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ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION

Important Points:

1. The magnetic lines of force passing through a normal plane is called magnetic flux.

2. Faraday Laws:

a. Whenever there is changing in magnetic flux linked with a coil, emf is induced in it.

b. The induced emf is proportional to the negative rate of change of magnetic flux linked with

the coil.

dφ −dφ

e=− (Or) e=

dt dt

d ( Nφ )

For N turns e = − (Proportionality constant K = 1)

dt

d

e=− ( NBA) (Neumann’s Law)

dt

dφ (φ − φ )

c. Induced current (i) = e = − N = −N 2 2

dt t

− N (φ2 − φ2 )

d. Induced change (q ) = = (Induced charge is independent of time)

R

3. Lenz’s Law:

Induced emf always opposes the change that produces it. Lenz’s law obeys the law of

conservation of energy.

4. Motional EMF:

If a straight conductor of length l moves with a constant speed v perpendicular to the uniform

magnetic field of induction B, then a voltage is developed across ends of the conductor ends

which is given by e = Blv

e Blv

5. Induced current ( I ) = =

R R

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6. Self Inductance:

If the current in a coil changes, the magnetic flux around the coil changes. Hence emf is

induced in the coil called self inductance.

If i is the current through the coil and f is the flux lines around the coil then

dφ di

e=− = −L

dt dt

1

7. Energy stored in an Inductor U = Li 2

2

8. Mutual Inductance:

a. When current in a coil changes, the magnetic flux linked with other coil changes and

an emf is induced in the secondary coil called mutual induction.

b. If IP is the current through the primary and fS is the flux linked with secondary,

φs ∝ I p ⇒ φs = MI p Where M is mutual inductance of the coil

dφ d di

Induced emf e = − = − ( M iP ) = − M . P

dt dt dt

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A 1) whenever the magnetic flux linked with a closed circuit changes, an induced emf and hence

an induced current is set up in it.

2)The higher the rate of change of magnetic flux linked with the closed circuit, the greater is

the induced emf (or) current.

A. The magnetic flux through any surface placed in a magnetic field is the total number of

magnetic lines of force crossing this surface normally.

Magnetic flux φ = B. A = BA cos θ

Units: Weber Dimensional formula: ML2T −2 A−1

A. Faraday’s Laws:

a) Whenever magnetic flux linked with a coil changes, emf is induced in it.

b) The induced emf is proportional to the negative rate of change of magnetic flux linked with

the coil.

dφ −dφ

e=− (or) e = (Proportionality constant K = 1)

dt dt

d ( Nφ )

For N turns e = −

dt

d dφ (φ − φ 2 )

Or e=− ( NBA) Or e = −N = −N 2

dt dt t

A. Lenz’s Law:

The direction of an induced emf is always opposes the change in the magnetic flux that causes

it. Lenz’s law obeys the law of conservation of energy.

5. What happens to the mechanical energy (of motion) when a conductor is moved in a

uniform magnetic field?

A. The mechanical energy spent in moving the conductor is converted into electrical energy and

then into thermal energy.

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A. Eddy Currents:

When the magnetic field in a metal changes with time, induced electric field is produced which

applies force and makes the free electrons of metal to move in closed paths. These are eddy

currents.

These currents were discovered by Foucault, so they are also known as Foucault currents. The

direction of eddy currents is given by Lenz's law.

7. Define Inductance?

A. Inductance (L) is the ratio of the flux-linkage to current, it is equal to N Φ / I .

Units: Henry Dimensional formula: ML2T −2 A−2 .

A. The magnetic flux ( Nφ ) linked with the coil is found to be proportional to the strength of the

current (I)

i.e. N φ ∝ I ⇒ N φ = LI

Where constant of proportionality 'L' is called co-efficient of self induction (or) self inductance.

If I = 1A, N φ = L

Thus co-efficient of self induction of a coil is defined as the magnetic flux linked with a coil

through which a unit current flows.

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1. Obtain an expression for the emf induced across a conductor which is moved in a

uniform magnetic field which is perpendicular to the plane of motion?

A. Consider a straight conductor moving in a uniform and time independent magnetic field.

Figure shows a rectangular conductor PQRS in which the conductor PQ is free to move.

The rod PQ is moved towards the left with a constant velocity as shown in the figure.

Assume that there is no loss of energy due to friction. PQRS forms a closed circuit enclosing

an area that changes as PQ moves. It is placed in a uniform magnetic field B which is

perpendicular to the plane of this system.

If the length RQ = x and RS =, the magnetic flux Φ B enclosed by the loop PQRS will be

Φ B = Blx

Since x is changing with time, the rate of change of flux will induce an emf given by:

−d Φ B d

ε= = − ( Blx )

dt dt

dx

= − Bt = Blυ

dt

Where we have used dx / dt = −υ which is the speed of the conductor PQ.

The induced emf Bl υ is called motional emf.

A. i) Magnetic Braking In Trains:

In some electric trains electromagnets are situated above the rails. When these are activated, the

eddy currents induced in the rails oppose the motion of the train.

ii) Electromagnetic Damping:

In some galvanometers core is made of nonmagnetic metallic material. When the coil oscillates,

the eddy currents induced in the core oppose the motion of the coil and bring it rest quickly.

iii) Induction Furnace:

In an induction, a metallic block to be melted is placed in a high frequency changing magnetic

field. Strong eddy currents are induced in the block. Due to the high resistance of the metal, a

large amount of heat is produced in it. This heat ultimately melts the metallic block.

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The shiny metal disc in the electric power meter rotates due to eddy currents. Electric

currents induced in the disc by magnetic fields produced by sinusoidally varying currents in

the coil.

3. Obtain an expression for the mutual inductance of two long co-axial solenoids?

A. Mutual Inductance of Two Long Solenoids:

Consider two long co-axial solenoids s1 and s2, with s2 wound over s1.

Let l = Length of each solenoid

r1, r2 = radii of inner and outer solenoids

A = π r 12

= area of cross section of inner solenoids s1

N1,N2 = number of turns in the two solenoids

First we pass a time varying current I2 through S2. The magnet field set up inside S2 due to I2

is

B2 = µ o n 2 I 2

Where n2 =N2/l = the number of turns per unit length of S2.

Total magnetic flux linked with inner solenoid S1 is

φ 2 = B2AN1= µ on2I2.AN1

Mutual inductance of coil 1 with respect to coil 2 is

φ1 µ0 N1N 2 A

M12= = µ on2AN1=

I2 l

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Now we consider the flux linked with the outer solenoid S2 due to the current I1 in the inner

solenoid S1. The field B1 due to I1 is constant inside S1 but zero in the annular region

between the two solenoids. Hence

B1 = µ o n 1 I 1

Where n1= N1/l = the no of turns per unit length of S1

Total flux linked with the outer solenoid S2 is

µo N1 N 2 AI1

φ 2 =B1AN2= µ on1I1.AN2=

l

∴Mutual inductance of coil 2 with respect to coil 1 is

φ2 µ0 N1N 2 A

M21== =

I1 l

Clearly M12=M21=M(say)

µo N1 N 2 A

M= = µ 0n1n2Al= µ 0n1n2 π r12l

l

Thus, the mutual inductance of two coils is the property of their combination. It does not

matter which one of them functions as the primary or the secondary coil.

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1. Outline the path-breaking experiments of Faraday and Henry and highlight the

contributions of these experiments to our understanding of electromagnetism?

A. Whenever, there is a change in magnetic flux through a closed circuit, an induced emf is set up

in the circuit. This phenomenon is known as electromagnetic induction.

1) The circuit consists a coil C1 connected in series with a galvanometer.

2) When the N-pole of magnet is moved towards the coil C1 , the galvanometer shows

deflection. The deflection shows that there is current in the circuit.

3) When the N-pole of magnet is moved away from coil C1 , the galvanometer shows deflection

in other direction.

4) When the N-pole of magnet comes to rest, the galvanometer shows no deflection.

5) The similar results are obtained when S-pole of a magnet is moved towards or away from

coil C1 .

6) When the magnet is moved fast, the deflection in the galvanometer is large and when it is

moved slowly the deflection is small.

7) The induced current may be also produced by moving the coil C1 to a stationary (next)

magnet.

8) This experiment clearly demonstrates the EMI. Whenever there is a relative motion between

magnet and coil, the magnetic flux linked with coil changes and hence an induced current is

produced due to which the galvanometer shows a deflection.

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1) As shown in figure coil C1 is connected with galvanometer and coil C2 is connected with

battery.

2) When the coil C2 is moved towards or away from C1 , the galvanometer shows deflection

due to current is induced in coil C1 .

3) When the coil C2 is held fixed and C1 is moved, the galvanometer shows defection due to

current induced in coil C1 .

4) When two coils C1 and C2 are in relative motion that induces electric current.

III. Coil-Coil experiment - current induced by changing current:

1) Two coils C1 and C2 are held stationary. Coil C1 is connected to galvanometer G and coil

C2 is connected to a battery through a tapping key K.

2) First, the battery circuit is closed by pressing the tap key K, and then broken, the

galvanometer shows deflection in one direction and then in the other.

3) When the key K is kept pressed continuously, there is no deflection in the galvanometer.

4) The deflection is produced in the galvanometer only at make or break of the current in the

coil C1

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2. Describe the working of a AC generator with the aid of a simple diagram and necessary

expressions?

A. AC Generator:

An electric generator or dynamo is a device which converts mechanical energy into electrical

energy. The simplest practical generator consists of a rectangular coil rotating in a uniform

magnetic field.

Description:

AC generator consists of coil mounted on a rotor shaft. The axis of rotation of the coil is

perpendicular to the direction of the magnetic field. The coil (armature) is rotated mechanically

in the magnetic field. The ends of the coil are connected to the external circuit by means of slip

rings and brushes.

Working:

When the coil rotates, the magnetic flux cutting the coil changes and hence emf is induced in it.

At any instant let the normal to the plane of the coil makes an angle with the field direction

where is the angular speed of the coil. The flux linked with the coil is given by, Where N is the

number of turns of the coil.

−dφ

But ε = = +BAN ω sin ωt

dt

∴ ε = ε m sin ωt

Where ε m = BAN ω is known as peak value of alternating emf

The direction of current changes periodically and hence the current is called alternating current.

Also, ε = ε m sin 2πυt

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PROBLEMS

1. Predict the direction of induced current in the situation described by the following

figures:

According to Lenz’s law, the direction of induced current is always in such a way that it

opposes the cause due to which it is produced.

A. (a) Here, south pole is moving towards the coil, so according to Lenz’s law this end becomes

S-pole. (To oppose the motion of South Pole by repelling it). Hence, the direction of current

is clockwise (by using clock rule) and the current flows along p to q or qrpq.

(b) In coil p-q, at end q ⇒ S-pole is moving towards end q, so it behaves like a south pole (by

Lenz’s law). The direction of current is clockwise (by clock rule), i.e., from p to q or along

prq. North Pole is moving away so this end will behave like South pole (To oppose its away

motion by attracting it). In coil x-y, S-pole is induced (by Lenz’s law) and the direction of

current is clockwise i.e., x to y or along yzx.

(c) As the tapping key is just closed, the current in coil increases. So, the magnetic flux and

field increases. According to Maxwell’s right hand grip rule, the direction of magnetic field is

leftwards. Thus, the direction of induced current in the neighbouring coil is such that it try to

decrease the field, thus the direction of field in the neighbouring coil should be rightwards,

i.e., according to Maxwell’s right hand rule the direction of induced current is anticlockwise,

i.e., along xyz or yzx.

(d) As the Rheostat setting is changed, the current is changed. The direction of field due to the

coil is leftwards according to Maxwell’s right hand grip rule. The direction of induced current

in the left coil is such that the magnetic field produced by it in rightwards, thus the direction

of current in left coil is anticlockwise i.e., from zyx.

(e) As the key is just released, the current which is flowing anticlockwise goes on decreasing.

Thus, the induced current developed in such a sense the magnetic field due to left coil

increases (which is towards right). So, the magnetic field due to the right coil should also

towards right and hence the induced current is in anticlockwise, i.e., along xry.

(f) The magnetic field lines due to the current carrying wire are in the plane of the loop. Hence,

no induced current is produced in the loop (because no flux lines cross the area of loop).

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2. Use Lenz’s law to determine the direction of induced current in the situations described

by figure.

(a) A wire of irregular shape turning into a circular shape.

(b) A circular loop being deformed into a narrow straight wire.

A. (a) Here, the direction of magnetic field is perpendicularly inwards to the plane of paper. If a

wire of irregular shape turns into a circular shape then its area increases ( The circular loop

has greater area than the loop of irregular shape) so that the magnetic flux linked also

increases. Now, the induced current is produced in a direction such that it decreases the

magnetic field [i.e., the current will flow in such a direction so that the wire forming the loop

is pulled inward in all directions (to decrease the area)], i.e., current is in anticlockwise

direction, i.e., adcba.

(b) When a circular loop deforms into a narrow straight wire, the magnetic flux linked with it

also decreases. The current induced due to change in flux will flow in such a direction that it

will oppose the decrease in magnetic flux so it will flow anticlockwise, i.e., along a 'b'c 'b' a ' ,

due to which the magnetic field produced will be out of the plane of paper.

3. A long solenoid with 15 turns per cm has a small loop of area 2.0 cm2 placed inside the

solenoid normal to its axis. If the current carried by the solenoid changes steadily from

2.0 A to 4.0 A in 0.1 s, what is the induced emf in the loop while the current is changing?

A. Given, number of turns n = 15 per cm = 1500 per meter

Area of small loop A = 2 cm2 = 2 x 10-4 m2

dI 4 − 2 2

Change in current = = = 20 A/s

dt 0.1 0.1

dφ d

e= = (BA) ( φ = BA)

dt dt

dB d

Or e= A = A (µ 0 nI)

dt dt

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dI

Or e = Aµ 0 n

dt

e = 7.5 x 10-6 V

4. A rectangular wire loop of sides 8 cm and 2 cm with a small cut is moving out of a region

of uniform magnetic field of magnitude 0.3 T directed normal to the loop. What is the

emf developed across the cut if the velocity of the loop is 1 cm/s in a direction normal to

the (a) longer side, (b) shorter side of the loop? For how long does the induced voltage

last in each case?

Use the concept of motional emf as wire loop is moving normal to the magnetic field.

A. Given, length of the loop l = 8 cm = 8 x 10-2 m.

Width of the loop b = 2 cm = 2 x 10-2 m

Velocity of the loop = 1 cm/s = 0.01 m/s

Magnitude of magnetic field B = 0.3 T

(l = 8 cm = 8 x 10-2 m)

Distance Shorter side (width)

Time = =

velocity Velocity

2 ×10−2

t= = 2 s.

0.01

(l = 2 cm = 2 x 10-2 m)

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e = 0.6 x 10-4 V

Time = =

Velocity 0.01

t = 8 s.

5. A 1.0 m long metallic rod is rotated with an angular frequency of 400 rad s −1 about an axis

normal to the rod passing through its one end. The other end of the rod is in contact with

a circular metallic ring. A constant and uniform magnetic field of 0.5 T parallel to the

axis exists everywhere. Calculate the emf developed between the centre and the ring?

1 1

ε = BL2ω = × 0.5 × ( 0.1) × 400 = 100V

2

2 2

6. A circular coil of radius 8.0 cm and 20 turns is rotated about its vertical diameter with an

angular speed of 50 rad/s in a uniform horizontal magnetic field of magnitude 3.0 x 10-2

T. Obtain the maximum and average emf induced in the coil. If the coil forms a closed

loop of resistance 10 Ω , calculate the maximum value of current in the coil. Calculate

the average power loss due to Joule heating. Where does this power come from?

A. Radius of coil = 8 cm = 0.08 m

Number of turns = 20

Resistance of closed loop = 10 Ω

Angular speed = 50 rad/s

Magnitude of magnetic field B = 3 x 10-2 T.

Induced emf produced in the coil E = NBA sin ω t

For maximum emf sin ω t = 1

∴ Maximum emf e0 = NBA ω = 20 × 3 × 10-2 × 3.14 × (0.08)2 × 50

e0 = 0.603 V

e0 0.603

Maximum current in the coil I0 = = = 0.0603 A.

R 10

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1 2π 1 2π

T ∫0 T ∫0

eav = e dt = NBAωsin ωt dt

2π

1 cos ωt

eav = NABω

T ω 0

NBA

= [cos 2π − cos 0o ]

T

NBA

eav = [1 − 1] = 0

T

E 0 I0 0.603 × 0.0603

= = = 0.018 W.

2 2

The source of power dissipated as heat in the coil is the external rotar. The current induced in

the coil causes a torque which opposes the rotation of the coil, so the external agent rotar

counter this torque to keep the coil rotating uniformly.

7. A horizontal straight wire 10 m long extending from east to west is falling with a speed of

5.0m s −1 at right angles to the horizontal component of the Earth’s magnetic field,

0.30 × 10−4 Wb m −2.

(a) What is the instantaneous value of the emf induced in the wire?

(b) According to Fleming’s right hand rule, the direction of emf is from west to east.

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8. Current in a circuit falls from 5.0 A to 0.0A in 0.1 s. If an average emf of 200 V induced,

give an estimate of the self-inductance of the circuit?

dI I −I

As ε = − L = −L 2 1

dt t

0.0 − 5.0

∴ 200 = − L = +50 L

0.1

L = 4 H.

9. A pair of adjacent coils has a mutual inductance of 1.5 H. If the current in one coil

changes from 0 to 20 A in 0.5s, what is the change of flux linkage with the other coil?

A. M = 1.5 H , I1 = 0 A, I 2 = 20 A, t = 0.5s

dφ dI

As ε = − = −L

dt dt

10. A jet plane is travelling towards west at a speed of 1800 km/h. What is the voltage

difference developed between the ends of the wing having a span of 25 m, if the Earth’s

maganetic field at the location has a magnitude of 5 x 10-4 T and the dip angle is 30o?

5

A. Speed of jet plane v = 1800 km/h = 1800 × = 500 m/s

18

The magnitude of magnetic field B = 5 x 10-4 T.

Angle of dip δ = 30o

Use the formula of motional emf

e = BVVl

e = B sin δ v l

(Where, BV = vertical component of the Earth’s magnetic field BV = B sin)

e = 5 x 10-4 sin 30o x 500 x 25 = 3.1 V.

Thus, the voltage difference developed between the ends is 3.1 V.

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