydrocarbons – 7,500 TPM ................................................ 39
2.6.9 Chlorination of Toluene – 7,500 TPM ....................................................... 42
2.6.10 Chlorination of Acetic Acid – Mono Chloro Acetic Acid – 7,500 TPM ................ 42
2.6.11 Chlorination of Paraffins – CPW – 7,500 TPM .......................................... 44
2.6.12 Captive Power Plant – 100 MW ........................................................... 45

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2.7 UTILITIES ............................................................................................ 47


2.7.1 Power Requirement ............................................................................ 47
2.7.2 Fuel Requirement .............................................................................. 47
2.7.3 Water Requirement ............................................................................ 48
2.7.4 Manpower ....................................................................................... 48
2.8 RAW MATERIAL, STORAGE & MODE OF TRANSPORT ......................................... 48
2.9 SOLVENT AND SOLVENT RECOVERY SYSTEM .................................................. 49
2.10 CATALYST.......................................................................................... 49
2.11 PROPOSED INFRASTRUCTURE ................................................................. 49
2.11.1 Process Area ................................................................................. 49
2.11.2 Non-Processing Area ........................................................................ 50
2.12 AIR EMISSIONS ................................................................................... 51
2.12.1 Action Plan to Control Ambient Air Quality .............................................. 52
2.13 NOISE GENERATION ............................................................................. 55
2.14 WATER CONSUMPTION, WASTE WATER GENERATION & DISPOSAL DETAILS ......... 56
2.14.1 Water Consumption ......................................................................... 56
2.14.2 Waste Water Generation ................................................................... 56
2.14.3 Mode of Disposal ............................................................................ 56
2.14.4 Water Balance Table & Chart.............................................................. 56
2.14.5 Details of ETP ................................................................................ 58
2.15 SOLID AND HAZARDOUS WASTE IDENTIFICATION, QUANTIFICATION, STORAGE AND
DISPOSAL .................................................................................................... 67
2.15.1 Identification of Waste ..................................................................... 67
2.15.2 Categorization, Storage and Disposal of Waste ........................................ 67
2.15.3 Storage Area ................................................................................. 69
2.15.4 Treatment of Waste ......................................................................... 69
2.15.5 Transportation of Waste ................................................................... 69
2.15.6 Safety System during Handling and Transportation of Waste ....................... 69
2.16 MITIGATION MEASURES AT DESIGN STAGE ................................................. 69
2.17 ASSESSMENT OF NEW AND UNTESTED TECHNOLOGY ..................................... 69

3 DESCRIPTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT ......................................................... 71

3.1 STUDY AREA ......................................................................................... 71


3.2 PERIOD ............................................................................................... 71
3.3 COMPONENTS ....................................................................................... 71
3.4 METHODOLOGY ..................................................................................... 71
3.4.1 Primary data Collection ....................................................................... 71
3.4.2 Secondary Data Collection .................................................................... 75
3.5 ESTABLISHMENT OF BASELINE FOR VALUED ENVIRONMENTAL COMPONENTS ......... 75
3.5.1 Long Term Meteorology ...................................................................... 75
3.5.2 Site Specific Meteorology ..................................................................... 77
3.5.3 Land Use ........................................................................................ 81
3.5.4 Ambient Air ..................................................................................... 87
3.5.5 Traffic Survey ................................................................................... 92

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(UNIT 2) SYNTHETIC ORGANIC, INORGANIC, SPECIALTY CHEMICALS & CPP TABLE OF CONTENTS

3.5.6 Noise & Vibration .............................................................................. 92


3.5.7 Hydrology, Surface Water & Ground Water ............................................... 95
3.5.8 Geology ......................................................................................... 104
3.5.9 Soil .............................................................................................. 106
3.5.10 Ecology & Biodiversity ..................................................................... 109
3.5.11 Socio-Economics ............................................................................ 117
4 ANTICIPATED ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND MITIGATION MEASURES ........128

4.1 INVESTIGATED ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS DUE TO THE PROPOSED PROJECT ........ 128
4.2 AIR ENVIRONMENT ................................................................................ 133
4.2.1 Emission Rates & Predicted GLCs .......................................................... 136
4.2.2 Incremental Traffic ........................................................................... 141
4.3 NOISE ENVIRONMENT ............................................................................ 143
4.3.1 Assessment of Noise using SoundPlan .................................................... 143
4.4 WATER ENVIRONMENT ........................................................................... 149
4.4.1 Impact on Ground Water .................................................................... 149
4.4.2 Impact on Surface Water .................................................................... 149
4.4.3 Mitigation Measures .......................................................................... 149
4.5 LAND ENVIRONMENT .............................................................................. 152
4.5.1 Site Preparation ............................................................................... 152
4.5.2 Operation Phase............................................................................... 152
4.5.3 Mitigation Measure ............................................................................ 152
4.6 ECOLOGY & BIODIVERSITY ...................................................................... 156
4.7 RESOURCE DEPLETION ........................................................................... 159

5 ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVES ....................................................................161

5.1 SITE ALTERNATIVE .................................................................................... 161

6 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING PROGRAM .................................................163

6.1 AIR ENVIRONMENT ................................................................................ 163


6.2 NOISE ENVIRONMENT ............................................................................ 163
6.3 WATER ENVIRONMENT ........................................................................... 163
6.4 LAND ENVIRONMENT .............................................................................. 163
6.5 ECOLOGY & BIODIVERSITY ...................................................................... 163
6.6 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND MANAGEMENT COST ................................ 172

7 ADDITIONAL STUDIES ..............................................................................174

7.1 RISK ASSESSMENT ................................................................................. 174


7.1.1 Scope & Methodology ........................................................................ 174
7.1.2 Consequence Analysis for Selected Failure Scenario .................................... 174
7.1.3 Consequence Analysis Results .............................................................. 176
7.2 DISASTER MANAGEMENT PLAN .................................................................. 182
7.2.1 About Industrial Activities ................................................................... 182
7.2.2 Onsite Emergency Plan ...................................................................... 183
7.3 EXTERNAL HAZARDS .............................................................................. 192

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7.3.1 Earthquake ..................................................................................... 192


7.3.2 Social Unrest ................................................................................... 193
7.3.3 Major Fire in the Vicinity of Plant ........................................................... 193
7.3.4 Offsite Emergency Response Plan .......................................................... 193
7.4 DESCRIPTION ON ORGANIZATION SET-UP FOR SAFETY .................................... 194
7.4.1 Safety Organization ........................................................................... 194
7.4.2 Safety Training to Personnel ................................................................ 194
7.4.3 Safety Activities ............................................................................... 194
7.4.4 List of PPEs..................................................................................... 195
7.4.5 First Aid and Antidotes ....................................................................... 196
7.4.6 Allocation and Delegation of Responsibilities for Plant Safety ......................... 196
7.4.7 Emergency Contact Details .................................................................. 196
7.5 R&R ACTION PLANS ............................................................................... 196

8 PROJECT BENEFITS ..................................................................................197

8.1 PHYSICAL INFRASTRUCTURE .................................................................... 197


8.2 SOCIAL INFRASTRUCTURE ....................................................................... 197
8.3 EMPLOYMENT POTENTIAL ........................................................................ 197
8.4 OTHER TANGIBLE & LOCATIONAL BENEFITS ................................................. 197

9 ENVIRONMENTAL COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS ................................................198

10 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN .......................................................199

10.1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................. 199


10.2 PURPOSE OF EMP ................................................................................ 199
10.3 ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT PLAN ......................................................... 199
10.3.1 Air Environment ............................................................................ 199
10.3.2 Water Environment ........................................................................ 199
10.3.3 Land and Soil Environment (Solid Hazardous Waste Management) ............... 200
10.3.4 Ecology and Biodiversity Environment .................................................. 200
10.3.5 Socio Economic Environment ............................................................. 204
11 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION ....................................................................207

11.1 PROJECT DESCRIPTION ........................................................................ 207


11.1.1 Proposed Project ........................................................................... 207
11.1.2 Process ....................................................................................... 208
11.1.3 Utilities ....................................................................................... 209
11.1.4 Air Emissions & Control .................................................................... 209
11.1.5 Waste Water Treatment & Disposal ..................................................... 210
11.1.6 Noise ......................................................................................... 210
11.1.7 Hazardous & Other Solid Waste ......................................................... 210
11.2 DESCRIPTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT ...................................................... 210
11.2.1 Study Period, Area & Monitoring/Sampling Locations ................................ 210
11.2.2 Land Use and Land Cover ................................................................. 210
11.2.3 Meteorology ................................................................................. 211

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11.2.4 Ambient Air Quality ........................................................................ 211


11.2.5 Traffic ........................................................................................ 211
11.2.6 Noise Level .................................................................................. 211
11.2.7 Water Quality ............................................................................... 211
11.2.8 Soil Quality .................................................................................. 212
11.2.9 Biological Environment .................................................................... 213
11.2.10 Socio-Economic Environment ............................................................. 213
11.3 ANTICIPATED ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND MITIGATION MEASURES ............. 214
11.3.1 Air Environment ............................................................................ 214
11.3.2 Traffic ........................................................................................ 214
11.3.3 Noise Environment ......................................................................... 214
11.3.4 Water Environment ........................................................................ 215
11.3.5 Land Environment .......................................................................... 215
11.3.6 Biological Environment .................................................................... 215
11.3.7 Socio-Economic Environment ............................................................. 216
11.4 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING PROGRAM ................................................ 216
11.5 ADDITIONAL STUDIES .......................................................................... 217
11.5.1 Socio Economic Development Activities ................................................ 217
11.5.2 Risk & Hazards .............................................................................. 217
11.6 PROJECT BENEFITS ............................................................................. 217
11.7 ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT PLAN ......................................................... 218
11.8 CONCLUSION..................................................................................... 218

12 DISCLOSURE OF CONSULTANTS .................................................................219

12.1 BRIEF RESUME AND NATURE OF CONSULTANCY (KADAM)............................... 219


12.2 EIA TEAM MEMBERS ............................................................................ 220

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(UNIT 2) SYNTHETIC ORGANIC, INORGANIC, SPECIALTY CHEMICALS & CPP TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF ANNEXURES
Annexure 1: EC Application for ToR to EAC, MoEFCC ................................................................... 223

Annexure 2: Terms of Reference (ToR) Letter from EAC, MoEFCC dated 15th July, 2016 ................. 224

Annexure 3: Land Possession Documents ................................................................................... 228

Annexure 4: In Principle Approval for Coal Supply ....................................................................... 242

Annexure 5: In principle Water Permission from GWIL ................................................................. 243

Annexure 6: Permission for Hazardous Waste Disposal & Incineration ........................................... 244

Annexure 7: Coal Analysis Report ............................................................................................... 246

Annexure 8: Long Term Meteorological Data (1981 – 2010) – IMD, New Kandla ............................ 248

Annexure 9: Classification of Land Use and Land Cover ................................................................ 250

Annexure 10: CPCB’s National Ambient Air Quality Standards ....................................................... 256

Annexure 11: Detailed Results of Ambient Air Quality Monitoring .................................................. 258

Annexure 12: Impact Assessment Methodology ........................................................................... 262

Annexure 13: Air Dispersion Modeling Results and Isopleths ........................................................ 272

Annexure 14: Detailed Traffic Survey Sheets ............................................................................... 290

Annexure 15: Methodology of Risk Assessment and Hazard Identification ..................................... 299

Annexure 16: Nabet Certificate of EIA Consultant (Kadam Environmental Consultants) .................. 302

LIST OF MAPS
Map 2-1: General Location Map of Project Site .............................................................................. 16

Map 2-2: Specific Location Map of Project Site .............................................................................. 18

Map 2-3: Site Layout Map ............................................................................................................ 20

Map 2-4: Combined Layout Plan (Existing Unit & Proposed Unit) .................................................... 22

Map 3-1: Study Area Map – 10 Km from Project Site ..................................................................... 72

Map 3-2: Sampling Location Map ................................................................................................. 74

Map 3-3: Land Use Map ............................................................................................................... 86

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LIST OF TABLES
Table 1-1: Brief Description of the Project ....................................................................................... 2

Table 1-2: Statutory Clearances / Permissions required from Concerned Ministries or Bodies .............. 4

Table 1-3: Compliance with the Terms of Reference ........................................................................ 5

Table 2-1: Co-ordinates of Project Boundary ................................................................................. 16

Table 2-2: Area Breakup of the Site .............................................................................................. 19

Table 2-3: List of Proposed Products and Production Capacity ........................................................ 21

Table 2-4: Project Implementation Schedule ................................................................................. 24

Table 2-5: Mass Balance – Caustic Soda ....................................................................................... 29

Table 2-6: Mass Balance – Caustic Potash ..................................................................................... 29

Table 2-7: Mass Balance – Sodium Hypo Chloride .......................................................................... 30

Table 2-8: Mass Balance – Hydrogen Peroxide .............................................................................. 32

Table 2-9: Mass Balance – Aluminum Chloride .............................................................................. 33

Table 2-10: Mass Balance – Poly Aluminum Chloride ...................................................................... 34

Table 2-11: Mass Balance – Calcium Chloride ................................................................................ 35

Table 2-12: Mass Balance – Para Amino Phenol ............................................................................. 36

Table 2-13: Mass Balance – Hydrogenated Products ...................................................................... 38

Table 2-14: Mass Balance – MCB .................................................................................................. 40

Table 2-15: Mass Balance – ODCB & PDCB ................................................................................... 41

Table 2-16: Mass Balance – Mono Chloro Acetic Acid ..................................................................... 43

Table 2-17: Mass Balance – Chlorinated Paraffin Wax (CPW) .......................................................... 45

Table 2-18: Fuel Details ............................................................................................................... 48

Table 2-19: Details of Raw Materials, Physical State & Means of Storage ......................................... 48

Table 2-20: Details of Stacks, Fuel Used and APCM attached to Flue Gas Stacks .............................. 53

Table 2-21: Details of Stacks, APCM attached to Process Gas Stacks / Vents ................................... 53

Table 2-22: Technical Details of Proposed APCM ........................................................................... 54

Table 2-23: Water Consumption and Waste Water Generation Details ............................................. 56

Table 2-24: Characteristics of Wastewater Streams ....................................................................... 58

Table 2-25: Inlet and Outlet Characteristics of Wastewater for ETP-1.............................................. 59

Table 2-26: Inlet and Outlet Characteristics of Wastewater for ETP-2.............................................. 62

Table 2-27: MEE Feed Quality ...................................................................................................... 62

Table 2-28: Categorization, Storage and Disposal of Waste ............................................................ 68

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Table 2-29: Operational Controls at Design Stage .......................................................................... 70

Table 3-1: Predominant Wind Direction based on Long-term Data .................................................. 76

Table 3-2: Average Meteorological Condition based on Long-term Data .......................................... 76

Table 3-3: Monitoring Methodology of Meteorological Data ............................................................ 77

Table 3-4: Average Meteorological Data at Varsana Village ............................................................ 78

Table 3-5: Mean Meteorological Data of Varsana Village ................................................................ 78

Table 3-6: Collation of Meteorological data – Summer Season ........................................................ 81

Table 3-7: GPS Reading Enumerating the Land Use Features in Study Area ..................................... 82

Table 3-8: Area Statistic for Land Use / Land Cover Categories in the Study Area ............................ 83

Table 3-9: Important Features within the Study Area ..................................................................... 84

Table 3-10: Ponds within 5 Km from Project Site ........................................................................... 85

Table 3-11: Methodology of Analyzing Ambient Air Monitoring Parameters ...................................... 87

Table 3-12: AAQM Locations with Justification ............................................................................... 88

Table 3-13: Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Results ....................................................................... 90

Table 3-14: Noise Level Monitoring Methodology ........................................................................... 92

Table 3-15: Ambient Air Quality Standards in respect of Noise for Different Areas/Zones .................. 93

Table 3-16: Noise Level Monitoring Locations ................................................................................ 93

Table 3-17: Noise Level Monitoring Results ................................................................................... 94

Table 3-18: Analysis Methodology for Analyzing Surface & Ground Water Samples .......................... 95

Table 3-19: Surface Water Sampling Locations – Ponds and River .................................................. 97

Table 3-20: Surface Water (Ponds) Analysis Results ...................................................................... 99

Table 3-21: Surface Water (River) Analysis Results ...................................................................... 100

Table 3-22: Ground Water Sampling Locations ............................................................................ 101

Table 3-23: Ground Water (Borewells) Analysis Results ............................................................... 103

Table 3-24: Soil Sampling Locations ........................................................................................... 106

Table 3-25: Methodology for Analyzing Soil Samples .................................................................... 107

Table 3-26: Soil Analysis Results ................................................................................................ 108

Table 3-27: Water Birds Recorded in the Nearest Water Bodies .................................................... 110

Table 3-28: Floral Species Reported from the Proposed Project Site / Core Zone ........................... 111

Table 3-29: Flora Reported from Buffer Zone of the Study Area .................................................... 111

Table 3-30: Herpetofauna Reported from Buffer Zone ................................................................. 113

Table 3-31: Avifauna Reported from Core Zone / Project Site ....................................................... 113

Table 3-32: Birds Reported from Buffer Zone .............................................................................. 113

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Table 3-33: Mammals Reported from the Buffer Zone .................................................................. 115

Table 3-34: Marine Fish Diversity ............................................................................................... 116

Table 3-35: Approach and Methodology for Conducting the SE Study............................................ 117

Table 3-36: Demographic Status of the Study Area ...................................................................... 119

Table 3-37: Population and Sex Ratio ......................................................................................... 120

Table 3-38: SC/ST Population in Study Area ................................................................................ 120

Table 3-39: Literacy Rate in Study Area ...................................................................................... 121

Table 3-40: Education Facility .................................................................................................... 122

Table 3-41: Medical Facility ........................................................................................................ 123

Table 3-42: Source of Drinking Water ......................................................................................... 123

Table 3-43: Occupation Patterns ................................................................................................ 126

Table 4-1: Aspect – Impact Identification from Proposed Project .................................................. 129

Table 4-2: Impact Scoring and Mitigation Measures for Air Environment ....................................... 134

Table 4-3: Assumptions for Calculating Emission Estimate for Point Source ................................... 136

Table 4-4: Emission Estimate from Flue Gas Stacks ..................................................................... 137

Table 4-5: Emission Estimate from Process Stacks ....................................................................... 137

Table 4-6: Emission Estimate from Volume Source ...................................................................... 137

Table 4-7: Summary of Air Dispersion Modeling for Proposed Stacks ............................................. 139

Table 4-8: Maximum Incremental GLC from Proposed Project ...................................................... 139

Table 4-9: Incremental Hourly Average Traffic on NH-6, from Bhachau to Gandhidham ................. 142

Table 4-10: Incremental Hourly Average Traffic on NH-6, from Gandhidham to Bhachau ................ 142

Table 4-11: Incremental Hourly Average Traffic on NH-50, from Bhimasar to Anjar ........................ 142

Table 4-12: Incremental Hourly Average Traffic on NH-50, from Anjar to Bhimasar ........................ 142

Table 4-13: Impact Scoring and Mitigation Measures for Noise Environment .................................. 144

Table 4-14: Sources of Noise with their Sound Pressure Levels ..................................................... 145

Table 4-15: Noise Level at Receptor Locations (Based on SoundPlan) ........................................... 145

Table 4-16: Predictive Cumulative Noise Levels ........................................................................... 146

Table 4-17: Impact Scoring and Mitigation Measures for Water Environment ................................. 150

Table 4-18: Impact Scoring and Mitigation Measures for Land Environment ................................... 153

Table 4-19: Activity-Aspect Based Determination of Impacting Ecological Components ................... 156

Table 4-20: Impact Scoring and Mitigation Measures for Ecology & Biodiversity ............................. 158

Table 4-21: Impact Scoring and Mitigation Measures for Resource Depletion ................................. 160

Table 5-1: Alternative Site Selection Criteria ................................................................................ 161

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Table 6-1: Budgetary Environment Monitoring Plan for Air Environment ........................................ 164

Table 6-2: Traffic Management Plan ........................................................................................... 167

Table 6-3: Budgetary Environment Monitoring Plan for Noise Environment .................................... 168

Table 6-4: Budgetary Environment Monitoring Plan for Water Environment ................................... 169

Table 6-5: Budgetary Environment Monitoring Plan for Land Environment ..................................... 170

Table 6-6: Budgetary Environment Monitoring Plan for Ecology and Biodiversity ............................ 171

Table 6-7: Environmental Monitoring and Management Cost ........................................................ 172

Table 6-8: Post EC Environmental Monitoring Plan ....................................................................... 173

Table 7-1: Details of Flammable Raw Materials ........................................................................... 175

Table 7-2: Results of Consequence Analysis for Benzene .............................................................. 176

Table 7-3: Results of Consequence Analysis for Methanol............................................................. 177

Table 7-4: Toxic Dose Effect Distance for Benzene ...................................................................... 177

Table 7-5: Toxc Dose Effect Distance for Chlorine ....................................................................... 177

Table 7-6: Details of Proposed Non–Respiratory PPEs .................................................................. 195

Table 7-7: Details of Proposed Respiratory PPEs .......................................................................... 195

Table 7-8: Details of Proposed Fire Extinguishers at Site .............................................................. 195

Table 7-9: Emergency Contact Details ........................................................................................ 196

Table 10-1: Plant Species Suggested for Greenbelt and Landscaping at Various Locations .............. 201

Table 10-2: Budget for Proposed Greenbelt Development within Project Site ................................. 201

Table 10-3: List of plant species for Plantation in LIZ Area ........................................................... 202

Table 10-4: Budget for Additional Greenbelt / Habitat Improvement Programme ........................... 202

Table 10-5: Issues Raised by Respondents of Core Zone .............................................................. 204

Table 10-6: Budgetary Provision for Ten Years ............................................................................ 206

Table 11-1: List of Proposed Products ......................................................................................... 207

Table 11-2: Environmental Monitoring Plan ................................................................................. 216

Table 12-1: EIA Team Member .................................................................................................. 220

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 2-1: Block Diagram for Caustic Soda Manufacturing ............................................................. 27

Figure 2-2: Block Diagram for Hydrogen Peroxide Manufacturing .................................................... 32

Figure 2-3: Block Diagram for Poly Aluminum Chloride Manufacturing ............................................. 34

Figure 2-4: Block Diagram for Calcium Chloride Manufacturing ....................................................... 35

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Figure 2-5: Block Diagram for Hydrogenated Product Manufacturing ............................................... 38

Figure 2-6: Block Diagram for MCB Manufacturing ......................................................................... 39

Figure 2-7: Block Diagram for ODCB & PDCB Manufacturing ........................................................... 41

Figure 2-8: Block Diagram for Chlorination of Toluene Manufacturing ............................................. 42

Figure 2-9: Block Diagram for Mono Chloro Acetic Acid Manufacturing ............................................ 43

Figure 2-10: Block Diagram for CPW Manufacturing ....................................................................... 44

Figure 2-11: PFD – Power Plant ................................................................................................... 46

Figure 2-12: PFD for HCl Scrubbing System .................................................................................. 54

Figure 2-13: Water Balance Diagram ............................................................................................ 57

Figure 2-14: Process Block Diagram – ETP 1 ................................................................................. 61

Figure 2-15: Process Block Diagram – ETP 2 ................................................................................. 65

Figure 3-1: Project Site on Toposheet No. F42E4 (Gandhidham, Gujarat) ........................................ 73

Figure 3-2: Windrose Diagram for Summer Season – 2016............................................................. 80

Figure 3-3: Earthquake zoning map of Gujarat ............................................................................ 105

Figure 4-1: Data Flow in AERMOD Modeling System .................................................................... 138

Figure 4-2: Isopleths Generated During Day Time ....................................................................... 147

Figure 4-3: Isopleths Generated During Night Time ..................................................................... 148

Figure 7-1: Late Pool Fire - Distance Contour of Benzene (2 mm Leak & WC 5/F) .......................... 178

Figure 7-2: Max. Conc. - Distance Contour of Benzene (2 mm Leak & WC 5/F) .............................. 178

Figure 7-3: Late Pool Fire - Distance Contour of Benzene (10 mm Leak & EC 5/F) ......................... 178

Figure 7-4: Late Pool Fire - Distance Contour of Benzene (10 mm Leak & WC 5/F) ........................ 179

Figure 7-5: Max. Conc. - Distance Contour of Benzene (10 mm Leak & WC 5/F) ............................ 179

Figure 7-6: Late Pool Fire - Distance Contour of Benzene (Catastrophic Rupture & WC 6/B) ........... 179

Figure 7-7: Max Conc. - Distance Contour of Benzene (Catastrophic Rupture & WC 5/F) ................ 180

Figure 7-8: Late Explosion - Distance Contour of Benzene (Catastrophic Rupture & WC 4/D) .......... 180

Figure 7-9: Late Pool Fire - Distance Contour of Methanol (2 mm Leak & WC 6/B) ......................... 180

Figure 7-10: Late Pool Fire - Distance Contour of Methanol (10 mm Leak & WC 5/F) ..................... 181

Figure 7-11: Late Pool Fire - Distance Contour of Methanol (Catastrophic Rupture & WC 6/B) ......... 181

Figure 7-12: Late Explosion - Distance Contour of Methanol (Catastrophic rupture & WC 5/F) ......... 181

Figure 7-13: Max. Conc. - Distance Contour of Chlorine (2 mm leak & WC 5/F) ............................. 182

Figure 7-14: Max. Conc. - Distance Contour of Chlorine (10 mm leak & WC 5/F) ............................ 182

Figure 7-15: Organization Chart of Factory .................................................................................. 187

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LIST OF PHOTOGRAPHS
Photograph 2-1: Photogharphs of Proposed Project Site ................................................................ 51

Photograph 3-1: Photographs Showing Different Type of Land Use in Study Area ............................ 82

Photograph 3-2: Photographs of AAQ Sampling Stations ................................................................ 88

Photograph 3-3: Photographs of Noise Level Monitoring Stations .................................................... 94

Photograph 3-4: Photographs of Surface Water Sampling .............................................................. 98

Photograph 3-5: Photographs of Ground Water Sampling............................................................. 101

Photograph 3-6: Photographs of Soil Sampling ............................................................................ 106

Photograph 3-7: Photographs Showing Core Zone /Project Site .................................................... 111

Photograph 3-8: Avifauna Sighted from the Buffer Zone .............................................................. 115

Photograph 3-9: Photographs Showing Mangroves in study area Areas ......................................... 116

Photograph 3-10: Educational Facilities in the Study Area ............................................................ 122

Photograph 3-11: Road Connectivity near Site ............................................................................. 124

Photograph 3-12: Post Offices and Bank Facilities in Study Area ................................................... 125

Photograph 3-13: Animal Husbandry in the Study Area ................................................................ 125

Photograph 3-14: Place of Religious Importance in the Study Area ............................................... 127

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ABBREVIATIONS

AAQM : Ambient Air Quality Monitoring


AAS : Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy
American Meteorological Society/Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model
AERMIC :
Improvement Committee
AERMOD : AMS/EPA Regulatory Model
ALARP : As Low As Reasonably Practicable
ANP : Ammonium Nitro Phosphate
APCM : Air Pollution Control Measures
APHA : American Public Health Association
BLEVE : Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion
BOD : Biological Organic Demand
BSI : British Standards Institution
CAS : Chemical Abstracts Service
CCA : Consolidated Consent and Authorization
CCTV : Closed Circuit Television
CETP : Central Effluent Treatment Plant
cGMP : Current Good Manufacturing Practices
CIB : Central Insecticides Board
CO : Carbon Monoxide
COD : Chemical Oxygen Demand
CLSL : Crop Life Science Limited
CPCB : Central Pollution Control Board
CRO : Control Room Officer
CSR : Corporate Social Responsibility
CTO : Consent to Operate
dB : Decibels
DCP : Dry Chemical Powder
DCS : Distributed Control System
DG : Diesel Generator
DM : De-mineralization
DMP : Disaster Management Plan
EAC : Expert Appraisal Committee
EC : Environmental Clearance
ECG : Electrocardiogram
EIA : Environmental Impact Assessment
EMP : Environmental Management Plan
EMS : Environmental Management Systems
ENVIS : Environmental Information System
ERPG : Emergency Response Planning Guideline
ETP : Effluent Treatment Plant
FAE : Functional Area Expert

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FFA : Falling Film type Absorbers


GC : Gas Chromatography
GHGs : Green House Gases
GIDC : Gujarat Industrial Development Corporation
GoG : Government of Gujarat
GoI : Government of India
GPCB : Gujarat Pollution Control Board
GPS : Global Positioning System
GSI : Geological Survey of India
GSPL : Gujarat State Petronet Limited
HB : Hemoglobin
HCs : Hydro-Carbons
HCl : Hydrochloric Acid
HDPE : High-Density PolyEthylene
HRT : Hydraulic Retention Time
HSD : High Speed Diesel
Hz : Hertz
IAA : Impact Assessment Authority
IC : Incident Controller
IDLH : Immediately Dangerous to Life & Health
IL&FS : Infrastructure Leasing & Financial Services Limited
IMD : India Meteorological Department
INR : Indian Rupees
IPP : Import Party Prices
IRC : Indian Roads Congress
IS : Indian Standards
ISLM : Integrating Sound Level Measurement
ISO : International Organization for Standardization
ITI : Industrial Training Institute
IUCN : The Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972
JCB : Joseph Cyril Bamford
Kadam /
: Kadam Environmental Consultants
KEC

KCIL : Kutch Chemical Industries Limited

kPa : Kilo Pascal


kVA : Kilo Volt Amperes
LAN : Local Area Network
LCL : Lethal Concentration Low
LDO : Light Diesel Oil
LDPE : Low-Density PolyEthylene
LIZ : Likely Impact Zone
LSIR : Location Specific Individual Risk
MCAS : Maximum Credible Accident Scenario

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MCPA : 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid


MCC : Motor Control Center
MEE : Multiple Effect Evaporator
MLSS : Mixed Liquor Suspended Solids
MTA : Metric Tons Per Annum
MTPD : Metric Tons Per Day
MoEFCC : Ministry of Environment, Forest & Climate Change
MSDS : Material Safety Data Sheet
MW : Mega Watt
MWC : Main Works Controller
NAAQES : National Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Series
NABET : National Accreditation Board of Education & Training
NABL : National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories
NG : Natural Gas
NH : National Highway
NH3 : Ammonia
NIHL : Noise Induced Hearing Loss
NITT : National Institute of Technical Training
NOC : No Objection Certificate
NOx : Oxides of Nitrogen
NRSA : National Remote Sensing Agency
OCP : Operational Control Procedures
OHS : Occupational Health & Safety
OM : Office Memorandum
OSHAS : Occupation Health and Safety Assessment Series
P&ID : Piping and Instrumentation Diagram
PCM : Pollution Control Measures
PCU : Passenger Car Unit
PEL : Permissible Exposure Level
PESO : Petroleum and Explosives Safety Organization
PFD : Process Flow Diagram
PFR : Pre-Feasibility Report
PFT : Pulmonary Function Test
PGVCL : Paschim Gujarat Vij Company Limited
pH : Power of Hydrogen
PHAST : Process Heating Assessment and Survey Tool
PM : Particulate Matter
PP : Polypropylene
PPE : Personal Protective Equipment
ppm : Parts per Million
PUCC : Pollution Under Control Certificates
PVC : Poly Vinyl Chloride
QC : Quality Council

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QCI : Quality Council of India


QRA : Quantitative Risk Assessment
GLC : Ground Level Concentration
R&D : Research & Development
RA : Risk Assessment
RO : Regional Officer
RO : Reverse Osmosis
SEIAA : State Environmental Impact Assessment Authority
SEZ : Special Economic Zone
SGPT : Serum Glutamic Pyruvate Transaminase (Liver Test)
SH : State Highway
SMC : Site Main Controller
SPCB : State Pollution Control Board
SPL : Sound Pressure Level
SO2 : Sulphur Dioxide
SOI : Survey of India
SOP : Standard of Procedure
SS : Suspended Solids
STEL : Short Time Exposure Limit
TCL : Toxic Concentration Low
TCM : Tri-Chloro Melamine
TDS : Total Dissolved Solids
TEFR : Techno-Economic Feasibility Report
TFD : Thin Film Dryer
TLV : Threshold Limit Value
TOC : Total Organic Carbon
ToR : Terms of Reference
TREM : Transport Emergency Card
TSDF : Treatment, Storage and Disposal Facility
USEPA : United States Environmental Protection Agency
VOCs : Volatile Organic Compounds
ZLD : Zero Liquid Discharge
ZSI : Zoological Survey of India

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LIST OF PERSONS AND INSTITUTIONS MET

S. No. Name of Person Met Designation / Village


KCIL Personnel
1 Mr. Shiv Lal Goyal Director
2 Mr. Kailash Goyal Director
3 Mr. Jayprakash Goyal Director
4 Mr. Surendra Goyal Director
5 Mr. Jayprakash Goyal Director
6 Mr. B H Patel Technical Advisor
7 Mr. K N Mehta VP – Commercial
8 Mr. Bharat Shah VP – Finance
9 Mr. Dinesh Purohit Site Head – KCIL
10 Mr. Vishnu R Pandya VP – Site KCIL
11 Mr. Hastings Rajyaguru Sr. Manager – Environment
12 Mr. Sumit Tiwari Executive
13 Mr. D B Jain Caustic Chlorine Consultant
14 Mr. Ajay Shah Power Plant Consultant

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M/S. KCIL DRAFT EIA & EMP REPORT – MANUFACTURING OF CAUSTIC SODA, 1. INTRODUCTION &
(UNIT 2) SYNTHETIC ORGANIC, INORGANIC, SPECIALTY CHEMICALS & CPP BACKGROUND

1 INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND

Kutch Chemical Industries Limited (KCIL) proposes to set up separate stand alone independent Unit-2
for manufacturing of new Caustic Soda, Chlorine, Hydrogen Peroxide, Synthetic Organic, Inorganic,
Specialty Chemicals along with Coal based Captive Power Plant at Survey No. 169, 170, 175, 190, 191
of Varsana Village of Anjar Taluka, Kachchh District, Gujarat State.

1.1 PURPOSE OF THE REPORT


Purpose of the report is to identify environmental aspects, impacts & mitigation measures arising out
from the proposed Greenfield multipurpose plant for manufacturing of various technical grade
pesticides and prepare EIA/EMP and RA/DMP report as per ToR issued by MoEFCC on 15th July, 2016
and seek environmental clearance.

This report is prepared based on ‘General Structure of EIA’ given in Appendix III and IIIA of
mentioned EIA Notification.

1.2 IDENTIFICATION OF PROJECT PROPONENT & PROJECT

1.2.1 Project Proponent & Existing Unit

M/s Kutch Chemical Industries Limited (KCIL) is one of flagship companies of Goyal Group of
Industries, headed by Mr. Shiv Lal Goyal and other directors, namely Mr. Kailash Chandra Goyal, Mr.
Jay Prakash Goyal, Mr. Piragchand Goyal & Ms. Kanta Goyal.

KCIL is engaged in manufacturing and export of various Chemicals used as intermediates in Pharma,
Agro, Plasticizer & Dyes sectors. It is one of the leading & fastest growing chemical manufacturing
companies in Gujarat.

Incorporated in 2002, KCIL is an ISO 9001: 2008, ISO 14001: 2004 and an OSHAS 18001:2007
certified company.

Group’s total turnover is more than INR 1,200 Crores. Out of which more than 20% is coming from
Export. Promoters have vast experience in the manufacturing field of industrial and specialty
chemicals. Their global reach spreads over many countries along with local presence in Gujarat state
through multiple dedicated distribution channels. KCIL’s net worth as on 31st March 2015 was INR 172
Crores. KCIL’s total revenue for 2014-15 was INR 726 Crores. Out of which INR 147 Crores was from
Export. Thus 20.25% revenue was from Export.

They have established aggressive growth plans for its business with a well-defined pathway for the
next several years. Led by a strong and enthusiastic team of technocrats, the company is capable in
executing plans for organic growth in the near & medium term.

Their existing plant is situated at Village- Padana near Gandhidham in Kutch district. It is engaged in
manufacturing of chlorination, Nitration and hydrogenation of hydro carbon. Various Chlorine based
chemicals like CPW, Chloro-Benzenes, Thionyl Chloride, Chloro-Sulfonic acid etc. are manufactured. It
also has a Sulfuric acid plant of 1,50,000 MTA capacity.

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At KCIL, 225 MT (Approx.) of Chlorine & 125 MT (Approx.) of Caustic Soda are consumed on daily
basis. At present Liquid chlorine & Caustic Soda are procured from various Chlor-Alkali plants located
in different parts of Gujarat, like Bhavnagar, Vadodara, Dahej etc.

1.2.2 Proposed Project

As a part of backward integration, it is planned to set up separate stand alone independent Unit-2 a
Caustic-Chlorine plant of 600 TPD in phased manner so as to meet its present & future Chlorine
requirement of downstream projects. Land admeasuring 74 Acres is already acquired for setting up
proposed new unit i.e. Unit-2.

Further various down steam products based on Chlorine like AAC, PAC, calcium chloride, PAP, MCA,
CPW, OCB, MCB, DCB, TCB, Chloro-Toluenes etc. are proposed in the project.

For gainful & effective utilization of Hydrogen gas, it is planned to set up Hydrogen Peroxide plant of
100 TPD (On 100% H2O2 basis) along with downstream products involving hydrogenation of
hydrocarbon, nitro hydrocarbon & chloro hydrocarbon like Aniline, Chloro Aniline, OA/PA, DCA / PCA /
MCA, OPDA / PPDA, Toludiene, Cumidiene, Xylidine.

In order to meet the power requirement of the new complex, it is proposed to set up a Captive Coal
based co-generation 100 MW Power plant.

Project is for manufacturing of Chlor- Alkali products, chemicals based on chlorine & hydrogen along
with coal based captive power plant. Thus, the proposed products falls under 4(d), Chlor-Alkali
Industry, 5(f) – Synthetic Organic Chemicals Industry & 1(d), Thermal Power Plant ‘Project or
Activities’ listed within the Category to the EIA Notification dated September 14 th, 2006 (amended till
date). This project is classified as Category “A” project.

1.3 BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT AND ITS IMPORTANCE TO THE


COUNTRY & REGION

1.3.1 Brief Description of the Project

The brief description of the project is given in Table 1-1.

Table 1-1: Brief Description of the Project


S No. Details Description
Manufacturing of new Caustic Soda, Chlorine, Hydrogen Peroxide, Synthetic
1 Nature Organic, Inorganic, Specialty Chemicals along with Coal based Captive Power
Plant.
Plot Area: 74 Acres (~ 2,99,475 m2).
2 Size
Product and their capacities are shown in Table 2-3.
Survey No. 169, 170, 175, 190, 191 of Varsana Village of Anjar Taluka, Kachchh
3 Location
District, Gujarat State.
4 Cost of the project ~ 1,000 Crore.

1.3.2 Importance of Project to the Country and the Region

Amongst the products proposed, hydrogenated products & chlorination products are already being
manufactured at the company’s current facility.

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The additional products proposed are backward integration of the company’s current products and
have a great demand both global and domestic. The demand is envisaged to increase rapidly in the
domestic market.

India is net deficit of Caustic Soda / Caustic Potash and hence regular import is coming. Gujarat &
Maharashtra are leading Industrial States of India and hence regular import of Caustic Soda / Caustic
Potash is taking place at Kandla & Nahva Shava ports. Hence sell of Caustic Soda / Caustic Potash
shall be easily get absorbed as import substitute in domestic market.

Chlorine is a co-product of Caustic Soda / Caustic Potash. Being a gaseous and hazardous product, it
has to be consumed either captively or in nearby area. Presently we are consuming Chlorine @ 225
MT per day and further Chlorine based Products are also proposed as a part of expansion. Hence we
shall be able to consume total production of Chlorine in-house captively.

Hydrogen is also a co-product while making Caustic Soda / Caustic Potash. Our group company is
already manufacturing Specialty Chemicals based on hydrogenation process. Moreover India is
regularly importing products like Para Amino Phenol, Aniline, OA / PA and hence we shall be able to
sell in domestic market as Import substitute. It is therefore proposed to use hydrogen fully by setting
up downstream hydrogen process based products like Hydrogen Peroxide, Para Amino Phenol, Aniline,
Chloro Aniline, OA / PA, DCA / PCA / MCA, ODPA / PPDA, Toludiene, Cumidiene, Xylidine.

Hydro Chloric Acid which is being produced as a co-product is proposed to use as a raw material for
making Calcium Chloride. The Calcium Chloride is being largely used by oil and gas exploration sector
in Middle East Asia and as De-iceing material in cold countries. We are already exporting this product
and hence have experience of global market.

Poly aluminum chloride is using as water treatment chemical for which we have large domestic
market.

With change in global economic scenario, focus is shifting from China and India is now emerging as
strong global base manufacturing hub. Our proposed location of Project is within India’s largest salt
producing belt in Kutch (Gujarat) which assure availability of main raw material at lowest price. We
also have added advantage of producing coal base power at the lowest cost. This is because of having
proximity advantage of nearest Kandla Port where large quantity of coal is being regularly imported.
More so, this proximity advantage of Kandla Port (14 Km away) & Mundra Port (55 Km away) reduce
logistic cost significantly for export of our Products in the world market. In view of this, we shall have
global competitiveness for the Products which are based on Caustic Soda, Chlorine & Hydrogen. In
view of having very good hands on experience of Chemical processes like Chlorination, Nitration &
Hydrogenation, we have proposed various downstream Products as under:

 Hydrogenation of Hydrocarbon, Nitro Hydrocarbon & Chloro Hydrocarbon like Aniline, Chloro
Aniline, OA / PA, DCA / PCA / MCA, ODPA / PPDA, Toludiene, Cumidiene, Xylidine, Para Amino
Phenol;
 Chlorination of hydrocarbon such as MCB, DCB, ODCB, PDCB, TCB;
 Chlorination of toluene such as Benzyl chloride, Benzal Chloride, Benzal Trichloride, MCA, CPW;
 Moreover India is regularly importing products like Para Amino Phenol, Aniline, OA / PA and hence
we shall be able to sell in domestic market as Import substitute.

Many of proposed products have got very good export potential which can lead to forex revenues for
the country.

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1.4 REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

As a part of Environmental Clearance process, KCIL uploaded and submitted relevant documents,
namely Form – 1 (as per the EIA Notification, 2006, as amended), along with a Pre-feasibility Report
and Proposed Terms of Reference (ToRs) for carrying out Environmental Studies, to the Expert
Appraisal Committee (EAC) MoEFCC on 10th March, 2016, vide letter KCIL/EC/MoEF/2016/01 dated
09th March, 2016 as attached as Annexure 1. Proposal was accepted by Member Secretary on 11th
May, 2016.

Based on the information contained in the documents submitted, the project has been awarded file
no. J-11011/101/2016- IA II(I). Presentation has been made during the 8th Reconstituted Expert
Appraisal Committee (Industry – 2) meeting held on 26th May, 2016 to the EAC. ToRs has been
finalized to conduct the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) & Environmental Management Plan
(EMP) studies, vide its letter dated 15th July, 2016 as attached as Annexure 2.

1.4.1 General Clearance and Other Permissions

KCIL shall obtain required statutory permission and clearances from concerned authorities. Details of
permits and clearance as applicable to this project are provided in Table 1-2.

Table 1-2: Statutory Clearances / Permissions required from Concerned Ministries or Bodies
S No. Legal Instruments

1 Factory License
2 The Factories Act, 1948
3 The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 and Rules, 1975, as amended to date.
4 The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Cess Act, 1977 and Rules, 1978, as amended to date.
5 The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981 and Rules, 1982, as amended to date.
6 The Manufacture, Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemical rules, 1989, as amended to date.
The Hazardous Waste (Management, Handling and Trans boundary Movement) Rules, 2008 as
7
amended to date.
8 The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 and Rules, 1986, as amended to date
9 Chemical accidents (Emergency Planning, preparedness and response) Rules, 1996
10 The Motor Vehicles Act, 1988 & The Central Motor Vehicle rules, 1989
11 The Petroleum Act, 1934 & Rules, 2002.
12 The Explosive Act, 1884 and rules, 1983 as amended to date
13 The Gas Cylinders Rules, 2004
14 The Static and Mobile Pressure Vessels (Unfired) Rules, 1981
15 The Biomedical waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 1998 as amended to date
16 The Batteries (Management and Handling) Rules, 2001, as amended to date
17 The Noise Pollution (Regulation and Control) Rules, 2000 as amended to date
18 E-waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 2011 as amended to date
19 Electricity Rule, 2005
20 Consents from GPCB
21 Environmental Impact Assessment Notification, 2006 as amended to date
22 The Bureau of Indian Standards Act
23 Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991 and Rules, 1991 as amended to date
24 The Custom Act, 1962

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1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

As per the ToR letter, scope of work for this EIA studies and preparation of detailed EIA/EMP report
includes collection of baseline data with respect to major environmental components, viz. Air, Noise,
Water, Land, Biological and Socio-economic components for one season.

This EIA report complies with Terms of Reference given by the Expert Appraisal Committee (Industry
– 2), Impact Assessment Authority (IAA). Summarized details of the same is tabulated in Table 1-3.

Table 1-3: Compliance with the Terms of Reference


S.
TOR Point Compliance in EIA report
No.
A. Specific TOR:
Details on solvents to be used, measures for solvent recovery and for Details of Solvent: Chapter 2,
1
emissions control. Section 2.9, Pg. 49.
Details of process emissions
Details of process emissions from the proposed unit and its
2 and APCM: Chapter 2,
arrangement to control.
Section 2.12, Pg. 51.
AAQM Results: Chapter 3,
3 Ambient air quality data should include VOC, etc.,
Section 3.5.4, Pg. 90.
Work zone monitoring
4 Work zone monitoring arrangements for hazardous chemicals arrangements for hazardous
chemicals shall be in place.
Details of Effluent treatment
Detailed effluent treatment scheme including segregation of effluent
5 scheme: Chapter 2, Section
streams for units adopting 'Zero' liquid discharge.
2.14, Pg.56.
Odor control plan: Chapter 2,
6 Action plan for odour control to be submitted.
Section 2.12.1, Pg. 55.
A copy of the Memorandum of Understanding signed with cement
MOU with cement
7 manufacturers indicating clearly that they co-process organic
manufactures shall be made.
solid/hazardous waste generated.
Authorization/Membership for the disposal of liquid effluent in CETP Authorization/Membership from
8
and solid/hazardous waste in TSDF, if any. TSDF: Annexure 6.
Salts from MEE & Dryer shall
9 Action plan for utilization of MEE/dryers salts.
be sent to authorized TSDF.
Material Safety Data Sheet for all the Chemicals are being used/will
10 Provided in Softcopy.
be used.
Authorization/Membership for the disposal of solid/hazardous waste
11 Covered in Point No. 8
in TSDF are being used/will be used.
Authorization/Membership for the disposal of solid/hazardous waste
12 Covered in Point No. 8 & 11.
in TSDF.
Risk assessment for storage and handling of hazardous Risk Assessment details:
13 chemicals/solvents. Action plan for handling & safety system to be Chapter 7, Section 7.1, Pg.
incorporated. 174.
Health and safety of workers
Arrangements for ensuring health and safety of workers engaged in
14 details: Chapter 7, Section
handling of toxic materials.
7.4.2, Pg. 194.
Details on demand of the product- chlorine and its associated Demand of products: Chapter
15
products. 2, Section 2.4.1, Pg. 21.

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TOR Point Compliance in EIA report
No.
Details on raw materials used in the production of chlorine (sodium Raw Materials: Chapter 2,
16
chloride, potassium chloride, etc.), its storage and handling. Section 2.8, Pg. 48.
Details of proposed source - specific pollution control schemes (salt Source specific pollution control
17 washing, filtration, cell ventilation as, chlorine handling and safety, schemes: Chapter 2, Section
etc.) and equipments to meet the national standards. 2.12, Pg. 53.
Details of products: Chapter
18 Details on products to rage and handling-chlorine, caustic soda, etc.
2, Section 2.4, Pg. 19.
19 Details on tail gas treatment. Not applicable.
Water requirement details:
Chapter 2, Section 2.7.3,
Details on requirement of energy and water alongwith its source and Pg. 48.
20
authorization from the concerned department. Power requirement details:
Chapter 2, Section 2.7.1,
Pg.47.
In case of modernization of existing mercury based chlor-alkali plants
with membrane cell Process (MBCP) industries or new units in the
existing industry premises, remediation measures adopted to restore
21 Not applicable
then environmental quality of the ground water, soil, crop, air, etc.,
are affected due to salinity and a detailed compliance to the prior
environmental clearance/ consent conditions.
Details on ground water quality and surface water quality of nearby Ground water quality: Chapter
water sources and other surfaced rains. The parameters of water 3, Section 3.5.7, Pg. 103.
22
quality may include Residual chlorine*, TDS*, alkalinity*, pH* & Surface water quality: Chapter
Mercury* (in water & sediment), etc. (*- As applicable) 3, Section 3.5.7, Pg. 99.
AAQM Results: Chapter 3,
Details on existing ambient air quality and expected, emissions for
Section 3.5.4, Pg. 90.
PM10, PM2.5, SO2*, NOx*, CO2*, CO*, Chlorine*, acid mist* etc., and
Expected Emissions: Chapter
23 evaluation of the adequacy of the proposed pollution control devices
2, Section 2.12.1, Pg. 53.
to meet standards for point sources and to meet AAQ standards. (*-
APCM Details: Chapter 2,
As applicable)
Section 2.12.1, Pg. 54.
Specific programme to monitor safety and health protection of
24 As per Point no. 14
workers.
Risk assessment should also include leakages and location near to
25 As per Point no. 13
caustic soda plant & proposed measures for risk reduction.
Details of the emergency
Details of the emergency preparedness plan for chlorine/ Hydrogen
preparedness plan & disaster
26 storage, handling and transportation and on- site and off- site
management plan: Chapter 7,
disaster management plan.
Section 7.2, Pg. 182.
CPP
The water requirement shall be optimized (by adopting measures
ZLD concept will be adopted.
such as dry fly ash and dry bottom ash disposal system, air cooled
All effluent from power plant
condenser, concept of zero discharge) and in any case not more than
shall be recycled back in
1 that stipulated by CEA from time to time, to be submitted along with
process after required
details of source of water and water balance diagram. Details of
treatment as per: Chapter 2,
water balance calculated shall take into account reuse and re-
Section 2.14.2, Pg. 56.
circulation of effluents.

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TOR Point Compliance in EIA report
No.
Optimization of Cycles of Concentration (COC) along with other water Chapter 4, Section 4.4.3,
2
conservation measures in the project shall be specified. Pg. 149.
Plan for recirculation of ash pond water and its implementation shall Recirculation of ash pond water
3
be submitted. shall be done.
Radio activity and heavy metal contents of coal to be sourced shall be
4 Hg in Coal: Annexure 7.
examined and submitted along with laboratory reports.
Coal Analysis Report:
Fuel analysis shall be provided. Details of auxiliary fuel, if any, Annexure 7.
5
including its quantity, quality, storage etc. should also be furnished. Fuel details: Chapter 2,
Section 47, Pg. 48.
Quantity of fuel required, its source and characteristics and
documentary evidence to substantiate confirmed fuel linkage shall be
Quantity of fuel and its source:
furnished. The Ministry’s Notification dated 02.01.2014 regarding ash
6 Chapter 2, Section 47, Pg.
content in coal shall be complied. For the expansion projects, the
48.
compliance of the existing units to the said Notification shall also be
submitted.
Details of transportation of fuel from the source (including port
Coal shall be transported
handling) to the proposed plant and its impact on ambient AAQ shall
through covered turcks from
be suitably assessed and submitted. If transportation entails a long
7 nearest port i.e. Kandla /
distance it shall be ensured that rail transportation to the site shall be
Mundra which are in near
first assessed. Wagon loading at source shall preferably be through
vicinity of project site.
silo/conveyor belt.
Details of fly ash utilization plan as per the latest fly ash Utilization
Notification of GOI along with firm agreements / MoU with Fly ash utilization plan:
8 contracting parties including other usages etc. shall be submitted. Chapter 2, Section 2.6.12,
The plan shall also include disposal method / mechanism of bottom Pg. 46.
ash.
B. Additional TOR
Public hearing to be conducted and issues raised and commitments
made by the project proponent on the same should be included in
i. Shall be commenced.
EIA/EMP Report in the form of tabular chart with financial budget for
complying with the commitments made.
Air Cooled condenser shall be
ii. Air cooled condenser to be used system.
used.
Cumulative impact details:
Cumulative impact to be assessed in combination to nearby existing
iii. Chapter 2, Section 2.4.2,
unit.
Pg. 21.
GENERIC TERMS OF REFERENCE (TOR) IN RESPECT OF
INDUSTRY SECTOR
Executive summary is covered
1 Executive Summary in separate chapter as
Chapter 11.
2 Introduction
Chapter 12, Section 12.1,
2.1 Details of the EIA Consultant including NABET accreditation
Pg. 219.

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TOR Point Compliance in EIA report
No.
About Project Proponent:
2.2 Information about the project proponent Chapter 1, Section 1.2, Pg.
1.
Importance & benefits of
2.3 Importance and benefits of the project project: Chapter 1, Section
1.3.2, Pg. 2.
3 Project Description
Project Cost:
Chapter 1, Section 1.3.1,
3.1 Cost of project and time of completion. Pg. 2.
Time of Completion: Chapter
2, Section 2.5, Pg. 23.
Products with capacities:
3.2 Products with capacities for the proposed project. Chapter 2, Section 2.4.1,
Pg. 21.
If expansion project, details of existing products with capacities and
3.3 whether adequate land is available for expansion, reference of earlier Not Applicable.
EC if any.
List of raw materials required and their source along with mode of Raw materials: Chapter 2,
3.4
transportation. Section 2.8, Pg. 48.
Other chemicals and materials required with quantities and storage
3.5
capacities
Air Emissions: Chapter 2,
Section 2.12, Pg. 53.
Effluent details: Chapter 2,
Details of Emission, effluents, hazardous waste generation and their
3.6 Section 2.14.2, Pg. 56.
management.
Hazardous waste generation:
Chapter 2, Section 2.15, Pg.
68.
Water requirement: Chapter
2, Section 2.7.3, Pg. 48.
Power requirement: Chapter
2, Section 2.7.1, Pg. 47.
Requirement of water, power, with source of supply, status of
Water Balance Diagram:
3.7 approval, water balance diagram, man-power requirement (regular
Chapter 2, Section 2.14.4,
and contract)
Pg. 56.
Manpower Requirement:
Chapter 2, Section 2.7.4,
Pg. 48.
Process description along with major equipments and machineries,
Process description: Chapter
3.8 process flow sheet (quantities) from raw material to products to be
2, Section 2.6, Pg. 25.
provided
Hazard idenficiation & safety
3.9 Hazard identification and details of proposed safety systems. systems: Chapter 7, Section
7.1, Pg. 174.
3.10 Expansion/modernization proposals:

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TOR Point Compliance in EIA report
No.
Copy of all the Environmental Clearance(s) including Amendments
thereto obtained for the project from MOEF/SEIAA shall be attached
as an Annexure. A certified copy of the latest Monitoring Report of
the Regional Office of the Ministry of Environment and Forests as per
circular dated 30th May, 2012 on the status of compliance of
A Not Applicable
conditions stipulated in all the existing environmental clearances
including Amendments shall be provided. In addition, status of
compliance of Consent to Operate for the ongoing / existing
operation of the project from SPCB shall be attached with the EIA-
EMP report.
In case the existing project has not obtained environmental
clearance, reasons for not taking EC under the provisions of the EIA
Notification 1994 and/or EIA Notification 2006 shall be provided.
Copies of Consent to Establish/No Objection Certificate and Consent
b. Not Applicable
to Operate (in case of units operating prior to EIA Notification 2006,
CTE and CTO of FY 2005-2006) obtained from the SPCB shall be
submitted. Further, compliance report to the conditions of consents
from the SPCB shall be submitted.
4 Site Details
Location of project: Chapter
Location of the project site covering village, Taluka/Tehsil, District 2, Section 2.3, Pg. 15.
4.1 and State, Justification for selecting the site, whether other sites Justification of selecting site:
were considered. Chapter 1, Section 1.3, Pg.
2.
A toposheet of the study area of radius of 10 Km and site location on
Toposheet: Chapter 3,
4.2 1:50,000/1:25,000 scale on an A3/A2 sheet. (including all eco-
Section 3.12.3, Pg. 73.
sensitive areas and environmentally sensitive places)
Site Selection Criteria:
4.3 Details w.r.t. option analysis for selection of site Chapter 5, Section 5.1, Pg.
161.
Project Boundary: Chapter 2,
4.4 Co-ordinates (lat-long) of all four corners of the site.
Section 2.3.2, Pg. 16.
Project site on Google map:
4.5 Google map-Earth downloaded of the project site. Chapter 3, Section 3.1, Pg.
72.
Layout maps indicating existing unit as well as proposed unit Layout maps indicating existing
indicating storage area, plant area, greenbelt area, utilities etc. If unit as well as proposed unit:
4.6
located within an Industrial area/Estate/Complex, layout of Industrial Chapter 2, Section 2.4.2,
Area indicating location of unit within the Industrial area/Estate. Pg. 22.
Photographs of proposed plant
Photographs of the proposed and existing (if applicable) plant site. If
4.7 site: Chapter 2, Section
existing, show photographs of plantation/greenbelt, in particular.
2.11, Pg. 51.
Landuse break-up of total land of the project site (identified and
acquired), government/private - agricultural, forest, wasteland, water Landuse break-up: Chapter 2,
4.8
bodies, settlements, etc shall be included. (not required for industrial Section 2.4.1, Pg. 19.
area)

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TOR Point Compliance in EIA report
No.
Major Industries in surrounding
A list of major industries with name and type within study area (10
4.9 area: Chapter 3, Section
km radius) shall be incorporated. Land use details of the study area
3.5.11, Pg. 126.
Geological features & geo-
Geological features and Geo-hydrological status of the study area
4.10 hydrological staus: Chapter 3,
shall be included.
Section 3.5.8, Pg. 105.
Details of Drainage of the project upto 5 Km radius of study area. If
the site is within 1 km radius of any major river, peak and lean
season river discharge as well as flood occurrence frequency based
4.11 Not applicable.
on peak rainfall data of the past 30 years. Details of Flood Level of
the project site and maximum Flood Level of the river shall also be
provided. (mega green field projects)
Status of acquisition of land. If acquisition is not complete, stage of Land is acquired in the name of
4.12 the acquisition process and expected time of complete possession of KCIL. Documents are as per:
the land. Annexure 3.
4.13 R&R details in respect of land in line with state Government policy. Not applicable.
5. Forest and wildlife related issues (if applicable):
Permission and approval for the use of forest land (forestry
5.1 clearance), if any, and recommendations of the State Forest Not Applicable
Department. (if applicable);
Landuse map based on High resolution satellite imagery (GPS) of the
5.2 proposed site delineating the forestland (in case of projects involving Not Applicable
forest land more than 40 ha)
Status of Application submitted for obtaining the stage I forestry
5.3 Not Applicable
clearance along with latest status shall be submitted.
The projects to be located within 10 km of the National Parks,
Sanctuaries, Biosphere Reserves, Migratory Corridors of Wild Animals,
the project proponent shall submit the map duly authenticated by
5.4 Not Applicable
Chief Wildlife Warden showing these features vis-à-vis the project
location and the recommendations or comments of the Chief Wildlife
Warden thereon
Wildlife Conservation Plan duly authenticated by the Chief Wildlife
5.5 Warden of the State Government for conservation of Schedule I Not Applicable
fauna, if any exists in the study area
Copy of application submitted for clearance under the Wildlife
5.6 (Protection) Act, 1972, to the Standing Committee of the National Not Applicable
Board for Wildlife.
6 Environmental Status
Determination of atmospheric inversion level at the project site and Site specific Met data:
6.1 site-specific micrometeorological data using temperature, relative Chapter 3, Section 3.5.2,
humidity, hourly wind speed and direction and rainfall. Pg. 77.
AAQ data (except monsoon) at 8 locations for PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NOX,
CO and other parameters relevant to the project shall be collected.
AAQM Data: Chapter 3,
6.2 The monitoring stations shall be based CPCB guidelines and take into
Section 3.5.4, Pg. 87.
account the pre-dominant wind direction, population zone and
sensitive receptors including reserved forests.

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TOR Point Compliance in EIA report
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Raw data of all AAQ measurement for 12 weeks of all stations as per
frequency given in the NAQQM Notification of Nov. 2009 along with – Detailed AAQM data for 12
6.3 min., max., average and 98% values for each of the AAQ parameters weeks: Annexure 11.
from data of all AAQ stations should be provided as an annexure to
the EIA Report.
Surface water quality of nearby River (100 m upstream and Surface water quality data:
6.4 downstream of discharge point) and other surface drains at eight Chapter 3, Section 3.5.7,
locations as per CPCB/MoEF&CC guidelines. Pg. 99.
Whether the site falls near to polluted stretch of river identified by
6.5 Not applicable
the CPCB/MoEF&CC, if yes give details.
Ground water monitoring data:
6.6 Ground water monitoring at minimum at 8 locations shall be included. Chapter 3, Section 3.5.7,
Pg. 103.
Noise monitoring data:
6.7 Noise levels monitoring at 8 locations within the study area. Chapter 3, Section 3.5.6,
Pg. 94.
Soil characteristics: Chapter 3,
6.8 Soil Characteristic as per CPCB guidelines.
Section 3.5.9, Pg. 108.
Traffic study of the area, type of vehicles, frequency of vehicles for
Traffic Survey details: Chapter
6.9 transportation of materials, additional traffic due to proposed project,
3, Section 3.5.5, Pg. 142.
parking arrangement etc.
Detailed description of flora and fauna (terrestrial and aquatic)
existing in the study area shall be given with special reference to Ecological & Biodiversity status:
6.10 rare, endemic and endangered species. If Schedule-I fauna are found Chapter 3, Section 3.5.10,
within the study area, a Wildlife Conservation Plan shall be prepared Pg. 109.
and furnished.
Socio-economic status:
6.11 Socio-economic status of the study area. Chapter 3, Section 3.5.11,
Pg. 117.
7 Impact and Environment Management Plan
Assessment of ground level concentration of pollutants from the stack
emission based on site-specific meteorological features. In case the
project is located on a hilly terrain, the AQIP Modelling shall be done
using inputs of the specific terrain characteristics for determining the
potential impacts of the project on the AAQ. Cumulative impact of all GLCs: Chapter 4, Section
7.1
sources of emissions (including transportation) on the AAQ of the 4.2.1, Pg. 139.
area shall be assessed. Details of the model used and the input data
used for modelling shall also be provided. The air quality contours
shall be plotted on a location map showing the location of project
site, habitation nearby, sensitive receptors, if any.
7.2 Water Quality modelling – in case of discharge in water body Not applicable
Impact of the transport of the raw materials and end products on the
surrounding environment shall be assessed and provided. In this Impact of transportation:
7.3 regard, options for transport of raw materials and finished products Chapter 4, Section 4.2.2,
and wastes (large quantities) by rail or rail-cum road transport or Pg. 142.
conveyor-cum-rail transport shall be examined.

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A note on treatment of wastewater from different plant operations,
extent recycled and reused for different purposes shall be included.
ZLD scheme: Chapter 2,
7.4 Complete scheme of effluent treatment. Characteristics of untreated
Section 2.14.2, Pg. 56.
and treated effluent to meet the prescribed standards of discharge
under E(P) Rules.
Details of stack emissions and
7.5 Details of stack emission. its control: Chapter 2,
Section 2.12.1, Pg. 53.
Fugitive emissions & control:
7.6 Measures for fugitive emission control Chapter 2, Section 2.12.1,
Pg. 55.
Details of hazardous waste generation and their storage, utilization
and management. Copies of MOU regarding utilization of solid and
Hazardous waste: Chapter 2,
7.7 hazardous waste in cement plant shall also be included. EMP shall
Section 2.15, Pg. 67.
include the concept of waste-minimization, recycle/reuse/recover
techniques, Energy conservation, and natural resource conservation.
Fly ash utilization plan:
Proper utilization of fly ash shall be ensured as per Fly Ash
7.8 Chapter 2, Section 2.6.12,
Notification, 2009. A detailed plan of action shall be provided.
Pg. 46.
Action plan for the green belt development plan in 33 % area i.e.
land with not less than 1,500 trees per ha. Giving details of species, Greenbelt development plan:
7.9 width of plantation, planning schedule etc. shall be included. The Chapter 10, Section 10.3.4,
green belt shall be around the project boundary and a scheme for Pg. 200.
greening of the roads used for the project shall also be incorporated.
Action plan for rainwater harvesting measures at plant site shall be
Rainwater harvesting will be
submitted to harvest rainwater from the roof tops and storm water
done only in the admin building
7.10 drains to recharge the ground water and also to use for the various
and from roof top of nearby
activities at the project site to conserve fresh water and reduce the
schools.
water requirement from other sources.
Total capital cost and recurring cost/annum for environmental EMP cost breakup: Chapter 6,
7.11
pollution control measures shall be included. Section 6.6, Pg. 172.
Post-project environmental
Action plan for post-project environmental monitoring shall be
7.12 monitoring: Chapter 6,
submitted.
Section 6.6, Pg. 173.
Onsite and Offsite Disaster (natural and Man-made) Preparedness
Onsite Management plan &
and Emergency Management Plan including Risk Assessment and
7.13 DMP: Chapter 7, Section
damage control. Disaster management plan should be linked with
7.2, Pg. 182.
District Disaster Management Plan.
8 Occupational health
Plan and fund allocation to ensure the occupational health & safety of
8.1
all contract and casual workers
Details of exposure specific health status evaluation of worker. If the
RH: Chapter 174, Pg. 174-
workers’ health is being evaluated by pre designed format, chest x
196.
8.2 rays, Audiometry, Spirometry, Vision testing (Far & Near vision,
colour vision and any other ocular defect) ECG, during pre placement
and periodical examinations give the details of the same. Details

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regarding last month analyzed data of above mentioned parameters
as per age, sex, duration of exposure and department wise.
Details of existing Occupational & Safety Hazards. What are the
exposure levels of hazards and whether they are within Permissible
8.3 Exposure level (PEL). If these are not within PEL, what measures the
company has adopted to keep them within PEL so that health of the
workers can be preserved,
Annual report of health status of workers with special reference to
8.4
Occupational Health and Safety.
9 Corporate Environment Policy
Does the company have a well laid down Environment Policy Environment Policy approved
9.1 approved by its Board of Directors? If so, it may be detailed in the by its Board of Directors shall
EIA report. be made.
EMS shall have well defined
Does the Environment Policy prescribe for standard operating process aspect & impacts for its
/ procedures to bring into focus any infringement / deviation / normal, abnormal and
9.2
violation of the environmental or forest norms / conditions? If so, it emergency activities of the
may be detailed in the EIA. process along with mitigation
measures and EMPs.
Hierarchical system of the
company to deal with the
What is the hierarchical system or Administrative order of the
environmental issues and for
company to deal with the environmental issues and for ensuring
9.3 ensuring compliance with the
compliance with the environmental clearance conditions? Details of
EC conditions is given in
this system may be given.
Chapter 7, Section 7.1, Pg.
187.
Reporting mechanism of
Does the company have system of reporting of non compliances /
reporting of non-compliance /
violations of environmental norms to the Board of Directors of the
9.4 violations of environmental
company and / or shareholders or stakeholders at large? This
norms to the Board of Directors
reporting mechanism shall be detailed in the EIA report.
of the company is given in
Iinfrastructure facilities will be
Details regarding infrastructure facilities such as sanitation, fuel,
provided to the labour force
restroom etc. to be provided to the labour force during construction
10 during construction as well as
as well as to the casual workers including truck drivers during
to the casual workers & truck
operation phase.
drivers.
11 Enterprise Social Commitment (ESC)
Adequate funds (at least 2.5 % of the project cost) shall be
earmarked towards the Enterprise Social Commitment based on
CSR cost: Chapter 10,
11.1 Public Hearing issues and item-wise details along with time bound
Section 10.3.5, Pg. 206.
action plan shall be included. Socio-economic development activities
need to be elaborated upon.
Any litigation pending against the project and/or any direction/order Proposed project is greenfield.
passed by any Court of Law against the project, if so, details thereof Hence, no any litigation
12
shall also be included. Has the unit received any notice under the pending against the project
Section 5 of Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 or relevant Sections and/or any direction/order

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S.
TOR Point Compliance in EIA report
No.
of Air and Water Acts? If so, details thereof and compliance/ATR to passed by any Court of Law
the notice(s) and present status of the case. against the project.
13 A tabular chart with index for point wise compliance of above TORs. Agreed and complied.
The TORs prescribed shall be valid for a period of three years for
14 Agreed.
submission of the EIA-EMP reports.
The following general points shall be noted:
i. All documents shall be properly indexed, page numbered.
ii. Period/date of data collection shall be clearly indicated.
Authenticated English translation of all material in Regional languages
iii.
shall be provided.
The letter/application for environmental clearance shall quote the
iv.
MOEF file No. and also attach a copy of the letter.
The copy of the letter received from the Ministry shall be also Noted & Compled.
v.
attached as an annexure to the final EIA-EMP Report.
The index of the final EIA-EMP report must indicate the specific
vi.
chapter and page no. of the EIA EMP Report
While preparing the EIA report, the instructions for the proponents
and instructions for the consultants issued by MOEF vide O.M. No. J-
vii.
11013/41/2006-IA.II (I) dated 4th August, 2009, which are available
on the website of this Ministry shall also be followed.
The consultants involved in the preparation of EIA-EMP report after
accreditation with Quality Council of India (QCl) /National
Accreditation Board of Education and Training (NABET) would need
to include a certificate in this regard in the EIA-EMP reports prepared NABET Certificate of Kadam by
viii. by them and data provided by other organization/Laboratories QCI is attached as Annexure
including their status of approvals etc. Name of the Consultant and 16.
the Accreditation details shall be posted on the EIA-EMP Report as
well as on the cover of the Hard Copy of the Presentation material for
EC presentation.

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2 PROJECT DESCRIPTION

This chapter provides a condensed description of those aspects of the project likely to cause
environmental effects. Details are described in following sections with regards to type, need, location,
size or magnitude of project operations, technology and other related activities.

2.1 TYPE OF PROJECT

KCIL proposes a manufacturing of Chlor- Alkali products, chemicals based on chlorine & hydrogen
along with coal based captive power plant.

2.1.1 Condensed Description of Aspects

Based on the type of project, following are the expected aspects:

 Air Emissions having pollutants like PM, SO2, NOx, HCl, Cl2, HC;
 Waste water generation having organic compounds;
 Noise generation;
 Hazardous waste generation;
 Occupational health, hazards & safety risk.

2.2 NEED FOR THE PROJECT

Need for the proposed products are based on the demand and supply gap in the current market. With
increasing utilization of the current products, in future, to carter the requirement of all the products, it
is essential to have the proposed manufacturing unit.

2.2.1 Condensed Description of Aspects

Based on the demand and supply gap, the need of the project is justified. Thus, expected aspects due
the production of these pesticides will lead to:

 Raised market price of product due to less supply.


 Batch failure due to uncertain operational variations, to meet the production demand of product in
the market.

2.3 LOCATION OF THE PROJECT

2.3.1 General Location of the Site

Project site is located in Varsana Village, Anjar Taluka, of Kachchh district, Gujarat state.

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Location map showing general & specific location of proposed project is given in Map 2-1.

Map 2-1: General Location Map of Project Site

2.3.2 Specific Location of Site & Project Boundary

It is located at Survey No. 169, 170, 175, 190, 191. Site is immediately surrounded by vacant and
undeveloped land. The base elevation of site is at ~25 m above mean sea level.

The co-ordinates of the project site are given in Table 2-1. Location map showing specific location of
proposed project is given in Map 2-2.

Table 2-1: Co-ordinates of Project Boundary


POINT LATITUDE LONGITUDE
A 23°10'9.99"N 70°11'30.91"E
B 23°10'7.42"N 70°11'31.59"E
C 23°10'4.21"N 70°11'26.87"E
D 23°10'8.77"N 70°11'24.52"E
E 23°10'7.05"N 70°11'21.45"E
F 23°10'8.18"N 70°11'19.94"E
G 23°10'6.31"N 70°11'16.64"E
H 23°10'7.19"N 70°11'15.99"E
I 23°10'6.38"N 70°11'14.46"E
J 23°10'8.92"N 70°11'12.01"E
K 23°10'5.95"N 70°11'6.82"E

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POINT LATITUDE LONGITUDE


L 23°10'7.12"N 70°11'5.70"E
M 23°10'10.84"N 70°11'10.64"E
N 23°10'18.65"N 70°11'5.20"E
O 23°10'20.80"N 70°11'9.48"E
P 23°10'21.17"N 70°11'9.29"E
Q 23°10'25.28"N 70°11'19.69"E
R 23°10'24.78"N 70°11'19.84"E
S 23°10'25.16"N 70°11'22.80"E
T 23°10'17.51"N 70°11'23.45"E
U 23°10'17.18"N 70°11'20.45"E
V 23°10'15.92"N 70°11'19.84"E
W 23°10'12.55"N 70°11'20.70"E
X 23°10'13.82"N 70°11'27.73"E
Y 23°10'15.19"N 70°11'32.65"E
Z 23°10'10.44"N 70°11'32.00"E

2.3.3 Approach to the Project Site

The project site is approachable:

By Road:

Site is well connected to Gandhidham & Ahmedabad via National Highway (NH 8A) at an aerial
distance of 500 m in South East Direction.

By Rail:

Major railway station for public transportation is Gandhidham Railway Station at an aerial distance of
~12 Km in SW Direction from the project site.

By Air:

Nearest airport from project site is Kandla Airport at an aerial distance of ~ 9.5 Km in SW Direction.

By Water:

Nearest port is Kandla port at Kandla located at an aerial distance of ~14 Km in S direction.

2.3.4 Condensed Description of Aspects

Based on the location of the project, following are the expected aspects:

 Water withdrawal in water scares area;


 Change in land use from barren to industrial.

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Map 2-2: Specific Location Map of Project Site

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2.4 SIZE AND MAGNITUDE OF OPERATION

2.4.1 Proposed Plant

Size, Land Distribution at Site & Project Site Layout

Plot area of the project consists of 74 Acres (~ 2,99,475 m2) area. Land distribution for the proposed
project is tabulated in Table 2-2.

Table 2-2: Area Breakup of the Site


S. No. Type of Land Use Area in m2 % of Total Plot Area
1 Caustic Soda & Caustic Potash Plant 65,700 21.94%
2 H2O2 Plant 12,085 4.04%
3 Water Reservoir 5,000 1.67%
4 SLF area 5,000 1.67%
5 ETP 305 0.10%
6 Organic Units 27,445 9.16%
7 AAC 4,810 1.61%
8 Power Plant 23,370 7.80%
9 Coal Yard 20,750 6.93%
10 Admin Building 320 0.11%
11 Security Office 50 0.02%
12 Green area 1,00,000 33.39%
13 Road Area 14,300 4.78%
14 Ash Dyke 4,400 1.47%
15 Area for Expansion 10,520 3.51%
16 Truck Parking 5,420 1.82%
Total Plot Area 2,99,475

Site layout map of the project is shown in Map 2-3.

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Map 2-3: Site Layout Map

Predominant Wind Direction


(Annual) is from SW to NE.

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Magnitude of the Project

The design capacity of proposed products are as mentioned in Table 2-3. Project will be completed in
phased manner. Organic units will operate 24 x 7 days a week and 300 days / annum. The balance 65
days will be utilized for product change-over preparation and annual maintenance shutdown.

Table 2-3: List of Proposed Products and Production Capacity


Production
S. No. Name of Product/Byproduct
Capacity (MTPA)
1 Caustic Chlorine Plant
1(a) Caustic Soda (100%) Lye / Prills / Flakes 2,16,000
1(b) Caustic Potash (100%) Lye / Flakes 36,000
1.1 Chlorine Gas / Liquid 2,12,900
1.2 Hydrogen 6,050
1.3 Hydrochloric acid (32%) 1,80,000
1.4 Sulphuric acid (78-80%) 12,000
1.5 Sodium Hypochlorite 12,000
1.6 Gypsum 3,600
2 Hydrogen Peroxide (100% H2O2 Basis) 36,000
3 Anhydrous Aluminum Chloride 36,000
4.1 Poly Aluminum Chloride (18%) 18,000
4.2 Poly Aluminum Chloride (30%) 18,000
5 Calcium Chloride (100%) 60,000
6 Para Amino Phenol 36,000
Hydrogenation of Hydrocarbon, Nitro Hydrocarbon & Chloro Hydrocarbon like:
7 Aniline, Chloro Aniline, OA/PA, DCA / PCA / MCA, OPDA / PPDA, Toludiene, 1,20,000*
Cumidiene, Xyldine.
8 Chlorination of hydrocarbon such as MCB, DCB, ODCB, PDCB, TCB.
9 Chlorination of toluene such as Benzyl Chloride, Benzal Chloride, Benzo Trichloride.
90,000*
10 Chlorination of Acetic Acid - MCA.
11 Chlorination of Paraffins - CPW
12 Hydrochloric Acid (30%) 1,32,000
13 Coal based Captive Power Plant 100 MW (Capacity)

* Total Overall Capacity combining all the products. Product mix will be based on market requirement.

2.4.2 Nearby Existing Unit

Their existing plant is situated adjoining the proposed plant at Village- Padana near Gandhidham in
Kutch district. It is engaged in manufacturing of chlorination, Nitration and hydrogenation of hydro
carbon. Various Chlorine based chemicals like CPW, Chloro-Benzenes, Thionyl Chloride, Chloro-Sulfonic
acid etc. are manufactured. It also has a Sulfuric acid plant of 15,000 MTA capacity. Both the units are
different, having separate entry and exit points, admin building, management and manpower. Both
units will their own ETPs, utilities and consents to operate from GPCB. Thus, it is insignificatan to
predict cumulative impact. Combined Layout plan showing nearby existing unit and proposed plant is
shown in Map 2-4.

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Map 2-4: Combined Layout Plan (Existing Unit & Proposed Unit)

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2.4.3 Condensed Description of Aspects

Based on the size and manganite of operation, following are the expected aspects:

 Air Emissions having pollutants like PM, SO2, NOx, HCl, Cl2 & HC.
 Waste water generation having organic compounds.
 Hazardous waste generation.
 Noise generation.
 Increase in occupational health, hazards & safety risk due to handling of solvents, raw material,
finished products and hazardous waste.

2.5 PROPOSED SCHEDULE FOR APPROVAL AND IMPLEMENTATION

The construction is likely to start after getting Environmental Clearance from MoEFCC and NOC/CTE
from GPCB. Project will be completed in phased manner. Caustic Soda plant will be completed after 24
months.

Project implementation schedule describing various activities from finalization of site to project
commissioning is tabulated in Table 2-4.

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Table 2-4: Project Implementation Schedule

Activity

May-17
Nov-16

Nov-17
Aug-16

Aug-17
Mar-17
Sep-16

Dec-16

Sep-17

Dec-17
Feb-17

Feb-18
Jan-17

Jun-17

Jan-18
Oct-16

Apr-17

Oct-17
Jul-17
Application for PH
Tender floating
Receipt of Bids/offer
Evaluation of offers
EC Presentation
Application for NOC
Environmental
Clearance from MoEF
Assurance for Water
Supply
Receipt of NOC
Finalization of
Contractors
Receipt of CTE
Procurement of
equipment
Civil Completion
Mechanical
Completion
Commissioning

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2.6 TECHNOLOGY AND PROCESS DESCRIPTION

Project description with process details are described as follows:

2.6.1 Caustic Chlorine Plant (Caustic Soda, 600 TPD & Caustic Potash – 100 TPD)

Process Description:

During manufacturing of process of caustic soda, Hydrogen and Chlorine gas as co products are
generated. HCl, hypochlorite, dilute H2SO4 are by products.

Brine Preparation, Filtration and Purification


This section consists of Salt Handling system, Brine Saturator, Reactor Clarifier, Clarified Brine Tank,
Filtration and associated facilities.

The depleted brine returned from Electrolyzer is fed to the Brine Saturator and saturated and Salt is
added to make it saturated. The salt is continuously fed through a Belt Conveyor System.

In order to remove various impurities like Sulfates, Magnesium, Calcium etc., from the brine Chemicals
such as barium carbonate, sodium carbonate, caustic soda are added to Saturated brine. After
reaction, insoluble are produced which are precipitated out in precipitation tanks & Clarifier.

pH of the brine is controlled by the addition of caustic-soda to the brine.

The brine, thus clarified, flows into clarified Brine. A part of slurry from the clarifier bottom is sent to
Sludge Filter System.

The clarified brine is sent to Secondary Brine purification section by clarified brine pump.

Secondary Brine Purification Section consists of Anthracite Brine Filters, Polishing filters and Ion
Exchange Resin Columns. In this section impurities are removed to ppb level to make brine suitable
for Membrane cell electrolyzer.

Purified brine is then fed to Electrolyzer.

ELECTROLYSIS
Electrolysis section consists of latest version of Membrane Cell Electrolyzer and their associated
equipments. In the electrolysis the following reaction takes place.

Electrolysis
NaCl + H2O NaOH + ½ Cl2 + ½ H2

Electrolyser consists of number of bipolar type cell frames with the metal anode and the activated
cathode, the Ion exchange membrane, press unit for mounting cell frames, sub-headers for feeding
anolyte and catholyte, sub-headers, and oil pressure unit which supplies oil to oil cylinders.

Anolyte Circulation system is designed to ensure steady and uniform distribution of anolyte to each
electrolyzer. A part of the anolyte, is taken out from Anolyte Circulation Tank to Depleted Brine Tank
by overflow. The diluted brine collected in Depleted Brine Tank is sent to De-chlorination Tower for
removal of Chlorine gas.

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Chlorine gas generated in Electrolyser is separated in Anolyte header. Chlorine gas is sent for drying,
Filtration, Compression & liquefaction.

Catholyte Circulation System is composed of Catholyte Circulation Tank, Catholyte Circulation Pump
and Catholyte Cooler. Catholyte is circulated through cathode compartment of cell frames to Catholyte
Circulation Tank by Catholyte Circulation Pump.

A part of it is taken out from Catholyte i.e. 30%~33% Caustic Soda is sent to Caustic Soda tank which
is then fed to caustic evaporation section. Demineralised water is fed to catholyte circulation system to
maintain level.

Hydrogen gas generated in Electrolyser is separated from the catholyte in the header.

DE- CHLORINATION OF RETURN BRINE


Depleted brine returning from electrolysis system contains Chlorine and chlorine is required to be
removed before feeding it to saturators. In the De-Chlorination Tower tower, chlorine is stripped
together with water vapor, and passed through De-chlorination Tower cooler. The vapor is condensed
there and the chlorine gas is sucked by the steam ejector to Ejector Cooler. Steam is condensed and
the chlorine gas is then mixed to main stream of chlorine gas product.

The remaining traces of free chlorine are removed by adding Sodium sulfite.

Return brine is then fed to Return Brine Tank & pumped to salt saturator.

Caustic Concentration
For Caustic concentration from 30% to 50%, triple effect energy efficient evaporator system will be
adopted. In the Evaporator system 30% caustic solution at 80 0C is fed to third effect evaporator.
Steam at 11 kg/cm2a pressure is used as heating media.

Caustic Soda lye of 48~50% concentration is produced.

Chlorine Drying, Compression and Liquefaction


Chlorine Gas coming out of Anolyte circulation tank contains water vapor saturated at about 900C and
has little amount of Sodium Chloride as entrainment. Gas is first washed by process water in a direct
contact scrubbing packed tower. It is further cooled to 160 C.

The cooled chlorine gas is fed to chlorine Gas Drying Tower. The moisture of chlorine gas is absorbed
into 98% Sulfuric Acid. Moisture of Chlorine gas is absorbed in Surfuric acid it gets diluted to 78%.

Dry chlorine gas from chlorine Gas Drying Section is compressed to 3.5~ 4 kg/cm2 (a) by using Acid
Ring type Compressor.

Chlorine gas from compressor is sent to chlorine Gas Liquefaction Unit. Freon 22 is used as
refrigerant. The sniff gas from Liquefier is sent to HCI Synthesis unit for burning with Hydrogen to
produce HCl.

Liquefied chlorine from liquefier is sent to Chlorine Storage Tank.

A large quantity of Liquid Chlorine will be vaporized and sent to other units through pipeline to
manufacture various Chlorinated products.

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Waste Chlorine Neutralization / Sodium Hypochlorite Section


In case of plant emergency, Waste chlorine gas from various sections of the plant is diverted to
Sodium Hypochlorite Unit. This unit consists of packed tower in which caustic solution is circulated to
absorb waste chlorine.

After a desired strength of sodium hypochlorite is reached, the solution is sent to a Hypo Reactor.
Here it is reacted with fresh chlorine to produce marketable quality Sodium Hypochlorite.

HCL Synthesis
The chlorine gas reacts with Hydrogen to form HCI gas which is cooled and absorbed in DM water.
The flow rate of DM water is adjusted to obtain 30-33% HCI Solution. Safety Interlocking provisions
are made which get actuated by flame protection device. The Hydrochloric Acid Solution is collected in
a product tank from where is pumped to main HCI Storage Tanks.

Hydrogen Compression
Hydrogen gas is compressed and will be supplied to Hydrogen Peroxide plant & other units consuming
Hydrogen as raw material filled in hydrogen cylinders banks of the customers and also stored in
cylinder banks.

Caustic Soda Flaking Plant


Flaker plant is a double effect evaporator. 48% Caustic is feed to produce 98% Caustic Flakes. Molten
Salt (Mixture KNO3, NaNO2 & NaNO3) is used as heating media. Caustic flakes is then cooled and
packed using a polythene liner to avoid moisture pick-up as it is a hygroscopic product.

Figure 2-1: Block Diagram for Caustic Soda Manufacturing

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Caustic Potash

Process Description:
Manufacturing process for Caustic Potash is similar to that for manufacture of Caustic Soda. The raw
material used for manufacture of Caustic Potash is Industrial grade Potassium Chloride (KCl) instead of
common salt used for Caustic Soda.

For manufacture of Caustic Potash, latest Membrane cell technology shall be adopted. Hydrogen and
Chlorine gas produced as the co-product, shall me mixed with those manufactured from Electrolysers
of Caustic Soda.

Brine Preparation, Filtration and Purification


This section consists of KCl Handling system, Saturator, Chemical dosing system, Clarifier, Clarified
Brine Tank, Filtration and associated facilities.

The depleted KCl brine returned from Electrolyzer is fed to the Saturator and KCl is added to make it
saturated.

In order to remove various impurities like Sulfates, Magnesium, Calcium etc., from the Chemicals such
as barium carbonate, sodium carbonate, caustic potash are added to saturated brine. After reaction,
insolubles are produced which are precipitated out in precipitation tanks & Clarifier.

The brine, thus clarified, flows into clarified KCl Brine tank. A part of slurry from the clarifier bottom is
sent to Sludge Filter System.

The clarified brine is sent to Secondary Brine purification section by clarified brine pump.

Secondary Brine Purification Section consists of Anthracite Brine Filters, Polishing filters and Ion
Exchange Resin Columns. In this section impurities are removed to ppb level to make brine suitable
for Membrane cell electroyzers.

Purified KCl brine is then fed to Electrolyzer.

ELECTROLYSIS
Electrolysis section consists of latest version of Membrane Cell Electrolysers and their associated
equipments. In the electrolysis the following reaction takes place.

Electrolysis
KCl + H2O KOH + ½ Cl2 + ½ H2

Electrolyser consists of number of bipolar type cell frames with the metal anode and the activated
cathode, the Ion exchange membrane, press unit for mounting cell frames, sub-headers for feeding
anolyte and catholyte, sub-headers etc.

Anolyte Circulation system is designed to ensure steady and uniform distribution of anolyte to each
electrolyzer. A part of the anolyte, is taken out from Anolyte Circulation Tank to Depleted KCl Brine
Tank by overflow. The diluted KCl brine collected in Depleted Brine Tank is sent to De-chlorination
Tower for removal of Chlorine gas. Chlorine gas generated in Electrolyser is separated in Anolyte
Header. Chlorine gas is sent for drying, Filtration, Compression & liquefaction.

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Potassium Hydroxide (KOH) Catholyte Circulation System is composed of Catholyte Circulation Tank,
Catholyte Circulation Pump and Catholyte Cooler. Catholyte is circulated through cathode
compartment of cell frames to Catholyte Circulation Tank by Catholyte Circulation Pump.

A part of it is taken out from Catholyte i.e. 30%~33% Caustic Potash is sent to storage tank which is
then fed to evaporation section. Demineralised water is fed to catholyte circulation system to maintain
level. Hydrogen gas & Chlorine gas generated in Electrolyser are separated from the Catholyte header
& Anolyte header. Chlorine gas is mixed with the Chlorine gas generated from Caustic soda plant for
further treatment.

Hydrogen gas generated from Caustic Potash plant is mixed with Hydrogen generated from Caustic
soda plant, for further treatment.

Mass Balance

Mass balance per ton of product and per day basis is given in Table 2-5 & Table 2-6.

Table 2-5: Mass Balance – Caustic Soda


Input /Day
S. Input/MT of
Raw Materials of Product
No. Product (MT)
(MT)
1 Common Salt 1.55 930
2 Water 1.45 870
Total 3.000 1,800
Output/MT of Product Output/
S. HW / Day of
Material / Product / Liquid Air Remarks
No. Recovery Solid Product
Item Byproduct Effluent Emission MT
Waste
Caustic Soda
1 Lye (as 50% 2 - - - - 1,200 Product
NaOH)
2 Chlorine 0.88 - - - - 528 Co-Product
3 Hydrogen 0.02 - - - 12 Co-Product
4 Brine Sludge - - - - 0.10 60 To TSDF
2.90 - 0 0 0.10
Total 1,800
3.000

Table 2-6: Mass Balance – Caustic Potash


Input
S. Input/MT of Product /Day of
Raw Materials
No. (MT) Product
(MT)
1 Potassium Chloride 1.36 136
2 Water 0.34 34
Total 1.70 170
Output/MT of Product Remarks

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HW / Output/Day
S. Material Product / Liquid Air
Recovery Solid of Product
No. / Item Byproduct Effluent Emission
Waste MT
Caustic
1 1 - - - - 100 Product
Potash
2 Chlorine 0.634 - - - - 63 Co-Product
3 Hydrogen 0.016 - - - 2 Co-Product
Brine
4 - - - - 0.05 5 To TSDF
Sludge
1.650 - 0 0 0.05
Total 170
1.70

Sodium Hypo Chloride

Manufacturing Process
Sodium Hypochlorite unit is Caustic Soda plant is for De-chlorination of waste air from different parts
of the plant. It is triple effect absorption system (Primary, Secondary & Finishing). Caustic Soda (18%)
is circulated continuously in all the three absorbers. Waste air enters from the bottom of the primary
tower. Top of the primary tower is fed in the bottom of the secondary tower. Top of secondary tower
is fed to final tower to remove any traces of Chlorine before discharging waste air in to atmosphere. In
these towers Chlorine reacts with Caustic Soda and Sodium Hypochlorite is manufactured.

2NaOH + Cl2 ---- NaOCl + NaCl + H2O


Sodium Hypochlorite of 150 GPL concentration is taken out to Sodium Hypochlorite tank.

Thus this unit is for Pollution Control.

Mass Balance

Mass balance per ton of product and per day basis is given in Table 2-7.

Table 2-7: Mass Balance – Sodium Hypo Chloride


Sr. Quantity Sr. Quantity
Input Input
No. (MT) No. (MT)
1. Caustic Lye (20%) 0.53 1. Sodium Hypo Chloride 0.5
2. Chlorine 0.47 2. Sodium Chloride 0.38
3. Water 0.12
Total 1.0 Total 1.0

2.6.2 Hydrogen Peroxide (100% H2O2 Basis) – 100 TPD

Manufacturing Process

For manufacture of Hydrogen Peroxide, “Auto-Oxidation” process shall be adopted.

The manufacturing process involves, Hydrogenation of 2-Ethyl Anthra Quinone (2-EAQ) in solvent
medium (Working Solution), to get its Quinol and subsequent oxidation of the Quinol to get parent
EAQ and crude Hydrogen Peroxide. The crude is then purified and concentrated to marketable
products.

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Hydrogenation
Working solution and Hydrogen are fed to hydrogenator and in the presence of palladium catalyst, 2
EAQ will be converted to 2 Ethyl hydro anthrax quinone.

2-EAQ + H2 Pd Catalyst 2-EAQH

The working solution is filtered & then fed to Oxidizer

Oxidation
The hydrogenated working solution is oxidized with air (oxygen) in an oxidizer.

2-EAQ + O2 2-EAQ + H2O2

The depleted air from the oxidizer is passed the solvent recovery system to recover working solution &
it is discharge atmosphere after removal of Organics.

Working solution containing Hydrogen Peroxide is then fed to extraction.

Extraction
In the Extraction operation is extracted in demineralized water through counter-current operation.
Working solution flows upwards and discharges from the top of the extractors after stripping hydrogen
peroxide. The aqueous phase is discharged from the bottom of the extractor which contains 30%-35%
Hydrogen Peroxide.

Working solution is returned back to Hydrogenator through WSN storage.

Product treatment
Crude Hydrogen peroxide passes through coulesers, where traces of solvents are separated from
Hydrogen Peroxide. Purified Hydrogen Peroxide is pumped to the product day tank to the distillation.

Distillation
Hydrogen Peroxide having concentration of 30%-35% is fed to distillation wherein it is concentrated to
50%, 60% or 70% as required.

The product is drawn from the bottom of the column and pumped to the storage tanks.

Reaction and Process Flow Diagram

Reaction involved is shown below and the process flow diagram is shown in Figure 2-2.

KADAM ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS | SEPTEMBER, 2016 31


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Figure 2-2: Block Diagram for Hydrogen Peroxide Manufacturing

Mass Balance

Mass balance per ton of product and per day basis is given in Table 2-8.

Table 2-8: Mass Balance – Hydrogen Peroxide


Input /Day
S. Input/MT of Product
Raw Materials of Product
No. (MT)
(MT)
1 Hydrogen 0.065 6.5
2 Air 6 600
Total 6.065 606.5
Output/MT of Product
Output/Day
S. HW /
Material Product / Liquid Air of Product Remarks
No. Recovery Solid
/ Item Byproduct Effluent Emission MT
Waste
Hydrogen
Peroxide
1 1 - - - - 100 Product
(100%
basis)
2 Inert Gas - - 5.064 - - 506.43 Off Gas Vent
3 Hydrogen - - 0.001 - - 0.07 Off Gas Vent
1 0 5.065 0 0
Total 606.5
6.065

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2.6.3 Anhydrous Aluminum Chloride – 100 TPD

Manufacturing Process

Gaseous chlorine is reacted with molten Aluminum in specially designed reactor to form Aluminum
Chloride in gaseous phase. Heat liberated because of the exothermic reaction is removed partially in
melting solid Aluminum and balance by radiation from the molten Aluminum surface. Vapors of
Aluminum Chloride lose their heat of sublimation from the wall of the condenser and get deposited
there. This deposited solid is discharged into specially designed containers by hammering the
condenser wall from outside, periodically. After cooling, it is conveyed to a silo from where it is size
graded and packed under dry air blanketing.

Unreacted Chlorine and uncondensed gases are efficiently scrubbed in well-designed scrubbers.

Mass Balance

Mass balance per ton of product and per day basis is given in Table 2-9.

Table 2-9: Mass Balance – Aluminum Chloride


Input
S. Input/MT of /Day of
Raw Materials
No. Product (MT) Product
(MT)
1 Aluminum 0.205 20.5
2 Chlorine 0.797 79.7
Total 1.002 100.2
Output/MT of Product
Output/Day
S. HW /
Material / Product / Liquid Air of Product Remarks
No. Recovery Solid
Item Byproduct Effluent Emission MT
Waste
Anhydrous
1 Aluminum 1 - - - - 100 Product
Chloride
Sodium
2 - - - 0.002 - 0.2 Saleable
Hypochlorite
1.015 0 0 0.002 0
Total 100.2
1.002

2.6.4 Poly Aluminum Chloride – 50 TPD

Manufacturing Process

Hydrochloric acid and Alumina hydrate in required quantities are fed to a glass-lined reactor.
The reactor is heated to a desired temperature & pressure in a predetermined cycle, to avoid thermal
shock. It is maintained at this temperature & pressure to complete the reaction.
It is then cooled in a manner where thermal shock to the glass lined reactor is avoided.
The cooled PAC solution is filtered and stored in product tanks. It is then sent to either liquid
formulation section or to spray drier for powder production

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Reaction and Process Flow Diagram

Reaction involved is shown below and the process flow diagram is shown in Figure 2-3.

12 HCl + 6 Al2O3 + 6 H2O ---- Al12Cl12 (OH)24

Figure 2-3: Block Diagram for Poly Aluminum Chloride Manufacturing

Mass Balance

Mass balance per ton of product and per day basis is given in Table 2-10.

Table 2-10: Mass Balance – Poly Aluminum Chloride


S. Input/MT of Product Input /Day of
Raw Materials
No. (MT) Product (MT)
1 Aluminum Hydroxide 0.528 26.4
2 HCl 0.378 18.9
3 Water 0.094 4.7
Total 1.000 50
Output/MT of Product
Output/Day
S. HW /
Material Product / Liquid Air of Product Remarks
No. Recovery Solid
/ Item Byproduct Effluent Emission MT
Waste
1 PAC 1.00 - - - - 50 Product
2 Waste - - - - Negligible 0 For Recycling
1.00 - - - -
Total 50
1.000

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2.6.5 Calcium Chloride – 175 TPD

Manufacturing Process

Calcium Carbonate is reacted with Hydrochloric Acid to get Calcium Chloride.

Reaction and Process Flow Diagram

Reaction involved is shown below and the process flow diagram is shown in Figure 2-4.

CaCO3 + 2 HCl ---- CaCl2 + H2O + CO2


100 73 111 18 44

Ventuary Scrubber (Alkali)

Lime Stone (3,600)


Reactor – (6,200)
HCl (2,600)

Unreacted Lime (1,200)

Filter Press (5,000)

CaCl2 Clear
Liquid

Evaporator Moisture Loss


(1,000)

Dry CaCl2 Product


(4,000)

Figure 2-4: Block Diagram for Calcium Chloride Manufacturing

Mass Balance

Mass balance per ton of product and per day basis is given in Table 2-11.

Table 2-11: Mass Balance – Calcium Chloride


Input/MT of Product Input /Day of
S. No. Raw Materials
(MT) Product (MT)
1 Lime Stone 0.904 158.2
2 HCl 0.650 113.8
Total 1.554 272.0

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M/S. KCIL DRAFT EIA & EMP REPORT – MANUFACTURING OF CAUSTIC SODA,
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Output/MT of Product
Output/Day
S. HW /
Material / Product / Liquid Air of Product Remarks
No. Recovery Solid
Item Byproduct Effluent Emission MT
Waste
1 CaCl2 1.00 - - - - 175 Product
Moisture
2 - 0.25 - - - 43.8 Recycled
Loss
3 Solid Waste - - - - 0.302 52.9 Sold
Air
4 - - 0.002 - - 0.4 Scrubber
Emissions
1.00 0.25 0.002 0 0.302
Total 272
1.554

2.6.6 Para Amino Phenol – 120 TPD

Manufacturing Process

PNCB is reacted with caustic soda at temperature of 160 deg C and pressure of 5 – 6 Kg/cm2 getting
PNP.Na which is further hydrogenated to get PAP.

Reaction

Reaction involved is shown below:

160oC, 5-6 Kg/Cm2


C6H4Cl.NO2 + 2 NaOH ------------- C6H4ONaNO2 + NaCl
157.5 80 161 58.5

C6H4OnaNO2 + 3 H2 ------------- C6H4OHNH2 + 2H2O


161 6 109 36

Mass Balance

Mass balance per ton of product and per day basis is given in Table 2-12.

Table 2-12: Mass Balance – Para Amino Phenol


Input
Input/MT of Product /Day of
S.No. Raw Materials
(MT) Product
(MT)
1 PNCB 1.44 173
2 Caustic 0.733 88

3 H2 0.06 7

4 Sulphuric Acid 0.835 100

Total 3.063 368

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Output/MT of Product
Output/Day
S. HW /
Material Product / Liquid Air of Product Remarks
No. Recovery Solid
/ Item Byproduct Effluent Emission MT
Waste
Para
1 Amino 1 - - - - 120 Product
Phenol
Waste
2 - 2.063 - - - 248 To ETP
Water
1 2.063 0 0 0
Total 368
3.063

2.6.7 Hydrogenation of Hydrocarbon, Nitro & Chloro Hydrocarbon – 10,000 TPM

Products: Aniline, Chloro Aniline, OA/PA, DCA/PCA/MCA, OPDA/PPDA, Toludiene,


Cumidiene, Xyldine

Manufacturing Process
The reaction involves one-step hydrogenation process on the respective raw materials. Raw Material
will be fed to the raw material preparation tank as per the batch size. Nitro/Chloro derivatives of
Hydrocarbon form homogenous nitrate slurry with metal catalyst will be pumped to High Pressure
Autoclave. In Autoclave material will be heated by means of Oil Heating to 90-95 °C. Then H2 will be
supplied through PRS. H2 pressure in autoclave maintained at 15-21.5 Kg/cm2. Through PRS,
unreacted & unresolved dispersed gas in autoclave will be passed through condenser and recirculated.
As the reaction is exothermic in nature, temperature of reaction mass shall start rising which will be
controlled and maintained at 120-130°C by applying cooling water jerk. After completion of
hydrogenation, the product mass will be cooled to 30-35°C and transferred to candle filter.

From Filtration the product will be fed to conical separation vessel, where aqueous phase will be
separated from product by providing sufficient settling time. Product from separator shall be pumped
to crude storage tank. Catalyst will be recycled back to autoclave via. Candle filters.

The crude product contains traces of water and high boiler along with the product, which will be
distilled out in High Vacuum Batch Distillation Column.

Reaction and Process Flow Diagram


Reaction involved is shown below and the process flow diagram is shown in Figure 2-5.

Catalyst
R-NO2 + 3H2(g) ---- R-NH2 + 2H2O
Catalyst
C6H4CH3.NO2 + 3H2(g) ---- C6H4CH3.NH2 + 2H2O
137 6 107 36

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Catalyst (26.6)
Hydrogen (111.9)

Nitro/Chloro Hydro-
Reactor
carbon Compound
Recycle
(2,558.1)
2,696.6
26.6

Filter

2,670
Water
Crude Product Reuse
Distillation
(20) (650)

2,000

Pure Amino Product

Figure 2-5: Block Diagram for Hydrogenated Product Manufacturing

Mass Balance
Mass balance per ton of product and per day basis is given in Table 2-13.

Table 2-13: Mass Balance – Hydrogenated Products


Input/MT of Product Input /Day of
S. No. Raw Materials
(MT) Product (MT)
1 Nitro Compound 1.245 498
2 Hydrogen 0.056 22
3 Water 0.330 132
4 Catalyst 0.067 27
Total 1.698 679
Output/MT of Product
Output/Day
S. HW /
Material / Product / Liquid Air of Product Remarks
No. Recovery Solid
Item Byproduct Effluent Emission MT
Waste
Hydrogenated
1 1.00 - - - - 400 Product
Products
2 Effluent - - - 0.631 - 252 Recycled
Recovered
3 - - - 0.067 - 27 Recycled
Catalyst
1.00 0 0 0.698 0
Total 679
1.698

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2.6.8 Chlorination of Hydrocarbons – 7,500 TPM

Mono Chloro Benzene MCB

Manufacturing Process
Mono Chlorobenzene plant is continuous plant. Benzene and Chlorine continuously feed in reactor
from bottom. From overflow, product Mono Chlorobenzene will be extracted. The reaction is
exothermic so cooling water circulation will control temperature of the reactor. During the reaction
Hydrochloric Acid vapor shall be generated. This vapor will be passed through the water to produce
30% Hydrochloric Acid. Material getting from reactor will be fed into acid stripper to remove the
acidity. Material from the stripper will be sent to remove any unreacted benzene. The benzene free
material will be fed into the MCB stripper; from MCB stripper, pure mono chloro benzene will be
generated.

Reaction and Process Flow Diagram


Reaction involved is shown below and the process flow diagram is shown in Figure 2-6.

C6H6 + Cl2  C6H5Cl + HCl


78 71 112.5 36.5

Water (686) HCl Absorber 32% HCl (1,010)


324

Benzene (693)
Reactor – (1,324)

Chlorine (631)

Acid Stripper

Recycle Benzene Stripper

MCB Stripper

MCB (1,000)

Figure 2-6: Block Diagram for MCB Manufacturing

Mass Balance
Mass balance per ton of product and per day basis is given in Table 2-14.

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Table 2-14: Mass Balance – MCB


Input/MT of Product Input /Day of
S. No. Raw Materials
(MT) Product (MT)
1 Benzene 0.693 208
2 Chlorine 0.631 189
3 Water 0.686 206
Total 2.010 603
Output/MT of Product Output/Day
S.
Material Product / Liquid Air HW / of Product Remarks
No. Recovery
/ Item Byproduct Effluent Emission Waste MT

1 MCB 1 - - - - 300 Product


2 Dil. HCl - - - 1.008 - 302 By Product
Air
3 - - 0.002 - - 1 To Scrubber
Emissions
1.013 0 0.002 1.008 0
Total 603
2.010

Di Chloro Benzene (i.e. ODCB, Ortho Di-chloro Benzene & PDCB, Para Di-chloro Benzene) & TCB

Manufacturing Process
The raw material Benzene will be fed into continuous chlorinator (Packed Column) via Benzene dryer
to remove the moisture from Benzene. Chlorine will be fed through vaporizer which will react with
Benzene in manner to produce DCB isomer and lower high boiler by controlling the process parameter,
where HCl gas coming out from top of reactor will be scrubbed with water in absorber to produce 30%
HCl as byproduct.

The reactor mass will be washed with water to remove the impurity and then it will be delivered to the
crystallizer to crystallize para isomer of DCB. After crystallizing the PDCB, it will be centrifuged and
mother liquor will be taken into distillation section. In distillation section, from the bottom of the first
column ODCB shall be obtained and top will contain high concentrate PDCB which will be recycled in
crystallization section. And from the top of the second column in distillation section, pure ODCB will be
separated as a product. At the end of distillation, a mix of TCB is collected.

Reaction and Process Flow Diagram


Reaction involved is shown below and the process flow diagram is shown in Figure 2-7.

C6H6 + Cl2 -- C6H5Cl + HCl


78 71 112.5 36.5

C6H6 + 2 Cl2 -- C6H4Cl2 + 2 HCl


78 142 147 73

C6H6 + 3 Cl2 -- C6H3Cl3 + 3 HCl


78 213 182.5 109.5

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Water (1,054) HCl Absorber 32% HCl (1,550)

496
Benzene (531) Reactor – (1,496)
Chlorine (965)

Crystallizer

Recycle Centrifuge PDCB (650)

Distillation

ODCB (350)

Figure 2-7: Block Diagram for ODCB & PDCB Manufacturing

Mass Balance
Mass balance per ton of product and per day basis is given in Table 2-15.

Table 2-15: Mass Balance – ODCB & PDCB


Input/MT of Product Input /Day of
S. No. Raw Materials
(MT) Product (MT)
1 Benzene 0.531 159.3
2 Chlorine 0.965 289.5
3 Water 1.054 316.2
Total 2.550 765
Output/MT of Product
Output/Day
S. HW /
Material / Product / Liquid Air of Product Remarks
No. Recovery Solid
Item Byproduct Effluent Emission MT
Waste
1 ODCB 0.35 - - - - 105 Product
2 PDCB 0.65 - - - - 195 Product
3 Dil. HCl - - - 1.55 - 465 By Product
1.00 0 0 1.55 0
Total 765
2.550

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M/S. KCIL DRAFT EIA & EMP REPORT – MANUFACTURING OF CAUSTIC SODA,
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2.6.9 Chlorination of Toluene – 7,500 TPM

Benzyl Chloride / Benzal Chloride / Benzal Trichloride

Manufacturing Process
Toluene & Cl2 are reacted in a reactor to form Benzal Chloride & Benzyl Chloride. After Fractionation
and purification, it forms Benzo trichloride.

Reaction and Process Flow Diagram


Reaction involved is shown below and the process flow diagram is shown in Figure 2-8.

C6H5CH3 + Cl2 -- C6H5CH2Cl + HCl

C6H5CH2Cl + Cl2 -- C6H5CHCl2 + HCl

C6H5CHCl2 + Cl2 -- C6H5CCl3 + HCl

Water HCl Absorber Dil. HCl

Toluene
Reactor
Chlorine

Benzyl Chloride / Benzal Chloride For Sale

Purification

Benzo Trichloride

Figure 2-8: Block Diagram for Chlorination of Toluene Manufacturing

2.6.10 Chlorination of Acetic Acid – Mono Chloro Acetic Acid – 7,500 TPM

Manufacturing Process
Acetic Acid will be charged in the reactor and heated to 100˚C through hot water circulation. Chlorine
shall be charged in the reactor for chlorination. Acetic acid will be converted into Mono Chloro Acetic
Acid (MCA) in presence of suitable catalyst.

During the process, HCl gas will be generated, which will be scrubbed through scrubber and dissolved
in water to get 30% HCl liquor.

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After completion of reaction, the mass will be transferred in buckets for crystallization where natural
followed by induced cooling takes place. After about 70 hrs, pure MCAA crystals shall be recovered.
After centrifuging, MCAA product will be ready for packing.

The Mother Liquor (ML) generated from centrifuge shall be separated out and sold as ML of MCA.

Reaction and Process Flow Diagram


Reaction involved is shown below and the process flow diagram is shown in Figure 2-9.

CH3COOH + Cl2 ---- Cl.CH2COOH + HCl


Acetic Acid Chlorine MCA Hydrochloric Acid
60 71 94.5 36.5

Water (814) HCl Absorber 32% HCl (1,200)


Acetic Acid (635)
386
Liq. Cl2 (751) GLR
Catalyst (37.5)

Crystallizer

Centrifuge

Packing

MCA (1,000)

Figure 2-9: Block Diagram for Mono Chloro Acetic Acid Manufacturing

Mass Balance
Mass balance per ton of product and per day basis is given in Table 2-16.

Table 2-16: Mass Balance – Mono Chloro Acetic Acid


Input/MT of Product Input /Day of
S. No. Raw Materials
(MT) Product (MT)
1 Acetic Acid 0.635 191
2 Chlorine (Liq.) 0.751 225
3 Catalyst 0.038 11
4 Water 0.814 244

Total 2.238 671

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M/S. KCIL DRAFT EIA & EMP REPORT – MANUFACTURING OF CAUSTIC SODA,
(UNIT 2) SYNTHETIC ORGANIC, INORGANIC, SPECIALTY CHEMICALS & CPP 2. PROJECT DESCRIPTION

Output/MT of Product
Output/Day
S. HW /
Material / Product / Liquid Air of Product Remarks
No. Recovery Solid
Item Byproduct Effluent Emission MT
Waste
1 MCA 1.00 - - - - 300 Product
2 Dil. HCl - - - 1.20 - 360 By Product
Rec.
3 - - - 0.038 - 11 Recycle
Catalyst
1.00 0 0 1.238 0
Total 671
2.238

2.6.11 Chlorination of Paraffins – CPW – 7,500 TPM

Manufacturing Process
Raw Heavy Normal Paraffin will be heated electrically to the required temperature in a Heavy Normal
Paraffin storage tank and measured quantity of Heavy Normal Paraffin will be charged in to reactor
(chlorinator). Then chlorine gas will be bubbled through the H.N.P in a reactor. Reaction between HNP
and chlorine shall take place. The reaction will be exothermic. During reaction liberated HCl gas will be
scrubbed in to water scrubber, where this gas will be converted to Hydrochloric Acid. Recirculation of
HCl gas shall take place in the system & bubbling tank until the desired concentration of HCl is
attained. In the final stage the left over gases mostly unreacted chlorine shall be taken to the alkali
tower, where by alkali solution will be pumped counter. In the reactor it is necessary to maintain
constant temperature so cooling water shall be circulated.

After completion of reaction, the product, chlorinated paraffin wax obtained will be aerated for
removal of any free gases. The chlorinated paraffin wax will be then filled in drums for dispatch.

Reaction and Process Flow Diagram


Reaction involved is shown below and the process flow diagram is shown in Figure 2-10.

R-H + Cl2 --- R-Cl + HCl, where R is the hydrocarbon.

Water (7,040) HCl Absorber Dil. HCl (10,065)

3,025
Heavy Normal
Paraffin (3,025) HCl Gas
Chlorination
Chlorine (5,500)

Product – CPW (5,500 MT)

Figure 2-10: Block Diagram for CPW Manufacturing

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Mass Balance
Mass balance per ton of product and per day basis is given in Table 2-17.

Table 2-17: Mass Balance – Chlorinated Paraffin Wax (CPW)


Input/MT of Product Input /Day of
S. No. Raw Materials
(MT) Product (MT)

1 Heavy Normal Paraffin 0.55 165


2 Chlorine 1.00 300
3 Water 1.28 384

Total 2.83 849

Output/MT of Product
Output/Day
S. HW /
Material / Product / Liquid Air of Product Remarks
No. Recovery Solid
Item Byproduct Effluent Emission MT
Waste
1 CPW 1.00 - - - - 300 Product
2 Dil. HCl - - - 1.83 - 549 By Product
1.00 0 0 1.83 0
Total 849
2.83

2.6.12 Captive Power Plant – 100 MW

In coal thermal power plant, the steam is produced in high pressure in the steam boiler due to burning
of fuel (coal) in boiler furnaces. This steam is further heated in a super heater. This super-heated
steam then enters into the turbine and rotates the turbine blades. The turbine is mechanically coupled
with alternator that its rotor will rotate with rotation of turbine blades. After entering the turbine the
steam pressure suddenly falls and corresponding volume of the steam increase. After imparting
energy to the turbine rotor the steam passes out of the turbine blades into the condenser. In the
condenser the cold water is circulated with the help of pump, which condense the low-pressure wet
steam. This condensed water is further supplied to low-pressure water heater where the low-pressure
steam increases the temperature of feed water; it again heated in high pressure.

Major steps of coal base power plant operation:

 First the coal is burnt into furnace of steam boiler.


 High-pressure steam is produced in the boiler.
 This steam is then passed through the super heater, where it further heated up.
 This super-heated steam is then entered into a turbine at high speed.
 In turbine this steam force rotates the turbine blades that means here in the turbine the stored
potential energy of the high-pressure steam is converted into mechanical energy. Turbine shaft
connected with generator in which power generates.
 After rotating the turbine blades, the steam has lost its high pressure, passes out of turbine
blades and enters into a condenser.
 In the condenser the cold water is circulated with help of pump, which condenses the low-
pressure wet steam.

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 This condensed water is then further supplied to low pressure water heater where the low
pressure steam increase the temperature of this feed water, it is then again heated in a high
pressure heater where the high pressure of steam is used for heating.
 The turbine in thermal power station acts as a prime mover of the alternator.

Figure 2-11: PFD – Power Plant

Coal Handling System

Capacity of Coal Handling Plant (CHP) is envisaged 115 ton/Hr for 215 TPH Boiler, and total capacity
of CHP for both the plant is envisaged 230 TPH.

 Coal will be fed to ground hopper grizzly by pay-loaders or dumper.


 From ground hopper, coal shall be fed to crusher via raw coal conveyor and primary screen.
 Primary screen will segregate <6 mm sized coal and it shall be fed to product conveyor and
oversized coal shall go to crusher. Crushed coal shall again segregated by secondary screen and
oversized coal shall fed to raw coal conveyor via recycle conveyor and sized coal <6 mm shall be
fed to product conveyor. Which will ultimately fed bunkers through shuttle conveyor.
 Bunker capacity per boiler is designed based on 18 hours of storage considering 100% Imported
Coal as a fuel.
 Crusher capacity shall be designed to operate for 8 hours considering 100% Imported Coal as a
fuel.

Ash Handling System

Dense phase Ash Handling System is proposed for two boilers. It is designed to handle bed ash from
bottom hoppers of boiler after Bed ash cooler and fly ash from Bottom hoppers of economizer, Air pre
heater and ESP.

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Separate lubricated screw type, air cooled, service air compressors (1W+1S), which can delivered air
pressure of maximum 5 kg/cm2 (g) for ash handling system. One number of suitable capacity air
receiver tank shall also be considered.

The system will start from Surge hopper, which is kept above the Ash transmitter vessel. Bed ash
cooler is envisaged to reduce the ash temperature up to maximum 240°C.

The ash collected in the various hoppers will be fed by Gravity into individual transmitter vessel
located below the hoppers. Once the desired conveying pressure is reached inside the vessel, the
outlet valve will open and the ash shall be conveyed by air to ash silos through suitably sized pipes.

The conveying air will be vented out from silo through the bag filter provided on top of the silo.

Further, fly ash from silo will be unloaded into trucks through a Rotary Airlock valve and an Ash
conditioner. The ash conditioner shall have suitably designed water spray arrangement to contain dust
emanation during ash unloading.

Considering the power plant operation for 24 hours, operating on 100% imported coal having max
7.5% of ash in imported coal, the maximum Ash generation is envisaged 140 TPD so AHP capacity is
envisaged 150 TPD. RCC Ash silo capacity is envisaged as 2 x 300 m3 based on 48 hrs of min storage.

Bed Ash Handling System


Dense phase Bed ash handling system along with ash cooler (air cooled) shall be provided.

Dense Phase Bed Ash/ Fly Ash Handling System


Bed ash from boiler and Fly ash from economizer, air pre heater & of ESP hoppers shall be carried to
silo with the help of service air supplier.

Ash conditioning system with water spray, nozzles and telescopic chute shall be considered along with
dust extraction at top of the Silo, by the EPC Supplier. MOU with nearby cement manufacturers for
utilizing fly ash shall be done.

2.7 UTILITIES

The estimated list of utilities required for the project is as given below:

2.7.1 Power Requirement

Power requirement will be sourced from proposed 100 MW CPP having backup source of PGVCL. Two
DG Sets of 1,000 KVA each will be installed and used as standby back-up supply for emergency
conditions & safe shutdown of Chemical plants in case of main power failure only.

2.7.2 Fuel Requirement

Imported Indonesian/ South African Coal having 0.5 % sulphur and 7.5% ash content will be used for
the proposed CFBC Boilers and HSD will be used for DG Sets. Inprinciple approval for procurement of
coal is obtained from ADI Tradelink (Adani) and is attached as Annexure 4. Radioactive elements in
coal and fly ash should not be sources of alarm. The vast majority of coal and the majority of fly ash
are not significantly enriched in radioactive elements, or in associated radioactivity, compared to

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common soils or rocks.1 Though a letter is submitted to Deparment of Atomic Energy as provided in
Annexure 7, for analysis of Radioactive material content in coal. Analysis report is awaited and shall
be provided as and when available. Details of the same are tabulated in Table 2-18.

Table 2-18: Fuel Details


S. No. Type of Fuel Used in Quantity Source
Imported Boiler 1,860 ADI Tradelink (Adani) / Open
1
Coal (2 Nos, 215 TPH Capacity total) MT/Day Market – (Kandla & Mundra Ports)
DG Sets
2 HSD 400 Ltr/Hr. Local Depot/ Suppliers
(2 Nos. 1,000 kVA each)

2.7.3 Water Requirement

The total fresh water requirement would be 6,304 KLD by maximizing recycle and reuse concept &
achieving ZLD which will be met from GWIL (Narmada Canal). Inprinciple approval for 7 MLD is been
obtained and is attached as Annexure 5.

2.7.4 Manpower

During the construction phase around 1,000 workers will be hired. During operation phase, project will
generate direct employment for more than 500 people and indirect employment for approx. 500
people. They may be hired locally. First preference shall be given to skilled, semi-skilled work force of
local community.

2.8 RAW MATERIAL, STORAGE & MODE OF TRANSPORT


Based on the need and availability, raw material shall be sourced from registered supplier within India
and Imported (if required) via road transportation by trucks, tankers & tempos. Details of raw material
along with the quantity, physical state and means of storage is given in Table 2-19.

Table 2-19: Details of Raw Materials, Physical State & Means of Storage
S. Consumption Physical Means of
Name of Raw Material Source
No. MTPA State Transportation

1 Common Salt 3,25,550 Solid Kutch Trucks


2 Potassium Chloride 47,600 Solid Kutch Trucks
3 Hydrogen 1,13,960 Gas In-house Pipeline
4 Chlorine 3,19,795 Gas In-house Pipeline
5 Chlorine (Liq.) 94,500 Liquid In-house Pipeline
6 HCl* 46,500 Liquid In-house / Local Pipeline / Trucks
7 Aluminum 7,175 Solid Local Trucks
8 Aluminium Hydroxide 9,240 Liquid Local Tankers
9 Sulphuric Acid 30,000 Liquid Local Tankers
10 Lime Stone 55,400 Solid Local Trucks

1
U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet FS-163-97

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S. Consumption Physical Means of


Name of Raw Material Source
No. MTPA State Transportation

11 ONCB / PNCB 2,14,760 Liquid Local Tankers


12 Caustic Flake 70,000 Solid Local Trucks
13 Dichloro Nitro Benzene 1,89,000 Liquid Local Tankers
14 Methanol 28,000 Liquid Local Tankers
15 Benzene 1,28,100 Liquid Local Tankers
16 Heavy Normal Paraffin 57,750 Liquid Local Tankers
17 Acetic Acid 70,350 Liquid Local Tankers
18 Nitric Acid 30,000 Liquid Local Tankers

* HCl requirement as a raw material will be met from the in-house production from other products.
Excess stock will be sold as byproduct.

2.9 SOLVENT AND SOLVENT RECOVERY SYSTEM

Solvent like Methanol shall be mainly used in Hydrogenation products. This is recovered by in
distillation units. Following steps shall be involved in solvent recovery from the distillation units:

 Methanol shall be directly distillated from product mix and purified in packed column with the help
of reflux and therefore there will be no generation of any distillation residue from the solvent
distillation;
 The solvent distillation system will be designed so as to achieve minimum 90% recovery;
 Pure solvent, crude solvent and distilled (recovered) solvent shall be stored only in storage tanks
and no drums shall be used;
 Wherever required, the solvents shall be directly pumped into day tanks from the storage tanks
and shall be charged into the reactors without involving any manual handling;
 All the pumps shall be mechanical seal type to avoid any leakage of solvent;
 All necessary fire fighting systems shall be provided with alarm system. Flame proof wiring and
flame proof electrical accessories shall be provided to avoid any mishaps;
 Chilled water condensers will be provided to maximize the recovery process and prevent any
losses of solvent in atmosphere.

Other aromatic solvent like tetra butyl urea and tri octyl phosphate will be used in process of
Hydrogen Peroxide. No recovery is required as the usage is very low to quantify.

2.10 CATALYST

During the process only catalyst used will be Palladium in Hydrogen Peroxide plant which will be
stored in Drums. Used catalyst will be given to reprocessors.

2.11 PROPOSED INFRASTRUCTURE

2.11.1 Process Area

The industrial area shall comprise of following sections:

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 Manufacturing process area;


 Coal & Ash storage area;
 Salt and other raw material storage;
 Finished product storage;
 Utility Area;
 Packing material storage;
 ETP area;
 SLF area;
 Hazardous waste storage area.

Adequate storage space for salt storage, coal, raw material, solvents, finished products, ash,
hazardous and other solid waste shall be provided.

The Plant building will be multistoried with all necessary equipments and vessels having multiple floors
in between for installing heat exchangers, dosing vessels, receivers etc. Factory will have tank farm,
ETPs, RO, MEE, ATFD, ESPs, Coal Yard, Fly Ash silo, Brine sludge SLF, HW storage, fire hydrant lines,
admin building, security cabin, utility area, laboratory and health care center.

As a safety aspect, installation of process vessels shall be placed as far as possible from boiler section,
opposite to the predominant wind direction which is usually from SW in all seasons, except monsoon2.

2.11.2 Non-Processing Area

Requirement of non processing area will be developed as shown below:

 Weighbridge;
 Administrative Building;
 Laboratory;
 Security cabins;
 Workers restroom;
 Vehicle Shed;
 Water reservoirs for raw water and fire hydrant system;
 Temporary storage sites;
 Worksblock etc.

There is no infrastructure available at site except “kuchha” road connecting project site to highway.
Photographs of existing site are shown in Photograph 2-1.

2
As per IMD’s long term meteorological data, mentioned in Chapter 3, Section 3.5.1, Pg. 74.

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Project Site which is a barren land Shrubs & under shrubs like Prosopis juliflora at site

EIA Coordinator with KCIL’s representatives and EIA Team members at Project Site

Photograph 2-1: Photogharphs of Proposed Project Site

2.12 AIR EMISSIONS

Due to proposed project various sources of air pollution are identified during construction and
operation phase. Identified air emission sources are as follows:

Construction Phase:

Vehicular emissions due to movement of construction machinery and vehicles.

Operation Phase:

Point Source
Likely air pollutants from proposed project will be PM, SO2 & NOx from boiler stack and DG Sets, HCl,
Cl2 & HC from various process vents.

Line Source
SPM emissions from movement of vehicles on paved roads & vehicular emissions like SPM, CO & HC’s
from exhaust of the vehicles are envisaged as line source emissions.

Approximately, 250 trucks per day carrying raw material and finished goods shall be using the national
highways (NH – 6 & NH-50) connecting Site to Gandhidham and Ahmedabad. Employees and contract

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workers (~2 staff buses, 50 cars & 100 two wheelers & 100 bicycles) shall use the same route during
peak hours.

Volume Source
SPM emissions from coal stock piles.

Others
Fugitive emissions from storage & handling of various hazardous chemicals used as either raw material
or finished product in MCB/ODCB/PDCB/TCB units.

2.12.1 Action Plan to Control Ambient Air Quality

Point Sources Emissions & Control

Flue gas emissions, i.e. PM, SO2 & NOx from boiler stacks shall be controlled by multistage ESP with
one filed extra. Process gas emissions of HCl & Cl2 shall be controlled by stacks connected to the alkali
scrubber & DM water scrubber. Process gas emissions of HC shall be controlled by stacks connected to
activated carbon adsorption columns.

The ambient air quality & stack emission norms will be adhered to as per GPCB/CPCB norms by taking
following measures:

Construction Phase
For dust suppression, water sprinkling will be done from time to time.

Operation Phase
Appropriate control measures shall be taken to control ambient air quality. Details of the proposed
stacks, fuel used, quantity of fuel used, air pollution control measures (APCM), expected pollutants
and expected efficiency of APCM are tabulated in Table 2-20 & Table 2-21.

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Table 2-20: Details of Stacks, Fuel Used and APCM attached to Flue Gas Stacks
Stack Stack Exit Exit
S. Quantity of Expected Efficiency of
Stack Attached to Fuel Used APCM Height Top Dia. Temp. Velocity
No. Fuel Pollutants APCE
(m) (m) (°C) (m/s)
Boilers
1 Imported Coal 1,860 MT/Day ESP PM, SO2 & NOx > 99.5 % 105 3.5 140 18
(2 Nos.)
Adequate
2 DG Sets (2 Nos.) HSD 400 Ltr/Hr. PM, SO2 & NOx - 15 0.5 150 15
Stack Ht.

Table 2-21: Details of Stacks, APCM attached to Process Gas Stacks / Vents
S. Expected Stack Height Stack Top Exit Temp. Exit Velocity
Stack Attached to APCM
No. Pollutants (m) Dia. (m) (°C) (m/s)
1 Waste air De-Chlorination Unit -1 & 2 3 Stage Caustic Scrubbing System Cl2 30 0.4 35 1.5
Single Stage DM Water Scrubbing
2 HCl synthesis Unit 1 & 2 HCl, Cl2 30 0.15 35 1.5
System
Depleted air from solvent recovery
3 Activated Carbon Adsorption HC 32 0.4 40 2.5
Unit 1 & 2 (H2O2 Plant)
4 Calcium Chloride Plant Alkali Ventury Scrubber HCl, Cl2 11 0.2 30 1.5
5 CPW Plant Water + Alkali Scrubber HCl, Cl2 15 0.2 30 1.5
Chlorinator of Chloro Benzene Plant – Water Absorber + Glass Water
6 HCl, Cl2 22 0.2 30 1.5
MCB Scrubber + Caustic Scrubber
Chlorinator of Chloro Benzene Plant – Water Absorber + Glass Water
7 HCl, Cl2 22 0.2 30 1.5
ODCB/PDCB/TCB Scrubber + Caustic Scrubber
Water Absorber + Caustic
8 Chlorinator of Toluene Plant HCl, Cl2 22 0.2 30 1.5
Scrubber

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Design details of Absorber system – (to control HCl)


During the manufacture of some of the products gaseous Hydrogen chloride are evolved. These gases
are absorbed in water/ caustic soda solution. Hydrogen chloride gas is absorbed in water producing
31% Hydrochloric acid solution.

The absorber system is designed for absorbing a mixture of HCl. The system comprises of two FFA,
one Ventury absorber and a packed column as a tail gas absorber. The first FFA is for concentrating
HCl to 31% before it goes to the storage tank. In this dilute HCl solution is circulated as the
absorbent. Both HCl gas and absorbent liquid enters at the top (co-currently) and flows down as a film
through the tubular passage formed by the multi-block graphite absorber. The heat generated is
removed by the cooling water circulating through the utility passage.

The acid solution runs down into the circulating liquid holding tank and the unabsorbed gases go to a
ventury scrubber which absorbs part of the HCl and also creates a suction effect for the gas flow.

The exit gases from the ventury scrubber enters the second FFA where almost all the HCl is absorbed
in water. The gas and the absorbent liquid (caustic soda solution) flows counter-currently in the tower.
The top outlet of the scrubber will be practically free of HCl.

Process flow diagram for this absorption system is shown in Figure 2-12.

Figure 2-12: PFD for HCl Scrubbing System


Technical specifications of scrubbers are given in Table 2-22.

Table 2-22: Technical Details of Proposed APCM


S. No. APCM Equipment Specifications Emission Rate (mg/Nm3)
Type: Ventury Scrubber, Columns with
perforated trays. Capacity: 2,500 m3/Hr. HCl : 20
1 Alkali Scrubber
Efficiency: 99.5%, MOC: PP, Scrubbing Cl2: 9
Agent: 10% Caustic Soda Solution.
2 Scrubbers Carbon Tower (to remove organic traces) HC : 15

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Volume Source Emissions & Control

Due to the proposed activities in the project, SPM emission from coal stock piles shall be controlled by
providing wind shields in coal storage area / coal will be covered during monsoon season.

Line Source Emissions & Control

PUCC checked vehicles will only be allowed. Trucks will be covered with tarpaulin to reduce the
spillage of coal and common salt.

Fugitive Emissions & Control

Fugitive emissions from storage & handling area for raw materials, solvents, finished products is
envisaged due to proposed project. Odor of raw materials & finished goods shall be limited to plant
area. Fugitive emissions shall be controlled by taking following steps:

 All liquid raw materials and intermediates shall be charged into Reactors with pumps or under
gravity through closed pipes.
 All vents of holding tanks and dosing vessels shall be connected to a Vent Scrubber system
comprising of a suction Blower, Alkali Scrubber and an Activated Carbon Column before venting
through a tall stack.
 All process emissions will be passed through properly designed scrubber and finally released in to
atmosphere through adequate stack height;
 VOC present in the vent gas stream shall be absorbed in the Activated Carbon tower.
 Suction Hoods shall be placed near the Man-holes & Charging funnels of Reactors & Filters so that
chemical vapors and dust do not escape into the Plant & surroundings, when the man-hole covers
are opened for inspection or charging of RM.
 All storage tanks of low boiling solvents / chemical shall be provided with Conservation Vents.
 Vents of HCl storage tanks shall be provided with a Water filled trap to prevent Acid fumes from
escaping out.
 All pumps handling hazardous chemicals shall be provided with mechanical seals to prevent
fugitive emission. Wherever possible magnetic coupled pumps will be used.
 Any spillage from drums etc. will be absorbed with saw dust / soda ash and moped clean. The
contaminated absorbent will be safely disposed off along with hazardous waste.
 Storage tank will be provided with level gauge, dyke wall, automated loading and unloading for
the chemicals to avoid human contact.
 All storage tank will be designed and placed according to the Industrial Safety & Health
Department.
 Measuring Instruments with sound alarm and having strategically placed sensing elements will be
provided for alerting the personnel in case of any escape of gases like Chlorine, HCl vapors.

2.13 NOISE GENERATION

From the proposed project, noise shall be generated from the various activities. Source of noise
generation are:

 The heavy machinery like crane, dumper, roller, bulldozers etc. will be used during daytime;
 Operation of boiler, compressors, chillers, DG sets, etc. will have a permanent effect;
 Vehicle movement for transportation of raw material and finished goods.

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2.14 WATER CONSUMPTION, WASTE WATER GENERATION & DISPOSAL DETAILS

2.14.1 Water Consumption

As discussed in Section 2.7.3, Pg. 48, it is estimated the fresh water requirement would be 6,304
KLD by maximizing recycle and reuse concept & achieving ZLD. Principle areas of water consumption
are DM Plant, Process, Boiler, Cooling Tower, Industrial Domestic Use and gardening.

2.14.2 Waste Water Generation

The waste water will be generated from the process, utilities and domestic area. These will be treated
to achieve ZLD. Breakup of waste water generation is tabulated in Table 2-23.

2.14.3 Mode of Disposal

In the proposed project, ZLD concept will be adopted. Sewage generated from the domestic use will
be disposed into soak pit and septic tank. There will be no disposal of waste water outside the
premises in normal situation. Separate waste water stream and storm water line will be provided.

2.14.4 Water Balance Table & Chart

Water consumption & waste water generation is given in Table 2-23. By implementing various
recycle/reuse schemes as per Figure 2-13, 1,301 KLD water will be reused.

Table 2-23: Water Consumption and Waste Water Generation Details


Water Wastewater
Sr. Effluent Treatment
Description Consumption Generation
No. Facility
(KLD) (KLD)

1 Domestic 22 18 To Soak Pit


2 Cooling Tower 2,160 105 To ETP-2 followed by
3 DM Plant 5,053 150 RO & Reject from RO
i Boiler 300 300 sent to MEE.

To ETP-1 followed by
ii Synthetic Organic Plant 1,603 248
MEE & ATFD
iii Caustic Soda and other plants 3,000 315 To ETP-2 followed by
RO & Reject from RO
6 Washings 200 200
sent to MEE.
8 Gardening 170 - -
Total Water Consumption 7,605 1,336
Recycled water form ETP-1 & ETP-2 1,301
Total Fresh Water Consumption 6,304

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Figure 2-13: Water Balance Diagram

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2.14.5 Details of ETP

The effluent generated from the various areas are:

 Process Waste Water from Synthetic Organic Plant, Caustic Soda and other plants;
 Domestic sewage;
 Utility Blow downs – Boiler, Cooling Tower, DM Plant, washing etc.

Stream segregation at source will be carried out for segregation of high pollution level and low
pollution level of streams.

Wastewater Treatment Methodology

 Stream A: The wastewater generated from the manufacturing process consisting of high organic
contents with high TDS & high COD streams will be segregated from the other streams and
treated in MEE after primary treatment in ETP-1. The condensate from the MEE will be recycled
and reused in plant area.
 Stream B: Streams from caustic soda, utilities blow downs and washings water consisting of low
TDS & low COD will be treated in ETP-2 consisting primary and tertiary treatment. It will be then
send to recycling RO for reuse of water. Permeate water from the RO will be reuse in plant while
the reject water from the RO will be combined with stream from ETP 1 entering MEE for further
concentrate.
 Stream C: Domestic wastewater will be disposed into soak pit and septic tank.

Wastewater Characteristics

The characteristics of process wastewater from different streams are given in Table 2-24.

Table 2-24: Characteristics of Wastewater Streams


ETP – 1 ETP – 2
S. Synthetic Caustic soda and Boiler Cooling
Parameters DM
No. Organic Plant other plant Blow Tower Washing
Rejects
(Organic Stream) (Inorganic stream) Down Blow down
1 Flow 248 315 300 105 200 150
2 pH 3.5-6.5 7.5-8.5 7.0-9.0 7.0-9.0 7.0-9.0 7.0-9.0
3 COD 12,000 400 100 120 500 100
4 BOD 100-300 100 30 40 100 40
5 TDS 20,000 30,000 2,500 1,500 4,000 4,500
6 SS 500-600 400 100 100 200 200

Effluent Treatment Facility for Stream A – ETP 1

The wastewater generated from the manufacturing process i.e. synthetic organic plant consisting of
high TDS high COD stream will be treated in ETP-1 and further send to MEE for evaporation. The
condensate from the MEE will be completely recycled and reused in plant achieving Zero Liquid
Discharge.

The design inlet and outlet characteristics of proposed ETP-1 is given in Table 2-25.

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Table 2-25: Inlet and Outlet Characteristics of Wastewater for ETP-1


ETP-1 Outlet Characteristics
S. ETP-1 Inlet
Parameters Unit (which will merge as MEE
No. Characteristics
Feed Water)
1 Flow m3/day 246 246
2 pH - 5.0 - 6.0 6.5-7.5
3 COD mg/l 10,000 8,000
4 BOD mg/l 200 160
5 TDS mg/l 20,000 22,000
6 SS mg/l 600 200

Design Details of ETP - 1


ETP-1 is proposed with only primary treatment followed with advance tertiary treatment MEE. Unit
wise process description of ETP-1 is described as below.

Equalization Tanks
The combined effluent from manufacturing units will be taken to the Equalization tanks. The prime
purpose of these tanks is for collection and storage of effluents generated and to have proper
equalization of effluents in order to have constant load onto the further treatment units. The equalized
effluent will be further transferred to the flash mixer.

Flash Mixer
After equalization, effluent is pumped to flash mixer. Lime and alum dosing will be carried out in flash
mixer. The purpose of the flash mixers is better mixing of wastewater with alum, which helps in better
flock formation by bringing down the pH of wastewater up to 7 to 7.5.

Flocculator
Wastewater from Flash mixer overflows to a flocculator where polyelectrolyte will be added for
agglomeration and flocculation. Slow speed paddle type flocculator mechanism will be provided in this
tank for gentle mixing and flocc formation. Flocculated effluent will go to primary settling tank under
gravity.

Primary Settling Tank


Overflow from flocculation tank will pass through the Primary Settling Tank under gravity. Separation
of flock formed will take place in Primary Settling Tank. The settling tank is equipped with Tube Settler
Media bed in order to have enhanced settling characteristics. Clear effluent will then transferred to
MEE feed tank. The sludge will be collected into sludge collection sump.

Sludge Collection Sump


Primary chemical sludge from primary settling tank will be taken to sludge collection sump and then to
filter press for further drying of sludge. Dried sludge will be packed in HDPE/LDPE bags & will be
stored in hazardous waste storage area for final disposal in TSDF. Leachate generated will be recycled
back into Equalization Tank.

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MEE Feed Tank


The primary treated effluent from ETP 1 & RO Reject will collect into MEE feed tank for further
evaporation. MEE will be proposed for the concentration of aqueous solutions. Evaporation is carried
out by supplying heat to the solution to vaporize the solvent. The heat is supplied basically to provide
the latent heat of vaporization and by adopting methods for recovery of heat from the vapour, it has
been possible to achieve great economy in heat utilization.

The condensate from MEE will be recycled and reused in plant while salts from the MEE will be
disposed into TSDF after passing from ATFD.

Sludge/Salt Generation from ETP 1 and Disposal Facility


The sludge generated from the proposed ETP-1 will be about 150 kg/day including chemical sludge
which will be disposed at approved TSDF site.

Block Diagram – ETP 1


Block diagram of Proposed ETP – 1 is shown in Figure 2-14.

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Figure 2-14: Process Block Diagram – ETP 1

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Effluent Treatment Facility for Stream B – ETP 2

Wastewater from the utilities blow downs washing water, Caustic soda plant and other plants effluent
consisting high TDS low COD streams which will be treated in ETP-2 having primary and tertiary
treatment and treated effluent will be further send to recycling RO system. Permeate from the RO will
be reuse in plant and reject water from the RO will be send to MEE for further concentrate. Here no
treated wastewater to be discharged outside the project premises as adopting Zero Liquid Discharge
Concepts.

Wastewater characteristics of utilities blow downs and washing area is given in Table 2-24. MEE Feed
quality is given in Table 2-27. The design inlet and outlet characteristics of proposed ETP-2 is given
in Table 2-25.

Table 2-26: Inlet and Outlet Characteristics of Wastewater for ETP-2


Combined Inlet
S. Characteristics - to ETP-2 Inlet ETP-2 Outlet
Parameters Unit
No. ETP -2 Characteristics Characteristics
Stiochiometrically
1 Flow m3/day 1,070 1,070 1,070
2 pH - 6–7 6.5 – 8.5 6.5 – 8.5
3 COD mg/l 265 300 <100
4 BOD mg/l 66 100 <20
5 TDS mg/l 11,058 11,500 13,000
6 SS mg/l 212 250 <50

Table 2-27: MEE Feed Quality


S.
Parameters RO Reject ETP – 1 Outlet MEE Feed Quality
No.
1 Flow 428 248 676
2 pH 7–9 6.5 – 7.5 6–7
3 COD 400 8,000 1,909
4 BOD 100 160 128
5 TDS 32,000 22,000 30,015
6 SS 100 180 116

Design Details of ETP - 2


Unit wise process description of ETP-2 is described as below.

Equalization Tanks
The combined effluent from utilities blow downs, washings, DM regeneration, Caustic soda plant and
other plants will be taken to the Equalization tanks. The prime purpose of these tanks is for collection
and storage of effluents generated and to have proper equalization of effluents in order to have
constant load onto the further treatment units. The equalized effluent will be further transferred to the
flash mixer.

Flash Mixer

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After equalization, effluent is pumped to flash mixer. Lime and alum dosing will be carried out in flash
mixer. The purpose of the flash mixers is better mixing of wastewater with alum, which helps in better
flock formation by bringing down the pH of wastewater up to 7 to 7.5.

Flocculator
Wastewater from Flash mixer overflows to a flocculator where polyelectrolyte will be added for
agglomeration and flocculation. Slow speed paddle type flocculator mechanism will be provided in this
tank for gentle mixing and flocc formation. Flocculated effluent will go to primary settling tank under
gravity.

Primary Settling Tank


Overflow from flocculation tank will pass through the Primary Settling Tank under gravity. Separation
of flock formed will take place in Primary Settling Tank. The settling tank is equipped with Tube Settler
Media bed in order to have enhanced settling characteristics. Clear effluent will then transferred to
Intermediate Collection Tank. The sludge will be collected into sludge Collection Sump.

Intermediate Collection Tank


The clear effluent from the final settling tank shall be collected in an intermediate collection tank. In
this tank liquid chlorine in form of Sodium Hypochlorite (NaOCl) will be mixed using aeration grid
provided at the bottom of the tank. The aeration will help to achieve effective mixing of chlorine
solution with dosage of NaOCl for disinfection. The effluent is then pumped to Pressure Sand Filter &
Activated Carbon Filter for tertiary treatment.

Pressure Sand Filter


Pressure Sand Filter will be provided as a form of tertiary treatment for removal of residual suspended
solids. The filter consists of different gradations of gravel & sand bed. The filter will be provided with
necessary valve arrangements for inflow and outflow and backwashing of the system. The backwash
water of the system shall be taken to the Equalization tank / Primary Settling Tank for re treatment.

Activated Carbon Filter


Activated Carbon Filter will be provided as a form of tertiary treatment for removal of residual
organics, odour and colour. The filter consists of gradations of gravel & sand sub bed and over which
is provided activated carbon of high iodine value. The filter will be provided with necessary valve
arrangements for inflow and outflow and backwashing of the system. The backwash water of the
system shall be taken to the Equalization tank / Primary Settling Tank for re treatment.

Final Collection Tank


The outlet of PSF & ACF will be taken to the final collection tank. From this final collection tank the
treated wastewater will be transferred to recycling RO. Permeate from the RO will be reused in plant
and RO reject water will be sent to MEE for further evaporation and treatment.

Sludge Collection Sump


Primary chemical sludge from primary settling tank will be taken to sludge collection sump and then to
filter press for further drying of sludge. Dried sludge will be packed in HDPE/LDPE bags & will be
stored in hazardous waste storage area for final disposal in TSDF. Leachate generated will be recycled
back into Equalization Tank.

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Tertiary Recycling RO System


The treated waste water from the ETP-2 will be taken to RO feed tank. The Permeate water from the
RO will be recycled into plant area and reject water from RO will transferred to MEE for further
evaporation and removal of salts form the wastewater.

MEE Feed Tank


The RO reject water will collect into MEE feed tank. MEE will be proposed for the concentration of
aqueous solutions. Evaporation is carried out by supplying heat to the solution to vaporize the solvent.
The heat is supplied basically to provide the latent heat of vaporization and by adopting methods for
recovery of heat from the vapour, it has been possible to achieve great economy in heat utilization.
The MEE condensate will be reused in plant and MEE concentrate will be further passes into ATFD.
Salts from the ATFD will be disposed at TSDF facility.

Sludge/Salt Generation from ETP 2 and Disposal Facility


The sludge generated from the proposed ETP-2 will be about 320 kg/day including chemical sludge
and moisture which will be disposed at approved TSDF site. Salts generated from the MEE will be
about 17 TPD which will be disposed at approved TSDF site.

Block Diagram – ETP 2


Block diagram of Proposed ETP – 2 is shown in Figure 2-15.

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Figure 2-15: Process Block Diagram – ETP 2

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Total Sludge/Salt Generation and Disposal Facility


Total sludge generation from the ETP’s will be about 470 kg/day. The MEE salt generation will be
about 17 TPD.

Water Conservation Measures

Following measures shall be taken to reduce fresh water demand:

 Use of drip irrigation/sprinkling system for green belt development, which will reduce the fresh
water demand;
 Washing water shall be again reused;
 Recycling RO and MEE is proposed to reuse ETP treated water;
 Avoid the leakage of water sources which will be maintained by continuous monitoring by flow
measurements.

Action Plan for Zero Liquid Discharge

The waste water will be generated from the process, utilities and domestic area. The process effluent
along with utilities blowdowns and domestic sewage will be treated in ETP followed by RO. The
permeate from the RO will be reused in plant areas and reject will be treated into MEE. Advance
systems like ATFD / Spray dryers shall be equipped to achieve” Zero Liquid Discharge” concept.

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2.15 SOLID AND HAZARDOUS WASTE IDENTIFICATION, QUANTIFICATION,


STORAGE AND DISPOSAL

2.15.1 Identification of Waste

From the proposed project, it is envisaged that different type of hazardous waste like Used/spent oil,
Distillation residue, Process waste from CaCl2 Plant, Chemical containing residue arising from
decontamination, Discarded containers/barrels/liners contaminated with hazardous waste, Chemical
sludge from waste water treatment, ATFD / Spray Dryer Solid Waste, Inorganic acids (HCl) shall be
generated.

Non-hazardous solid waste like Brine Sludge will be stored in in-house SLF and disposed to authorized
TSDF. Fly ash shall be disposed off as per Fly ash notification.

Based on the Hazardous Waste (Management, Handling and Transboundary Movement) Rules, 2016,
as amended till date, categorization, storage and disposal of both process and non-process wastes
shall be done.

In-principal approval for receiving landfilling / incineration waste by Saurastra Enviro Projects Pvt. Ltd.,
Kutch Facility is received and attached as Annexure 6.

2.15.2 Categorization, Storage and Disposal of Waste

Based on the Hazardous Waste (Management, Handling and Transboundary Movement) Rules, 2016,
as amended till date, categorization, storage and disposal of both process and non-process wastes are
provided in Table 2-28.

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Table 2-28: Categorization, Storage and Disposal of Waste


S. No Waste Name Category MT/Year Source Means of storage Disposal Method

Hazardous Waste

1 Distillation residue 20.3 200 Hydrogenation Process Drums Incineration

2 Used/spent oil 5.1 10 Utilities Drums Sold to authorized Recyclers


Collection, decontamination & sold
3 Discarded drums and containers 33.1 6,000 Nos. Process As it is
to authorized vendor
Contaminated cotton rags or other
4 33.2 1 Handling Poly Bag / Drums Incineration
cleaning materials

5 ETP waste and MEE salts 35.3 6,125 ETP & MEE HDPE Bags TSDF

Non-Hazardous Waste
1 Brine Sludge -- 23,400 Caustic Soda Inhouse SLF As per rules.

2 Solid Waste -- 9,000 Calcium Chloride HDPE Bags Can be sold as Stabilizer/agriculture
Shall be given to Brick/Cement
3 Fly Ash -- 50,000 Power plant Silos
manufacturing Industries

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2.15.3 Storage Area

Adequate storage space to store hazardous waste for maximum 90 days will be provided.

2.15.4 Treatment of Waste

The waste will be neutralized before sending to Landfill if required.

2.15.5 Transportation of Waste

 The transport of the hazardous wastes will be in accordance with the provisions of The Hazardous
Waste (Management, Handling and Trans boundary Movement) Rules, 2016 as amended till date
and the rules made by the Central Government under the Motor Vehicles Act. 1988
 Manifest system will be followed in accordance with Form 13 of Hazardous Waste (Management,
Handling and Trans boundary Movement) Rules, 2016 as amended till date.
 TREM card will be provided to the transport drivers as per Form 11 of Hazardous Waste
(Management, Handling and Trans boundary Movement) Rules, 2016 as amended till date.

2.15.6 Safety System during Handling and Transportation of Waste

PPE’s like hand gloves, organic mask, gum boots/safety shoes, dust mask/ nose mask will be provided
to workers and drivers involved in handling and transportation of hazardous waste.

2.16 MITIGATION MEASURES AT DESIGN STAGE

Description of operation control incorporated into the project to meet environmental standards,
environmental operating conditions at design stage are tabulated in Table 2-29.

2.17 ASSESSMENT OF NEW AND UNTESTED TECHNOLOGY

No recommendation of Assessment of New and Untested Technology was given during appraisal
stage, hence it is not carried out.

World-wide tested technology for manufacturing of technical grade of pesticides shall be used.

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Table 2-29: Operational Controls at Design Stage


Operational Controls at Design Stage
S. Air Water Hazardous Waste
Name of Plant Parameters
No.
Air (Prevention & Control of Water (Prevention & Control Hazardous Waste (Management Handling &
Pollution) Act – 1981 of Pollution) Act – 1974 Trans Boundary Movement) Rules, 2016.
Energy Energy efficiency will be considered during technology selection.
HCl, Cl2 & HC Scrubber -- --
Waste Water -- ETP with MEE and RO/ATFD. --
1 Chlor Alkali
Solid Waste -- -- Brine Sludge will be stored in inhouse SLF.
Interlocks, gas detection systems, alarm system, solvent recovery system, sprinkler system, control valves and fire
Safety
hydrant system with water curtains will be designed and provided.
Energy Energy efficiency will be considered during technology selection.
HCl, Cl2 & HC Scrubber -- --
Waste Water -- ETP with MEE and RO/ATFD. --
Synthetic
2 Impervious flooring with adequate storage space
Organic Units Hazardous Waste -- --
and dyke wall will be provided.
Interlocks, gas detection systems, alarm system, solvent recovery system, sprinkler system, control valves and fire
Safety
hydrant system with water curtains will be designed and provided.
Adequate Stack Height, low
SPM, SO2, NOx sulphur content will be -- --
purchased.
Coal based Waste Water -- Treated in ETP and RO. --
3
power plant Impervious flooring with adequate storage space
Hazardous Waste -- --
and dyke wall will be provided.
Interlocks, gas detection systems, alarm system, solvent recovery system, sprinkler system, control valves and fire
Safety
hydrant system with water curtains will be designed and provided.
SPM, SO2, NOx Adequate Stack Ht. -- --
Operation of
4 Waste Water -- Treated in ETP followed by RO. --
Utilities
Hazardous Waste -- -- Sold to Authorized Agencies.

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3 DESCRIPTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT

3.1 STUDY AREA

The study area is considered within 10 km radius of the project site. Study area map of proposed
project on google image and toposheet is shown in Map 3-1 & Figure 3-1.

3.2 PERIOD

Baseline monitoring study and surveys of the study area has been carried out in summer season from
15th March, 2016 to 15st June, 2016.

3.3 COMPONENTS

The baseline environmental data of valued environmental components with respect to air, noise,
water, land, flora, fauna, socio-economic and soil quality in the study area was collected by conducting
primary data collection which includes sampling/field studies, survey & secondary data collection as
mandated by the ToR issued by EAC.

3.4 METHODOLOGY

The guidelines given in the EIA Manual of the MoEFCC and methodologies mentioned in Technical EIA
Guidelines Manual for Pesticides Industries and Pesticide Specific Intermediates by IL&FS Ecosmart
Ltd., approved by MoEFCC is followed for conducting the baseline environmental survey.

Field monitoring for meteorological conditions, ambient air quality, water quality, noise quality, Soil
quality etc. has been carried out, which constitutes major portion of the baseline environmental
studies. In addition to these important parameters, certain aspects like land use, socio-economic
studies, Ecological and Biodiversity studies etc. are covered during the study period.

This information is based on secondary information sources and constitutes remaining part of the
baseline environmental studies. Sampling location map within the study area is shown in Map 3-2.

The entire data has been collected through actual physical surveys and observations, literature
surveys, interaction with locals, government agencies and departments.

3.4.1 Primary data Collection

Primary Data collected includes:

Sampling/Field Studies Survey

 Ambient air quality  Land Use Pattern


 Noise  Flora and Fauna
 Ground water/Surface water quality
 Soil Quality

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Map 3-1: Study Area Map – 10 Km from Project Site

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Figure 3-1: Project Site on Toposheet No. F42E4 (Gandhidham, Gujarat)

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Map 3-2: Sampling Location Map

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3.4.2 Secondary Data Collection

This includes review of secondary/published information on:

 Socio-Economic profile;
 Sensitive area as biosphere reserve, forests, sanctuaries, places of historical, archeological,
tourist’s importance, etc. if any.

3.5 ESTABLISHMENT OF BASELINE FOR VALUED ENVIRONMENTAL


COMPONENTS

3.5.1 Long Term Meteorology3

The climate of the study area is based on information from the most recent published long-term
climatological tables (1981 – 2010) by Indian Meteorological Department (IMD), for New Kandla
(Station ID: 42639).

The observatory was in the Harbour area of New Kandla.

A copy of the long-term climatological data is enclosed as Annexure 8. These tables give useful
information about a region’s weather, since they are collected over a 29-year period.

Temperature

The highest monthly temperature (mean) & daily maximum temperature (mean) recorded are 40.1°C
& 35.5°C in the month of May. The highest temperature recorded was 47.1°C on 18th June, 1979.

January is generally the coldest month, with daily minimum (mean) temperature of 14.5°C. The lowest
temperature recorded was 4.4°C on 10th January, 1954.

During summer season, i.e. March - May, mean dry bulb temperature remain between 22.4º – 34.1ºC.

Humidity

Most humid conditions are found in the monsoons, followed by summer, post-monsoons, and winter in
that order. Mornings are more humid than evenings, highest relative humidity is recorded as 83% in
August mornings followed by 82% in July mornings.

During summer season, morning relative humidity remains between 68 – 76 % and in the evening it
remains between 40 – 56 %.

Rainfall

The distribution of rainfall in the region, which includes the study area, is regular. Annual total rainfall
in the region is 407.4 mm. Number of rainy days are 17.3.

Distribution of rainfall by season is 384.4 mm in monsoons (June, July, August, September), 18.7 mm
in October to December, 0.2 mm in January & February and 4.0 mm March to May. About 94.3

3
Indian Meteorological Department (IMD), Long Term Climatological Tables, 1969 -1990, Broach (Bharuch) District.

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percent of the annual rainfall in the region is received during the monsoon months i.e. June to
September. July is the rainiest month.

Heaviest rainfall in 24 hours was 224 mm recorded on 11th July, 1981. July is having maximum
number of rainy days i.e. 6.5.

Cloud Cover

The area remains cloudy between July - August, which is the active period of the monsoon season.
Generally cloud cover ranges from 1.2 to 5.4 OKTAS during monsoon season.

In the summer season cloud cover ranges from 0.2 to 1.4 OKTAS.

Wind

Long term wind direction data is presented in Table 3-1. Overall for the whole year, first predominant
wind directions is from SW Direction (31.0%), second predominant wind direction is from W (18.5%)
and third predominant wind direction is from N Direction (15%).

During the summer period, first predominant wind directions is from SW Direction (44.5%), second
predominant wind direction is from W (21.8%) and third predominant wind direction is from S
Direction (12.5%). Average wind speed in this period was 14.5 Km/Hr (4.0 m/sec).

Table 3-1: Predominant Wind Direction based on Long-term Data


Predominant Wind
Month First Second Third
Morning Evening Morning Evening Morning Evening
January N N NW NE NE SW / NW
February N N / SW NW S NE / W NE
March W SW NW S N / SW N
April SW SW W S NW W
May SW SW W W S S
June SW SW W W S S
July SW SW W W S S
August SW SW W W S S
September W SW SW W NW S
October N SW NW S W N
November N N NW NE NE SW
December N N NW NE NE NW

Average Long Term Meteorological Condition

Average meteorological condition is given in Table 3-2.

Table 3-2: Average Meteorological Condition based on Long-term Data


Mean Daily No. of Relative Relative
Temperature Rainfall (mm)
Month Rainy Humidity (%), Humidity (%),
Monthly Total
Max Min days (Morning) (Evening)

January 26.1 14.5 0.2 0 62 40

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Mean Daily No. of Relative Relative


Temperature Rainfall (mm)
Month Rainy Humidity (%), Humidity (%),
Monthly Total
Max Min days (Morning) (Evening)

February 28.6 16.7 0 0.1 63 36


March 32.4 20.7 0.8 0.1 68 40
April 34.7 23.9 0.1 0 73 48
May 35.5 26.7 3.1 0.2 76 56
June 35.2 28.1 64.7 1.9 78 61
July 32.9 27.3 175.7 6.5 82 68
August 31.8 26.3 99.1 5.4 83 69
September 33.3 25.9 44.9 2.1 80 60
October 34.9 24.6 14 0.6 70 46
November 31.7 20.4 3.3 0.4 64 41
December 27.6 16 1.4 0.1 62 42
Total -- -- 407.4 17.3 -- --
Average 32.1 22.6 -- -- 72 51

3.5.2 Site Specific Meteorology

Baseline meteorological data has been collected hourly by installing automatic meteorological station
at roof top of security building of existing unit, near Varsana Village which is 1.0 Km in S direction
from proposed project site.

Methodology for Collection of Meteorological Parameters

Methodology for meteorological data collection is given in Table 3-3.

Table 3-3: Monitoring Methodology of Meteorological Data


Sample collection
Total
S. Sampling Sensitivity/ Sampling
Sampling Sampling Methodology
No. Parameters Detection Frequency
equipment Period
Limit
Anemometer
1 Wind Speed cup counter 0.25 m/s
(0 to 65 m/s)
Wind vane As per
2 Wind Direction 1° manufacturer’s
(0° to 357°)
manual
Thermometer Hourly
3 Temperature 0.1°C Summer - (IS 8829 -1978)
(-40° to 60°)
2016 Instruments are
Relative calibrated.
4 Humidity Humidity meter 3%
(0-99%)
5 Rainfall Rain gauge 0.5 mm
Visual Inspection
6 Cloud Cover -- -- 4 Hourly
by the observer.

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Summer 2016’s Site Specific Meteorological Data

The data obtained have then been compiled to obtain average data as shown in Table 3-4.

Table 3-4: Average Meteorological Data at Varsana Village


Relative Wind Cloud
Wind Rainfall,
Time Temp °C Humidity Speed Cover,
Direction mm
% (m/sec) Octas
Average /
32.5 44 6.1 WSW 9.8 1.0
Predominant

Compiled mean meteorological data is represented in Table 3-5.

Table 3-5: Mean Meteorological Data of Varsana Village


Relative Wind Speed Wind Cloud Cover, Rainfall,
Time Temp °C
Humidity % (m/sec) Direction Octas mm
0:00 30.5 50 6.3 W 10.8 1.1
1:00 29.7 53 6.2 W 12.5 1.2
2:00 28.8 55 5.9 WSW 12.6 1.3
3:00 28.2 56 5.5 WSW 14.0 1.4
4:00 27.7 59 5.5 WSW 13.2 1.3
5:00 27.6 61 5.4 W 14.2 1.4
6:00 27.3 63 5.2 WSW/W 13.9 1.4
7:00 28.1 59 5.3 W 12.7 1.3
8:00 29.2 56 5.4 W 12.5 1.3
9:00 30.2 53 5.5 W 12.3 1.2
10:00 32.3 46 5.5 W 10.4 1.0
11:00 34.4 38 5.6 W 9.3 0.9
12:00 35.5 32 5.4 WSW 6.9 0.7
13:00 36.5 29 5.7 WSW 6.6 0.7
14:00 37.4 27 5.9 SW 6.5 0.7
15:00 38.0 25 6.1 SW 6.8 0.7
16:00 37.6 27 6.6 SW 7.1 0.7
17:00 37.1 28 7.0 WSW 7.3 0.7
18:00 36.8 29 7.4 WSW 7.5 0.8
19:00 35.8 34 7.3 WSW 7.5 0.8
20:00 34.5 38 7.1 WSW 7.1 0.7
21:00 33.3 42 7.0 WSW 7.0 0.7
22:00 32.5 45 6.8 WSW 8.1 0.8
23:00 31.5 48 6.6 W 9.3 0.9

Site-specific meteorological data shows that:

 Average wind speed in the summer season was 6.1 m/sec. Maximum wind speed recorded was
12.5 m/sec at 1600 Hrs, 22nd May.
 Wind blows predominantly from WSW to ENE direction (32.0%). Calm wind contributes to about
4.14 % of all winds. Windrose diagram is shown as Figure 3-2.

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 Average temperature recorded for summer season was 32.5°C with maximum temperature
recorded as 46.2°C at 1500 Hrs, 19th May and minimum of 22.1°C at 0600 Hrs, 14th March.
 The average relative humidity was 44% with maximum humidity recorded as 85.4% at 0500 Hrs,
01st April and minimum of 11.9% at 1500 Hrs, 1st March.

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Figure 3-2: Windrose Diagram for Summer Season – 2016

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Collation of Site Specific Data with Secondary Data of IMD

Site specific Meteorological data is compared with IMD’s secondary data as shown in Table 3-6.

Table 3-6: Collation of Meteorological data – Summer Season


S.
Parameters Site Specific IMD (Long term 1981 – 2010)
No.
1 Average Wind Speed 21.85 Km/Hr. 14.50 Km/Hr.
Predominant Wind
2 SW to NE direction (32.0 %). SW to NE direction (44.5 %).
Direction (From)
Max. – 46.2 °C. Max. – 45.9 °C. (4th May, 2002)
3 Temperature
Min. – 22.1 °C. Min. – 12.8 °C (1st March, 1972).
Max. – 85.4 %. Max. – 76 %.
4 Relative Humidity
Min. – 11.9 %. Min. – 17.8 %.

3.5.3 Land Use

Methodology Adopted for Land Use / Land Cover Study

Land Use and Land Cover is classified in Annexure 9. The project area was placed, based on co-
ordinates taken on the site, on satellite imagery and determined the study area for the proposed
project. The resulting satellite data of study area was interpreted through onscreen visual
interpretation using basic elements of interpretation resulting in the combined land use/cover map for
the proposed project.

To accomplish the objective the following steps were undertaken:

 Study and collection of relevant documents and maps


 Interpretation of satellite data
 Ground truth study/Field survey
 Final map preparation

Study and Collection of Relevant Documents and Maps


This covers:

 Downloading of remote sensing data using the licensed software, Google Earth Pro having high
resolution (<1.0 m) imagery.
 Topographical maps as base map.
 Reconnaissance survey of the study area to get a general feel of the entire ground area which can
aid in the preliminary interpretation of the data.

Interpretation of Satellite Data


The downloaded satellite imagery was imported to software and geo referencing of the imagery was
done by registering it to the SOI maps through identification of common points between the map and
the image.

Considering the basic elements of interpretation, such as tone, size, shape, texture, pattern, location,
association, shadow, aspect and resolution along with ground truth and ancillary information collected
during the preliminary reconnaissance survey, the interpretation was accomplished.

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Ground Truth Studies/Field survey


A detailed ground truth was carried out to check the discrepancy of the interpreted data. It comprises
of data collection of ground features along with the respective geographical position in terms of
latitudes and longitudes. The aim of ground truth studies is to confirm whether the interpreted land
use / cover are correct thus improving the quality of the output. Interaction was done with local
people to gather background information.

The field survey consisted of traversing the study area, cross-checking of unidentified features. Field
notes were kept in the form of log sheets recording information pertaining to co-ordinates,
photographs and identified land use/cover. Additional features identified or remarks made against
existing interpretation were also recorded. A field visit was done on 13th April, 2016.

Table 3-7 & Photograph 3-1 enumerates the land features in the study area and its corresponding
GPS readings of all the ground truthing locations verified.

Table 3-7: GPS Reading Enumerating the Land Use Features in Study Area
S. No. Latitude Longitude Location Classes

1 23° 11’ 14.3” 70° 09‘ 47.0” Bhimasar Waterbody


2 23° 13’ 46.5” 70° 11’ 15.4” Pasuda Village
3 23° 14’ 11.9” 70° 08’ 17.8” Tapar Canal
4 23° 14’ 50.1” 70° 07’ 38.5” Tapar Dam
5 23° 10’ 59.6” 70° 10’ 03.2” Bhimasar Industrial Area
6 23° 10’ 21.1” 70° 11’ 11.3” Bhimasar Project site
7 23° 08’ 46.1” 70° 09’ 01.4” Modvadar Waterbody
8 23° 09’ 49.5” 70° 06’ 49.4” Ajapar Village
9 23° 11’ 17.7” 70° 13’ 48.2” Yasodadham Colony

Photograph 3-1: Photographs Showing Different Type of Land Use in Study Area

Salt pans on southern region Tapar village Prosopis juliflora covered region

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Bhimasar water body Scrub region

Tapar canal Bhimasar Industrial Area

Class wise Area Statistics

The area statistics of these classes are presented in Table 3-8.

Table 3-8: Area Statistic for Land Use / Land Cover Categories in the Study Area
Sr. Primary Secondary Area, Secondary Class Area, Primacy Class
No. Classification Classification km2 Ha. ~% km2 Ha. ~%
Residential /
Built-up Land 4.3 430 1.3
1 Commercial 14.7 1,471 4.4
or Habitation
Industrial 10.4 1,041 3.1
Agricultural
2 Crop Land/Fallow Land 137.2 13,722 40.8 137.3 13,725 40.8
Land
Plantation 0.0 3 0.0
Land without Scrub 17.2 1,718 5.1
3 Wastelands 31.9 3,192 9.5
Mudflat 14.6 1,462 4.3
Salt affected land 0.1 12 0.0
Reservoir / Lakes /
2.8 275 0.8
Ponds / Tanks
4 Water Bodies 11.8 1,176 3.5
River Beds 1.9 190 0.6
Creek 7.1 710 2.1
5 Scrub 57.1 5,707 17.0 100.3 10,033 29.8

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Sr. Primary Secondary Area, Secondary Class Area, Primacy Class


No. Classification Classification km2 Ha. ~% km2 Ha. ~%
Open Vegetation 32.4 3,245 9.6

Vegetation Close Vegetation 1.0 103 0.3


Cover

Mangroves 9.8 978 2.9

Salt Pans 39.2 3,924 11.7 39.2 3,924 11.7


6 Others
Storage area 1.5 153 0.5 1.5 153 0.5
Total 336.7 33,675 100

Note: Road, Railways, Canals are not calculated separately in area statistics
Following were observed and noted during the study:

 The most observed category in the region was agriculture, scrub and salt pans as per area
covered;
 The crops grown in this region was mostly juwar (Sorghum vulgare), bajra (Pennisetum glaucum),
and Moong (Vigna radiate) during rainy seasons. Other crops like wheat, guwar, groundnut, til,
cotton and castor are grown in some area. The cultivation is essentially through rain water and in
some area through bore wells. It was observed that along the agriculture land there was
plantation of Coconut and Khajur;
 Also along the coast there was stretch of Mudflat, and Salt affected land;
 Sang and Sakra rivers flows through the region, which meets the sea. There were Khadawali,
Bhojawali, Sanu and Sara creeks flows through the study area;
 Near Pasuda on the northern region there are scrubs having Capparis deciduas, Cassia tora etc.
dominated shrub species. Open and Close vegetation region were mixed species dominated by
Prosopis juliflora and Acacia nilotica;
 The Mangroves were well distributed along the creek in the region;
 Industrial area in the study area was spread along the highway NH 8A.

Final Map Preparation


The proportional presence of different land uses and land cover in terms of statistical percentages was
derived for the study area. Appropriate legends were used to represent the various categories of land
use and land cover, and were then represented on land use and land cover map, Map 3-3.

Important Features of Project Site & Study Area

There is no Biosphere Reserve, National Park, Sanctuary & Reserved Forests within the study area.
However, details of the important features in the study area are provided in Table 3-9.

Table 3-9: Important Features within the Study Area


S. N. Features Details falling within study area
1 Critically Polluted Areas None Identified
2 National Park / Wildlife Sanctuary None Identified
Tiger Reserve / Elephant Reserve /
3 None Identified
Turtle Nesting Ground

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4 Core Zone of Biosphere Reserve None Identified


5 Reserved / Protected / Social Forests None Identified in Study area.
6 Habitat for migratory birds None Identified
Estuary: Nearest Estuary ( ~ 7.5 Km towards SE)
Sea: Gulf of Kutch ( ~ 20 Km towards SSE)
Estuary / Sea / Lakes / Reservoir / Dams River: Churva River (~ 3.5 Km towards S)
7
/ Streams / River Ponds: Approximately 14 Ponds within study area, having
4 ponds within 5 Km from project site as tabulated in
Table 3-10.
None Identified in Study area.
8 Mangroves
Afforested Mangroves ( ~ 7 Km towards E)
9 Mountains / Hills None Identified
10 Archaeological Sites (as per ASI) None Identified
11 Defense Installation None Identified

Table 3-10: Ponds within 5 Km from Project Site


S. N. Pond / River / Other Water Bodies Distance in Km / Direction w.r.t Site
1 Padana Pond ~ 1.0 / S
2 Varsana Pond ~ 1.5 / ENE
3 Bhimasar Pond ~ 2.5 / NW
4 Modvadar Pond ~ 4.5 / SW

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Map 3-3: Land Use Map

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3.5.4 Ambient Air

Ambient Quality Monitoring was conducted at Eight (8) locations within the study area.

Sampling Frequency

The frequency of monitoring was 24 hours (PM10, PM2.5, Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx))
& 1 hour (HCl & Cl2), twice a week at each station spread over the entire season. Grab sampling for
gaseous parameters like HC (Methane and Nonmethane) & VOC taken atleast twice a month.

Methodology Adopted for AAQM Parameters

The parameters monitored were PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NOx, HCl, Cl2, HC (Methane and Nonmethane) &
VOC. Other parameters as specified in ToR, i.e. CO2, CO, acid mist were not analyzed as source for the
same is not envisaged from the project. The detailed monitoring methodology for ambient air is given
in Table 3-11.

Table 3-11: Methodology of Analyzing Ambient Air Monitoring Parameters


Sampling Sampling equipment / Analytical Sensitivity/
Methodology
Parameters Solution used Equipment Detection Limit
Respirable Dust Sampler with Electronic Gravimetric IS: 5182
PM10 10 µg/m3
Cyclone & Flow measurement balance (Part 23) 2006
Electronic
PM2.5 Fine Particulate Sampler 3 µg/m3 Gravimetric
Balance
Gaseous Flow (Impinger with Spectro Colorimetric IS:
SO2 3.7 µg/m3
TCM) with RDS photometer 5182: (Part II) 2001
Gaseous Flow (Impinger with
Spectro Colorimetric IS:
NOX Sodium Hydroxide (0.1 N) 6 µg/m3
photometer 5182: (Part VI) 2006
Media) with RDS
Gaseous Flow (Impinger with Titrimetric Argentometric
HCl 0.2 µg/m3
Distilled Water) with RDS Method Method
Gaseous Flow (Impinger with IS 5182 (Part 19):
Cl2 Colorimetric 1.0 µg/m3
Methyl Orange) with RDS 1982
HC (Methane
& Non Bladder & Pump GC 1 ppm IS 5182 (Part 21)
Methane)
Bladder & Pump
VOC GC 1 ppm IS 5182 (Part 2)
(Charcoal adsorption/ analyzer)

AAQM Monitoring Locations

The locations for AAQM were decided based on the prescribed guidelines4. For this EIA, the purpose is
to ascertain the baseline pollutant concentrations in ambient air. Accordingly, the criterion was
selected to ascertain quality of air at important human settlements (residential areas).

4
As per Guidelines for Ambient Air Quality Monitoring by CPCB, MoEF Published as SERIES: NAAQMS/ …/2003-04, April,
2013

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Details of AAQM monitoring locations and justification for selecting these stations are presented in
Table 3-12 & Photograph 3-2.
Table 3-12: AAQM Locations with Justification
AAQM Location & Distance from Direction w. r. t Justification for
Source
Station Address Project Site in Km Project Site selection of station
AA01 At Project Site Industrial 0 - Core station
AA02 Varsana Residential ~ 1.25 NE 1st Downwind
AA03 Nandgaon Residential ~ 3.85 NE 2nd Downwind
AA04 At KCIL (Unit 1) Industrial ~ 0.40 SW 1st Upwind
AA05 Padana Residential ~ 1.10 S 1st Crosswind
AA06 Bhimasar Residential ~ 2.50 NW 2nd Crosswind
AA07 Modvadar Residential ~ 4.00 SW 2nd Upwind
3rd Crosswind (1st
downwind to 3rd
AA08 Pashuda Residential ~ 6.20 N
predominant Wind
Direction)

Photograph 3-2: Photographs of AAQ Sampling Stations

Ambient Air Monitoring Station at Varsana Ambient Air Monitoring at Nandgaon

Ambient Air Monitoring at KCIL Unit 1 Ambient Air Monitoring at Bhimasar

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Ambient Air Monitoring at Modvadar Ambient Air Monitoring at Pashuda

AAQM Results

Detailed result of AAQM are given in Annexure 11. Complied average data are represented in Table
3-13.
The comparison of the results with the value range indicators provided by CPCB ( Annexure 10) and
Factories Act indicates:

 Average concentration of PM10 recorded ranged from minimum 54 µg/m3 (At Pashuda Village) to
maximum 134 µg/m3 (At Project Site);
 Average concentration of PM2.5 recorded raged from minimum 13 µg/m3 (At Padana) to maximum
75 µg/m3 (At Varsana Village);
 It is noted that the average PM10 & PM2.5 results does not exceeds the permissible limits of 100
µg/m3 & 60 µg/m3 respectively for 24 Hrs. at all locations except at KCIL, Unit – 1 (only PM10)
which could be due to:
 Operation of existing unit (industrial activities);
 Near coastal regional, influence of windy atmosphere;
 Vehicular movement on the “ kaccha” road connecting site to main highway.
 The concentration of SO2 (8.0 – 11.7 µg/m3), NOx (18.1 – 44.8 µg/m3), HCl ( < 1.0 – 8.6 µg/m3),
Cl2 (< 1.0 – 12.2 µg/m3) & HC Methane (994 – 1,411 µg/m3) are within permissible limits as
prescribed by CPCB & Factories act;
 The concentration of NMHC – Non-Methane & VOC were below detectable limit.

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Table 3-13: Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Results


Parameters & Results
All stations are in Note: All units are in µg/m . Figures in brackets indicate CPCB limits. Minimum Reportable Readings are 8 µg/m3
3

Industrial, for SO2, 10 µg/m3 for NOX & NMHC, 1.0 µg/m3 for Cl2 & HCl, 800 µg/m3 for HC & 1.0 ppm for VOC.
Station
Residential, Rural
code PM10 PM2.5 SO2 NOX HCl Cl2 HC NMHC's VOC
& Other Areas
(CPCB) 100 60 80 80
NS NS NS NS NS
[24 Hours] [24 Hours] [24 Hours] [24 Hours]

AA1 At Project Site

Maximum 134 56 10.8 44.8 < 1.0 < 1.0 1,215 < 10 < 1 ppm
Minimum 62 18 8.0 18.1 < 1.0 < 1.0 994 < 10 < 1 ppm
Average 89 28 9.2 29.8 < 1.0 < 1.0 1,124 < 10 < 1 ppm
98%tile 134 52 10.6 43.6 < 1.0 < 1.0 1,213 < 10 < 1 ppm
AA2 Varsana
Maximum 129 75 10.8 43.6 < 1.0 < 1.0 1,323 < 10 < 1 ppm
Minimum 71 23 8.0 27.9 < 1.0 < 1.0 1,017 < 10 < 1 ppm
Average 95 34 9.4 33.9 < 1.0 < 1.0 1,160 < 10 < 1 ppm
98%tile 129 75 10.7 43.1 < 1.0 < 1.0 1,315 < 10 < 1 ppm
AA3 Nandgaon
Maximum 117 45 11.7 44.6 < 1.0 < 1.0 1,317 < 10 < 1 ppm
Minimum 61 19 8.0 27.7 < 1.0 < 1.0 1,040 < 10 < 1 ppm
Average 89 29 9.1 34.2 < 1.0 < 1.0 1,198 < 10 < 1 ppm
98%tile 117 42 11.3 44.2 < 1.0 < 1.0 1,315 < 10 < 1 ppm
AA4 KCIL (Unit 1)
Maximum 127 50 10.8 44.5 8.6 12.2 1,379 < 10 < 1 ppm
Minimum 68 23 8.0 21.2 < 1.0 < 1.0 1,037 < 10 < 1 ppm
Average 103 31 9.5 34.4 2.7 4.0 1,203 < 10 < 1 ppm
98%tile 127 46 10.7 44.2 8.4 12.0 1,374 < 10 < 1 ppm

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Parameters & Results


All stations are in Note: All units are in µg/m . Figures in brackets indicate CPCB limits. Minimum Reportable Readings are 8 µg/m3
3

Industrial, for SO2, 10 µg/m3 for NOX & NMHC, 1.0 µg/m3 for Cl2 & HCl, 800 µg/m3 for HC & 1.0 ppm for VOC.
Station
Residential, Rural
code PM10 PM2.5 SO2 NOX HCl Cl2 HC NMHC's VOC
& Other Areas
(CPCB) 100 60 80 80
NS NS NS NS NS
[24 Hours] [24 Hours] [24 Hours] [24 Hours]
AA5 Padana
Maximum 118 36 10.9 43.4 < 1.0 < 1.0 1,370 < 10 < 1 ppm
Minimum 63 13 8.0 21.3 < 1.0 < 1.0 1,083 < 10 < 1 ppm
Average 91 28 9.5 32.3 < 1.0 < 1.0 1,215 < 10 < 1 ppm
98%tile 117 36 10.8 43.0 < 1.0 < 1.0 1,360 < 10 < 1 ppm
AA6 Bhimasar
Maximum 125 44 10.5 41.5 < 1.0 < 1.0 1,411 < 10 < 1 ppm
Minimum 73 16 8.0 22.6 < 1.0 < 1.0 1,112 < 10 < 1 ppm
Average 94 29 9.2 32.2 < 1.0 < 1.0 1,234 < 10 < 1 ppm
98%tile 124 43 10.5 41.5 < 1.0 < 1.0 1,401 < 10 < 1 ppm
AA7 Modvadar
Maximum 128 41 10.9 41.9 < 1.0 < 1.0 1,388 < 10 < 1 ppm
Minimum 62 20 8.0 22.2 < 1.0 < 1.0 1,077 < 10 < 1 ppm
Average 95 29 9.4 31.1 < 1.0 < 1.0 1,221 < 10 < 1 ppm
98%tile 126 40 10.9 41.4 < 1.0 < 1.0 1,375 < 10 < 1 ppm
AA8 Pashuda
Maximum 127 42 10.4 38.2 < 1.0 < 1.0 1,247 < 10 < 1 ppm
Minimum 54 24 8.0 24.4 < 1.0 < 1.0 1,039 < 10 < 1 ppm
Average 91 31 8.9 31.0 < 1.0 < 1.0 1,165 < 10 < 1 ppm
98%tile 125 42 10.4 37.6 < 1.0 < 1.0 1,245 < 10 < 1 ppm

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3.5.5 Traffic Survey

Traffic survey was carried out at:

 NH-6, Near Padana Village on 22.06.2016. The road is 24 meters wide which is 3-Lane (One
Way), Sub-arterial Road 5 and connects site to Bhachau and Gandhidham;
 NH-50, Near Bhimasar Village on 21.06.2016. The road is 7.5 meters wide which is 2-Lane (Two
Way), Collector Road and connects site to Anjar & Bhimasar.
Peak hours are considered from 08:00 – 12:00 Noon and 16:00 – 20:00 Hours. As tabulated in Table
4-9 -Table 4-12, average peak hourly traffic on these routes are:
 NH-6, from Bhachau to Gandhidham and from Gandhidham to Bhachau is 938 and 320 PCU
respectively;
 NH-50, from Bhimasar to Anjar and from Anjar to Bhimasar is 161 and 118 PCU respectively.

Traffic Survey sheets are given in Annexure 14.

3.5.6 Noise & Vibration

The objective of monitoring background noise level in study area is to establish baseline noise level to
identify impact due to proposed activity.

Methodology for Noise Level Analysis

Monitoring of noise is done by identifying suitable monitoring locations. Background noise quality is
monitored at the selected locations, in dB (A) Leq (d) and dB (A) Leq (n).

Monitoring methodology for noise monitoring is given in Table 3-14.

Table 3-14: Noise Level Monitoring Methodology


Sample collection
Envt. Sampling Sampling Sampling
Methodology Sampling Detection
Component Location Frequency Parameter
Equipment Limit
Once during the
study (Hourly Sound Level
Ambient 8 Noise Level Decibels –
reading for 24 Measurement 0.1 dB (A)
Noise Locations Meter dB (A)
hours at each (SLM)
location)

Following methodology is followed to conduct baseline monitoring, impact assessment and to propose
suitable mitigation measures:

 Site visit (for existing plant) and identification of sources of noise and vibrations;
 Determining possible impacts of Noise & Vibrations on the environment from proposed activities;
 Identifying monitoring locations and conducting Noise monitoring;
 Prediction of incremental noise levels by using SoundPlan software;

5
As per The Indian Road Congress - Guideline for capacity of roads in urban Area. (IRC:106-1990), Table-2,
Recommended Design Service Volumes, page – 11.

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 Checking whether the increase of SPL in the locations surrounding the project makes conflicts
with stipulated allowable norms;
 Suggestions of mitigation measures of Noise/Vibrations and to reduce noise/vibrations of sources
exceeding the allowable limits of SPL.

The standard for monitoring ambient noise level as per CPCB guidelines is as given in Table 3-15.

Table 3-15: Ambient Air Quality Standards in respect of Noise for Different Areas/Zones
Ambient Air Quality Standards Area Limits in dB(A) Leq*
Category
in Respect of NOISE Code Day Time Night Time
A Industrial 75.0 70.0
The Noise Pollution
B Commercial 65.0 55.0
(Regulation and Control) Rules,
C Residential 55.0 45.0
2000
D Silence 50.0 45.0
Note:  Day Time: 6:00 AM to 10:00 PM; Night Time: 10:00 PM to 6:00 AM
 dB (A) Leq*: denotes the time weighted average of the level of sound in decibels on scale A
which is relatable to human hearing.

Noise Level Monitoring Locations

Receivers were placed nearby project site, at a distance of 2 Km maximum from the source of noise
generation and at sensitive locations ambient noise monitoring i.e. habitation area.

Noise readings were taken at Eight (8) different locations within the study area as presented in Table
3-16. Photographs showing monitoring location is given in Photograph 3-3. Map showing
monitoring station locations is given in Map 3-2.

Table 3-16: Noise Level Monitoring Locations


Location Date of Category of Distance from Direction w.r.t.
Location
Code monitoring Area / Zone Project Site in Km Project Site

At Project Boundary
NL1 22.06.16 Industrial - -
(E)

At Project Boundary
NL2 21.06.16 Industrial - -
(W)

At Project Boundary
NL3 21.06.16 Industrial - -
(N)

At Project Boundary
NL4 22.06.16 Industrial - -
(SW)

NL5 Padana Village 23.06.16 Residential 1.16 S

NL6 Varsana Village 23.06.16 Residential 1.45 NE

100 m N from
NL7 24.06.16 Industrial 0.10 N
project boundary

1.40 km NW from
NL8 24.06.16 Industrial 1.40 NW
project boundary

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Photograph 3-3: Photographs of Noise Level Monitoring Stations

At 100 m N from Project Boundary At Padna Village

At Varsana Village At 1.40 km NW from project boundary

Noise Level Results

The average noise levels at monitoring stations are presented in Table 3-17.

Table 3-17: Noise Level Monitoring Results


CPCB Limits in Average Noise
Location dB (A) levels in dB (A)
Location Date Category
Code Day Night Day Night
Time Time Time Time

NL1 At Project Boundary (E) 22.06.16 Industrial 75.0 70.0 62.7 56.0

NL2 At Project Boundary (W) 21.06.16 Industrial 75.0 70.0 63.7 57.2

NL3 At Project Boundary (N) 21.06.16 Industrial 75.0 70.0 62.8 58.1

NL4 At Project Boundary (SW) 22.06.16 Industrial 75.0 70.0 64.4 57.1

NL5 Padana Village 23.06.16 Residential 55.0 45.0 56.2 46.8

NL6 Varsana Village 23.06.16 Residential 55.0 45.0 58.8 49.7

100 m. north from project


NL7 24.06.16 Industrial 75.0 70.0 60.1 53.9
boundary

1.40 km NW from project


NL8 24.06.16 Industrial 75.0 70.0 61.4 54.2
boundary

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Observations:

Based on the noise monitoring results, it is observed that:

 Noise level during day time & night time, in Industrial area, were within the CPCB standards i.e.
Industrial area (75 dBA (d) & 70 dBA (n)).
 Noise level during day & night time, in Residential area, were slightly higher than the CPCB
standards which is due to vehicular movements in nearby highways.

Vibration

Vibration is a mechanical phenomenon whereby oscillations occur about an equilibrium point. The
oscillations may be periodic such as the motion of a pendulum or random such as the movement of a
tire on a gravel road. Major sources of vibration are blasting due to mining activities, vibration caused
by motions of engines, electric motors, or any mechanical device in operation theses are typically
unwanted. Such vibrations can be caused by imbalances in the rotating parts, uneven friction, the
meshing of gear teeth, etc. such vibrations can be reduced by proper designing.

During construction phase other than constructing structures, no major sources of vibrations are
envisaged due to proposed project.

3.5.7 Hydrology, Surface Water & Ground Water

The objective of monitoring surface and ground water in study area is to establish baseline water
quality to identify impact due to proposed activity.

Source of Water

Raw water required for the project will be supplied by GWIL. This water is sourced from canal of
Sardar Sarover Narmada Project. Priority for supply of this water to industries is after fulfilling the
requirement of domestic needs of villages. But it is assured, that surplus water is available to meet the
water requirement of project.

Methodology Adopted for Surface and Ground Water Sampling

Surface water was collected from Six (6) locations, including One (1) river water samples and Ground
water from Eight (8) locations. The samples were collected as grab samples, from each location, once
during the study period and the analysis methodology is given in Table 3-18.

Table 3-18: Analysis Methodology for Analyzing Surface & Ground Water Samples
Parameters Analyzed in
Minimum
S. River
Parameters Analysis Methodology Surface Ground Detection
No. (Estuary)
Water Water Limit
Water
1 pH APHA: 4500-H+ B*, pH meter √ √ √ 1
APHA: 2120 *, Visual
2 Color 1 Pt-Co
Comparison
APHA: 2550 B *, Standard
3 Temperature √ √ 1 Deg C
Thermometer
APHA: 2130 B *,
4 Turbidity √ √ 4 NTU
Nephelometric

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Parameters Analyzed in
Minimum
S. River
Parameters Analysis Methodology Surface Ground Detection
No. (Estuary)
Water Water Limit
Water
5 TDS APHA: 2540C *, Gravimetric √ √ √ 20 mg/l
Electrical APHA: 2510 B *, Conductivity
6 √ √ √ 1µmho/cm
conductivity meter
APHA: 5220 B *, Titrimetric
7 COD √ <5 mg/l
Open reflux method
8 BOD IS: 3025 (part-44), Iodometric √ √ <3 mg/l
9 Chlorides APHA:4500Cl- B *, Titrimetric √ √ √ 1.5 mg/l
10 Phenol APHA: 5530-D *, colorimetric √ √ √ 0.001 mg/l
APHA:4500-E as SO4 *, Turbid
11 Sulphates √ √ √ < 1 mg/l
metric
APHA: 2340-C *, Titrimetric
12 Total Hardness √ √ √ < 10 mg/l
(EDTA method)
APHA: 3500-B-Ca * Titrimetric,
13 Ca++ Hardness √ √ √ < 4 mg/l
(EDTA method)
APHA: 3500-B-Mg *, By
14 Mg++ Hardness √ √ √ 8 mg/l
difference
15 Total Alkalinity APHA: 2320 B *, Titrimetric √ √ <10 mg/l
IS:3025 (part-34),3.3 ,
16 Nitrate √ √ √ <0.1 mg/l
colorimetric
17 Fluoride APHA:4500 F-D*,Colorimetric √ √ √ <0.1 mg/l
APHA:3500 Na-B *, Flame
18 Sodium √ √ <1 mg/l
emission Photometric
APHA: 3500 K-B * Flame
19 Potassium √ √ <1 mg/l
emission Photometric
APHA Edition 22 (3500 Ca- B)
20 Calcium √ √ 1 mg/l
Titrimetric (EDTA Method)
APHA Edition 22 (3500 Mg- B),
21 Magnesium √ √ 3 mg/l
by difference
APHA: 2520 B *, Electrical
22 Salinity √ √ -
Conductivity method
APHA: 4500 N Org, Micro
23 Total Nitrogen Kjeldahl Distillation *, √ √ 0.06 mg/l
Titrimetric
Total APHA: 4500 P-C *,
24 √ √ <1 mg/l
Phosphorous colorimetric
25 Dissolved Oxygen APHA: 4500O-C *, Iodometric √ √ √ 0.5 mg/l
APHA: 4170-B */IS:3025 (part-
Ammonical
26 34), 1988, Distillation & √ √ <0.01 mg/l
Nitrogen
colorimetric
Flamephotmetric & EDTA
27 SAR √ √ √ -
method
28 Heavy Metals

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Parameters Analyzed in
Minimum
S. River
Parameters Analysis Methodology Surface Ground Detection
No. (Estuary)
Water Water Limit
Water
APHA: 3500-As-A */ APHA: <0.002
a Arsenic (as As) √ √ √
3111-B(AAS)* mg/l
APHA: 3500-Cd-A */ APHA: <0.003
b Cadmium (as Cd) √ √ √
3111-B(AAS) * mg/l
APHA: 3500-Cr-B *, <0.003
c Chromium (as Cr) √ √ √
colorimetric mg/l
APHA: 3500-Cu-A */ APHA:
d Copper (as Cu) 3111-B(AAS)* √ √ √ <0.05 mg/l
IS:3025(part42):1992
APHA: 4500 CN- D & E*,
e Cyanide (as CN) √ √ √ 0.003 mg/l
colorimetric
APHA: 3500-Fe-B *,
f Iron (as Fe) √ √ √ <0.1 mg/l
colorimetric
APHA: 3500-Ld-A */ APHA:
g Lead (as Pb) √ √ √ <0.01 mg/l
3111-B(AAS)*
APHA: 3500-Hg-A */ APHA: <0.001
h Mercury (as Hg) √ √ √
3111-B(AAS)* mg/l
Manganese (as APHA: 3500-Mn-A */ APHA:
i √ √ √ <0.04 mg/l
Mn) 3111-B(AAS) *
APHA: 3500-Ni-A */ APHA:
j Nickel (as Ni) √ √ <0.02 mg/l
3111-B(AAS)*
APHA: 3500-Zn-A */ APHA:
k Zinc (as Zn) √ √ √ <0.08 mg/
3111-B(AAS)*
APHA: 4500 B-C *,
l Boron (as B) √ <0.02 mg/l
colorimetric
APHA: 9221-B *, Multiple Tube 1.8
29 Total Coliform √ √ √
Fermentation MPN/100ml
APHA: 9221-E *, Multiple 1.8
30 Fecal Coliform √ √
Tube Fermentation MPN/100ml

* denotes methods as per 22nd Edition

Surface Water Results

Surface water samples were collected from Six (6) different locations within the study area as shown
in Table 3-19, Map 3-2 & Photograph 3-4. Analysis results of collected samples are given in
Table 3-20 & Table 3-21.
Table 3-19: Surface Water Sampling Locations – Ponds and River
Date of Distance from Direction
Code Location Source Sampling Rational
Sampling Site (in Km) w.r.t Site
SW 1 Churva River River 12.06.16 3.5 S To check water quality
SW 2 Bhimasar Pond 11.06.16 2.5 NW of the stagnant water
SW 3 Modvadar Pond 11.06.16 4.4 SW body / river

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Date of Distance from Direction


Code Location Source Sampling Rational
Sampling Site (in Km) w.r.t Site
SW 4 Padana Pond 12.06.16 1.1 S
SW 5 Varsana Pond 12.06.16 1.6 ENE

SW 6 Mithirohar Pond 11.06.16 7.0 SW

Photograph 3-4: Photographs of Surface Water Sampling

Churva River Bhimasar Pond

Modvadar Pond Padana Pond

Varsana Pond Mithirohar Pond

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Table 3-20: Surface Water (Ponds) Analysis Results


IS 10500 Standard Limits for drinking water Samples

Bhimasar Modvadar Padana Varsana Mithirohar


Acceptable limit Permissible limit
S. No. Parameters Units (SW 2) (SW 3) (SW 4) (SW 5) (SW 6)
Source Pond Pond Pond Pond Pond
Date of sampling 11.06.16 11.06.16 12.06.16 12.06.16 11.06.16
1 pH pH scale 6.5-8.5 NR 8.15 8.02 8.1 7.61 8.19
2 Temperature oC NS NS 32 32 32 32 32
3 Turbidity NTU 1 5 3.5 2.9 3.1 3.8 4.1
4 TDS mg/lit 500 2,000 365 351 414 439 3,859
5 Electrical conductivity µmhos/cm NS NS 671 532 599 711 5,900
6 Phenol mg/lit 0.001 0.002 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
7 Chlorides mg/lit 250 1,000 140 135 149 125 1,712
8 Sulphates mg/lit 200 400 23 28 65 93 398
9 Total Hardness mg/lit 200 600 90 80 80 120 380
10 Ca++ Hardness mg/lit NS NS 20 42 18 78 90
11 Mg++ Hardness mg/lit NS NS 70 38 62 42 290
12 Total Alkalinity mg/lit 200 600 270 240 260 160 280
13 Nitrate mg/lit 45 NR 41.1 47.7 29.3 49.3 28.6
14 Fluoride mg/lit 1 1.5 1.32 0.96 0.80 0.43 1.22
15 Sodium mg/lit NS NS 115 83.7 110.3 109.2 1,229
16 Potassium mg/lit NS NS 20.4 29 15.3 48.7 41.9
17 Calcium mg/lit 75 200 8.0 17.0 7.2 31.0 36.0
18 Magnesium mg/lit 30 100 17.0 9.0 15.1 10.0 70.0
19 Salinity mg/lit NS NS 252 243 269 226 3,084
20 Total Nitrogen mg/lit 0.5 NR 9.20 10.64 6.72 12.32 6.72
21 Total Phosphorous mg/lit NS NS <1 <1 <1 <1 <1
22 Dissolved Oxygen mg/lit NS NS 4.1 4 3.9 4.3 4.2
23 Ammonical Nitrogen mg/lit NS NS <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01
24 SAR - NS NS 5.24 4.00 5.00 4.32 27.28
25 Heavy Metals
a Arsenic (as As) mg/l 0.01 0.05 <0.002 <0.002 <0.002 <0.002 <0.002
b Cadmium (as Cd) mg/l 0.003 NR <0.003 <0.003 <0.003 <0.003 <0.003
c Chromium (as Cr) mg/l 0.05 NR <0.003 <0.003 <0.003 <0.003 <0.003
d Copper (as Cu) mg/l 0.05 1.5 <0.05 <0.05 <0.05 <0.05 <0.05
e Cyanide (as CN) mg/l 0.05 NR <0.003 <0.003 <0.003 <0.003 <0.003
f Iron (as Fe) mg/l 0.3 NR 0.081 0.068 <0.01 0.66 <0.01
g Lead (as Pb) mg/l 0.01 NR <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01
h Mercury (as Hg) mg/l 0.001 NR <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
i Manganese (as Mn) mg/l 0.1 0.3 <0.04 <0.04 <0.04 <0.04 <0.04
j Nickel (as Ni) mg/l 0.02 NR <0.02 <0.02 <0.02 <0.02 <0.02
k Zinc (as Zn) mg/l 5 15 <0.08 <0.08 <0.08 <0.08 0.022
26 Total Coliform MPN Shall not be detectable Shall not be detectable 15,000 12,000 13,000 14,000 17,000
27 Faecal Coliforms MPN Shall not be detectable Shall not be detectable 1,200 940 1,700 2,300 1,300
NS: Not Specified

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Classification of River Water as per their intended use is described in below table:
S. No. Class Intended Use
1 A Drinking water source without conventional treatment but after disinfection
2 B Outdoor bathing (organized)
3 C Drinking water source with conventional treatment followed by disinfection
4 D Propagation of wild life, fisheries
5 E Irrigation, industrial cooling etc.

Table 3-21: Surface Water (River) Analysis Results


Classification for Inland Surface Water6 Surface water Quality
S. No. Parameters Unit
A B C D E SW1 - Churva River
1 pH pH Scale 6.5 to 8.5 6.5 to 8.5 6.0 to 9.0 6.5 to 8.5 6.5 to 8.5 8.1
2 Total Dissolved Oxygen mg/l 6.0 5.0 4.0 4.0 NS 4.4
3 Total Dissolved Solids mg/l 500.0 NS 1,500 NS 2,100 22,194
4 Electrical Conductivity μmohs/cm NS NS NS 1,000 2,250 31,800
5 BOD mg/l 2.0 3.0 3.0 NS NS 105
6 Total Hardness mg/l 300 NS NS NS NS 1,660
7 Ca++ Hardness mg/l 200 NS NS NS NS 70
8 Mg++ Hardness mg/l 100 NS NS NS NS 1,590
9 Copper mg/l 1.5 NS 1.5 NS NS 0.04
10 Iron mg/l 0.3 NS 50 NS NS 0.25
11 Manganese mg/l 0.5 NS NS NS NS <0.04
12 Chlorides(as CL) mg/l 250 NS 600 NS 600 10,380
13 Sulphates mg/l 400 NS 400 NS 1,000 1,849
14 Nitrate (as NO3) mg/l 20 NS 50 NS NS 22.35
15 Fluoride mg/l 1.5 1.5 1.5 NS NS 1.91
16 Phenolic Compound mg/l 0.002 0.005 0.005 NS NS <0.001
17 Mercury mg/l 0.001 NS NS NS NS <0.001
18 Cadmium mg/l 0.01 NS 0.01 NS NS <0.003
19 Arsenic mg/l 0.05 NA 0.2 NS NS <0.002
20 Cyanide mg/l 0.05 0.05 0.05 NS NS <0.003
21 Lead mg/l 0.1 NS 0.1 NS NS <0.01
22 Zinc mg/l 15 NS 15 NS NS 0.032
23 Chromium mg/l 0.05 1 0.05 NS NS <0.003
24 Boron mg/l NS NS NS NS 2 <0.02
25 Sodium Absorption Ratio mg/gm NS NS NS NS 26 64.49
26 Total Coliform MPN/100ml 50 500 5,000 NS NS 22,000

6
IS 2296 – 1982 Inland Surface Water Standards

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Quality of Surface water (Pond)

It is observed that:

 Mithirohar is worst polluted pond where total 11 parameters are more than acceptable limits,
whereas Padana & Varsana ponds are the least polluted sources.
 Parameters such as turbidity, TDS, Chloride, Sulphate, Hardness, alkalinity, fluoride, total nitrogen
and coliforms are above acceptable limits in major pond sources, there by requiring necessary
treatment if utilized for drinking purposes.

Quality of Surface water (River)

It is observed that:

 The quality of river water is saline in nature due to tidal impact in river and near to coastal area.
The river water can be used for any purpose after suitable treatment.

Ground Water Results

Ground water samples were collected from Eight (8) different locations within the study area as shown
in Table 3-22, Map 3-2 & Photograph 3-5. Analysis results of collected samples are given in
Table 3-23.
Table 3-22: Ground Water Sampling Locations
Distance
Date of Direction
Code Location Source from Site (in Sampling Rational
Sampling w.r.t Site
Km)
GW 1 Mithirohar Borewell 11.06.2016 7.90 S
GW 2 Bhimasar Borewell 11.06.2016 2.51 NW
GW 3 Ajapur Openwell 11.06.2016 7.24 W
To check ground water
GW 4 Varsamedhi Borewell 11.06.2016 9.20 SW
quality within study
GW 5 Padana Handpump 11.06.2016 2.92 S
area
GW 6 Nani Chirai Borewell 11.06.2016 6.45 NE
GW 7 Modvadar Openwell 11.06.2016 4.15 SW
GW 8 Pasuda Handpump 11.06.2016 6.20 N

Photograph 3-5: Photographs of Ground Water Sampling

At Ajapur At Bhimasar

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At Modvadar At Varsamedhi

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Table 3-23: Ground Water (Borewells) Analysis Results


IS 10500:2012 Standard Sampling Code & Location
Limits for drinking water
S. No. Parameters Unit GW1 GW2 GW3 GW4 GW 5 GW 6 GW 7 GW 8
(2nd Revision)
Acceptable limit Mithirohar Bhimasar Ajapur Varsamedhi Padana Nani Chirai Modvadar Pasuda

1 pH pH scale 6.5 - 8.5 7.34 8.16 7.93 7.42 7.59 7.55 7.41 7.4
2 Temperature °C - 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
3 Turbidity NTU 1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1
4 TDS mg/lit 500 4,299 424 7,489 1,311 1,121 2,232 2,562 2,951
5 Electrical conductivity µmho/cm - 6,400 697 11,200 1,900 1,644 3,200 4,100 4,400
6 COD mg/lit - <4 <4 <4 <4 <4 <4 <4 <4
7 BOD mg/lit - <1 <1 <1 <1 <1 <1 <1 <1
8 Phenol mg/lit 0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
9 Chlorides mg/lit 250 1,596 106 3,095 376 77 829 868 1,167
10 Sulphates mg/lit 200 567 33 618 174 502 300 530 281
11 Total Hardness mg/lit 200 860 200 1,300 460 480 440 470 570
12 Ca++ Hardness mg/lit - 312 36 238 126 322 162 168 178
13 Mg++ Hardness mg/lit - 548 164 1,062 334 158 278 302 392
14 Total Alkalinity mg/lit 200 110 270 230 120 160 150 120 120
15 Nitrate mg/lit 45 48.9 14.9 36.6 8.1 28.7 36.3 60.7 41.8
16 Fluoride mg/lit 1 1.1 0.8 1.5 <0.1 1.2 1.2 1.5 1.4
17 Sodium mg/lit - 641.3 49.1 1,152.3 74.5 228.7 405.9 419.7 512
18 Potassium mg/lit - 56.4 12.6 214.5 41.3 64.4 83.5 95.8 114.1
19 Calcium mg/lit 75 125 14 95 51 129 65 67 71
20 Magnesium mg/lit 30 133 40 258 81 38 68 73 95
21 Salinity mg/lit - 2,876 191 5,578 678 139 1,494 1,564 2,102
22 Total Nitrogen mg/lit - 11.2 3.36 8.4 1.68 6.16 8.4 13.44 9.52
23 Total Phosphorous mg/lit - <1 2.6 0.32 <1 0.08 <1 <1 <1
24 Dissolved Oxygen mg/lit - 3.3 3.4 3.3 3.6 3.4 3.7 3.6 3.5
25 Ammonical Nitrogen mg/lit - <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01
26 SAR - - 9.47 13 14 1.5 4.53 8.38 8.38 9
27 Heavy Metals
a Arsenic (as As) mg/l 0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01
b Cadmium (as Cd) mg/l 0.003 <0.003 <0.003 <0.003 <0.003 <0.003 <0.003 <0.003 <0.003
c Chromium (as Cr) mg/l 0.05 <0.02 <0.02 <0.02 <0.02 <0.02 <0.02 <0.02 <0.02
d Copper (as Cu) mg/l 0.05 <0.03 <0.03 <0.03 <0.03 <0.03 <0.03 <0.03 <0.03
e Cyanide (as CN) mg/l 0.05 <0.003 <0.003 <0.003 <0.003 <0.003 <0.003 <0.003 <0.003
f Iron (as Fe) mg/l 0.3 <0.05 <0.05 <0.05 <0.05 <0.05 <0.05 <0.05 <0.05
g Lead (as Pb) mg/l 0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01
h Mercury (as Hg) mg/l 0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
i Manganese (as Mn) mg/l 0.1 <0.02 <0.02 <0.02 <0.02 <0.02 <0.02 <0.02 <0.02
j Nickel (as Ni) mg/l 0.02 <0.02 <0.02 <0.02 <0.02 <0.02 <0.02 <0.02 <0.02
k Zinc (as Zn) mg/l 5 <0.03 <0.03 <0.03 <0.03 <0.03 <0.03 <0.03 <0.03
Shall not be detectable in any
28 Total Coliform MPN/100ml Absent Absent Absent Absent Absent Absent Absent Absent
100 ml sample
29 Faecal Coliforms MPN/100ml - Absent Absent Absent Absent Absent Absent Absent Absent

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Quality of Ground Water

As per data procured from Ground Water Investigation Unit 3, Rajkot, of Bhimasar village (Well No.
SHP/189 having 12.90 m water level) dated 1st May, 2015, it is observed that ground water quality, as
per IS 10500:2012 standard limits for drinking water, deviates for following parameters:

 pH (8.6), Total Hardness (550), Alkanity (250), TDS (12,430) & Chloride (6,840).

In the samples collected by Kadam, it is observed that ground water quality, as per IS 10500:2012
standard limits for drinking water, deviates for following parameters at different villages:

 TDS at Mithirohar (4,299), Ajapur (7,489), Varsamedhi (1,311), Padana (1,121), Nani Chirai
(2,232), Modvadar (2,562) & Pasuda (2,951);
 Chlorides at Mithirohar (1,596), Ajapur (3,095), Varsamedhi (376), Nani Chirai (829), Modvadar
(868) & Pasuda (1,167);
 Sulphates at Mithirohar (567), Ajapur (618), Padana (502), Nani Chirai (300), Modvadar (530) &
Pasuda (281);
 Total Hardness at Mithirohar (860), Bhimasar (200), Ajapur (1,300), Varsamedhi (460), Padana
(480), Nani Chirai (440), Modvadar (470) & Pasuda (570);
 Nitrate at Mithirohar (48.9), Modvadar (60.7);
 Fluoride at Mithirohar (1.1), Ajapur (1.5), Padana (1.2), Nani Chirai (1.2), Modvadar (1.5) &
Pasuda (1.4);
 Calcium at Mithirohar (125), Ajapur (95), Padana (129);
 Magnesium at Mithirohar (133), Bhimasar (40), Ajapur (258), Varsamedhi (81), Padana (38), Nani
Chirai (68), Modvadar (73) & Pasuda (95).
 All units in mg/l.

The observed higher concentration of TDS, Chloride & Sulphate is due to saline geological formations.
Higher concentration of Total Hardness, Nitrate, Fluoride, Calcium and Magnesium is due to near
proximity of sea (Gulf of Kutch).

3.5.8 Geology

This section describes environmental setting covering baseline conditions with respect to geology.

Methodology

The methodology adopted for the study of baseline environment started with desk study followed by
secondary data collection.

Secondary data like recent Google imageries, District Resource Map, information published by GSI
studies were used to collect basic information on Geology, Hydrogeology, aquifers, identification of
Topography and Structural features of site and surrounding area.

A field visit was conducted to study site specific geological and hydrogeological conditions includes
lithology, drainage patterns, water bodies, ground water condition and any possible impact to the
environmental setting due to project.

Geological Conditions

A drilling machine was working in nearby area. It was noted that drilling was carried out upto depth of
around ~150 m. The Core Bit used for the drilling was of Drag type and hence, it can be noted that

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the clay contents as well as thin zones might have turned into drilling mud. Thus, the sample stacks
showed only sand with various grain size formations. As per sedimentology principle, in the study area
(coastal area), there are intermittent layers of sand and clay as well as admixture in various
proportions.

Topography

The entire plot area is alluvial, with overall flat topography. An arrangement will be needed to
channelize the run-off post levelling of the ground and construction. This being the coastal area, the
slope is gentle towards sea i.e. SE.

Drainage

A primary drain originates and passes through the plot area flowing in South East direction. However,
due to construction activities around it disappears.

Hydro Geological Conditions

The coastal belt formations are saline and hence it necessitate to have alternate source. Only the
surface water storage away from Marine mudflats are suitable. As per CGWA Anjar Taluka falls under
Saline Zone.

Seismicity in the Study Area

Seismicity

Site falls under the seismic intensity Zone V7, which is classified as Very High Risk zone (Area liable to
shaking Intensity IX (and above)). Thus, suitable seismic coefficients accordingly shall be adopted
while designing the structures to make it earthquake resistant.

The project will be founded in mudflats which is likely to behave akin to liquefaction when subjected
to seismic wave. This point needs investigation in terms of its physical parameters and simulation.

Earthquake zoning map of Gujarat is shown as Figure 3-3.

Figure 3-3: Earthquake zoning map of Gujarat

7
Seismic Map of Gujarat (Institute of Seismological Research, Govt. of Gujarat)

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3.5.9 Soil

The project area falls under North West Agro-climatic Zone (GJ-5) and Agro-ecological region-3.The
annual average rain fall is 353 mm. The soils are black (53.8 %), sandy loam (41.6 %), hydromorphic
(4.5 %). The soils belongs to the greater group Ustipsamments and in the sub group Typic
Ustifluvents of order Entisols. The soils are having sandy to sandy loam texture, poor in organic
carbon, available phosphorous, but rich in available potassium. The soils are saline (EC > 2 dS/m).
The soil depth is > 100 cm, having high porosity and permeability, but water holding capacity is very
low due to sandy loam texture of soils. The main source of irrigation is open wells (56.9 %) and bore
wells (4.4 %) as well as estimated area under Narmada command would be 38.7 %. The cropping
intensity of the area is 107%. However, in the project area availability of ground water is practically nil
as ground waters are saline & alkaline, hence farmers use harvested rain water in ponds or rivers and
grow cluster bean, moong, sorghum etc.

The soils belongs to the greater group Ustipsamments and in the great group Ustifluvents of order
Entisols. The area is having sandy to sandy loam texture, poor in organic carbon, available nutrients,
saline, depth > 100 cm, having high porosity and permeability, but water holding capacity is very low.

Soil Sampling Locations

Soil samples were collected from Six (6) different locations within the study area as shown in Table
3-24, Map 3-2 & Photograph 3-6. Analysis results of collected samples are given in Table 3-26.
Table 3-24: Soil Sampling Locations
Date of Distance from Direction w.r.t
Code Location Source Justification
Sampling Project Site in Km Project Site
ST1 At Site 12.06.16 Industrial 0 Core
ST2 Padana 11.06.16 Residential ~ 1.0 S
To check surface
ST3 Modvadar 11.06.16 Residential ~ 4.5 SW
soil quality within
ST4 Bhimasar 11.06.16 Residential ~ 2.5 NW
study area.
ST5 Pashuda 12.06.16 Residential ~ 6.5 N
ST6 Varsana 12.06.16 Residential ~ 1.5 ENE

Photograph 3-6: Photographs of Soil Sampling

At Site At Padana

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At Modvadar At Bhimasar

Methodology Adopted for Soil Sampling

Various parameters were monitored in soil. The detailed monitoring methodology for soil sampling is
given in Table 3-25.

Table 3-25: Methodology for Analyzing Soil Samples


Sampling Sample Analytical
Methodology Remarks
Parameters Collection Equipment
Porosity - IS: 2720 Part 7
Water holding Trial pit method for
Keen Apparatus HMSO, UK
capacity topsoil sample
Permeability - IS: 2720 Part 17 collection;
Moisture content Electronic Balance IS: 2720 Part 2 disturbed samples

Texture - IS: 2720 Part 4


Manual
Particle size sample Glass wares IS: 2720 Part 4
Distribution collection
Cation Exchange using hammer IS: 2720 Part 24
Centrifuge 5% Leachate to be
Capacity and container (1976)
made and analyzed
tube for F. Photometer (Na, K),
SAR Calculation as per APHA,
collecting Titration ( Ca & Mg)
“Standard
pH undisturbed pH Meter 4500 H+B Methods”.
top soil.
Electrical As per IS 14767 - All method numbers
Conductivity Meter
Conductivity 2000 are as per APHA
Calcium Glass wares 3500 Ca B “Standard Methods”
(21st edition, 2005)
Magnesium Glass Wares 3500 Mg B
Sodium (Na) F.Photometer 3500 Na B
Potassium F.Photometer 3500 K B

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Table 3-26: Soil Analysis Results


Sampling Location
S. No Parameter Unit ST1 ST2 ST3 ST4 ST5 ST6
At Site Padana Modvadar Bhimasar Pashuda Varsana
1 Porosity % 48 49 51 52 50 48
2 Water Holding Capacity % 32 36.00 46.00 49.00 38.00 26
3 Permeability mm/hr. 30.4 26.5 21.8 20.8 25.2 32.3
4 Particle Size Distribution
a Sand % 76 71.00 63 55 71 77
b Silt % 13 15.00 25 29 19 6
c Clay % 11 14.00 12 16 10 17
5 Texture - Sandy Loam Sandy Loam Sandy Loam Sandy Loam Sandy Loam Sandy Loam
6 Cation Exchange Capacity meq/100 gm 27.20 25.00 22.50 27.00 24.50 22.20
7 Electrical Conductivity μmhos/ cm 110 130 96 156 154 80
8 SAR - 1.15 1.56 1.07 1.11 1.2 0.84
9 Exchangeable Sodium % 0.43 1.03 0.31 0.38 0.51 <0.1
10 pH - 7.61 8.21 8.11 7.81 7.74 7.9
11 Calcium gm/kg 0.26 0.29 0.32 0.32 0.22 0.19
12 Magnesium gm/kg 0.38 0.31 0.19 0.44 0.45 0.22
13 Sodium gm/kg 0.56 0.72 0.44 0.59 0.61 0.33
14 Potassium gm/kg 0.27 0.22 0.18 0.24 0.26 0.15

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Soil Quality Results

It is observed that at different locations:

 The porosity ranged from 48 to 52% and WHC varied from 26 to 49 %;


 The soil permeability was ranged from 20.8 to 32.3 mm/hr, however soil texture in all the soil
samples was sandy loam;
 The EC of soil ranged from 80 to 156 μmhos/cm which indicates soil is saline in nature;
 The pH of soil ranged from 7.6 to 8.2, which indicates that soils are neutral to slightly alkaline;
 Among water soluble cations predominance of sodium was seen followed by Mg, Ca and K.

The overall soil quality indicates that soils are normal, which is not under cultivation since long and
whatever salts were there are washed off or leached down due to rain water over the years.

However, due to predominance of sodium cation due care needs to be taken to apply gypsum if soil
PH exceeds 8.5 in a sandy loam soil. For successful raising of landscape/greenbelt, application of
liberal quantity of organic manure (> 50 tons/ha), double the recommended dose of nitrogen and
phosphorus as well as recommended dose of potassium need to be applied.

3.5.10 Ecology & Biodiversity

This section represents existing biodiversity status of the project site (core zone) and its surrounding
environ of the project study area (buffer zone of 10 km. radius).

Methodology Adopted for Ecology & Biodiversity Study

A field visit was conducted on 11th July 2016 to:

 Inventororize floral and faunal components of project area (project site / core zone and buffer
zone).
 Locate / demarcate and understand ecological setting of the project area in terms of national
parks / wildlife sanctuary / reserve forests / tiger reserve / Eco-sensitive Areas / wetlands etc.
within 10 km. radius from project site (if any).
 Identify schedule-I, rare, endemic and endangered species within the project study area and
prepare conservation plan for same.
 Identify impact zone and evaluate the likely impact of the proposed project on flora, fauna and
ecological setting of the project study area.
 Prepare green belt development plan / conservation plan to mitigate likely impacts and to
conserve ecology and biodiversity.

Ecological Sensitivity / Habitats of the Study Area (During Field Visit)

Survey was carried out in and around the project environs to gain basic understanding about the
existing ecosystem types, and to identify the presence of ecologically sensitive areas, if any. This
exercise facilitates to identify the sampling locations and numbers based on availability of extent and
different habitat types.

The study area was mostly covered with the typical vegetation of mudflats with mangroves and semi
aquatic species. The most important vegetation of the field is large patch of mangroves Avicennia
marina and Rhizophora mucronata. In addition, mud flats have herbaceous vegetation typical of
saline soils. Common plants like Acacia nilotica and other thorny plants were noted.

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Entire coastal ecosystem is the habitat of different types of water birds. These water birds were also
observed in one stream passing near the project site which is around 550 meters in WSW direction
from project boundary. Nearest huge water body is identified as Pond of Bhimasar village which is
habitat of migratory and local avifauna. Water birds that were recorded in the study area during
survey are tabulated in Table 3-27.

Table 3-27: Water Birds Recorded in the Nearest Water Bodies


S. No. New Common Name Scientific Name IWPA-1972 Schedule Count
1 Coot Fulica sp. Schedule IV More than 100
3 Flamingo Phoenicopterus sp. Schedule IV 12
4 Cormorant Phalacrocorax sp. Schedule IV More than 100
5 Painted Stork Mycteria leucocephala Schedule IV 2
Threskiornis
6 Black Headed Ibis Schedule IV 12
melanocephalus
7 Sandpiper Actitis hypoleucos Schedule IV 26
8 White stork Ciconia ciconia Schedule IV 18

Mangroves
The most important vegetation of the field is large patch of mangroves Avicennia marina and
Rhizophora mucronata. Nearest patch of mangrove from the project site boundary falls at a distance
of 7.0 km towards SE direction. The highest length of mangroves was about 4 ft.

Mudflat
Nearest distance of mudflats from the project site boundary is 6 km. towards South East direction.

National Park/Sanctuaries and Biosphere Reserve


There is no notified/protected ecologically sensitive area including national park, sanctuary,
Elephant/Tiger reserves existing in the study area.

Secondary Literature Review


Since the proposed project surrounding environ (buffer zone) encompasses various industries, some
studies have been conducted to carryout EIA projects. Secondary information on ecology and
biodiversity aspect has been used from following two reports made by Kadam. However, efforts have
been made to verify same in the field and interaction with local people.

1. Environmental Impact Assessment Report for “Proposed installation of 2,42,182 KL capacity


Isolated liquid storage terminal by M/s. Ahir Salt and Allied Products Pvt. Ltd.”

2. Environmental Impact Assessment of “Jalkhau Salt Jetty”.

Field Data Collection / Inventory

Terrestrial Ecology
Since project site falls in the industrial area and no natural vegetation exists at site, efforts have been
made to enlist existing species. Similarly, the buffer zone is mainly dominated with mud flats/
saltpans/ coastal areas / fallow land and study area is dominated by an invasive species Prosopis

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juliflora (monoculture) which does not require quantification. So, secondary data from various EIA
reports have been extracted and verified through ground surveys.

Aquatic Ecology
Secondary data extracted from above said reports have been used to understand status of the marine
environment of project study area.

Threat Assessment Criteria


Indian wild Life Protection Act, 1972, ENVIS Database, IUCN Database, Red Data Book etc.

Terrestrial Ecosystem

Flora

Core Zone / Project Site


Project site was reported with three common species of flora / plants; taxonomic account is given in
Table 3-28.
Table 3-28: Floral Species Reported from the Proposed Project Site / Core Zone
S. No. Habit Species Name Local Name Family
1 Shrub Argemone Mexicana Darudi Papaveraceae
2 Shrub Cassia sp. - Cassinae
2 Shrub Prosopis chilensis Gando Baval Mimosaceae

Photographs showing project site is given in Photograph 3-7.

Photograph 3-7: Photographs Showing Core Zone /Project Site

Project site having shrubs

Buffer Zone
Buffer zone has been reported 34 floral species, which includes 22 species of trees, 4 species of
Shrubs, 6 species of grasses and 2 species of mangroves. Taxonomic account for all life forms is
tabulated in Table 3-29.

Table 3-29: Flora Reported from Buffer Zone of the Study Area

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Sr. No. Scientific Name Local Name Status


TREES AND SHRUBS
1 Tamarindus indica Amli C
2 Cassia auriculata Aval C
3 Acacia nilotica Baval C
4 Zizyphus sp. Bor C
5 Acacia planifrons Chatri Baval C
6 Prosopis juliflora Gando Baval
7 Cordia dichotoma Gundi C
8 Balanites aegyptica Ingori C
9 Euphorbia nivulia Kanthoro Thor C
10 Capparis aphylla Kerdo
11 Prosopis cineraria Khijado C
12 Azadirachta indica Limdo C
13 Calotropis gigantia Moto Akdo C
14 Moringa oleifera Sargawo C
15 Ficus benghalensis Vad C
16 Sygygium cumunii Jambu C
17 Cassia fistula Garmalo C
18 Cocos nucifera Coconut C
19 Phoenix species Palm C
20 Nerium indicum Karen C
21 Delonix regia Gulmohar C
22 Ficus sp. - C
CLIMBER
1 Bongainvillea spectabilis Bougainvel C
2 Cuscuta reflexa Amarvel C
3 Tinospora cordifolia Galo C
4 Celastrus paniculata Malkankan C
GRASSES
1 Sorghum halepense Baru C
2 Cynodon dactylon Daro C
3 Cymbopogon jwarancusa Gandharu C
4 Dichanthium annulatum Jinjavo C
5 Apluda mutica Bhangoru C
6 Themeda cymbaria Ratad C
MANGROVES
1 Avicennia marina Cher C
2 Rhizophora mucronata Karod C

Fauna

Herpetofauna

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Core Zone / Project site


No herpetofauna reported from the project site.

Buffer Zone
Overall 3 herpetofaunal species have been reported from the buffer zone as tabulated in Table 3-30.

Table 3-30: Herpetofauna Reported from Buffer Zone


S. No. Family Common Name Scientific Name IWPA-1972 & IUCN Status
1 Colubridae Rat Snake Ptyas mucosus II -
2 Colubridae Common Worm Snake Typhlina brathina LC -
3 Varanidae Sand Boa Eryx johni LC -

Avifauna

Core Zone
Only 4 common species of birds were reported from the project site (flying across site) as tabulated in
Table 3-31.
Table 3-31: Avifauna Reported from Core Zone / Project Site
S. No. Family New Common Name Scientific Name IWPA-1972 Schedule
1 Ardeidae Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis Schedule-IV, LC
2 Sylviidae Common Babbler Turdoides caudatus Schedule-IV, LC
3 Corvidae House Crow Corvus splendens Schedule-IV, LC
4 Pycnonotidae Red-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus cafer Schedule-IV, LC

Buffer Zone
Overall 59 species of birds from 24 families have been reported from the buffer zone area as shown in
Table 3-32 & Photograph 3-8.
Table 3-32: Birds Reported from Buffer Zone
S. No. New Common Name Scientific Name IWPA-1972 Schedule
1 Avocet Recurvirsotra avosetta Schedule-IV, LC
2 Black Ibis Pseudibis papillosa Schedule-IV, LC
3 Black Winged Stilt Himantopus himantopus Schedule-IV, LC
4 Blue Jay Coracias benghalensis Schedule-IV, LC
5 Blue Rock Pigeon Columba livia Schedule-IV, LC
6 Brown Dove Streptopelia senegalensis Schedule-IV, LC
7 Indian Robin Erithacus brunneus Schedule-IV, LC
8 Red Vented Bulbul Pycnonotus Cafer Schedule-Iv, Lc
9 Comb Duck Sarkidiomis melanotos Schedule-IV, LC
10 Common Babbler Tudoides caudatus Schedule-IV, LC
11 Common Myna Acridotheres tristis Schedule-IV, LC
12 Pariah Kite Milvus migrons Schedule-IV, LC
13 Common Peafowl Pavo cristatus Schedule-IV, LC
14 Indian Sand grouse Pterodes exustus Schedule-IV, LC

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S. No. New Common Name Scientific Name IWPA-1972 Schedule


15 Erosion Curlew Numenius arguata Schedule-IV, LC
16 Large Egret Egretta alba Schedule-IV, LC
17 Singing Bush Lark Mirafra javanica Schedule-IV, LC
18 Great Indian Bustard Otis tarda Schedule-IV, LC
19 Green Bee eater Merops orientalis Schedule-IV, LC
20 Grey patridge Francolinus pondicerianus Schedule-IV, LC
21 Grey Quail Coturnix coturnix Schedule-IV, LC
22 Grey Shrike Lanius excubitor Schedule-IV, LC
23 Common Black headed Gull Larus ridibundus Schedule-I, LC
24 Heron Nycticorax nycticorax Schedule-IV, LC
25 House crow Cprvus splenndens Schedule-V, LC
26 Indian wren warbler Prinia subflava Schedule-IV, LC
27 Indian small lark Alauda gulgula Schedule-IV, LC
28 Jungle Babbler Turdoides straitus Schedule-IV, LC
29 Jungle crow Corvus macrohynchos Schedule-IV, LC
30 Kingfisher Halcyon smyrensis Schedule-IV, LC
31 Ring Dove Streptopelia decaocto Schedule-IV, LC
32 Rose ringed parakeet Psittacula krameri Schedule-IV, LC
33 Sandpiper Actitis hypoleucos Schedule-IV, LC
34 Shikra Accipiter badius NT
35 House Sparrow Passer domasticus Schedule-V, LC
36 Spot billed duck Anas poecilorhynchs Schedule-IV, LC
37 House Swift Apus affinis Schedule-IV, LC
38 Tailor Bird Orthotomus sutorius Schedule-IV, LC
39 White Ibis Threskiomis melanocephalus Schedule-IV, LC
40 White Checked Bulbul Pycnonotus leucogenys Schedule-IV, LC
41 Brahminy Kite Haliastur Indus Schedule-IV, LC
42 Pied Crested Cucukoo Clamatur jacoinus Schedule-IV, LC
43 Common Pochard Aythya ferina Schedule-IV, LC
44 Common Snipe Gallinago gallinago Schedule-I, LC
45 Common Teal Anas crecca Schedule-IV, LC
46 Coot Fulica atra Schedule-IV, LC
47 Cormorant Phalacrocorax niger Schedule-IV, LC
48 Darter Anhinga rufa Schedule-IV, LC

Source: District Forest Department of Kuchchh & Bhuj & Field Survey by KEC Team Members.
I, II, III, IV & V are Scheduled of Indian Wildlife Protection Act, 1972. R: Residential and M: Migrant

LC: Least Concern, EN: Endangered, NT: Near Threatened, VU: Vulnerable are the status assigned by
IUCN.

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Photograph 3-8: Avifauna Sighted from the Buffer Zone

Cormorant Cormorant & Coot

Mammals

Core Zone
No direct or indirect evidences of mammals were reported from the site.

Buffer Zone
Totally 4 species from 4 families have been enlisted from buffer zone of the project area as shown in
Table 3-33.
Table 3-33: Mammals Reported from the Buffer Zone
S. No. Family Common Name Scientific name IWPA-1972 & IUCN
1 Eupleridae Mongoose Herpestes edwardsi II
2 Felidae Jungle Cat Fellis chaus LC
3 Bovidae Nilgai Besolaphus tragocamelous III
4 Canidae Indian Fox Vulpes bengalenses II

Agriculture and Horticulture

Aeranda (Ricinus communis), Cotton (Gossypium sp.), Bajri (Pennisetum sp.), Juvar (Sorgum sp.) and
Makai (Zea mays) are main agricultural crop in the study area

There is no much activity of horticulture were observed in the study area. Only khajur (Phenix sp.)
plantation were recorded in the study area.

Aquatic Ecosystem

Status of fishery, mangroves and phytoplankton & zooplanktons of the study area buffer zone is
described further.

Fishery
Gulf of Kutch is a very important eco-region of Gujarat. Port of Kandla located on the northwestern
coast of India. Bombay duck is prevalent in marine fisheries and breed in the mangroves area.
Mudskippers are important in fisheries along the mudflats. White Pomfret and Ribbon fish are
commercially important fishes.

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Marine fishery diversity in study area is tabulated in Table 3-34.

Table 3-34: Marine Fish Diversity


Sr. No. Name Of Fish Scientific name
1 White Pomfret Pampus argenteus
2 Bombay Duck Harpadon nehereous
3 Threadfin Fish Nemipteres sp.
4 Jew Fish Nibea Squamosa
5 Other Clupieds Clupiedae family
6 Coilia Coilia dussumeri
7 Sharks Charcharias sp.
8 Mullets Mugil cephalus
9 Cat Fish Siluriformis Order
10 Seer Fish Scomberomorus gattatus
11 Ribbon Fish Lepturacanthus sp.
12 Silver Bas Morone sp.
13 Small Scieniedaes Scienidae Family
14 Shrimps Parapeneous sp.
15 Prawns (Medium) Penaeus sp.
16 Crabs Callinectus sp.
17 Miscellaneous -
Source: State Forest Department

Mangroves
Mangroves density in the western part (downstream) of the bet was comparatively higher than the
eastern (upstream) part due to the more conductive environmental conditions like salinity regime,
topography and lesser human activity. Density in the middle of the bet was also lower. It could be
concluded that structural status of Avicennia marina in the western part was found to be healthier and
showed significance difference with the eastern part. Photographs showing mangroves in the study
area are provided in Photograph 3-9.

Photograph 3-9: Photographs Showing Mangroves in study area Areas

Creak near Varsana Village

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Status of Threatened and Endemic Biodiversity

Among floral species noted / identified, no floral species is enlisted in the Red Data book (threatened
species). For faunal species, threat status as per IWPA-1972 and IUCN has been given in respective
tables. Reported birds includes Schedule-I species i.e. Peacock. Among recorded faunal species, none
of the species can be designated as an endemic8. Conservation plan for Peacock overall biodiversity of
the project area is prepared and provided in Chapter 10, Section 10.3.4.

3.5.11 Socio-Economics

The main objectives of the socio economic need assessment study was:

 To provide an accurate representation of the social, cultural and economic conditions of the
population surrounding the project site;
 To identify the potential socio-economic positive and negative impacts during the construction,
operations and decommissioning phase of the proposed project;
 To develop sustainable mitigation measures to enhance positive impacts and reduce or avoid
negative impacts;
 To develop proper monitoring and evaluation system with accountability to be implemented;
 To identify the CSR benefits for the target population.

Methodology Adopted for Social-Economic Survey

The approach of conducting baseline survey / Need Based Assessment is to bring views of the people
as to find out what are the issues faced; what is their understanding of development; which are the
areas that need to be worked upon based on needs of the communities so as to implement
sustainable CSR interventions.

The study area is defined as an area lying within aerial distance of 10 km from the project area
boundaries. The core area as part of social survey has been defined as 0-3 Km from the proposed
project site. This has been done using professional judgment considering the realistic impact zone of
the project.

Socio-economic fieldwork comprises of undertaking a structured household survey format focusing on


population, household composition, education levels, general health status, livelihood strategies,
employment, income level, and holding focus group discussions considering the origins and
movements of the local population and social concerns/issues in relation to the proposed project. The
buffer zone villages are selected by random sampling method. In the selected villages, focused group
discussions, consultation with people of various cross section of the society like teachers, fishermen
etc. and meeting with Village Panchayat representative are conducted.

The procedural approach (methodology) are given in Table 3-35.

Table 3-35: Approach and Methodology for Conducting the SE Study

8Venkataraman, K., Chattopadhyay, A. and Subramanian, K.A. (Editors). 2013. Endemic Animals of India (Vertebrates):1–235+26 Plates. (Published by the Director, Zoological Survey of India,

Kolkata)

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Area
S. Core
Aim / Objective Study Methodology
No. Area
Area
Only
1 To Identify and Assess
Social status of society in the core and buffer zones. To
1.1. do this it is required to get reliable information with
regards to:
People residing in the core and buffer zones along with Secondary data
key demographic figures as per the secondary data collection and
1.1.1 √
(mainly Census of India) giving information on: collation from Census
population, literacy, gender and occupation of India
Main sub-communities dwelling in the core zone by From interviews with
1.1.2 √
caste and religion PRI representatives
People who are vulnerable classes such as: Below From interviews with
1.1.3 Poverty Line (BPL), Scheduled Castes (SC) and √ PRI representatives
Scheduled Tribes (ST) and census
Economic status of society in the core / buffer
1.2 zone. To do this it is required to get reliable
information with regards to:
Secondary data
Occupational pattern from secondary data (mainly
collection and
1.2.1 Census of India) giving information on: main workers / √
collation from Census
marginal workers / non-working population
of India
Sources of revenue available to Panchayati Raj From interviews with
1.2.2 √
Institutions (PRIs) PRI representatives
Economic well-being of different classes by gaining an
understanding of: prevailing daily wage rates for labor
From interviews with
1.2.3 (male / female), status of land holding across different √
PRI representatives
classes / landless households, major crops and farmer
support, livestock and animal husbandry
Status of physical and social infrastructure
within the core and buffer areas. To do this, it is
1.3 -
required to get reliable information with regards
to
Physical infrastructure - reliable information on
availability and adequacy with respect to: educational
From interviews with
1.3.1 facilities, road infrastructure, power, water for drinking √
PRI representatives
and irrigation, sanitation, garbage / MSW, banking
facilities
Social infrastructure – reliable information on availability
and adequacy with respect to infrastructure associated From interviews with
1.3.2 √
with: sports, community events and community self- PRI representatives
help / support group
From published
1.3.3 Cultural heritage of the area √ literature and site
visits
1.4 Effects of -

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Area
S. Core
Aim / Objective Study Methodology
No. Area
Area
Only
Ongoing impacts of other developments in the vicinity
of the subject development on people and their lifestyle
From focus group
1.4.1 within the core impact zones, as determined by the √
discussions
EIAC in interaction with FAE (WP / AP&AQ / SHW / RH
& NV)
Likely impacts of proposed operations (if a greenfield
From focus group
1.4.2 project) on people and their lifestyle within the core √
discussions
impact zones mentioned above
2.0 To Determine -
From data analysis,
Needs of different communities based on the work done
2.1 √ internal / client
in identification and assessment mentioned above
discussions
3.0 To Propose -
From data analysis,
A Social Management Plan with budgets, timelines and
3.1 √ internal / client
actionable items to achieve the expected outcomes
discussions

Primary Field Survey

The field visit was done by the social experts from 25th to 28th July, 2016 in order to find out the needs
in the communities and thereby develop a sustainable CSR/Social Development approach which can be
replicated into meaningful interventions in the surrounding areas of the proposed site.

Social Profile

Population Distribution
The study area is divided into two parts namely core and buffer for socio-economic study purpose. In
the core zone (i.e. 0-3 Km) there exits 3 Villages/Hamlets/Habitation while rest in buffer zone where
14 Villages exists as shown in Table 3-36.

Table 3-36: Demographic Status of the Study Area


S. No. District Taluka Distance Habitation Household Population
1 Kachchh Anjar 0 - 3 kms Varsana 257 1,176
2 Kachchh Gandhidham 0 - 3 kms Padana 432 2,059
3 Kachchh Anjar 0 - 3 kms Bhimasar 1,765 9,413
Sub Total 2,454 12,648
4 Kachchh Anjar 3 - 5 kms Modvadar 379 1,552
5 Kachchh Gandhidham 3 - 5 kms Chudva 422 1,734
6 Kachchh Anjar 3 - 5 kms Nandgam - -
Sub Total 801 3,286
7 Kachchh Gandhidham 5 - 7 kms Mithi Rohar 2,757 13,712
8 Kachchh Anjar 5 - 7 kms Gopalnagar - -

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S. No. District Taluka Distance Habitation Household Population


9 Kachchh Bhachau 5 - 7 kms Chirai Nani 2,054 7,711
10 Kachchh Anjar 5 - 7 kms Pashuda 171 717
Sub Total 4,982 22,140
11 Kachchh Anjar 7-10 kms Golpadar - -
12 Kachchh Anjar 7-10 kms Varsamedhi 2,826 10,654
15 Kachchh Anjar 7-10 kms Ajapar 216 1,040
16 Kachchh Anjar 7-10 kms Tapar 874 3,823
17 Kachchh Bhachau 7-10 kms Chirai Moti 940 3,953
Sub Total 4,856 19,470
Grand Total 13,093 57,544

Source: Primary Census Abstract 2011

Sex Ratio Details


Table 3-37 reveals out of the total population, male are 31,458 (54.66%) and female population is
26,086 (45.33%) and the sex ratio is 829 females per 1,000 males in the study area.

Table 3-37: Population and Sex Ratio


Distance Male Female Sex Ratio (per 1,000 male)
0-3 kms 6,621 6,027 910
3 - 5 kms 1,793 1,493 833
5 - 7 kms 11,828 10,312 872
7 - 10 kms 11,216 8,254 736
Total 31,458 26,086 829

Source: Primary Census Abstract, 2011

Social Characteristics
Kutch, located on the western-most tip of India, is the largest district in India. The district has 10
talukas, of which the major ones are Bhuj (district headquarter), Anjar, Mandvi, Mundra and
Gandhidham. The entire district is inhabited by various groups and communities. Many of these have
reached this region after centuries of migration from neighboring regions of Marwar,
Sindh, Afghanistan. Gandhidham is a Taluka in the Kachchh District of Gujarat state of India. The town
was created in the early 1950s for the resettlement of the refugees from Sindh of Pakistan in the
aftermath of the partition of India. In recent history Gandhidham is a fast developing city in Gujarat
state. Even today, one can find various nomadic, semi nomadic and artisan groups living in Kutch.

The study area is predominantly Hindu. The various caste of people residing in the study area are
Ahir, Rabari, Patels, Harijan, etc. The area is also partly dominated by Muslims. SC/ST population in
the study area has been shown in Table 3-38.

Table 3-38: SC/ST Population in Study Area


% SC % ST
Distance
Total Male Female Total Male Female
0 - 3 kms 7.93 54.14 45.86 1.59 53.73 46.27

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% SC % ST
Distance
Total Male Female Total Male Female
3 - 5 kms 16.34 52.70 47.30 2.40 72.15 27.85
5 - 7 kms 8.19 52.37 47.63 1.20 56.02 43.98
7 - 10 kms 6.27 55.33 44.67 1.54 55.00 45.00
Total 7.95 53.59 46.41 1.47 56.62 43.38

Source: Primary Census Abstract, 2011


As per census 2011 average scheduled caste population in Study area is 7.95 % of the total
population. Out of the total SC population, males are 53.59% and female population is 46.41%. In
case of scheduled tribe the population 1.47% of the total population. Out of the total ST population,
male are 56.62% and female population is 43.38%.

Literacy Rate in Study Area


The statistics regarding the literacy rate in the study area are given in Table 3-39.

Table 3-39: Literacy Rate in Study Area


Literacy Rate (%)
Distance
Total Male Female
0 - 3 kms 45.25 64.58 35.42
3 - 5 kms 47.72 65.43 34.57
5 - 7 kms 44.23 65.59 34.41
7 - 10 kms 58.21 66.93 33.07
Total 49.38 65.91 34.09

Source: Primary Census Abstract 2011


It is calculated that average literacy rate of the study area in 2011 is 49.38%. Out of total Literate
population male literacy is 65.91% and female literacy is 34.09% of total population. Approximately,
50.62% Population is illiterate in the study area.

Educational Facility
Anganwadis and Primary schools are present in all the villages of the study area but for further studies
the students have to travel to nearby town/cities. Gandhidham city has several schools providing high
school education. The first English Medium School in the city is Modern School. The Schools in the
area include D.A.V. Public School,"Bachpan Pre-School", P.N. Amersey High School, Small Wonder
School, Delhi Public School, Ananda Marga Primary school in Sector-7 and Ananda Marga High School
in DC-2, Rambaug road (English Medium),the other schools are Mount Carmel High School, Kakubhai
Parikh School (K.P.S), Saint Xaviers at Adipur, Kendriya Vidyalaya at IFFCO colony, Kendriya Vidyalaya
at Railway colony, Aum Vidiya Mandir at IFFCO colony, Sadhu Vaswani International School and
Amarchand Singhvi School and "Hindi Medium" Schools are Dr. C.G. High School and Adarsh
Mahavidhyalaya situated in the heart of the city.

The colleges for graduation and higher studies are Tolani college of Science & Arts, Tolani commerce
college, Pharmacy college and Diploma in Engineering, Management Institute situated nearby
in Adipur. Educational Facilities in the study area is shown in Photograph 3-10.

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Photograph 3-10: Educational Facilities in the Study Area

Shree United Salt Prathmik Shaala Arjun Vidalaya, Bhimasar

In the study area it was observed that the each village has school up to primary level. For further
education students have to travel to nearby town like Anjar, Bachau, Mundra and Gandhidham. The
basic infrastructure of school is in fair condition. The quality of education and teachers are good
especially in Bhimasar Village. The education facilities that are prevailing in the study area are shown
in Table 3-40.

Table 3-40: Education Facility


Government Private
Middle School

Middle School
Pre- Primary

Pre- Primary
Distance

Secondary

Secondary

Secondary

Secondary
Primary

Primary
College

College
School

School

School

School

School

School

School

School
Senior

Senior
Core Zone
- 5 - 1 - - - - - - - -
(0-3 Km)
Buffer Zone
- 17 - 1 - - - 2 - - - -
(3-10 Km)
Total - 22 - 2 - - - 2 - - - -

Source: Primary Census Abstract 2011


The above data indicates that almost all the villages are having education institution up to primary
level, whereas the education institution from middle school to college level is absent.

Medical & Health Facilities


The average Life Expectancy of the people in Gandhidham Taluka is 70-80 years. The morbidity rate is
low and people don’t fall sick quite often. The most common disease spread in the entire study area is
Malaria affecting a large number of people. Some other diseases predominantly found in the area are
Cancer, Skin Diseases, Typhoid and Problem of Stones in stomach/ kidney, etc.

Most of the households in the study area lack proper sanitation facilities. Only few houses in the
villages have privately constructed toilet blocks. Others do not have such facility. There is a dearth of
a collective toilet blocks (Sulabh Shauchalaya) in the villages which causes a threat to the hygiene
conditions of the people.

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Table 3-41: Medical Facility


Primary Maternity And Non-Government
Primary Mobile
Distance Heallth Sub Child Welfare Medical facilities
Health Centre Health Clinic
Centre Centre Out Patient
Core Zone (0-3 Km) 1 1 1 1 2
Buffer Zone (3-10 Km) - 4 2 1 1
Total 1 5 3 2 3

Source: Primary Census Abstract 2011


There is absence of Community Health Centre, TB Clinic, Allopathic Hospital, Dispensary, Veterinary
Hospital and Family Welfare Centre in the study area village according to census data 2011. To avail
the better medical facility they have to visit Gandhidham or Ahmedabad for better medical services.
The medical facilities available in the study area are shown in Table 3-41.

Anganwadi Workers (AWWs) and Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) are present in all the
villages and work actively for Women and Child development. While the Anganwadi Workers work in
the areas of pre-natal and neonatal care, immunization and vaccination of children up to 6 years, and
implementing the Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS); the Accredited Social Health Activists
work specifically in the areas of female health, maternal mortality and promotion of institutional
deliveries, encouraging for “family planning”, improving village sanitation, maintaining demographic
records of the village etc.

Drinking Water Facilities


Most of the villages are provided with water through the Private Water Tankers. These tankers are
brought from Anjar or Bhuj. Most of the villages are connected with Narmada Canal water for drinking
purpose in the study area.

Table 3-42: Source of Drinking Water


Tap Water- Tap Water Covered Uncovered Tube Wells
Distance Others
Treated Untreated Well Well /Borehole
0 - 3 kms ×  × ×  ×
3 - 5 kms ×  × ×  ×
5 - 7 kms   × ×  
7 - 10 kms ×     

Source: Primary Census Abstract 2011


The statistics regarding the drinking water facilities are given in above table.

The main source of drinking water are tube well /Bore well, Open Wells, Panchayat’ s Overhead
Water tank, ponds etc.

Infrastructure and Accessibility of Roads and Means of Transportation


National Highway 6 connects Kutch with Ahmedabad, Vadodara, Rajkot and Surat. Bhuj is connected
with Kandla by a National Highway 50 via Anjar. Road connectivity is shown in Photograph 3-11.

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Photograph 3-11: Road Connectivity near Site

Road Connectivity near Project Site

Mumbai is connected with Bhuj by 5 broad gauge stations. Mundra and Kandla ports are linked by
broad gauge rail to the Delhi-Mumbai Industrial Corridor. Bhuj-Gandhidham-Kandla-Ahmedabad broad
gauge line provide direct connectivity from Kutch to other parts of country.

Bhuj has the only operational airport in Kutch. Kandla, Mandvi, Mundra air strips are under
development

Mundra Port Project has just established the longest non - government railway line, between Adipur
and Mundra, covering a distance of 57 km. This port is connected to Gandhidham by National Highway
and a broad gauge railway line. Other ports in the district include Kandla and Mandvi.

The project site is well connected by 4-lane internal road network, street lights, plantations, water
supply and power supply distribution network, CC storm water drainage system.

Power Supply in Study Area


The Government Power supply (PGVCL) is easily available to all the houses of all the villages of the
study area. The district also owns Lignite Power Stations. It also has 42 sub stations installed with a
capacity of 215 Mega Watt (MW). Wind power has a great potential in the district. Few wind power
projects proposed in Kutch are:

 250 MW project by NEG Micon;


 500 MW project by Suzlon Energy (to manufacture tubular tower in the region).

Means of Communication
The changing trends in technology have massively affected the people in the study area. The most
important means of communication is mobile phones which are possessed by most of the individuals
in the locality. It has become an obsession among the youth and a necessity for the working class. All
other means of communication seem to have become extinct after the advent of mobile technology.

Banking Facilities
There are branches of many nationalized banks like State Bank of India, Bank of Baroda, Dena Bank
etc. present in the study area which is an advantage to the people. Other players in the banking
service with their facilities in the study area are ICICI Bank, Axis Bank, HDFC, etc. Easily accessible

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Automated Teller Machines (ATMs) of these banks are also located here which benefits the locals and
outsiders too. Post offices and Bank facilities in study area are shown in Photograph 3-12.

Photograph 3-12: Post Offices and Bank Facilities in Study Area

Post Office at Bhimasar Village Banking Facilities at Study Area

Economic Profile

Agriculture
Major Crops being produced in the study area are Oil seed, Bajra, Jowar, Cotton, Pulses, Date Palms
and Egg-Plant. Among various Oilseeds groundnut, castor seeds, rape and mustard seeds are the
most important crops. Kutch is an important producer of psyllium (Isabgul), cumin and coriander.
Agriculture is mostly carried out by the water from open wells, bore wells and rainwater.

The main market for selling the crops is Anjar.

Animal Husbandry & Poultry


Livestock rearing profession is also followed in some parts of the study area. Most of the animals
tamed by them are cows, buffaloes, goats, bullock etc. Even the poultry profession is also followed a
few places. Animal Husbandry in the study area in study area are shown in Photograph 3-13.

Photograph 3-13: Animal Husbandry in the Study Area

Animal Husbandry in the study area

Employment Generation
People residing in the study area mostly depend on the various factories for their livelihood. Many
people of the study area are employed into private sector firms established in the vicinity of their

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residence. They work mostly at the shop floor level where actual manpower is required. Some
people also work as daily wage laborers into skilled and unskilled sectors.
The statistics regarding the Occupational Pattern in the study area are given in Table 3-43.

Table 3-43: Occupation Patterns


% Occupational Status (2011)
Distance Total Working Agricultural Household Marginal
Cultivators Others
Population Labor Workers Workers
0 - 3 kms 35.82 27.23 32.11 0.46 22.16 18.03
3 - 5 kms 39.53 3.70 4.93 2.85 78.98 9.55
5 - 7 kms 32.91 5.79 5.30 1.58 83.91 3.42
7 - 10 kms 40.42 6.12 4.97 0.57 83.72 4.61
Total 36.47 10.42 10.94 1.04 70.20 7.40

Source: Primary Census Abstract 2011


There are 7.40% marginal workers and 10.42 % cultivators. The agricultural labours in the study area
are 10.94% with 1.04%.

During survey it could be revealed that there ample number of job opportunities for the village youth.
Most of them are engaged in the nearby industries through permanent jobs or contractual labourers.
The fishing occupation is also carried out in few selected villages like Mithi Rohar etc.

Industries/Factories
During field survey it is observed that many of the villages/habitation of the core zone has been lies
around the existing plant of KCIL. The other industries in the purview of the existing plants are Cargil
Foods Ltd, Maple India Ltd, Lakme Uniliver Ltd, Indian Steel (Ruchi Group), JMD Oil, Ratnamani Tubes
etc.

Kutch has re-emerged from the ruins of one of the most disastrous earthquakes in the history that
took place in January 2001 and today has become a major industrial hub. Over 60% of total salt
production is contributed by the district. The district also has large reserves of limestone, bauxite,
lignite and bentonite, and is one of the preferred destinations for most of the mineral based industries.
It boasts of being the world’s largest manufacturer of Submerged Arc Welded (SAW) pipes. A good
number of medium /large scale industries are supported by a sizeable number of small scale
industries. Due to presence of two important ports, Kandla and Mundra, the district accounts for a
very high cargo movement. Kutch is also known for handicrafts. Out of total 136 industrial cooperative
societies, 71 belong to handicrafts. Palaces, temples, fairs and festivals of Kutch attracts a large
number of tourists in the district.

Cultural Profile

Kutch district is inhabited by various groups and communities. Many of these have reached this region
after centuries of migration from neighboring regions of Marwar, Sindh, Afghanistan and further. Even
today, one can find various nomadic, semi nomadic and artisan groups living in Kutch. The language
spoken predominantly in Kutch is Kutchi language, to a lesser extent Gujarati, Sindhi, and Hindi. The
district's population mostly follows Hinduism. The remaining population adhere mostly to Jainism and
Islam. There are also some Sikhs and a Gurudwara is situated in Kutch at Lakhpat. The Swaminarayan

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Sampraday has a huge following in this region. Their main temple in this district is Shri Swaminarayan
Mandir, Bhuj. Place of Religious Importance in the study area is shown in Photograph 3-14.

Photograph 3-14: Place of Religious Importance in the Study Area

Hindu Temple, Mithi Rohar Hanuman Temple, Gandhidham

The majority of the population is vegetarian. Jains, Buldhmins and some other caste practice strict
vegetarianism. Jains also refrain from eating kandmool food grown below the ground such as
potatoes, garlic, onion, suran, etc. Hindus practice various degree of vegetarianism but certainly do
not eat beef.

In the villages, staple foods include bajra and milk; bajara na rotla with curd and butter milk is very
common food for all the Gujarati people. Bajra was introduced by a brave king of this region named
Lakho Fulani. During his period of exile, he came to know about this grain in some tribal regions. They
also extensively drink buttermilk during lunch. Milk is considered to be sacred food and offering it to
somebody is considered a gesture of friendship and welcoming.

Tea is the most popular drink in this region and is enjoyed irrespective of sex, caste, religion or social
status. Tea stalls where groups of people chat over tea are invariable sights of every village or town
entrance from early morning to late evening. Alcoholic liquor is another popular drink, though it has
been illegal to drink or possess since Kutch was incorporated within Gujarat. Most of the liquor drunk
in this region is distilled from molasses by local people in villages. As a rule, women do not drink
alcohol.

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4 ANTICIPATED ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND


MITIGATION MEASURES

In this chapter, we:

 Identify project activities that could beneficially or adversely impact the environment;
 Predict and assess the environmental impacts of such activities;
 Examine each environmental aspect-impact relationship in detail and identify its degree of
significance;
 Identify possible mitigation measures for these project activities and select the most appropriate
mitigation measure, based on the reduction in significance achieved and practicality in
implementation;
 In case impact are low or moderate and can be suitably managed by SOP’s / OCP’s, to minimize /
control the consequences, no specific management plans are prescribed;
• If consequences are high / indicating significant impact, implementation of mitigation measures
requires specific management plan, these are prescribed.

4.1 INVESTIGATED ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS DUE TO THE PROPOSED


PROJECT

Details of investigated environmental impacts due to project location, possible accidents, project
design, project construction, regular operations and final decommissioning are discussed in this
section.

Key Definitions, identification of impacts, methodology of component wise risk assessment is described
in Annexure 12. This methodology is used in this chapter for preparing impacts and their listing
evaluation. Mitigation measures are formulated based on the significance of the impact.

A programme to implement all mitigation measures is then prepared and presented as an


Environmental Monitoring Program and Environmental Management Plan, presented in Chapter 6 &
Chapter 10 respectively.
Impact on environment have been identified, based on an assessment of various environmental
aspects associated with the project activities and has been summarized in Table 4-1.

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Table 4-1: Aspect – Impact Identification from Proposed Project


Potential Impacts
Ecology & Resource

N / AN / E
Air Water Land Social
Biodiversity Depletion
S No. Project Activity Identified Aspect
Effluent
AP / LU OH /
NV SW GW / Soil HW ISW MSW TER. AQUA. RD Infrastructure Economic
AQ / LC (H&S)
Sewage
C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 C10 C11 C12 C13 C14 C15 C16 C17 C18 C19 C20
1 Project Location
Increase in traffic on state highways and internal
1.1 Site selection N • • (+ve) •
roads in study area
2 Project Design
Non-compliance of Environmental standards due
to failure in designs of the following:
1) Air Pollution Control Equipment • •
Design & selection of technology, 2) Boilers / Compressors / Other utilities • •
2.1 reactors/ equipment / site layouts, 3) ETP, RO, MEE, ATFD & Hazardous waste
• • • • •
etc. storage area AN
4) Chlorine & other hazardous material storage
• •
tanks and structure
5) High Energy Consumption •
3 Project Construction
A Pre-Construction
Change in Landuse from Scrub to Industrial Use N •
Removal of site vegetation like
Site specific loss of common floral diversity,
3.A.1 herbs, shrubs and grasses (except
associated faunal diversity & habitat / habitat N •
trees)
diversity
B Construction
Generation of Debris N •

Excavation and paving of site, Noise Generation N •


3.B.1 Movement of JCBs, other Site specific disturbance to faunal species N •
machinery, workers / labors etc. Dust Generation N • •
Fall in pit, land sliding from sidewalls AN •
Generation of Scraps N • •
Heavy fabrication work for
erecting major plant equipment Emission of Heat Radiation N • •
3.B.2 including operation of equipment Noise Generation N • •
like crane, concrete mixtures,
Breaking of pulley, chains of cranes during lifting
vibrators etc. AN •
of equipment
3.B.3 Influx of Construction Workers Sewage Sludge Generation N • • • (+ve)
Vehicular movement for Dust generation and emission of HC & CO N • •
3.B.4 transportation of materials and
Noise Generation N • •
equipment
C Commissioning
Startup and shutdown activities Process Emissions of HCl, Cl2 & HC AN • • •
3.C.1 like operation of various Flue gas Emissions of PM, NOx, CO, unburnt fuel,
AN • •
equipments in Chlor-Alkali, etc.

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Potential Impacts
Ecology & Resource

N / AN / E
Air Water Land Social
Biodiversity Depletion
S No. Project Activity Identified Aspect
Effluent
AP / LU OH /
NV SW GW / Soil HW ISW MSW TER. AQUA. RD Infrastructure Economic
AQ / LC (H&S)
Sewage
C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 C10 C11 C12 C13 C14 C15 C16 C17 C18 C19 C20
reactors in synthetic organic units, Noise Generation N • •
inorganic plants and Captive Leakage of chemicals, fuel and generation of
Power Plant. AN • • •
waste water
Generation of discarded packing materials N •
4 Project Operation
Chlorine liquefaction,
A
Storage, Filling & Dispatch
4.A.1 Procurement of Salt Loss of resource in rainy season. N • •
Fugitive emission of chlorine AN • •
Effluent generation having high TDS N •
Brine preparation-resaturation,
4.A.2 Brine sludge disposal N •
dechlorination, etc.
Soil contamination due to spillage of Brine
AN •
Sludge during transportation at SLF
Depleted brine AN • •
Cl2 release E • • • •
4.A.3 Electrolysis Process
Caustic and Brine leakage from electrolyser
AN •
assembly
Cl2 leakage due to valve failure and tonner
4.A.4 Loading of Chlorine tonners E • • • •
leakage
Liquefaction, Storage, Bottling &
4.A.5 Vaporization of Chlorine in Leakage of Chlorine AN • • •
Chlorine bullets
4.A.6 Hydro testing of Chlorine tonners Disposal of wash water N •
Chlorine supply through pipeline
4.A.7 Leakage of Chlorine AN • • •
to nearby existing industry
Transportation of Chlorine within
4.A.8 Leakage of Chlorine AN • • •
plant through pipeline
Bullet failure due to natural calamities or
4.A.9 Storing Cl2 in bullets E • • •
sabotage
4.A.10 Secured Landfill Facility Leachate generation N •
B HCl Plant
4.B.1 Scrubbing of HCl vapors Emission of HCl AN • • • •
C Hypo Plant
Absorption of Chlorine in Hypo
4.C.1 Escape of unabsorbed Chlorine & HCl AN • • • •
Tower
D Hydrogen Plant
Fire due to electrostatic charge AN •
4.D.1 H2 Compressor
Explosion E • •
E H2O2 Plant

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Potential Impacts
Ecology & Resource

N / AN / E
Air Water Land Social
Biodiversity Depletion
S No. Project Activity Identified Aspect
Effluent
AP / LU OH /
NV SW GW / Soil HW ISW MSW TER. AQUA. RD Infrastructure Economic
AQ / LC (H&S)
Sewage
C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 C10 C11 C12 C13 C14 C15 C16 C17 C18 C19 C20
Operation of Hydrogen Peroxide Emission of HC N • •
4.E.1
unit Process Waste as spent Alumina N •
Anhydrous Aluminium
F Chloride, PAC, & Calcium
Chloride Plants
Emission of HCl & Cl2 N • • • •
4.F.1 Operation of Inorganic unit
Process Waste N •
Synthetic Organic Units (Para
G Amino Phenol, Hydrogenated
& Chlorinated products.
4.G.1 Emission of HCl & Cl2 N • • • •
4.G.2 Effluent generation having high COD & TDS N •
Operation of Organic unit
Generation of Process waste and other
4.G.3 N •
hazardous wastes like distillation residue.
Captive Co-Generation Power
H
Plant
Generation of Coal dust during transportation N • • •
4.H.1 Procurement of Coal Transportation by road N •
Development of ancillary activity N • • (+ve)
Generation of Coal dust N • •
4.H.2 Coal storage and stock pilling
Fire E • • •
4.H.3 Handling and Crushing of coal Emission of Coal dust N • • •

Operation of Coal fired boilers & Emission of PM, SO2, NOx and Fly Ash generation N • • • •
4.H.4
Turbines Noise Generation N • •
5 General & Utilities
Vehicular movement for SPM generation and emission of HC & CO. N • • • (+ve) •
5.1 transportation of raw materials,
Noise Generation N •
finished goods, Industrial Waste.
Handling of Material, Products
5.2 Generation of Dust N • •
(Dry).
Flue gas emission of PM, SO2, NOx from DG sets N • • • (+ve)
Waste water generation from cooling tower blow
N •
Operation of other utilities like DG down, shaft leaks, washings etc
Sets, Cooling Tower, Compressor, Leakages in HSD tank AN • • • •
5.3
Pumps, Blowers etc. & Floor Noise Generation N •
Washing.
Generation of Used/spent oil, waste/residue
containing oil, contaminated hand gloves, N •
discarded containers / barrels / bags
5.4 Operation of DM Plant Acidic and alkaline waste water N •

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Potential Impacts
Ecology & Resource

N / AN / E
Air Water Land Social
Biodiversity Depletion
S No. Project Activity Identified Aspect
Effluent
AP / LU OH /
NV SW GW / Soil HW ISW MSW TER. AQUA. RD Infrastructure Economic
AQ / LC (H&S)
Sewage
C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 C10 C11 C12 C13 C14 C15 C16 C17 C18 C19 C20
Fire and Explosion in Class A solvent storage
AN • • •
Storage of fuel, Class A Solvents, area
5.5 Raw material, Finished products Dust Generation N • •
and Hazardous waste handling Generation of discarded container, drums,
N • •
packing material etc.
Raw water intake from GWIL
5.6 Consumption of water (surface) N • •
reservoir
Zero Liquid Discharge N • (+ve)
Sludge Generation N •
5.7 Operation of ETP, RO, MEE Spillage of HW/effluent AN • •
Untreated effluent generation due to abnormal
AN •
operation/ breakdown of RO & MEE
Mixing of contamination form Process, coal
storage, chemical & fuel storage and handling
5.8 Storm water management AN • •
area, effluent treatment plant and salt yard with
storm water
Generation of waste/used oil and lubricants N • •
5.9 Equipment maintenance Generation of scraps, used spares, cotton waste,
N •
hand gloves etc.
Waste water generation N •

5.10 Analysis in laboratory Generation of Broken Glassware AN • •

Injury due to splash of acid/alkali on chemist AN •

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4.2 AIR ENVIRONMENT

As discussed earlier, environmental aspects and impacts have been identified based on an assessment
of environmental aspects associated with the project, which include emissions:

 During Project Design Stage;


 During Project Construction;
 During Project Operation;
 During General Operation phase of Utilities.

For the purpose of impact predictions on air environment, emission sources can be classified into point
and area sources. Whilst no area sources have been identified as part of the project, point sources
have been identified and these include stacks attached to various units.

For the purpose of impact predictions on air environment, the impact assessment methodology is
given in Table 1 of Annexure 12. Based on the identified aspects from project activities, impact
scores and operational controls / mitigation measures on air environment are tabulated in Table 4-2.

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Table 4-2: Impact Scoring and Mitigation Measures for Air Environment

N / AN / E
Impact Scoring
S Significance / EMP
Project Activity Identified Aspect Legal Severity, Probability, Final Score, Operation Controls / Mitigation Measures
No. Consequence Required
S P SxP
C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 C10 C11
1 Project Design
Non-compliance of Environmental Membrane cell technology is considered. Approved and standard
Design & selection of reactors/ equipment /
1.1 standards due to failure in Air Pollution AN No 5 1 5 Low designs of air pollution control equipment & process equipment will be No
site layouts, etc.
Control Equipment designs. procured from Authorized vendors to meet environmental standards.
2 Project Construction
A Construction
Excavation and paving of site, Movement of Barricading will be done wherever required. Water sprinkling is carried
2.A.1 Dust Generation N No 1 5 5 Low No
JCBs, other machinery, workers / labors etc. out as and when required.
Heavy fabrication work for erecting major
plant equipment including operation of
2.A.2 Emission of Heat Radiation N No 1 5 5 Low Properly certified, tested and calibrated equipment will be used. No
equipment like crane, concrete mixtures,
vibrators etc.
Vehicular movement for transportation of PUC Certified vehicles will be used. Traffic management will be
2.A.3 Dust generation and emission of HC & CO N No 2 5 10 Moderate No
materials and equipment ensured.
B Commissioning
Startup and shutdown activities like operation Process Emissions of HCl, Cl2 & HC AN No 4 1 4 Low No
of various equipments in Chlor-Alkali, reactors SOP's, OCP, OEP will be made and followed. APC will be provided.
2.B.1 Flue gas Emissions of PM, NOx, CO,
in synthetic organic units, inorganic plants AN No 4 3 12 Moderate Firefighting and emergency response team will be at place. No
unburnt fuel, etc.
and Captive Power Plant.
3 Project Operation
Chlorine liquefaction, Storage, Filling &
A
Dispatch
Regular work place monitoring will be done. Leakages will be
Brine preparation-resaturation,
3.A.1 Fugitive emission of chlorine AN No 4 1 4 Low immediately attended. OCP will be followed. Chlorine system is No
dechlorination, etc.
connected with caustic scrubber.
Depleted brine AN No 2 1 2 Negligible OCPs will be made and followed. No
3.A.2 Electrolysis Process SOP's, OCP, OEP & Offsite emergency plan will be followed during
Cl2 release E No 5 1 5 Low No
emergency
SOP's, OCP, Onsite and Offsite emergency plan will be followed during
Cl2 leakage due to valve failure and tonner
3.A.3 Loading of Chlorine tonners E No 4 1 4 Low emergency. Firefighting and emergency response team will be at No
leakage
place.

Cl2 & HCl Detectors will be placed at suitable locations. Vacuum


system will be in place to capture Cl2 and transferred to Hypo plant for
Liquefaction, Storage, Bottling & Vaporization
3.A.4 Leakage of Chlorine AN No 5 3 15 High Caustic scrubbing. SOP's will be followed during emergency. Yes
of Chlorine in Chlorine bullets
Mandatory inspection of each equipment shall be done as per the
requirements. Regular work place monitoring will be carried out.

Chlorine supply through pipeline to nearby Leakages will be immediately attended by competent person.
3.A.5 Leakage of Chlorine AN No 4 1 4 Low No
existing industry Preventive maintenance schedule in place.
Transportation of Chlorine within plant Leakages will be immediately attended by competent person.
3.A.6 Leakage of Chlorine AN No 4 1 4 Low No
through pipeline Preventive maintenance schedule in place.
Onsite and Offsite emergency plan will be followed. Firefighting &
Bullet failure due to natural calamities or
3.A.7 Storing Cl2 in bullets E No 5 1 5 Low emergency response team will be at place. Preventive maintenance No
sabotage
schedule in place.
B HCl Plant

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N / AN / E
Impact Scoring
S Significance / EMP
Project Activity Identified Aspect Legal Severity, Probability, Final Score, Operation Controls / Mitigation Measures
No. Consequence Required
S P SxP
C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 C10 C11
3 Stage Caustic Scrubbing System will be provided. Adequate stack
3.B.1 Scrubbing of HCl vapors Emission of HCl AN Yes -- -- -- Significant Yes
height of 30 m will be provided.
C Hypo Plant
Single Stage DM Water Scrubbing System will be provided. Adequate
3.C.1 Absorption of Chlorine in Hypo Tower Escape of unabsorbed Chlorine & HCl AN Yes -- -- -- Significant Yes
stack height of 30 m will be provided.
D H2O2 Plant
Activated Carbon Adsorption System will be provided. Adequate stack
3.D.1 Operation of Hydrogen Peroxide unit Emission of HC N Yes -- -- -- Significant Yes
height of 32 m will be provided.
Anhydrous Aluminium Chloride, PAC, &
E
Calcium Chloride Plants
Alkali Ventury Scrubber will be provided. Adequate stack height will be
3.E.1 Operation of Inorganic unit Emission of HCl & Cl2 N Yes -- -- -- Significant Yes
provided.
Synthetic Organic Units (Para Amino
F Phenol, Hydrogenated & Chlorinated
products.
Water, Alkali Ventury Scrubbers will be provided. Adequate stack
3.F.1 Operation of Organic unit Emission of HCl & Cl2 N Yes -- -- -- Significant Yes
height will be provided.
G Captive Co-Generation Power Plant
Generation of Coal dust during Barricading will be done wherever required. Water sprinkling is carried
3.G.1 Procurement of Coal N No 1 5 5 Low No
transportation out as and when required.
Barricading will be done wherever required. Water sprinkling is carried
Generation of Coal dust N No 1 5 5 Low No
out as and when required.
3.G.2 Coal storage and stock pilling Onsite and Offsite emergency plan will be followed. Firefighting &
Fire E No 5 1 5 Low emergency response team will be at place. Preventive maintenance No
schedule in place.
OCPs will be followed. Water sprinkling will be done. Dust extraction
3.G.3 Handling and Crushing of coal Emission of Coal dust N No 2 5 10 Moderate No
system will be provided at crusher house
SOP's, OCP and OEP will be followed. Stack height of 105 m will be
Emission of PM, SO2, NOx and Fly Ash provided for proper dispersion. Online meter for PM, SO2 & NOx will be
3.G.4 Operation of Coal fired boilers & Turbines N Yes -- -- -- Significant Yes
generation provided. Ash Handling and Management plan will be prepared and
followed.
4 General & Utilities
Vehicular movement for transportation of raw OCPs will be followed. Water sprinkling will be done. Dust extraction
4.1 SPM generation and emission of HC & CO. N No 3 5 15 High Yes
materials, finished goods, Industrial Waste. system will be provided at crusher house
4.2 Handling of Material, Products (Dry). Generation of Dust N No 2 5 10 Moderate Regular cleanup activities shall be done. No
Operation of other utilities like DG Sets,
Flue gas emission of PM, SO2, NOx from SOP's, OCP and OEP will be followed. Adequate Stack height of 15 m
4.3 Cooling Tower, Compressor, Pumps, Blowers N Yes -- -- -- Significant Yes
DG sets will be provided for DG sets for proper dispersion
etc.
Onsite and Offsite emergency plan will be followed. Firefighting &
Storage of fuel, Class A Solvents, Raw Fire and Explosion in Class A solvent
AN No 5 1 5 Low emergency response team will be at place. Preventive maintenance No
4.4 material, Finished products and Hazardous storage area
schedule in place.
waste handling
Dust Generation N No 2 5 10 Moderate Regular cleanup activities shall be done. No

Note: Scoring is not done for those impacting activities, where the mitigation measure of the arising aspect requires to meet/comply with the Legal Requirement (i.e. NOC/CTO).

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4.2.1 Emission Rates & Predicted GLCs

Point Source Emissions

As per the discussions with KCIL officials, following relevant data were collected to calculate emission
rates of relevant pollutants from point source due to proposed activities during operation phase:

 Quantity of fuel;
 Fuel analysis;
 Stack details: Internal diameter at top, height*, exit gas velocity, temperature.

* Stack Height is calculated based on the sulphur content in Imported Coal, considering worst case,
i.e. when all APCM fails.

Assumptions for calculating emission estimate for point source are as following:

 Emissions rates of relevant parameters as provided in Emission standards for TPP units to be
installed from 1st January, 2017 and emission standards for Sulphuric Acid and Chlor Alkali
Industries.
 To meet these norms, Sulphur reduction efficiency shall be > 92.75% (Lime dosing in CFBC
boilers) & ESP Efficiency shall be > 99.75%.

Details of proposed stacks & APCM are given in Table 2-20 & Table 2-21. Sulphur and Ash content
in imported coal and HSD is tabulated in Table 4-3.

Table 4-3: Assumptions for Calculating Emission Estimate for Point Source
S. Sulphur Content, Ash Content, Density,
Fuel Type Source
No. % % kg/m3
1 Imported Coal 0.5 7.5 800 As provided by KCIL
2 HSD 0.25 0.01 820 Secondary Data, IOCL

Emissions rates from proposed point source (flue gas stacks & process stacks) as per the above
emissions are shown in Table 4-4 & Table 4-5.

Volume Source Emissions

From the proposed project, volume source, emitting PM, is identified as open storage of coal. This is
not considered for dispersion modeling as particulate matter emitted shall not be dispersed too far
from the source and maximum GLCs will be well within the project site itself.

Emission rates from coal yard is provided in Table 4-6.

Line Source Emissions

Vehicular emissions, majorly CO & HC’s are envisaged due to movement of these vehicles on six lane
“pakka” road having 24 m width. Dispersion modeling is not considered for line source emissions as
the roads are “pakka”, hence no significant addition of GLCs are envisaged due to vehicular
movement.

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Table 4-4: Emission Estimate from Flue Gas Stacks


Required Stack Exit Stack Stack Stack SO2 SO2 Emitted PM10 Emitted
Stack Stack Attached Stack Ht., Stack Dia. SO2 Emitted, PM Emission*, NOx Emitted*, NOx Emitted,
Stack Ht., Velocity, Exit Exhaust, Exhaust, Emission*, after APCM, after APCM,
No. to m (Top), m kg/hr mg/Nm3 mg/Nm3 gm/sec
m m/s Temp, oK m3/s Nm3/s mg/Nm3 gm/sec gm/sec
C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 C10 C11 C12 C13 C14 C15 C16
1 CPP (100 MW) 96.39 105 3.5 18 413 173.1 124.9 100 45.0 12.49 30 3.75 100 12.49

* As per MOEF's New Emission standards for power plant (07.12.2015).

Required Stack Stack Exit Stack Stack Fuel Sulphur SO2 SO2 Ash PM10 PM10 NOx NOx
Stack Stack Stack Ht., Stack Fuel
Stack Ht., Dia. Velocity, Exit Exhaust, Consumption Content in Emitted, Emitted, Content in Emitted, Emitted, Emitted, Emitted,
No. Attached to m Exhaust, m3/s Used
m (Top), m m/s Temp, oK Nm3/s (Ltr/Hr) Fuel, % kg/hr gm/sec Fuel, % kg/hr gm/sec mg/Nm3 gm/sec
C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 C10 C11 C12 C13 C14 C15 C16 C17 C18 C19
1 DG Set 13.2 15 0.5 15 423 2.94 2.07 HSD 200 0.25 0.8 0.2 0.01 0.016 0.005 100.00 0.21
2 DG Set 13.2 15 0.5 15 423 2.94 2.07 HSD 200 0.25 0.8 0.2 0.01 0.016 0.005 100.00 0.21

Table 4-5: Emission Estimate from Process Stacks


Stack Exit Stack HCl HCl Emitted Cl2 Emitted HC Emitted
Stack Pollutants No. of Stack Ht., Stack Dia. Stack Exit Cl2 Emitted, HC Emitted,
Stack Attached to Velocity, Exhaust, Emitted, after APCM, after APCM, after APCM,
No. Emitted Stacks m (Top), m Temp, oK mg/Nm3 mg/Nm3
m/s Nm3/s mg/Nm3 gm/sec gm/sec gm/sec
C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 C10 C11 C12 C13 C14 C15
1 Waste air De-Chlorination Unit -1 & 2 Cl2 2 30 0.4 1.5 308 0.18 -- -- 9.00 0.003 -- --
2 HCl synthesis Unit 1 & 2 HCl, Cl2 2 30 0.15 1.5 308 0.03 20.00 0.001 9.00 0.0005 -- --
Depleted air from solvent recovery Unit 1 & 2
3 HC 2 32 0.4 2.5 313 0.30 -- -- -- -- 15 0.009
(H2O2 Plant)
4 Calcium Chloride Plant HCl, Cl2 1 11 0.2 1.5 303 0.05 20.00 0.001 9.00 0.0004 -- --
5 CPW Plant HCl, Cl2 1 15 0.2 1.5 303 0.05 20.00 0.001 9.00 0.0004 -- --
6 Chlorinator of Chloro Benzene Plant – MCB HCl, Cl2 1 22 0.2 1.5 303 0.05 20.00 0.001 9.00 0.0004 -- --
Chlorinator of Chloro Benzene Plant –
7 HCl, Cl2 1 22 0.2 1.5 303 0.05 20.00 0.001 9.00 0.0004 -- --
ODCB/PDCB/TCB
8 Chlorinator of Toluene Plant HCl, Cl2 1 22 0.2 1.5 303 0.05 20.00 0.001 9.00 0.0004 -- --

Table 4-6: Emission Estimate from Volume Source

Maximum Working Pit Dimensions, m Max. Max. Air Pollution


Density Coal PM PM PM
Storage Area, Volume, Stowage Quantity Quantity Generating Activity Emission Factor as Per Emission
S. No. of Coal, Handled, Emission, Emission, Emission,
Yard type m2 m3 factor Stored, Handled, (as per USEPA USEPA Fire Model Factor
Length Width Height Kg/m3 Ton/Hr lb/Hr gm/sec gm/m2/sec
MT TPD Terminology)

C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 C10 C11 C12 C13 C14 C15 C16 C17 C18


Coal 3.000 E-3 Lb per Tons
1 50.0 35.0 5.0 1,750 8,750 1.4 6,250 800 1,860 Handling 77.50 0.003 0.233 0.029 1.6740E-05
Storage Material Throughput

9
Coal Consumption: 1,860 TPD. Considering 0.5% Sulphur, plant running for 24 hrs, Sulphur Emission: 310 kg/hr & SO2 emission: 620 kg/hr. So, Stack Height is calculated as per H = 14(Q)0.3.

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Dispersion Modeling

Emissions from all the stacks were analyzed for their impacts on the GLC for various distances using
the dispersion modeling guidelines of AERMOD, developed by the AERMIC (American Meteorological
Society (AMS)/United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), as directed by CPCB.

About AERMOD
AMS/EPA Regulatory Model (AERMOD) is a steady-state plume model. It is designed to apply to source
releases and meteorological conditions that can be assumed to be steady over individual modeling
periods (typically one hour or less). AERMOD has been designed to handle the computation of
pollutant impacts in both flat and complex terrain within the same modeling framework.

The American Meteorological Society/Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model Improvement


Committee (AERMIC) was formed to introduce state-of-the-art modeling concepts into the EPA's air
quality models. Through AERMIC, a modeling system, AERMOD, was introduced that incorporated air
dispersion based on planetary boundary layer turbulence structure and scaling concepts, including
treatment of both surface and elevated sources, and both simple and complex terrain.

AERMET is an input data processor that is one of the regulatory components of the AERMOD modeling
system. It incorporates air dispersion based on planetary boundary layer turbulence structure and
scaling concepts. Data flow in Aermod modeling system is shown in Figure 4-1.

Figure 4-1: Data Flow in AERMOD Modeling System

Meteorological Parameters
The hourly meteorological data considered were wind speed, wind direction, ambient atmospheric
temperature, cloud cover, humidity & rainfall.

Other Assumptions
The dispersion modeling assumptions considered are as follows:

 The terrain of the study area was considered as FLAT;


 Stability class and Atmospheric inversion level is based on software’s database;
 DG sets are in operation (Worst case scenario).

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Results
Emission standards of MOEF and CPCB are considered for modeling purpose. In actual, the emissions
will be lesser then it is calculated for and it is unlikely to cause abundant GLCs. Air dispersion modeling
results with predicted GLC (Isopleths) from proposed activity of all parameters are provided in
Annexure 13. Maximum 24 hourly average GLC’s for PM10, SO2 & NOx, & hourly for HCl, Cl2 & HC are
tabulated in Table 4-7.

Table 4-7: Summary of Air Dispersion Modeling for Proposed Stacks


Number of Maximum GLC
S No. Parameters Distance, m Direction
Sources Concentration, µg/m3
1 PM10 3 1.0 1,500 E
2 SO2 3 6.2 250 NE
3 NOx 2 5.7 250 NE
4 HCl 6 0.65 250 SW
5 Cl2 7 0.32 250 N
6 HC 1 0.63 250 W

A situation is predicted as the sum of incremental GLCs and average baseline monitored value of a
parameter at the baseline monitoring location. GLCs at these receptors are tabulated in Table 4-8.

Table 4-8: Maximum Incremental GLC from Proposed Project


Name of Village CPCB Limit Baseline Total
S GLC
(Distance in Pollutant Concentration Concentration Predictive
No. (µg/m3)
km/Direction) (µg/m3) (Avg) (µg/m3) GLC (µg/m3)

PM10 100 89 0.6 89.6


SO2 80 9.2 6.2 15.4
At Project Site NOx 80 29.8 5.7 35.5
1
(0.0 / - ) HCl - < 1.0 0.65 1.65
Cl2 - < 1.0 0.32 1.32
HC - 1,124 0.63 1,124.63
PM10 100 95 0.4 95.4
SO2 80 9.4 1.6 11.0
Varsana (1.25 / NOx 80 33.9 0.9 34.8
2
NE) HCl - < 1.0 0.22 1.22
Cl2 - < 1.0 0.09 1.09
HC - 1,160 0.08 1,160.08
PM10 100 89 0.3 89.3
SO2 80 9.1 1.0 10.1
Nandgaon (3.85 / NOx 80 34.2 0.3 34.5
3
NE) HCl - < 1.0 0.09 1.09
Cl2 - < 1.0 0.06 1.06
HC - 1,198 0.07 1,198.07
KCIL (Unit 1) (0.4 PM10 100 103 0.5 103.5
4
/ SW) SO2 80 9.5 2.7 12.2

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Name of Village CPCB Limit Baseline Total


S GLC
(Distance in Pollutant Concentration Concentration Predictive
No. (µg/m3)
km/Direction) (µg/m3) (Avg) (µg/m3) GLC (µg/m3)

NOx 80 34.4 2.6 37.0


HCl - 2.4 0.2 2.6
Cl2 - 2.6 0.09 2.69
HC - 1,203 0.16 1,203.16
PM10 100 91 0.3 91.3
SO2 80 9.5 1.0 10.5
NOx 80 32.3 0.9 33.2
5 Padana (1.1 / S)
HCl - < 1.0 0.06 1.06
Cl2 - < 1.0 0.02 1.02
HC - 1,215 0.09 1,215.09
PM10 100 94 0.1 94.1
SO2 80 9.2 0.1 9.3

Bhimasar (2.5 / NOx 80 32.2 0.1 32.3


6
NW) HCl - < 1.0 0 1
Cl2 - < 1.0 0 1
HC - 1,234 0 1,234.00
PM10 100 95 0.1 95.1
SO2 80 9.4 0.4 9.8

Modvadar (4.0 / NOx 80 31.1 0.6 31.7


7
SW) HCl - < 1.0 0.09 1.09
Cl2 - < 1.0 0.06 1.06
HC - 1,221 0.05 1,221.05
PM10 100 91 0.0 91.0
SO2 80 8.9 0.1 9.0
NOx 80 31 0.1 31.1
8 Pashuda (6.2 / N)
HCl - < 1.0 0 1
Cl2 - < 1.0 0 1
HC - 1,165 0 1,165.00

Conclusion

Comparing the incremental ground level concentrations of pollutants with the ambient air quality limits
prescribed by CPCB & as per Factories Act, it can be concluded the following:

 Incremental GLC’s for all parameters remain within 250 to 1,500 meters from the project site;
 Air impact are not expected to cause any effect on vegetation and human settlements in the
vicinity of the project site.

Mitigation Measures

Mitigation measures for air quality impacts are:

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 CFBC Boilers having sulphur reduction efficiency shall be > 92.75% (Lime dosing) purchased;
 Adequate height of at least 105 m will be provided as per the statutory requirements to flue gas
stacks attached to boilers. APC like ESPs will be installed with it having at least 99.75% efficiency;
 Well-designed APCM like scrubbers (DM water & Caustic) will be provided as per the applicability
to control emissions of HCl, Cl2 & HC;
 Online sensors for PM, SO2 & NOx shall be provided with flue gas stack attached to boilers;
 Online sensors for HCl & Cl2 shall be provided with stack attached to Hypo plant;
 Plant load will be maintained to reduce the air emissions;
 Effective water spraying will be done on the access roads to control re-entrained dust during dry
season (if required);
 Proper operating procedures will be followed during startup and shutdown;
 Proper PPE like dust masks will be provided to workers and its use ensured;
 Regular Work place monitoring will be done.

4.2.2 Incremental Traffic

From the proposed facility, approximately on daily basis, approximately, 250 trucks per day carrying
raw material and finished goods shall be using the nearby national highways (NH-6 & NH-50)
connecting site to Gandhidham and Ahmedabad. Employees and contract workers (~2 buses, 50 cars,
100 two wheelers & 100 cycles) shall use the same route during peak hours (i.e. morning 0800 hours
to 1030 hours and evening 1600 hours to 2000 hours).

Based on the traffic survey conducted (Refer Section 3.5.5), it is noted for:

NH-6 connecting Site to Bhachau & Gandhidham

 Average peak hourly traffic on this route is 938 and 320 PCU respectively;
 From the proposed project, additional ~132 PCU’s & 102 PCU’s per hour will be generated on this
route (towards Gandhidham and Bhachau respectively);
 As per IRC, carrying capacity of this approach road is 2,900 PCU;
 The maximum PCU on the road will be 1,070 (to Gandhidham) & 422 (to Bhachau).
 Thus, the road is capable of carrying the excess traffic from the proposed project.

NH-50 connecting Site to Bhimasar & Anjar

 Average peak hourly traffic on this route is 161 and 118 PCU respectively;
 From the proposed project, additional ~49 PCU’s per hour will be generated on this route;
 As per IRC, carrying capacity of this approach road is 900 PCU;
 The maximum PCU on the road will be 210 (to Anjar) & 167 (to Bhimasar).
 Thus, the road is capable of carrying the excess traffic from the proposed project.

Summary of traffic survey (peak hourly) are given in Table 4-9 - Table 4-12.

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Table 4-9: Incremental Hourly Average Traffic on NH-6, from Bhachau to Gandhidham
From Bhachau to
Type of Vehicle % of Total Stream Equivalent PCU Factor Converted PCUs Additional Vehicles per day Additional PCUs / Hr. Total PCUs After Proposed Project
Gandhidham
Two wheeler 82 15% 0.75 62 75 28 90
Three wheeler 36 7% 1.2 43 0 0 43
Car/Jeeps 203 38% 1 203 35 18 221
Truck/Buses/Tractors 163 30% 3.7 603 200 74 677
Non Motorable vehicles 54 10% 0.5 27 50 13 40
Total 538 938 360 132 1,070

Table 4-10: Incremental Hourly Average Traffic on NH-6, from Gandhidham to Bhachau
From Gandhidham to
Type of Vehicle % of Total Stream Equivalent PCU Factor Converted PCUs Additional Vehicles per day Additional PCUs / Hr. Total PCUs After Proposed Project
Bhachau
Two wheeler 64 22% 0.75 48 75 28 76
Three wheeler 43 15% 2 86 0 0 86
Car/Jeeps 107 37% 1 107 35 18 125
Truck/Buses/Tractors 24 8% 2.2 52 200 44 96
Non Motorable vehicles 54 19% 0.5 27 50 13 40
Total 292 320 360 102 422

Table 4-11: Incremental Hourly Average Traffic on NH-50, from Bhimasar to Anjar
Type of Vehicle From Bhimasar to Anjar % of Total Stream Equivalent PCU Factor Converted PCUs Additional Vehicles per day Additional PCUs / Hr. Total PCUs After Proposed Project

Two wheeler 39 29% 0.75 29 25 9 38


Three wheeler 8 6% 1.2 10 0 0 10
Car/Jeeps 8 6% 1 8 15 8 16
Truck/Buses/Tractors 24 18% 3.7 87 50 19 106
Non Motorable vehicles 54 41% 0.5 27 50 13 40
Total 134 161 140 49 210

Table 4-12: Incremental Hourly Average Traffic on NH-50, from Anjar to Bhimasar
Type of Vehicle From Anjar to Bhimasar % of Total Stream Equivalent PCU Factor Converted PCUs Additional Vehicles per day Additional PCUs / Hr. Total PCUs After Proposed Project

Two wheeler 41 41% 0.75 30 25 9 39


Three wheeler 3 3% 1.2 4 0 0 4
Car/Jeeps 5 5% 1 5 15 8 13
Truck/Buses/Tractors 17 17% 3.7 62 50 19 81
Non Motorable vehicles 33 34% 0.5 17 50 13 30
Total 98 118 140 49 167

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Impacts due to Road Transportation

 Increase in transportation will lead to increase in road traffic;


 Generation of dust from trucks;
 Emission of pollutants like HC, SO2, NOx and PM;
 Noise generation from vehicular movement;
 Spillage or leak of raw materials during transportation.

Mitigation Measures/Precautions as mentioned shall be taken whilst transporting


hazardous waste:

 Trucks with be covered with tarpaulins before traveling on public roads;


 No overloading is done shall be ensured;
 Vehicle manifest shall be maintained;
 PUC Certified vehicles will be used;
 Traffic management will be ensured as mentioned in Chapter 6, Table 6-2;
 The engines and exhaust systems of all vehicles and equipment used will be maintained as such,
that exhaust emissions are low and do not breach statutory limits set for the concerned
vehicle/equipment type.

4.3 NOISE ENVIRONMENT

For the purpose of impact predictions on noise environment, the impact assessment methodology is
given in Table 1 of Annexure 12. Based on the identified aspects from project activities, impact
scores and operational controls / mitigation measures on noise environment are tabulated in Table
4-13.

4.3.1 Assessment of Noise using SoundPlan

Noise Modelling study was done using the Software tool “Sound Plan” essential 3.0 software, which
predicts the Noise Map generated due to the sources present at the project site and predicts the Noise
Levels at various receiver points due to the sources present at the project site.

To analyze the Noise Map of the project site, first, the geometrically coordinated Google Earth images
of the Project site were imported into the software. Various Sources of noise were added with their
approximate Sound Pressure Levels, and the “Receiver points” were added at various locations where
Noise Monitoring was conducted.

“SoundPlan” generates the Noise Map with colored pattern isopleths, which indicate whether or not
the SPL in that particular region exceeds the CPCB limits. If the SPL is above the “user set” allowable
limit, the area will be shown in Red contour depending upon the Difference between then Predicted
SPL and the Allowable SPL. Otherwise, it will be shown in Green contour.

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Table 4-13: Impact Scoring and Mitigation Measures for Noise Environment

N / AN / E
Impact Scoring
S Significance / EMP
Project Activity Identified Aspect Legal Severity, Probability, Final Score, Operation Controls / Mitigation Measures
No. Consequence Required
S P SxP
C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 C10 C11
1 Project Design
Non-compliance of Environmental
Design & selection of reactors/ equipment / site layouts, Process equipments meeting environmental noise standards
1.1 standards due to faulty design of AN No 5 1 5 Low No
etc. shall be procured.
Boilers / Compressors / Other utilities.
2 Project Construction

A Construction

Excavation and paving of site, Movement of JCBs, other


2.A.1 Noise Generation N No 1 5 5 Low Properly certified, tested and calibrated equipments will be used. No
machinery, workers / labors etc.

Heavy fabrication work for erecting major plant Properly certified, tested and calibrated equipments will be used.
2.A.2 equipment including operation of equipment like crane, Noise Generation N No 1 5 5 Low Proper PPE like Ear Plugs & ear muffs will be provided and its No
concrete mixtures, vibrators etc. use shall be ensured.
Vehicular movement for transportation of materials and
2.A.3 Noise Generation N No 2 5 10 Moderate PUCC Certified vehicles will be used. No
equipment.
B Commissioning
SOP's, OCP and OEP will be followed during startup. Acoustic
Startup and shutdown activities like operation of various
enclosures will be built-in with equipment by technology
2.B.1 equipments in Chlor-Alkali, reactors in synthetic organic Noise Generation N No 3 5 15 High Yes
provider. PPE like Ear Plugs & ear muffs will be provided and its
units, inorganic plants and Captive Power Plant.
use shall be ensured.

3 Project Operation

A Captive Co-Generation Power Plant

PPE like Ear Plugs & ear muffs will be provided and its use shall
3.A.1 Operation of Coal fired boilers & Turbines Noise Generation N Yes -- -- -- Significant be ensured. No operators shall be allowed to do two continuous Yes
shifts.
4 General & Utilities

Vehicular movement for transportation of raw materials,


4.1 Noise Generation N No 2 5 10 Moderate PUCC Certified vehicles will be used. No
finished goods, Industrial Waste.

SOP's, OCP and OEP will be followed during startup. Acoustic


Operation of other utilities like DG Sets, Cooling Tower, enclosures will be built-in with equipment by technology
4.2 Noise Generation N No 3 5 15 High Yes
Compressor, Pumps, Blowers etc. provider. PPE like Ear Plugs & ear muffs will be provided and its
use shall be ensured.

Note: Scoring is not done for those impacting activities, where the mitigation measure of the arising aspect requires to meet/comply with the Legal Requirement (i.e. NOC/CTO).

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The sources considered at the project site for the analysis with their approximate SPL are considered
slightly on the higher side for more critical analysis. The sources of noise with their maximum SPLs are
tabulated in Table 4-14.

Table 4-14: Sources of Noise with their Sound Pressure Levels


Levels dB(A)
S. No. Sources
Day Night
1. DG sets 100 100
2. Compressor 85 85
3. Boiler 100 100
4. Coal Mill 90 90
5. Turbine 95 95
6. Pumps 95 95
7. Cooling Tower 85 85
8. Chiller 95 95

Results

The predicted noise levels along with the conflict are tabulated in Table 4-15. Isopleths generated
during day time and night time are as given in Figure 4-2 & Figure 4-3.

Table 4-15: Noise Level at Receptor Locations (Based on SoundPlan)


Prescribed Limit
S. Level dB(A) Conflict dB(A)
Receiver Name dB(A)
No.
Day Night Day Night Day Night
NL1 At Project Boundary (E) 75.0 70.0 50.0 46.2 - -
NL2 At Project Boundary (W) 75.0 70.0 44.2 43.5 - -
NL3 At Project Boundary (N) 75.0 70.0 40.4 39.1 - -
NL4 At Project Boundary (SW) 75.0 70.0 50.6 43.9 - -
NL5 Padana Village 55.0 45.0 40.0 30.9 - -
NL6 Varsana Village 55.0 45.0 45.1 36.2 - -
NL7 100 m. north from project site 75.0 70.0 33.9 29.2 - -

Based on the modeling of proposed activities, it is noted that the proposed activities will not have any
conflict in Noise levels comparing to the prescribed CPCB limits.

Cumulative Impact

Results are collated with baseline data to predict the cumulative incremental in noise levels at the
monitored receptors. The details of the same for day time and night time is tabulated in Table 4-16.

Conclusion

The predicted cumulative incremental increase in Noise level shows that following:

 Incremental increase in core area of 250 m from site shows incremental increase in the range of
0.1 dB(A) to 9.7 dB(A) during day time and 0.4 dB(A) to 14.4 dB(A) during night time.
 Beyond 250 m from the project area, increase in noise level is almost null.

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Table 4-16: Predictive Cumulative Noise Levels


Baseline Average Noise levels SPL predicted at Receiver by Predicted Cumulative incremental Incremental increase in Noise
Location CPCB Limits in dB (A)
Location Category in dB (A) Proposed Activities (dB) increase in Noise level dB (A) level dB (A)
Code
Day Time Night Time Day Time Night Time Day Time Night Time Day Time Night Time Day Time Night Time
NL1 At Project Boundary (E) Industrial 75.0 70.0 62.7 56.0 50.0 46.2 63.0 56.4 0.2 0.4
NL2 At Project Boundary (W) Industrial 75.0 70.0 63.7 57.2 44.2 43.5 63.7 57.4 0.0 0.2
NL3 At Project Boundary (N) Industrial 75.0 70.0 62.8 58.1 40.4 39.1 62.9 58.1 0.0 0.1
NL4 At Project Boundary (SW) Industrial 75.0 70.0 64.4 57.1 50.6 43.9 64.6 57.3 0.2 0.2
NL5 Padana Village Residential 55.0 45.0 56.2 46.8 40.0 30.9 56.3 46.9 0.1 0.1
NL6 Varsana Village Residential 55.0 45.0 58.8 49.7 45.1 36.2 59.0 49.9 0.2 0.2
NL7 100 m. north from project site Industrial 75.0 70.0 60.1 53.9 33.9 29.2 60.1 53.9 0.0 0.0

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Figure 4-2: Isopleths Generated During Day Time

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Figure 4-3: Isopleths Generated During Night Time

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4.4 WATER ENVIRONMENT

For the purpose of impact predictions on ground & surface water environment, the impact assessment
methodology is given in Table 1 of Annexure 12. Based on the identified aspects from project
activities, impact scores and operational controls / mitigation measures on water environment are
tabulated in Table 4-17.

4.4.1 Impact on Ground Water

No adverse impact on groundwater is envisaged as no withdrawal of groundwater is proposed in the


project.

4.4.2 Impact on Surface Water

Surface water quality and quantity will not be affected by the proposed project, since the project shall
achieve Zero Liquid Discharge, by taking various recycling and reuse steps as discussed in Chapter 2,
Section 2.14.
Only, during the heavy rainfall, there is a possibility of storm water to drain out from the factory
premise which will meet the natural storm water drain. Hence, there will be minor impact on the
surface water.

4.4.3 Mitigation Measures

Following mitigation measures will be implemented to minimize the impact on the water environment:

 During construction phase, sewage will be disposed into soak pit and septic tank. Regular cleaning
will be carried out.
 There will be separate process and storm water drains.
 Zero Liquid Discharge shall be achieved by recycled and reuse of the treated waste water.
 Properly designed effluent drains with side barriers will be provided & inflow will be diverted to
ETP 1, ETP 2, RO, MEE followed by ATFD for necessary treatment.
 Proper operation and maintenance of effluent treatment plant will be done to ensure meeting
specified disposal standards.
 ETP sludge and MEE salts will be disposed properly as per norms.
 Drip irrigation system will be proposed for greenbelt development to reduce fresh water demand.
 Process, chemical fuel storage and handling area will have proper bunds and dyke walls so that
contaminated run-off cannot meet the storm-water line. In case of leakage, leaked fuel shall be
immediately transferred to the spare tank;
 Use of PPE’s during the collection, storage, handling and treatment of liquid waste.
 Rainwater harvesting from rooftop in nearby schools shall be done.

The overall impact on surface water quality will be negligible by following all precautionary measures
as mentioned in mitigation measures.

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Table 4-17: Impact Scoring and Mitigation Measures for Water Environment

N / AN / E
Impact on Impact Scoring
S Significance / Operation Controls / Mitigation EMP
Project Activity Identified Aspect Legal Effluent / Severity, Probability, Final Score,
No. SW GW Consequence Measures Required
Sewage S P SxP
C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 C10 C11 C12 C13 C14
1 Project Design
Non-compliance of Environmental Proper design of ETP, RO, MEE & ATFD shall
Design & selection of reactors/
1.1 standards due to failure in designs of AN Yes • 5 1 5 Low be done to meet the environmental No
equipment / site layouts, etc.
ETP, RO, MEE, ATFD. standards.
2 Project Construction

A Construction
Sewage will be disposed into soak pit and
2.A.1 Influx of construction workers Sewage generation. N Yes • -- -- -- Significant septic tank. Regular cleaning will be carried Yes
out.
B Commissioning
Startup and shutdown activities like
Separate line for effluent drains with side
operation of various equipments in
Leakage of chemicals, fuel and barriers will be provided & inflow will be
2.B.1 Chlor-Alkali, reactors in synthetic AN No • 4 1 4 Low No
generation of waste water diverted to respective ETPs for further
organic units, inorganic plants and
treatment.
Captive Power Plant.
3 Project Operation
Chlorine liquefaction, Storage,
A
Filling & Dispatch

3.A.1 Procurement of Salt Loss of resource in rainy season. N No • 1 2 2 Low Waste water will be reused in the process No

Effluent will be recycled and reused after


Brine preparation-resaturation,
3.A.2 Effluent generation having high TDS N No • -- -- -- Significant treatment in ETP 1 in which pH will be Yes
dechlorination, etc.
adjusted and further treated in RO & MEE.
The depleted brine will be recycled back into
Depleted brine AN No • 3 2 6 Low No
the process
3.A.3 Electrolysis Process SOP’s will be followed. Proper floor slope and
Caustic and Brine leakage from
AN No • 2 3 6 Low connection to the recovery system made to No
electrolyser assembly
recover leaked caustic / brine back to system
Generated waste water will be reuse in the
3.A.4 Hydro testing of Chlorine tonners Disposal of wash water N No • 2 3 6 Low No
process

3.A.5 Secured Landfill Facility Leachate generation N No • 2 4 8 Low Leachate will be reused in the process No

Synthetic Organic Units (Para


B Amino Phenol, Hydrogenated &
Chlorinated products.
Effluent will be recycled and reused after
Effluent generation having high COD &
3.B.1 Operation of Organic unit N Yes • -- -- -- Significant giving treatment in ETP-1, RO & MEE & Yes
TDS
ATFD.
4 General & Utilities
Waste water generation from cooling
Operation of other utilities like DG Effluent will be diverted to ETP-2 via properly
4.1 tower blow down, shaft leaks, N No • -- -- -- Significant Yes
Sets, Cooling Tower, Compressor, designed channel.
washings etc

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N / AN / E
Impact on Impact Scoring
S Significance / Operation Controls / Mitigation EMP
Project Activity Identified Aspect Legal Effluent / Severity, Probability, Final Score,
No. SW GW Consequence Measures Required
Sewage S P SxP
C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 C10 C11 C12 C13 C14
Pumps, Blowers etc. & Floor Dyke wall will be provided to avoid run-off
Washing. contamination and leaked fuel shall be
immediately transferred to the spare tank.
Leakages in HSD tank AN No • 5 1 5 Low No
Use of spill control measures, mechanical
handling, PPE’s shall be mandatory while
handling the chemicals to avoid spillages.
Effluent will be diverted to ETP via properly
4.2 Operation of DM Plant Acidic and alkaline waste water N No • 2 5 10 Moderate No
designed channel.
Raw water intake from GWIL Water meter will be installed at main intake
4.3 Consumption of water (surface) N Yes • -- -- -- Significant Yes
reservoir to record water consumption.
Treated waste water shall be reused and
Zero Liquid Discharge N Yes • (+ve) -- -- -- Significant Yes
reutilized in the process to achieve ZLD.
Effluent will be diverted to ETP via properly
Spillage of HW/effluent AN No • 5 1 5 Low No
4.4 Operation of ETP, RO, MEE designed channel.
Untreated effluent generation due to
abnormal operation/ breakdown of RO AN No • 5 1 5 Low Plant will be shut down. No
& MEE
All Process, chemical fuel storage and
Mixing of contamination form Process,
handling area will have proper bunds so that
coal storage, chemical & fuel storage
4.5 Storm water management AN • 3 1 3 Low contaminated run-off cannot meet the storm- No
and handling area, effluent treatment
water drainage. Separate drainage will be
plant and salt yard with storm water
provided for storm water and effluent water.
Generation of waste/used oil and Effluent will be diverted to ETP via properly
4.6 Equipment maintenance N • 2 3 6 Low No
lubricants designed channel.
4.7 Analysis in laboratory Waste water generation N • 1 3 3 Negligible -- No

Note: Scoring is not done for those impacting activities, where the mitigation measure of the arising aspect requires to meet/comply with the Legal Requirement (i.e. NOC/CTO).

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4. ANTICIPATED
M/S. KCIL DRAFT EIA & EMP REPORT – MANUFACTURING OF CAUSTIC SODA, ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS
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4.5 LAND ENVIRONMENT

Based on the identified aspects from project activities, impact scores and operational controls /
mitigation measures on land environment are tabulated in Table 4-18.

Potential impacts on land use, land cover and soil due to deposition of air pollutants, leakages of
waste water & solid hazardous waste are described in this section.

4.5.1 Site Preparation

Based on mutually agreed terms and conditions, land was acquired from various land owners.
Currently the plot is in ownership of KCIL same is provided in Annexure 3.

Removal of Top Soil & Land Clearance

 Change in the land use, currently from barren (scrub land) to industrial use is envisaged;
 Debris will be generated due to excavation and paving.

4.5.2 Operation Phase

 Soil contamination is envisaged due to deposition of SPM, SO2, HCl, HCl, HC in adjoining plots;
 Excess generation of hazardous and other solid wastes;
 Generation of scraps, used spares, cotton waste, hand gloves etc.;
 Soil Contamination due to Leakage of chemicals, fuel, raw material and waste water & sewage.

4.5.3 Mitigation Measure

Generated hazardous wastes during project operation will be transported to an authorized Treatment,
Storage and Disposal Facility (TSDF) site and sent for incineration. Storage areas for hazardous waste,
fuel & raw material will be impervious and will be designed to prevent Leachate penetration. Secured
Landfill Facility will be provided to store Brine sludge within plant premises. Consequently impacts on
land / soil will be negligible.

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Table 4-18: Impact Scoring and Mitigation Measures for Land Environment
Impact on Impact Scoring

N / AN / E
S LU Significance / EMP
Project Activity Identified Aspect Legal Severity, Probability, Final Score, Operation Controls / Mitigation Measures
No. / Soil HW ISW MSW Consequence Required
S P SxP
LC
C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 C10 C11 C12 C13 C14 C15 C16
1 Project Design
Properly designed storage area for hazardous
Non-compliance of Environmental
Design & selection of technology, waste with adequate capacity will be ensured. Prior
standards due to allotment of
1.1 reactors/ equipment / site layouts, AN No • • • • • 5 1 5 Low permissions for TSDF will be taken and prior No
improper Hazardous waste storage
etc. agreements with authorized vendors shall be
area.
made.
2 Project Construction

A Pre-Construction
Removal of site vegetation like
Change in Landuse from Scrub to Only scrubs will be removed. Top soil removed will
2.A.1 herbs, shrubs and grasses (except N No • 2 5 10 Moderate No
Industrial Use be used for green belt development.
trees)
B Construction
Excavation and paving of site,
2.B.1 Movement of JCBs, other machinery, Generation of Debris N No • 2 5 10 Moderate Debris will be used for green belt development. No
workers / labors etc.
Heavy fabrication work for erecting
major plant equipment including Scraps will be handles as per rules and sold to
2.B.2 Generation of Scraps N No • 2 5 10 Moderate No
operation of equipment like crane, authorized vendors
concrete mixtures, vibrators etc.
Proper disposal of sewage sludge will be carried
2.B.3 Influx of Construction Workers Sewage Sludge Generation N No • 2 5 10 Moderate No
out as per rules.
C Commissioning
SOP’s will be followed during start up. Based on
Contamination of Soil due to APCM, HCl, Cl2 & HC shall remain well within the
AN No • 4 1 4 Low No
Startup and shutdown activities like deposition of HCl, Cl2 & HC CPCB standards. Compensation will be given to
operation of various equipments in affected person.
2.C.1 Chlor-Alkali, reactors in synthetic Contamination of Soil due to leakage
organic units, inorganic plants and of chemicals, fuel and generation of AN No • 4 2 8 Moderate Paved Flooring shall be made near storage tanks. No
Captive Power Plant. waste water
Generation of discarded packing Packing material will be given to competent
N No • 2 5 10 Moderate No
materials authority/registered vendors
3 Project Operation
Chlorine liquefaction, Storage,
A
Filling & Dispatch
Brine sludge will be disposed off to landfill facility
Brine sludge disposal N Yes • -- -- -- Significant Yes
within the premises as per prescribed guidelines
Brine preparation-resaturation,
3.A.1 Soil contamination due to spillage of
dechlorination, etc.
Brine Sludge during transportation at AN • 2 3 6 Low SOP’s will be followed for proper transportation No
SLF
Emergency plan and SOP’s will be followed and
3.A.2 Electrolysis Process Cl2 release E • 5 1 5 Low proper engineering control measures will be No
adopted

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Impact on Impact Scoring

N / AN / E
S LU Significance / EMP
Project Activity Identified Aspect Legal Severity, Probability, Final Score, Operation Controls / Mitigation Measures
No. / Soil HW ISW MSW Consequence Required
S P SxP
LC
C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 C10 C11 C12 C13 C14 C15 C16
Cl2 leakage due to valve failure and Emergency plans and SOP’s will be made and
3.A.3 Loading of Chlorine tonners E • 5 1 5 Low No
tonner leakage followed
B HCl Plant
Contamination of Soil due to Scrubbers will be provided to control the emission
3.B.1 Scrubbing of HCl vapors AN • 5 2 10 Moderate No
deposition of HCl of HCl within norms. SOP’s will be followed.
C Hypo Plant
Contamination of Soil due to
Absorption of Chlorine in Hypo Scrubbers will be provided to control the emission
3.C.1 deposition of unabsorbed Chlorine & AN • 5 2 10 Moderate No
Tower of Cl2. SOP’s will be followed.
HCl emissions
D H2O2 Plant
3.D.1 Operation of Hydrogen Peroxide unit Process Waste as Spent Alumina N No • 2 5 10 Moderate Shall be sent to recyclers. No
Anhydrous Aluminium Chloride,
E
PAC, & Calcium Chloride Plants
Contamination of Soil due to SOP’s will be followed. Based on APCM, HCl & Cl2
N No • 1 5 5 Low No
deposition of HCl & Cl2 shall remain well within the CPCB standards.
3.E.1 Operation of Inorganic unit
Process waste shall be sold to stabilizers /
Process Waste N No • 1 5 5 Low No
agriculture.
Synthetic Organic Units (Para
F Amino Phenol, Hydrogenated &
Chlorinated products.
Contamination of Soil due to SOP’s will be followed. Based on APCM, PM & SO2
N No • 1 5 5 Low No
deposition of HCl & Cl2 shall remain well within the CPCB standards.
3.F.1 Operation of Organic unit Generation of Process waste and other
Process sludge, Distillation Residue shall be sent
hazardous wastes like distillation N Yes • -- -- -- Significant Yes
for incineration.
residue.
Captive Co-Generation Power
G
Plant
Operation of Coal fired boilers & Contamination of Soil due to SOP’s will be followed. Based on APCM, PM & SO2
3.G.1 N No • 1 5 5 Low No
Turbines deposition of PM & SO2 shall remain well within the CPCB standards.
4 General & Utilities
Leakages in HSD tank AN No • 4 1 4 Low Dyke wall with proper flooring shall be made. No
Operation of other utilities like DG Used/spent oil will be sold to GPCB authorized
Generation of Used/spent oil,
Sets, Cooling Tower, Compressor, Recyclers, Waste/residue containing oil disposed
4.1 waste/residue containing oil,
Pumps, Blowers etc. & Floor N Yes • -- -- -- Significant off to CHWIF. Contaminated hand gloves, Yes
contaminated hand gloves, discarded
Washing. discarded containers / barrels / bags shall be sold
containers / barrels / bags
to authorized vendors.
Storage of fuel, Class A Solvents, Discarded container, drums, packing material etc.
Generation of discarded container,
4.2 Raw material, Finished products and N Yes • • -- -- -- Significant shall be decontaminated and sold to authorized Yes
drums, packing material etc.
Hazardous waste handling vendors.
Sludge will be collected, stored and disposed to
Sludge Generation N Yes • -- -- -- Significant Yes
TSDF facility as per HW rules amended till date.
4.3 Operation of ETP, RO, MEE
Contamination of Soil due to spillage Dyke wall with proper flooring shall be made.
AN No • 4 2 8 Moderate No
of HW/effluent SOP’s will be followed.

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Impact on Impact Scoring

N / AN / E
S LU Significance / EMP
Project Activity Identified Aspect Legal Severity, Probability, Final Score, Operation Controls / Mitigation Measures
No. / Soil HW ISW MSW Consequence Required
S P SxP
LC
C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 C10 C11 C12 C13 C14 C15 C16
Generation of waste/used oil and Used/spent oil will be sold to GPCB authorized
N Yes • -- -- -- Significant Yes
lubricants Recyclers.
4.4 Equipment maintenance Scraps, used spares, cotton waste, contaminated
Generation of scraps, used spares,
N Yes • -- -- -- Significant hand gloves, discarded containers / barrels / bags Yes
cotton waste, hand gloves etc.
shall be sold to authorized vendors.
Collected, stored and disposed as per HW rules
4.5 Analysis in laboratory Generation of Broken Glassware AN No • 3 2 6 Low No
amended till date.

Note: Scoring is not done for those impacting activities, where the mitigation measure of the arising aspect requires to meet/comply with the Legal Requirement (i.e. NOC/CTO).

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4. ANTICIPATED
M/S. KCIL DRAFT EIA & EMP REPORT – MANUFACTURING OF CAUSTIC SODA, ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS
(UNIT 2) SYNTHETIC ORGANIC, INORGANIC, SPECIALTY CHEMICALS & CPP & MITIGATION MEASURES

4.6 ECOLOGY & BIODIVERSITY

Identification of Impact Zone

Though the concentrations of the emitted pollutants will be kept within permissible levels through the
various engineering controls, it is essential to have eco-management in the Likely Impact Zone (LIZ)
for safeguard and enhanced of ecological environment of the project area. Assuming LIZ of 2.0
kilometer (maximum) around the project site. Accordingly, 2 localities i.e. Varsana and Padana village
water bodies / ponds and other habitats (scrub vegetation, open vegetation, crop / fallow land) and
associated biodiversity are falling in the LIZ area.

Determination of Ecological Components Likely Impacted

Ecological components, as tabulated in Table 4-19, are determined which may face likely impacts in
different phases due to various project activities.

Table 4-19: Activity-Aspect Based Determination of Impacting Ecological Components


Ecological Components
S. No. Activity Aspect
TFL TFA AFL AFA MFL MFN
1. Pre- Construction Phase
Removal of top soil
1.1 Site preparation √ -- -- -- -- --
and vegetation
2. Construction Phase
Movement of Earth
2.1 movers and other Generation of noise -- √ -- -- -- --
vehicles
3. Project operation Phase
3.1 Electrolysis Process Cl2 release √ -- -- -- -- --
Liquefaction, Storage,
3.2 Bottling & Vaporization of Leakage of Chlorine √ -- -- -- -- --
Chlorine
Chlorine supply through
3.3 pipeline to nearby Leakage of Chlorine √ -- -- -- -- --
industries
Transportation of
3.4 Chlorine within plant Leakage of Chlorine √ -- -- -- -- --
through pipeline
Bullet failure due to
3.5 Storing Cl2 in bullets natural calamities or √ -- -- -- -- --
sabotage
3.6 Scrubbing of HCl vapors Emission of HCl √ -- -- -- -- --
Absorption of Chlorine in Escape of unabsorbed
3.7 √ -- -- -- -- --
Hypo Tower Chlorine
Operation of Molten
3.8 Release of SPM √ -- -- -- -- --
Heater
Operation of Organic and
3.9 Emission of HCL √ -- -- -- -- --
inorganic unit

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M/S. KCIL DRAFT EIA & EMP REPORT – MANUFACTURING OF CAUSTIC SODA, ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS
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Ecological Components
S. No. Activity Aspect
TFL TFA AFL AFA MFL MFN
Handling and crushing of Emission of Coal dust,
3.10 coal at captive power PM, SO2, NOx and Fly √ -- -- -- -- --
plant Ash generation
4. General Utilities
Vehicular movement for
transportation of raw Generation of SPM and
4.1 √ -- -- -- -- --
material, finished goods emission of HC & CO.
and industrial waste
Mixing of
contamination form
Process, chemical fuel
Storm water storage and handling
4.2 √ √ -- -- -- --
management area, effluent
treatment plant and
salt yard with storm
water

Based on the identified aspects from project activities, impact scores and operational controls /
mitigation measures on ecology and biodiversity environment are tabulated in Table 4-20.

Biodiversity Appraisal – Conclusion

Proposed project site is located in the barren land and does not support any species of conservation
significance and also not forms critical habitat.

All flora and fauna species reported are common component of the buffer zone. So, removal of these
common floral species from core zone will not result in the loss of floral diversity in true sense and will
not have significant / permanent impact on the species diversity and habitat structure of associated
faunal diversity. However, buffer zone area encompasses some Schedule-I species, so conservation
plan have been prepared for biodiversity improvement of the area.

Flora and fauna components will not get affected in normal function of the project and its associated
activities by implementation of proper safety measures and control devices.

Considering cumulative impacts due to other adjacent industries, strict implementation of EMP /
mitigation measures are required to ensure that the biodiversity of the study area is not impacted
negatively.

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Table 4-20: Impact Scoring and Mitigation Measures for Ecology & Biodiversity

Likely Impacts on Impact Scoring


S. Impact Consequence - Probability Description / Significance / EMP
Project Aspect Description Ecology and Legal Mitigation Measures
No. Justification Severity, Probability, Final Score, Consequence Required
Biodiversity (EB)
S P SxP
C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 C10 C11
1. Pre- Construction Phase
Site possesses common floral species; clearing of same
Site specific loss of
will not result in loss of flora in true sense. This will be
common floral diversity
site specific impact. Operation subject to periodic monitoring /
Faunal species reported from site are common / surveillance. However, greenbelt / plantation
Removal of site vegetation like
Site specific loss of generalist species which uses wide variety of habitats of will be developed in project site and in
1.1 herbs, shrubs and grasses (except No 2 5 10 Moderate No
associated faunal diversity the local environment so there is no threat of loss of periphery of the project boundary, which will
trees)
faunal diversity. improve floral and faunal diversity of the
project area.
Site specific loss of habitat Project site forms common habitat structure which is
/ habitat diversity very common component of the buffer zone habitats.

2. Construction Phase

Species reported from project site and buffer zone are Operation subject to periodic monitoring /
Noise generation due to movement common / generalist species of the local environment surveillance. However, all species reported
of JCBs, other machinery, Heavy Site specific disturbance to and not very sensitive to the routine activities of the from project site are common and well adapted
2.1 No 1 5 5 Low No
fabrication work & Vehicular faunal species urban and peri-urban area, so there will be no threat of to the routine urban activities, so they will not
Movement facing disturbance. However, its site specific and face significant impact on their normal
temporary impact. movements.

3. Project operation Phase

Emission of HCl, Cl2, HC from


Process stacks due to operation of Though the emission levels of all pollutants will be kept Operation subject to management by
3.1 within permissible limits, considering cumulative impact, operational controls. Emission levels of all
reactors & Emission of SPM, SO2 &
NOx from Power plant & DG sets. Impact on surrounding minor short term impacts are expected on surrounding pollutants will be kept within permissible levels
vegetation and associated flora and associated fauna which may be resilient. In Yes -- -- -- Significant through various engineering control measures. Yes
Noise Generation (due to operation biodiversity. case of leakage proper Disaster management plan has However, green belt development with suitable
of boilers, generators, heat been prepared by the company and immediate action species will help to mitigate likely cumulative
3.2
exchangers, reactors, compressors, will be taken impacts.
pumps, blowers)
4. General Utilities
Though the emission levels of emitted pollutants will
Operation subject to management by
Impact on surrounding kept within permissible limits, considering cumulative
Generation of SPM and emission of operational controls. Emission levels of all
4.1 vegetation and associated impact, minor short term impacts are expected on No 2 5 10 Moderate No
HC & CO due to vehicular movement pollutants will be kept within permissible levels
biodiversity. surrounding habitats and associated biodiversity which
through various engineering control measures.
may be resilient.
Mixing of contamination form
Process, chemical fuel storage and A proposed plant is zero liquid discharge basis so no
4.3 Contamination of
handling area, effluent treatment waste water will be discharged. Also, all the potential
surrounding water bodies Operation subject to periodic monitoring /
plant and salt yard with storm water contaminant (solid and liquid) will be stored in closed No 1 5 5 Low No
and associated aquatic surveillance.
During rainy season, overflow of area, so that rain water / storm water will not get
biodiversity.
4.4 plant drains merging with storm contaminated.
water drain.

Note: Scoring is not done for those impacting activities, where the mitigation measure of the arising aspect requires to meet/comply with the Legal Requirement (i.e. NOC/CTO).

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4. ANTICIPATED
M/S. KCIL DRAFT EIA & EMP REPORT – MANUFACTURING OF CAUSTIC SODA, ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS
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4.7 RESOURCE DEPLETION

Based on the identified aspects from project activities, impact scores and operational controls /
mitigation measures on resource depletion are tabulated in Table 4-21.

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Table 4-21: Impact Scoring and Mitigation Measures for Resource Depletion
Impact Scoring

N / AN / E
Significance /
S No. Project Activity Identified Aspect Legal Severity, Final Score, Operation Controls / Mitigation Measures EMP Required
Probability, P Consequence
S SxP

C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C11 C12 C13 C14 C15 C16


1 Project Design

Non-compliance of Environmental standards


Design & selection of reactors/ equipment Approved energy efficient equipments shall be designed and
1.1 due to failure in designs of equipments AN No 4 2 8 Moderate No
/ site layouts, etc. procured.
causing High Energy Consumption.
2 Project Operation
Chlorine liquefaction, Storage,
A
Filling & Dispatch

2.A.1 Procurement of Salt Loss of resource in rainy season. N No 5 2 10 Moderate Proper Dykes to be made for Salt Storage No

B Captive Co-Generation Power Plant

Fire hydrant line to be provided in Coal Storage yard. Proper


2.B.1 Coal storage and stock pilling Fire E No 5 2 10 Moderate No
Dykes to be made for Coal Storage
3 General & Utilities
Operation of other utilities like DG Sets,
3.1 Cooling Tower, Compressor, Pumps, Leakages in HSD tank AN No 5 2 10 Moderate Proper Dykes to be made for Fuel & Solvent Storage No
Blowers etc. & Floor Washing.
3.2 Raw water intake from GWIL reservoir Excess Consumption of water (surface) N No 5 1 5 Moderate Water meter to be provided No

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5 ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVES

5.1 Site Alternative

Various locations were considered for selecting the project site. Site selection criteria are as shown in
Table 5-1.
Table 5-1: Alternative Site Selection Criteria
Locations
Criteria
Dahej Bhavnagar Vadodara Hazira Kutch

 
  
Land Availability (V.High (V.High
(High rates) (Low rates) (Moderate)
rates) rates)

Water Availability  ×   

Raw Material Availability   × × 


(Mainly Salt) (~ 5 Km) (~ 8 Km) (~ 350 Km) (~120 Km) (~15 Km)


 
Availability of Coal × × (Kandla
(Adani Port) (Adani Port)
Port)

Infrastructure available  ×   

 
TSDF Site in Vicinity × × ×
(NECL) (SEPPL)


Industries with Similar  
(GACL,MFL,GF × ×
Products (Nirma) (GACL)
L,Rilance)

Low Low High Medium Medium


Population within 3 Km
(~ 1,350) (~ 800) (~12,500) (~3,500) (~3,000)

Existing Pollution Levels 70.99 66.91 57.90


NA NA
(CEPI Scores10) (13.01.10) (13.01.10) (13.01.10)

Project site at Gandhidham has been selected keeping in view the following locational benefits:

 Required huge land was available which is adjacent to existing unit;


 Existing unit consumes about 225 MT of Chlorine;
 Chlorine gas can be supplied through pipeline across the wall for the existing operation. Thus,
transportation of hazardous chemical is avoided.
 Hydrogen shall be utilized in nearby Vegetable Oil Industries.
 Caustic soda shall be utilized in nearby Detergent Industries.

10
As per Office Memorandum, J-11013/5/2010-IA.II(I), Government of India, Ministry of Enivornment & Forest dated 13th
January, 2010.

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(UNIT 2) SYNTHETIC ORGANIC, INORGANIC, SPECIALTY CHEMICALS & CPP ALTERNATIVES

 Site’s proximity with Kandla port (14 Km) and Mundra Port (55 Km), which will give logistic benefit
for import of coal and also export of finished products.
 Major raw material, Common Salt is available in plenty within a radius of 50 Km from the
proposed site.
 Ahmedabad – Gandhinagar National Highway- 8A is at 500 m from the proposed site.
 There is no Caustic-Chlorine unit in nearby area.

Project will generate employment in the region.

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M/S. KCIL DRAFT EIA & EMP REPORT – MANUFACTURING OF CAUSTIC SODA, 6. ENVIRONMENTAL
(UNIT 2) SYNTHETIC ORGANIC, INORGANIC, SPECIALTY CHEMICALS & CPP MONITORING PROGRAM

6 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING PROGRAM

Based on the identified aspects from the proposed activities on air, noise, water, land, ecology and
biodiversity and socio-economic environment, scoring were done based on its severity and probability
as discussed in Chapter 4. Thus, monitoring program is required for each environment based on its
consequence. The preliminary budgetary monitoring plans are as discussed in this chapter. These
EMPs are based on the technical aspects of monitoring the effectiveness of mitigation measures (incl.
Measurement methodologies, frequency, location, data analysis, reporting schedules, emergency
procedures, detailed budget & procurement schedules).

Main objective of environmental monitoring program is to:


 Measure effectiveness of operational procedures;
 Confirm statutory and mandatory compliance;
 Identify unexpected changes.

6.1 AIR ENVIRONMENT

Budgetary environment monitoring plan for air environment is given in Table 6-1. Traffic
Management Plan is given in Table 6-2.

6.2 NOISE ENVIRONMENT

Budgetary environment monitoring plan for noise environment is given in Table 6-3.

6.3 WATER ENVIRONMENT

Budgetary environment monitoring plan for water environment is given in Table 6-4.

6.4 LAND ENVIRONMENT

Budgetary environment monitoring plan for land environment is given in Table 6-5.

6.5 ECOLOGY & BIODIVERSITY


Budgetary environment monitoring plan for ecology and biodiversity is given in Table 6-6.

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Table 6-1: Budgetary Environment Monitoring Plan for Air Environment


Implementation and Management
Budget for Approximate
Impacting Activity Mitigation Measures Reporting Remark
Measurement Emergency Mitigation Recurring Procurement
Data Analysis Frequency Location Schedule /
Methodology Procedure Measure - (in Cost – (in Schedule
Responsibility
Crores) Crores)
C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 C10 C11 C12
Chlorine liquefaction, storage, filling & dispatch
Cl2 & HCl Detectors will be
Suitable Section Incharge SOP's will be
placed at suitable
Cl2 Online Sensors Continuous locations within of Caustic followed during
locations. Vacuum system
plant Chlorine Unit emergency.
will be in place to capture
Mandatory
Cl2 and transferred to 0.35 0.035
Liquefaction, storage, HCl - IS: 11255 (Part – I): inspection of each Capital Cost: HCl & Cl2
Hypo plant for Caustic
bottling & vaporization HCl & Cl2 in 1985 At Varsana & equipment shall sensors. Recurring cost:
scrubbing. SOP's will be Twice in a Month Third Party During operation
of chlorine. Brine ambient air Padana Villages be done as per Maintaining the sensors
followed during Cl2 - IS: 5182 (Part – XIX): phase - Phase
Preparation, the requirements. and cost of third party
emergency. Mandatory 1982 wise
resaturation, for carrying out
inspection of each HCl - IS: 11255 (Part – I):
dechlorination, etc. monitoring.
equipment shall be done 1985
3 Locations (2
as per the requirements. HCl & Cl2 within
Twice in a Month Downwind & 1 Third Party -- -- 0.015
Regular work place plant premise Cl2 - IS: 5182 (Part – XIX):
Upwind)
monitoring will be carried 1982
out.
HCl Plant
Stack monitoring by Capital Cost: Cost of
HCl unit stack Operator of HCl
3 Stage Caustic Scrubbing HCl in stack. Isokinetic sampling IS: Daily stacks. Recurring cost:
vent. Synthesis plant During operation
System will be provided. 11255. Plant load will be Caustic consumption,
Scrubbing of HCl vapors 1 0.05 phase - Phase
Adequate stack height of lowered maintaining the
HCl in ambient HCl - IS: 11255 (Part – I): At Varsana & wise
30 m will be provided. Twice in a Month Third Party scrubber, machineries
air. 1985 Padana Villages
etc.

Hypo Plant
Stack monitoring by
HCl & Cl2 in Hypo Stack Operator of Hypo
Isokinetic sampling IS: Daily
stack. Vent plant Capital Cost: Cost of
11255.
stacks & CEMS.
On stack
HCl & Cl2 in During operation Recurring cost: Caustic
Absorption of Chlorine Scrubbers will be provided CEMS (Sensors) Continuous attached with Plant Incharge Plant load will be
stack. 2.5 5 phase - Phase consumption,
in Hypo Tower having 30 m stack height. scrubber. lowered
wise maintaining the
HCl - IS: 11255 (Part – I):
scrubber, machineries
HCl & Cl2 in 1985 At Varsana &
Twice in a Month Third Party etc.
Ambient air. Cl2 - IS: 5182 (Part – XIX): Padana Villages
1982
H2O2 Plant
Stack monitoring by Capital Cost: Cost of
Operator of
Activated Carbon HC in stack. Isokinetic sampling IS: Daily H2O2 stack vent. stacks. Recurring cost:
H2O2 plant
Adsorption System will be 11255. During operation Activated carbon
Operation of Hydrogen Plant load will be
provided. Adequate stack 1.5 0.5 phase - Phase consumption,
Peroxide unit lowered
height of 32 m will be HC in ambient At Varsana & wise maintaining the
provided. HC - IS 5182 (Part 21) Twice in a Month Third Party scrubber, machineries
air. Padana Villages
etc.
Anhydrous Aluminium Chloride, PAC, & Calcium Chloride Plants

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Implementation and Management


Budget for Approximate
Impacting Activity Mitigation Measures Reporting Remark
Measurement Emergency Mitigation Recurring Procurement
Data Analysis Frequency Location Schedule /
Methodology Procedure Measure - (in Cost – (in Schedule
Responsibility
Crores) Crores)
C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 C10 C11 C12
AAC, PAC &
Stack monitoring by Operator of AAC,
HCl & Cl2 in Calcium Capital Cost: Cost of
Isokinetic sampling IS: Daily PAC & Calcium
Alkali Ventury Scrubber stack. Chloride Plant stacks. Recurring cost:
11255. Chloride plant
Operation of Inorganic will be provided. Adequate Stack Vent Plant load will be During operation Caustic consumption,
1 0.15
unit stack height will be HCl - IS: 11255 (Part – I): lowered phase maintaining the
provided. HCl & Cl2 in 1985 At Varsana & scrubber, machineries
Twice in a Month Third Party
Ambient air. Cl2 - IS: 5182 (Part – XIX): Padana Villages etc.
1982
Synthetic Organic Units (Para Amino Phenol, Hydrogenated & Chlorinated products
PAP,
Stack monitoring by Hydrogenated
HCl & Cl2 in Operator of Capital Cost: Cost of
Isokinetic sampling IS: Daily and Chlorinated
Water, Alkali Ventury stack. Organic Units stacks. Recurring cost:
11255. Products Stack
Operation of Organic Scrubbers will be Vent Plant load will be During operation Caustic consumption,
2 0.5
unit provided. Adequate stack lowered phase maintaining the
HCl - IS: 11255 (Part – I):
height will be provided. scrubber, machineries
HCl & Cl2 in 1985 At Varsana &
Twice in a Month Third Party etc.
Ambient air. Cl2 - IS: 5182 (Part – XIX): Padana Villages
1982
Captive Co-Generation Power Plant
Stack monitoring by
Stack attached Power Plant
Isokinetic sampling IS: Daily
PM, SO2, NOx in to Boilers Manager
11255.
stack.
Stack attached Power Plant
Online PM, SO2 & NOx Continuous
SOP's, OCP and OEP will to Boilers Manager
be followed. Stack height PM10 - Gravimetric IS: Capital Cost: Cost of
of 105 m will be provided 5182 Stack, APC like ESP,
At Varsana &
for proper dispersion. During operation online monitoring
Operation of Coal fired (Part 23) 2006. Padana Villages Plant load will be
Online meter for PM, SO2 PM10, PM2.5, SO2, 7 1 phase - Phase system. Recurring Cost:
boilers & Turbines PM2.5 - Gravimetric IS: and 3 locations lowered
& NOx will be provided. NOx in ambient wise Cost of maintaining the
5182. Twice in a Month within plant Third Party
Ash Handling and air and within same and cost of ash
SO2 - Colorimetric IS: premise (2
Management plan will be plant premise handling.
5182: (Part II) 2001. Downwind & 1
prepared and followed.
Upwind)
NOx - Colorimetric IS:
5182: (Part VI) 2006.
Weigh bridge Power Plant
Fly Ash RG1 Register Daily
browser. Manager
General & Utilities
Vehicular movement for PUCC Certified vehicles
If considerable Vehicles without During
transportation of raw will be used. Traffic To ensure Valid PUCC With Drivers at
PUCC Certificate emissions observed Security Officer PUC certificates -- -- construction and --
materials, finished management will be certificate. main gate
during operations. will not be used. operation phase.
goods, Industrial Waste. ensured
Operation of other SOP's, OCP and OEP will Stack monitoring by
PM, SO2, NOx in System Load shall During operation Capital Cost: Cost of
utilities like DG Sets, be followed. Adequate Isokinetic sampling IS: Once in a month DG Set stack Third Party 0.75 0.015
stack. be reduced. phase Stacks. Recurring Cost:
Cooling Tower, Stack height of 15 m will 11255.

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Implementation and Management


Budget for Approximate
Impacting Activity Mitigation Measures Reporting Remark
Measurement Emergency Mitigation Recurring Procurement
Data Analysis Frequency Location Schedule /
Methodology Procedure Measure - (in Cost – (in Schedule
Responsibility
Crores) Crores)
C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 C10 C11 C12
Compressor, Pumps, be provided for DG sets PM10 - Gravimetric IS: Cost of maintaining the
Blowers etc. for proper dispersion. 5182 (Part 23) 2006. same.

PM10, PM2.5, SO2, PM2.5 - Gravimetric IS:


Once a Season
NOx in ambient 5182. At Varsana &
(Excluding rainy Third Party
air and within SO2 - Colorimetric IS: Padana Villages
season)
plant premise 5182: (Part II) 2001.
NOx - Colorimetric IS:
5182: (Part VI) 2006.
Capital Cost (in Crores) 16.1 During Commissioning Phase
Recurring Cost (in Crores) 7.265 During Operation Phase
Total Cost for EMP (in Crores) 23.365 --

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Table 6-2: Traffic Management Plan


Objective To ensure that there is smooth traffic both within and outside the facility for the duration of the construction phase and operation phase
Benefit of EMP Smooth and congestion free traffic operation
Implementation and Management
Impacting Activity Mitigation Measures Remark
Data Analysis Measurement Methodology Frequency Location Reporting Schedule/Responsibility Emergency Procedure

C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9
Controlled vehicular
movement (preferably Records of No. of
Throughout construction Route for safe exit will be
with clearly demarcated tankers entering Manual Main Gate Security In charge --
and operation phase in place.
entry / exit) with and exiting the site.
Movement of vehicles adequate supervision
throughout the Segregation of vehicular Throughout construction Route for safe exit will be
-- -- -- Security In charge --
construction phase and and pedestrian area and operation phase in place.
operational phase Vehicle entry and exit
scheduling so that traffic
Throughout construction Route for safe exit will be
congestion is not created -- -- -- Security In charge --
and operation phase in place.
on the public road
leading to the site.

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Table 6-3: Budgetary Environment Monitoring Plan for Noise Environment


Implementation and Management
Budget for Approximate
Impacting Activity Mitigation Measures Reporting Remark
Measurement Emergency Mitigation Recurring Procurement
Data Analysis Frequency Location Schedule /
Methodology Procedure Measure - (in Cost – (in Schedule
Responsibility
Crores) Crores)
C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 C10 C11 C12
Commissioning
SOP's, OCP and OEP
will be followed during
Startup and shutdown
startup. Acoustic
activities like operation
enclosures will be built- Regular
of various equipments in Plant Incharge & During startup
in with equipment by Once during Maintenance of Ear plugs to be worn by
Chlor-Alkali, reactors in Noise Levels ISLM 100 All plants Third - - phase and
technology provider. startup equipment to be workers at all times.
synthetic organic units, Party/Contractor operation phase
PPE like Ear Plugs & done.
inorganic plants and
ear muffs will be
Captive Power Plant.
provided and its use
shall be ensured.
Captive Co-Generation Power Plant
PPE like Ear Plugs &
ear muffs will be Capital Cost: Installation
Regular
provided and its use of acoustic enclosures.
Operation of Coal fired Contractor / Maintenance of During operation
shall be ensured. No Noise Levels ISLM 100 Once a Month Plant Area 0.7 0.15 Recurring Cost: Monitoring
boilers & Turbines Third Party equipment to be phase - Phase wise
operators shall be cost of regular Noise
done.
allowed to do two measurements.
continuous shifts.
General & Utilities
SOP's, OCP and OEP
will be followed during
startup. Acoustic
Operation of other Capital Cost: Installation
enclosures will be built- Regular
utilities like DG Sets, Utilities Area (2 of acoustic enclosures.
in with equipment by Contractor / Maintenance of During operation
Cooling Tower, Noise Levels ISLM 100 Once a Month locations within 0.1 0.05 Recurring Cost: Monitoring
technology provider. Third Party equipment to be phase
Compressor, Pumps, plant) cost of regular Noise
PPE like Ear Plugs & done.
Blowers etc. measurements.
ear muffs will be
provided and its use
shall be ensured.
Capital Cost (in Crores) 0.8 During Commissioning phase.
Recurring Cost (in Crores) 0.2 During Operation phase.
Total Cost for EMP (in Crores) 1 --

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Table 6-4: Budgetary Environment Monitoring Plan for Water Environment


Implementation and Management

Operation Controls / Budget for Approximate


Project Activity Reporting Remark
Mitigation Measures Measurement Emergency Mitigation Recurring Procurement
Data Analysis Frequency Location Schedule /
Methodology Procedure Measure - Cost – (in Schedule
Responsibility
(in Crores) Crores)
C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 C10 C11 C12
Construction
Capital cost: Sanitary Facility
Generated Sewage will be During (Soak pit & Septic Tanks).
Influx of construction workers diverted to ETP for further -- -- -- -- -- -- 0.05 0.01 Construction Recurring cost: Regular
treatment. Phase cleaning of the same to
avoid over flow.
Chlorine liquefaction, storage, filling & dispatch
Effluent will be recycled and During
Capital Cost: RO & MEE.
Brine preparation-resaturation, reused after treatment in ETP 1 Neutralization Section Incharge of Dosing will be operation
pH, TSS, TDS. Manual Twice in a shift 13 4.5 Recurring cost: Maintenance
dechlorination, etc. in which pH will be adjusted and Tank Cl2 Unit done properly. phase - Phase
cost to run RO & MEE.
further treated in RO & MEE. wise
Synthetic Organic Units (Para Amino Phenol, Hydrogenated & Chlorinated products.
ETP inlet, ETP
Effluent will be recycled and During Capital Cost: ETP-1 & ATFD.
outlet, RO Operator of Organic OEP & OCP will
Operation of Organic unit reused after giving treatment in pH, COD, TDS. Manual Twice in a shift 1.5 2.5 operation Recurring cost: Maintenance
Outlet, MEE Units be followed
ETP-1, RO & MEE & ATFD. phase cost to run ETP-1 & ATFD.
Outlet.
General & Utilities
Dyke walls will
Capital Cost: ETP-2 & Dyke
Operation of other utilities like be provided
Various During walls. Recurring cost:
DG Sets, Cooling Tower, Effluent will be diverted to ETP-2 and leakages
pH, COD, TDS. Manual Twice in a shift locations in Utility Incharge 0.5 0.05 operation Maintenance cost to run
Compressor, Pumps, Blowers via properly designed channel. shall be
Utility Section phase ETP-2 & regular cleaning of
etc. & Floor Washing pumped back
dykes.
in spare tank
Water meter will be installed at During
Raw water intake from GWIL Main intake Plant load will
main intake to record water Flow / Quantity Water Meter Continuous Utility Incharge 0.005 - operation Capital Cost: Water meter.
reservoir line be lowered
consumption. phase
Capital Cost: Diversion lines,
At System
Treated waste water shall be Collection and During separate storm water lines
Outlet which is ETP & Laboratory
Operation of ETP, RO & MEE. reused and reutilized in the COD, pH, TSS, TDS. Manual Daily divert for 0.055 0.04 operation and effluent lines. Recurring
recycled back Incharge
process to achieve ZLD. reprocess. phase cost: Laboratory / Third
in process
party charges.
Capital Cost (in Crores) 15.11 During Commissioning phase.
Recurring Cost (in Crores) 7.1 During Operation phase.
Total Cost for EMP (in Crores) 22.21 --

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Table 6-5: Budgetary Environment Monitoring Plan for Land Environment


Implementation and Management

Operation Controls / Budget for


Project Activity Reporting Approximate Remark
Mitigation Measures Measurement Emergency Mitigation Procurement
Data Analysis Frequency Location Schedule / Recurring Cost
Methodology Procedure Measure - (in Schedule
Responsibility – (in Crores)
Crores)
C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 C10 C11 C12
Chlorine liquefaction, Storage, Filling & Dispatch
Brine sludge will be disposed
Brine preparation- Number of Section Incharge During operation Capital Cost: Cost of SLF.
off to landfill facility within the Quantity of brine Plant Load will
resaturation, tractors / trolleys Daily RVDF & SLF Area of Caustic 10 1 phase - Phase Recurring cost: Maintenance
premises as per prescribed sludge be lowered.
dechlorination, etc. / trucks Chlorine Unit wise cost of SLF.
guidelines
Synthetic Organic Units (Para Amino Phenol, Hydrogenated & Chlorinated products.
Quantity of
Process sludge, Distillation Number of
Operation of Organic Process Sludge Organic Plant Operator of Plant Load will During operation
Residue shall be sent for tractors / trolleys Daily -- -- Costs included in next Row.
Units and Distillation Area Organic Units be lowered. phase
incineration. / trucks
Residue
General & Utilities
Used/spent oil will be sold to
Operation of other GPCB authorized Recyclers,
utilities like DG Sets, Waste/residue containing oil
Cooling Tower, disposed off to CHWIF.
Compressor, Pumps, Contaminated hand gloves,
Blowers etc. & Floor discarded containers / barrels
Washing. / bags shall be sold to
authorized vendors.
Storage of fuel, Class A
Discarded container, drums,
Solvents, Raw material, Capital Cost: Storage facility.
packing material etc. shall be
Finished products and Number of Recurring Cost: Membership
decontaminated and sold to Utility and Storage for
Hazardous waste Records of trucks trucks: Manually. During operation fees for disposing of HW to
authorized vendors. During dispatch Main Gate Security atleast 45 days is 1.5 0.05
handling carrying HW. Weight of truck: phase TSDF and Incineration facility,
Incharge. provided.
Sludge will be collected, Weight stand. handling HW and maintaining
Operation of ETP, RO, stored and disposed to TSDF the storage facility.
MEE facility as per HW rules
amended till date.
Used/spent oil will be sold to
GPCB authorized Recyclers.
Scraps, used spares, cotton
Equipment
waste, contaminated hand
maintenance
gloves, discarded containers /
barrels / bags shall be sold to
authorized vendors.
Capital Cost (in Crores) 11.5 During Commissioning phase.
Recurring Cost (in Crores) 1.05 During Operation phase.
Total Cost for EMP (in Crores) 12.55 --

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Table 6-6: Budgetary Environment Monitoring Plan for Ecology and Biodiversity
Implementation and Management

Operation Controls / Budget for


Project Activity Reporting Approximate Remark
Mitigation Measures Measurement Emergency Mitigation Procurement
Data Analysis Frequency Location Schedule / Recurring Cost
Methodology Procedure Measure - (in Schedule
Responsibility – (in Crores)
Crores)
C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 C10 C11 C12
Project Operation
Operation of Caustic
Chlorine plant, Power
Green belt development with
Plant, Inorganic units,
suitable species will help to Within plant Capital cost: Cost for saplings in
Organic Units and During start of Minimum of 33% During
mitigate likely cumulative Tree plantation premises and and around project site.
operation of other Manual construction HR Manager Green belt shall 0.0625 0.015 Construction &
impacts and avoid depositions Counts around Likely Recurring Cost: Maintenance of
utilities like heat phase be maintained. Operation phase
of HCl, Cl2, SPM & SO2 on Impact Zone Greenbelt
exchangers, reactors,
nearby scrubs on barren land.
compressors, pumps,
blowers
Capital Cost (in Crores) 0.0625 During Commissioning phase.
Recurring Cost (in Crores) 0.015 During Operation phase.
Total Cost for EMP (in Crores) 0.0775 --

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6.6 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND MANAGEMENT COST


Total cost of the project is ~ INR 1,000 Crore. Expenditure to be incurred by KCIL on environmental
monitoring and management shall include capital cost of ~ INR 43.57 Crore and ~ INR 15.63 Crore
recurring cost (annually) as tabulated in Table 6-7.

Table 6-7: Environmental Monitoring and Management Cost


Approximate Approximate
S Capital cost Recurring cost per
Head Basis for Cost Estimates
No. (INR in Annum (INR in
Crores) Crores)
Capital cost: Installation of ESP,
Scrubbers and Stacks of various
heights, Online sensors, VOC meter etc.
Recurring cost: Annual Cost for
Air Pollution repairs / maintenance of all APC
1 Control & 16.1 7.265 equipment, monitoring of AAQM at the
Monitoring project site for parameters as per CCA
& at Varsana & Padana Villages by
hiring third party and payment of
various statutory fees to regulatory
agencies.
Capital cost: Installation of acoustic
Noise Pollution enclosures by technology provider.
3 0.8 0.2
Control Recurring cost: Monitoring cost of
regular Noise measurements.
Capital cost: Installation of ETPs, RO,
MEE & ATFD including all instruments,
tanks, pumps, pipelines, layout of
Water Pollution
effluent & storm water drains.
2 Control & 15.11 7.1
Recurring cost: Maintenance cost to
monitoring
run ETP, RO, MEE & ATFD cleanup of
drains. Monitoring cost of effluent and
waste water.
Capital cost: Cost of SLF & Hazardous
Solid and waste Storage Facility.
4 Hazardous waste 11.5 1.05 Recurring cost: Membership fees for
management TSDF & Incinerator Facility. Disposal &
transportation cost.
Capital cost: Cost for saplings in and
Ecology and around project site.
5 0.06 0.02
Biodiversity Recurring cost: Maintenance of green
belt.
Total Amount in Crores 43.57 15.63

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Various environmental parameters to be monitored post environmental clearance are tabulated in


Table 6-8.
Table 6-8: Post EC Environmental Monitoring Plan
S. Environmental Component / Frequency of
Location
No. Parameter monitoring
1 CEMS Sensors (HCl & Cl2). Online On stack attached with hypo scrubber.
HCl unit stack vent, Hypo Stack Vent,
AAC, PAC & Calcium Chloride Plant
2 HCl & Cl2 in stacks Monthly
Stack Vent, PAP, Hydrogenated and
Chlorinated Products Stack Vent.
Online Boiler Stack.
3 PM, SO2, NOx in stack.
Monthly Boiler Stack & DG Set Stacks
Twice in a month at 1) 3 Locations in site
PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NOx, HCl & Cl2 in
4 site & once in a 2) Varsana Village
ambient air.
season at Villages 3) Padana Village
As per Factories At 5 locations within site and at
5 WPM for HCl & Cl2.
Rules Varsana & Padana Village
6 Noise levels Monthly Main Plants and Utilities Area
Water consumed in various activities
Main intake, plantwise water supply
7 and waste water generated from Daily
line & effluent diversion line to ETPs.
various areas of plants
Monitoring of wastewater inlet and
outlet at ETP plants for the principal
8 Daily Streamwise inlet & outlet of ETPs
parameters (such as pH, SS, TDS,
COD).
Surface water samples at nearby area.
1) Varsana Village Pond
9 Parameters are essential parameters Once in a Season
2) Padana Village Pond
as per IS: 10500:2012.
10 Quantity of Fly Ash Generated Daily Ash Silo
11 Quantity of Brine Sludge Generated Daily Secured Landfill Site
Pre & post monsoon
Soil analysis for EC, pH, permeability
12 / in the event of At Site
and ESP
accidental spillage

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7 ADDITIONAL STUDIES

7.1 RISK ASSESSMENT

The risk assessment process is intended to identify existing and probable hazards in all operations and
work environment, to quantify the hazards and to access the risk levels of those hazards in order to
prioritize those that need an immediate attention.

7.1.1 Scope & Methodology

Scope of the risk assessment covers the storage of all chemicals involved in proposed facilities.
Methodology of Risk Assessment and Hazard Identification is detailed in Annexure 15.

7.1.2 Consequence Analysis for Selected Failure Scenario

The project description, and other project related data have been comprehensively reviewed to identify
the hazardous Chemicals and information on the hazardous Chemical properties (MSDS) of all the
chemicals handled at the site has been reviewed to identify the hazards associated with the same.

Their properties are tabulated in Table 7-1. All the raw material and solvents shall be handled and
stored at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure.

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Table 7-1: Details of Flammable Raw Materials


Main Properties
S. No. Chemical State Hazard UEL TLV, Specific Vapour IDLH,
B.P°C F.P°C M.P°C LEL %
% ppm Gravity Density ppm
1 Hydrogen Gas Flammable gas -252.76 NA -259.2 4 75 0.07 NA NA
2 Chlorine Gas Toxic Gas -33.97 NA -100.97 NA NA 0.5 2.485 NA 10
3 Methanol Liquid Flammable liquid 64.7 11 -97.8 6 36 200 0.7915 1.11 NA
4 Benzene Liquid Flammable liquid 80 -11.1 5.5 1.2 7.8 0.5 0.8787 2.8 3000

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Based on the storage of raw material, solvents and fuel used in the proposed project, the following
chemical and equipment are identified for the purpose of this consequence analysis study:

 Benzene;
 Methanol;
 Chlorine.

Failure scenarios

In this study, toxic and flammable hazards are relevant. There is a possibility of failure associated with
each mechanical component of the plant (vessels, pipes, pumps or compressors). These are generic
failures and can be caused by such mechanisms as corrosion, vibration or external impact (mechanical
or overpressure).

The range of possible releases for a given component covers a wide spectrum, from a pinhole leak up
to a catastrophic rupture (of a vessel) or full bore rupture (of a pipe). For the purpose of QRA in an
objective manner, representative failure cases are generated covering both the range of possible
releases and their total frequency.

Accordingly, the following typical types of failures are considered:

 Minor Leak: 2 mm
 Medium Leak: 10 mm
 Tank – Catastrophic Rupture

7.1.3 Consequence Analysis Results

The results of consequence analysis for selected failure scenarios are summarized in Table 7-2 -
Table 7-5 & Figure 7-1 - Figure 7-14.
Table 7-2: Results of Consequence Analysis for Benzene
Chemical Effective Distance in meter to Radiation
Failure Met
(Storage Consequence
Scenario Data 4 kW/m2 12.5 kW/m2 37.5 kW/m2
Tank)
6/B NR NR NR
Jet fire 4/D NR NR NR
5/F NR NR NR
2 mm Leak
6/B 10.23 7.85 4.82
Late pool fire 4/D 10.64 7.74 4.32
5/F 10.81 7.86 4.30
6/B 2.60 NR NR
Benzene Jet fire 4/D 2.80 NR NR
5/F 2.70 NR NR
10 mm leak
6/B 30.20 21.00 8.12
Late pool fire 4/D 31.00 20.50 7.50
5/F 32.00 21.50 7.48
6/B 165.40 62.37 NR
Catastrophic
Late pool fire 4/D 153.90 62.00 NR
Rupture
5/F 160.70 62.93 NR

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Table 7-3: Results of Consequence Analysis for Methanol


Chemical Effective Distance in meter to Radiation
Failure Met
(Storage Consequence
Scenario Data 4 kW/m2 12.5 kW/m2 37.5 kW/m2
Tank)
6/B NR NR NR
Jet fire 4/D NR NR NR
5/F NR NR NR
2 mm Leak
6/B 5.00 4.00 NR
Late pool fire 4/D 4.80 3.60 NR
5/F 4.70 3.39 NR
6/B NR NR NR
Methanol Jet fire 4/D NR NR NR
5/F NR NR NR
10 mm leak
6/B 17.15 11.98 NR
Late pool fire 4/D 17.72 12.07 NR
5/F 18.02 12.51 NR
6/B 153.20 108.10 61.23
Catastrophic
Late pool fire 4/D 151.70 105.30 61.60
Rupture
5/F 152.80 107.30 61.90

Table 7-4: Toxic Dose Effect Distance for Benzene


Chemical Toxic Dose Effect Distance in meter
Failure
(Storage Met Data ERPG 1 ERPG 2 ERPG 3 IDLH
Scenario
Tank) (50 ppm) (150 ppm) (1,000 ppm) (500 ppm)
6/B 12.20 7.63 4.18 5.40
2 mm Leak 4/D 26.30 13.90 4.23 8.18
5/F 70.90 35.60 6.58 18.72
6/B 43.20 22.00 5.40 12.20
Benzene 10 mm leak 4/D 108.70 55.40 14.60 31.13
5/F 334.30 154.40 28.90 79.20
6/B 344.30 170.60 49.37 116.30
Catastrophic
4/D 995.10 397.80 81.98 175.60
Rupture
5/F 3,112.00 1,16.80 91.00 479.80

Table 7-5: Toxc Dose Effect Distance for Chlorine


Toxic Dose Effect Distance in meter
Chemical (Storage Failure
Met Data ERPG 2 ERPG 3 IDLH
Tank) Scenario
(3 ppm) (20 ppm) (10 ppm)
6/B 136.9 57.3 104.6
2 mm Leak 4/D 369.1 133.6 275.1
5/F 1,119.6 386.7 824.9
Chlorine
6/B 507.6 198.7 382.5
10 mm leak 4/D 1,382.7 461.9 1,005.9
5/F 4,266.7 1,318.9 3,061.6

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Figure 7-1: Late Pool Fire - Distance Contour of Benzene (2 mm Leak & WC 5/F)

Figure 7-2: Max. Conc. - Distance Contour of Benzene (2 mm Leak & WC 5/F)

Figure 7-3: Late Pool Fire - Distance Contour of Benzene (10 mm Leak & EC 5/F)

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Figure 7-4: Late Pool Fire - Distance Contour of Benzene (10 mm Leak & WC 5/F)

Figure 7-5: Max. Conc. - Distance Contour of Benzene (10 mm Leak & WC 5/F)

Figure 7-6: Late Pool Fire - Distance Contour of Benzene (Catastrophic Rupture & WC 6/B)

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Figure 7-7: Max Conc. - Distance Contour of Benzene (Catastrophic Rupture & WC 5/F)

Figure 7-8: Late Explosion - Distance Contour of Benzene (Catastrophic Rupture & WC 4/D)

Figure 7-9: Late Pool Fire - Distance Contour of Methanol (2 mm Leak & WC 6/B)

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Figure 7-10: Late Pool Fire - Distance Contour of Methanol (10 mm Leak & WC 5/F)

Figure 7-11: Late Pool Fire - Distance Contour of Methanol (Catastrophic Rupture & WC 6/B)

Figure 7-12: Late Explosion - Distance Contour of Methanol (Catastrophic rupture & WC 5/F)

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Figure 7-13: Max. Conc. - Distance Contour of Chlorine (2 mm leak & WC 5/F)

Figure 7-14: Max. Conc. - Distance Contour of Chlorine (10 mm leak & WC 5/F)

7.2 DISASTER MANAGEMENT PLAN

7.2.1 About Industrial Activities

Plant Layout

Provided in Chapter 2, Section 2.4, Map 2-3, Pg. 20.

Process / Industrial Area


Provided in Chapter 2, Section 2.11, Pg. 49.

Proposed Manufacturing Methodology

Provided in Chapter 2, Section 2.6.1 - 2.6.12, Pg. 25 -45.

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7.2.2 Onsite Emergency Plan

Objectives of Onsite Emergency Plan

A quick and effective response at during an emergency can have tremendous significance on whether
the situation is controlled with little loss or it turns into a major emergency. Therefore, purpose an
emergency plan is to provide basic guidance to the personnel for effectively combating such situations
to minimize loss of life, damage to property and loss of property. An objective of Emergency Planning
is to maximize the resource utilization and combined efforts towards emergency operations are as
follows.

During an Emergency

 To increase thinking accuracy and to reduce thinking time.


 To localize the emergency and if possible eliminates it.
 To minimize the effects of accident on people and property.
 To take correct remedial measures in the quickest time possible to contain the incident and
control it with minimum damage.
 To prevent spreading of the damage in the other sections.
 To mobilize the internal resources and utilize them in the most effective way
 To arrange rescue and treatment of causalities.

During Normal Time

 To keep the required emergency equipment in stock at right places and ensure the working
condition.
 To keep the concerned personnel fully trained in the use of emergency equipment.
 To give immediate warning tooth surrounding localities in case of an emergency situation arising.
 To mobilize transport and medical treatment of the injured.
 To get help from the local community and government officials to supplement manpower and
resources.
 To provide information to media & Government agencies, Preserving records, evidence of
situation for subsequent emergency etc.

Scope of OSEP

This OSEP is prepared for industrial emergencies like fires, explosions, toxic releases, and asphyxia
and does not cover natural calamities and societal disturbances related emergencies (like strikes,
bomb threats, civil commission’s etc.)

Elements of Onsite Emergency Plan

The important elements to be considered in plan are

 Emergency organization
 Emergency Facilities.
 Roles and Responsibilities of Key Personnel and Essential Employee.
 Communications during Emergency
 Emergency Shutdown of Plant & Control of situation.
 Rescue Transport & Rehabilitation.
 Developing Important Information

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Methodology

The consideration in preparing Emergency Plan will be included the following steps:

 Identification and assessment of hazards and risks.


 Identifying, appointment of personnel & Assignment of Responsibilities.
 Identification and equipping Emergency Control Centre.
 Identifying Assembly, Rescue points Medical Facilities.
 Formulation of plan and of emergency sources.
 Training, Rehearsal & Evaluation.
 Action on Site.

Earlier, a detailed Hazard Analysis and Risk Assessment was carried out on hazards and their likely
locations and consequences are estimated following the standard procedure.

Emergencies Identified

Emergencies that may be likely at chlorine storage, methanol storage, benzene storage, bulk fuel
(Coal) storage area, process plant, cylinder storage area, and drum storage shed. There are chances
of fire and explosion.

Others

Other risks are earthquake, lightning, sabotage, bombing etc., which are usually, not in the purview of
management control.

Emergency Organisation

Plant organization is enclosed. Based on the plant organization, which includes shift organization, an
Emergency Organization is constituted towards achieving objectives of this emergency plan. Plant
Manager is designated as Overall in Charge and is the Site Controller. The following are designated as
Incident Controllers for respective areas under their control. Shift in charge Engineer (Plant
Operations) is designated at Incident Controller for all areas of plant.

Emergency Facilities

Emergency Control Centre (ECC)


It is a location, where all key personnel like Site Controller, Incident Controller etc. can assemble in
the event of onset of emergency and carry on various duties assigned to them. Plant Manager’s Office
is designated as Emergency Control Centre. It has P&T telephone as well as internal telephones, ECC
is accessible from plant located considerably away from process plant, Storage’s and on evaluation of
other locations, Plant Manager’s Room find merit from the distance point of view, communication etc

Facilities Proposed to be Maintained at Emergency Control Centre (ECC)


The following facilities and information would be made available at the ECC

 Latest copy of Onsite Emergency Plan and off sites Emergency Plan (as provided by District
Emergency Authority).
 Intercom Telephone.
 P&T Telephone.
 Telephone directories (Internal, P&T)

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 Factory Layout, Site Plan


 Plans indicating locations of hazardous inventories, sources of safety equipment, hydrant layout,
location of pump house, road plan, assembly points, vulnerable zones, escape routes.
 Hazard chart.
 Emergency shut-down procedures.
 Nominal roll of employees.
 List and address of key personnel, Emergency coordinators, first aides, firefighting employees,
qualified trained persons.

Fire Fighting Facilities


 Internal hydrant system
 Portable extinguishers

Fire Protection SYSTEMS


These systems are proposed to protect the plant by means of different fire protection facilities and
consist of

 Hydrant system for exterior as well as internal protection of various buildings/areas of the plant.
 Portable extinguishers and hand appliances for extinguishing small fires in different areas of the
plant.
 Water cum foam monitor to be provided in bulk fuel storage area.
 Fire water pumps.
 Two (2) independent motor driven pumps each of sufficient capacity and head are proposed for
the hydrant systems which is capable to extinguish Fire or cooling purpose.

Emergency Escapes

The objective of the emergency escape is to escape from the hazardous locations, to the nearest
assembly point or the other safe zone, for rescue and evacuation

Assembly Point

Assembly point is location, where, persons unconnected with emergency operations would proceed
and await for rescue operation

Wind Sock

Wind socks for knowing wind direction indication would be provided at a suitable location to visible
from many locations

Emergency Transport

Emergency Ambulance would be stationed at the Administration Office and round the clock-driver
would be made available for emergency transportation of injured etc.

However, the other vehicles of the company also would be available for emergency services.

Emergency Communication

Two kinds of communication system can be provided.

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 Regular P&T phones with intercom facility.


 Mobile phone

Warning/Alarm/Communication of Emergency

The emergency would be communicated by operating electrical siren for continuously for five minutes
with high and low pitch mode.

Emergency Responsibilities

Priority of Emergency Protection.

 Life safety
 Preservation of property
 Restoration of the normalcy

Mutual Aid

While necessary facilities will be made available and updated from time to time, sometimes, it may be
necessary to seek external assistance; it may be from the neighbouring factories or from the State
Government as the case may be

Mock Drill

In spite of detailed training, it may be necessary to try out whether, the OSEP works out and will there
be any difficulties in execution of such plan. In order to evaluate the plan and see whether the plan
meets the objectives of the OSEP, occasional mock drills are contemplated. Before undertaking the
drill, it would be very much necessary to give adequate training to all staff members and also
information about possible mock drill. After few pre-informed mock drills, few UN-informed mock drills
would be taken. All this is to familiarize the employees with the concept and procedures and to see
their response. These scheduled and unscheduled mock drills would be conducted during shift change,
public holidays, in night shift etc. To improve preparedness once in 6 months and performance is
evaluated and Site Controller maintains the record. Incident Controller (IC) coordinates this activity

Persons Working

The Factory shall run continuously in three shifts of 8 hrs. Each and a general shift. Timing of the
same is tabulated below:

Shift Timing Break Time


General Shift 9:00 am to 6.00 pm Half hour
A Shift 7:00 am to 3:00 pm Half hour
B Shift 3:00 pm to 11:00 pm Half hour
C Shift 11:00 pm to 7:00 am Half hour

Total no. of workers to be employed- 650, Total no. of staff to be employed- 350.

Organization (People Responsible)

To achieve the objective laid down in policy and for successful implementation and of health & safety
policy, the company shall have following positions under the Director. Tentetive organization chart of
factory will be as per Figure 7-15.

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Figure 7-15: Organization Chart of Factory

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The following actions to be taken for the hazardous chemicals handled in the plant:

Chlorine

Since Chlorine is approximately 2.5 times heavier than air, it has a tendency to spread at lower levels.
If the leakage is heavy the source can be immediately detected, by the pungent odor and color of the
gas.

 As soon as there is any indication of the presence of chlorine in the air immediate steps should be
taken to remedy the situation. The leak source can be detected with the help of ammonia torch (a
wooden stick with piece of cloth at one end. It is soaked in ammonia solution. When taken near
the leak source, it will give dense white fumes.) Leakages, if any should be immediately reported
to the supervisor.
 Leakage once detected, should be attended immediately, to avoid further deterioration of leakage.
 Use personal protective equipment’s such as gas mask with canister, on line air breathing
apparatus, self-contained B.A. set while entering the leakage zone.
 Leakage point should be preferably approached from higher elevation and upwind direction.
 Isolate the system as quickly as possible and evacuate the area. Only persons required for
combating the leakage should be allowed to enter the area.
 Water should never be sprayed on a chlorine leak. To do so will make the leak worse because of
the corrosion action of wet chlorine. Moreover, heat from water increases evaporation rate of
chlorine.
 If the container is leaking in such a position that chlorine is escaping as liquid, the container
should be turned so that chlorine gas escapes. This reduces the hazard tremendously due to the
following reasons:
 For a given size of hole and a given internal pressure, the rate of gas leak will be about 1/15 th
of the liquid escape rate.
 Volume of liquid chlorine = 460 volume of chlorine gas
 The severity of a chlorine leak may be lessened by reducing the pressure on the leaking container.
These may be done by absorbing chlorine gas (not the liquid) from the container in a solution of
caustic soda, soda ash or hydrated lime.
 If there is leakage from the valve seat, valve body or valve inlet threads, use tie rod assembly
from tonner safety kit to plug the leak.
 If there is Hole in the container body, use chain assembly from tonner safety kit.
 If the leak cannot be plugged, reduce pressure in the container or remove it to an isolate