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AN INTRODUCTION TO

COMPUTERS
THIS CLASS IS DESIGNED AS A
BEGINNERS CLASS IN
COMPUTING
OBJECTIVES
• Learn Basic Computer Terminology
• Difference Between Hardware and
Software
• Understanding Computer Components
• Basic Keyboard and Mouse Usage
• Proper Care For your PC
PREREQUISITES

• There are no prerequisites.


DEFINITION
• What is a Computer?
• com·put·er Pronunciation key (km-pytr)
n.
• A device that computes, especially a
programmable electronic machine that performs
high-speed mathematical or logical operations or
that assembles, stores, correlates, or otherwise
processes information.
• One who computes.
• (American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed. Pub.
2000)
THE LANGUAGE OF
COMPUTERS
Binary Numbers
Binary Numbers 1 of 3

Computers speak binary. Binary language consists of combinations of 1's


and 0's that represent characters of other languages (in our case the
English language). Don’t make the mistake of thinking that little 1's and 0's
are running around inside of the computer. We humans prefer to think of
1's and 0's because it’s easier than visualizing positive and negative
current flows or open and closed circuits which is what actually happens
inside computers. A combination of eight bits represents one character in
our language. One character in our language (eight bits) is referred to as a
byte. (For example: 01000001 is a byte that represents an uppercase A;
each 1 or 0 is a bit.)
Binary Numbers 2 of 3
• Kilobytes, Megabytes, and Gigabytes
• If you understand that a byte is one character in
our language, you’ve got it made because:
• 1000 bytes = 1 kilobyte
• (1,000 characters = 1 kilobyte)
• 1,000,000 bytes = 1 megabyte
• (1,000,000 characters = 1 megabyte)
• 1,000,000,000 bytes = 1 gigabyte
(1,000,000,000 characters = 1 gigabyte)
Binary Numbers 3 of 3
• Disk Capacity
• It’s important to know how large your files are because eventually you won’t
have enough space on your disk to hold more files. Knowing the total
capacity of your disk, how much space is left on your disk, and how large
the file is, you can make accurate decisions as to whether to save the file to
the current disk, or save the file to a different diskette with more disk
capacity.
• Keep in mind that a low density floppy diskette holds 720 kilobytes of data,
and a high density floppy diskette holds 1.44 megabytes of data. Put in
easier to understand terms, a low density disk can hold approximately 300
typed pages and a high density can hold approximately 600 typed pages.
Zip disks have 100 megabytes of disk capacity (about $10.00 each) or 250
megabytes of disk capacity (about $15.00 each). CD-ROMS have 650
megabytes of capacity (about $1.00 each) or 700 megabytes of capacity
(about $1.50 each). Super Disks have 120 megabytes of disk capacity
(about $12.00 each). Hard drives (disk drives inside of the computer) might
hold anywhere from 30 megabytes (old computers) to 80 gigabytes (new
computers) of data. Most computers today are sold with anywhere from a 5
gigabyte (portable/laptop computers) to a 120 gigabyte (desktop computers)
disk capacity.
THIS IS A FEW OF THE
DIFFERENT TYPES of
COMPUTERS
• Desk top
computer

computer

Lap Top
Hand Held
computer
Computer
DEFINITION

• Hardware Vs. Software


If you can touch it, it’s hardware
Examples of Hardware
The Programs that are on the disks
are software
Definition of User
Uses for a PC
• Word Processing
• Desktop Publishing
• Database Management
• Spreadsheets
• Communication
• Finance
• Education
• Entertainment
• News and Information
• Doorstop
Tips for Beginners
• Explore Your Computer
• Mistakes won’t Kill You
• EDIT/ UNDO is your Friend
• Be persistent
• Apply what you Learn
• Don’t try to learn too fast
• Walk away if you get frustrated
• Have Fun
Why Learn This Stuff?
• Buying a PC
• Having Your PC Serviced
• Calling For Support
• Be able to talk to Friends & Grandchildren
• It’s Fun
Hardware Overview

PC Versus MAC
Examples of PC computers
Examples of MAC computers
SYSTEM COMPONENTS
CPU/PROCESSOR
• The CPU refers to the microprocessor
chip. Sometimes the “Tower” is called the
CPU.
• It’s speed is measured in Megahertz
(MHZ) (Millions of cycles per second) or
Gigahertz (GHZ) Billions of cycles per
second.
• (A cycle is the time required for the CPU to execute
an instruction step).
SYSTEM COMPONENTS
Ram – Random Access Memory
• Ram is the memory used by the computer
to run programs.
• The amount of Ram available will
determine how fast a program will run and
how many windows can be open at one
time.
• Ram memory is considered Volatile
because it disappears when the power is
turned off.
SYSTEM COMPONENTS
Hard Drive
• The Hard Drive is the computers main,
long term storage.
• It is referred to as non-volatile storage,
because it does not disappear when the
power is turned off.
• The size of the Hard Drive is measured in
Gigabytes. (Billions of Bytes).
RAM VERSUS HARD DRIVE
• If we use the analogy
of a desk: Then the
work we are doing on
the desk top would be
using the RAM and
the work we store in
the file drawers would
be on the HARD
DRIVE.
SYSTEM COMPONENTS
• Mother Board
• (This is where most of the
electronics is located).
SYSTEM COMPONENTS
• Case
• (Tower,Chassis,Box)
SYSTEM COMPONENTS
• Modem (Modulator
Demodulator).
• (Used for internet access
with phone line).
SYSTEM COMPONENTS
• Power Supply
• 250 – 500 Watts
• DO NOT OPEN
• (This is the power source
that makes everything go).
SYSTEM COMPONENTS
• Audio Card
• This is the voice of your
system).
SYSTEM COMPONENTS
• Floppy Drive –
• 1.44 MB
• (This item is fast becoming
obsolete).
SYSTEM COMPONENTS
• Network Card
• (Used to connect to high
speed internet access e.g.
Cable or DSL lines).
SYSTEM COMPONENTS
• Tape Drive Can store
Gigabytes of data.
SYSTEM COMPONENTS
• Video Card
• (Provides visual images to
the monitor. Also used in
computer games, to provide
additional memory for visual
effects).
PERIPHERALS
• Monitors
• CRT Vs LCD
PERIPHERALS
• Printers
• (Might be Ink Jet, Bubble Jet,
Laser or whatever the
manufacturers invent
tomorrow).
PERIPHERALS
• Video Cameras
• (Also called
webcams)
POWER PROTECTION
• Uninterruptible Power
Supply
• (UPS) 280 VA – 400
VA
• (Essentially a battery
back-up in case of a
power failure)
KEYBOARD
• The Keyboard
• (This is the primary
input device)
KEYBOARD
• Alphanumeric Keys
KEYBOARD
• Numeric Keypad
KEYBOARD
• Enter (Return) Key
KEYBOARD
• Spacebar
KEYBOARD
• “Modifier” keys:
CTRL, ALT, SHIFT
KEYBOARD
• “State “ keys: Caps,
Scroll, Numlock
KEYBOARD
• Windows keys
MOUSE
• Holding the mouse
• Grip between thumb
and ring finger
• (Right handed grip
shown, Lefties use
other hand)
MOUSE
• Mouse Pointer
MOUSE
• Left Clicking
MOUSE
• Right clicking
MOUSE
• Double clicking
• (Use the left side,
• Click twice)
MOUSE
• Click and drag
MOUSE
• Scroll wheel and
optional buttons
SOFTWARE

• Operating systems
• Applications
• Data
OPERATING SYSTEMS
• MS-DOS
• Windows 95,98,Me
• Windows NT,
2000,XP

• Linux
APPLICATIONS
• MS Word
• (Your basic Word
Processor)
APPLICATIONS
• MS Excel
• Your basic Spread Sheet)
APPLICATIONS
• MS Power Point
• (For sales
presentations)
APPLICATIONS
• MS Outlook
• (Your desktop Personal
Information Manager,
(PIM))
APPLICATIONS

• MS Internet
Explorer
• (Your internet
Browser)
APPLICATIONS

• Windows Calculator
• (Your basic
calculator, also
available is a
scientific calculator)
APPLICATIONS
• WordPerfect Adobe Acrobat
• Lotus 1-2-3 Photoshop
• QuickBooks Notepad
• CorelDraw WinZip
• HyperCam Media Player
• Photo Paint StarCraft
• ETC. ETC.ETC. ETC. Ad Infinitum
DATA
• Letters written using a word processor like
MS WORD.
• Spread sheets designed in EXCEL.
• Presentations created in Power Point
• Music on a CD.
• Photos from your digital camera
COMPUTER CAVEATS
• Beverages in open
containers are EVIL.
COMPUTER CAVEATS
• Magnets
• (They destroy Data
on floppy drives and
hard drives)
COMPUTER CAVEATS
• Laser Printers and Power.
• Keep PC off the floor.
• When in doubt Reboot.
COMPUTER CAVEATS
• Save your work often.
COMPUTER CAVEATS
• Power Strips
• Use the Power
buttons on the PC
and peripherals.
COMPUTER CAVEATS
• Don’t eject a floppy
when the light is on.
COMPUTER CAVEATS
• Keep floppies out of
sunlight.
COMPUTER CAVEATS
• Proper handling of
CDs
• OK to wash CDs in
mild soapy water or
get a CD cleaner
(inexpensive)
COMPUTER CAVEATS
• Don’t push the CD
tray in – use the
button.
COMPUTER CAVEATS
• Dust Kills
• It’s a good idea to
blow the dust out of
your computer
regularly.
COMPUTER CAVEATS
• STATIC KILLS!
• Get yourself an anti
static strip or mat.
TIME FOR A STRETCH BREAK
• TIME TO GET UP AND STRETCH
• CLEAN YOUR GLASSES
• GO POTTY IF YOU HAVE THE URGE
• LET’S TAKE A TEN MINUTE BREAK
AN INTRODUCTION to
WINDOWS XP

This is the operating system most


of us will be using
FILES AND FOLDERS
Keyboard Word Access Excel PowerPoint
command
Ctrl-A Select entire Select all Select all Select all
document
Ctrl-B Bold Bold Bold Bold
Ctrl-C or F3 Copy Copy Copy Copy
Ctrl-F n/a Find Find n/a
Ctrl-G Go to n/a n/a n/a
Ctrl-H n/a Replace text n/a n/a
Ctrl-I Italics n/a n/a Italics
Ctrl-M n/a n/a Format a Add (create)
number slide
Ctrl-N New New New New
document document document presentation
Alt-N n/a Create a new n/a n/a
object
Ctrl-O Open Open Open Open
Ctrl-P Print Print Print Print
Ctrl-Q Quit Quit Quit Quit
Ctrl-R n/a New record Fill Right n/a
Ctrl-TAB Save as Display Page Save as n/a
Ctrl-S Save Save Query Save Save
Ctrl-U Underline n/a Underline Underline Text
Ctrl-V Paste Paste Paste Paste text
Ctrl-X Cut Cut Cut Cut
Ctrl-Z Undo Undo Undo Undo
Keyboard Word Access Excel PowerPoint
command
F1 Help Help Help Help

F7 Spell/grammar Spell check Spell check Spell check


check

Ctrl-[ n/a n/a n/a Decrease font


size
Ctrl-] n/a n/a n/a Increase font size
Shortcuts when selecting text

Selection Task Shortcut


Select adjacent text Click and drag over text
Select a word Double click on the word
Select a line Triple click on the line
Select a paragraph Click 4 times in the paragraph
Select from the insertion point to the Press Shift-Option-Up arrow or
beginning or end of a paragraph Shift –Option-Down arrow
Select an extended section Click at one end of the section,
then Shift-click at the other end
Select a whole document Ctrl-A or triple click in selection
area
Select from the insertion point to the Press Shift-Ctrl-Home or Shift-
beginning or end of a document Ctrl-End
THE WIMP INTERFACE

• WINDOWS
• ICONS
• MENUS
• POINTERS
WINDOWS
ICONS
MENUS
POINTERS (CURSORS)
• I-beam cursor
(which follows the roll of the mouse)

Insertion point cursor


(Which flashes on and off, and is positioned
using the I-beam cursor and a click of the F letcher
mouse button)
BREAK POINT
• Let’s get some hands on experience
• Find the Windows key.
– Bottom row second key from the left side.
– Press once, (this is the same as left
clicking on the start button).
– Bring the cursor arrow over the All Programs
Arrow head.
– Notice how the program files are displayed.
FIND MICROSOFT WORD
(LEFT CLICK)
Microsoft word
FIND EXCEL
LEFT CLICK
MICROSOFT EXCEL
FIND POWERPOINT
POWERPOINT
THE END

THE END
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THE END