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MEB4106

CNC MACHINE TOOLS LAB

LAB MANUAL AND RECORD

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INTRODUCTION TO CNC

Numerical control (NC) is a method employed for controlling the motions of a machine tool slide and its auxiliary functions with input in the form of numerical data. A computer numerical control (CNC) is a microprocessor-based system to store and process the data for the control of slide motions and auxiliary functions of the machine tools. The CNC system is the heart and brain of a CNC machine which enables the operation of various machine members such as slides, spindles, etc. as per the sequence programmed into it, depending on the machining operations.

The main advantage of a CNC system lies in the fact that the skills of the operator hitherto required in the operation of a conventional machine is removed and the part production is made automatic.

The CNC systems are constructed with a NC unit integrated with a programmable logic controller (PLC) and sometimes with an additional external PLC (non-integrated). The NC controls the spindle movement and the speeds and feeds in machining. It calculates the traversing path of the axes as defined by the inputs. The PLC controls the peripheral actuating elements of the machine such as solenoids, relay coils, etc. Working together, the NC and PLC enable the machine tool to operate automatically. Positioning and part accuracy depend on the CNC system's computer control algorithms, the system resolution and the basic mechanical machine accuracy. Control algorithm may cause errors while computing, which will reflect during contouring, but they are very negligible. Though this does not cause point to point positioning error, but when mechanical machine inaccuracy is present, it will result in poorer part accuracy.

Computer Numerical Control (CNC) is a specialized and versatile form of Soft Automation and its applications cover many kinds, although it was initially developed to control the motion and operation of machine tools.

Computer Numerical Control may be considered to be a means of operating a machine through the use of discrete numerical values fed into the machine, where the required 'input' technical information is stored on a kind of input media such as floppy disk, hard disk, CD ROM, DVD, USB flash drive, or RAM card etc. The machine follows a predetermined sequence of machining operations at the predetermined speeds necessary to produce a work piece of the right shape and size and thus according to completely predictable results. A different product can be produced through reprogramming and a low-quantity production run of different products is justified.

ADVANTAGE OF CNC MACHINES

Higher flexibility

Increased productivity

Consistent quality

Reduced scrap rate

Reliable operation

Reduced non-productive time

Reduced manpower

Shorter cycle time

High accuracy

Reduced lead time

Just in time (JIT) manufacture

Automatic material handling

Lesser floor space

Increased operation safety

Machining of advanced material

Preparatory Functions

G00 Rapid Traverse

G01 Linear Interpolation (Cutting feed)

G02 Circular Interpolation (Clockwise)

G03 Circular Interpolation (Counter Clockwise)

G04 Dwell

G20 Inch Data Input

G21 Metric Data Input

G28 Return to Machine reference position

G40 Tool nose radius compensation cancel

G41 Tool nose radius compensation left

G42 Tool nose radius compensation right

G50 Maximum spindle speed setting / Coordinate system setting

G70 Finishing cycle

G71 Turning cycle (Rough)

G72 Facing cycle

G73 Pattern repeating cycle

G74 End face peck drilling

G75 Outer diameter / Internal diameter drilling

G76 Multiple thread cutting

G81Drilling Cycle

G82Drilling Cycle with Dwell

G83Peck drilling cycle.

G84Tapping Cycle.

G85Boring Cycle.

G92 Thread Cutting Cycle

G96 Constant surface speed

G97 Constant surface speed cancel (constant rpm)

G98 Feed per minute

G99 Feed per revolution.

Miscellaneous functions

M00 Program stop

M01 Optional stop

M02 End of Program

M03 Spindle clockwise

M04 Spindle counter clockwise

M05 Spindle stop

M08 Coolant on

M09 Coolant off

M10 Chuck open

M11 Chuck close

M30 Program Stop and reset

M40 Parts Catcher Extend

M41 Parts Catcher Retract

M98 Subprogram Call

M98 Subprogram end and Return.

INTRODUCTION TO CAM

The modern manufacturing environment can be characterized by the paradigm of delivering products of increasing variety, smaller batches and higher quality in the context of increasing global competition. Industries cannot survive worldwide competition unless they introduce new products with better quality, at lower costs and with shorter lead- time. There is intense international competition and decreased availability of skilled labor. With dramatic changes in computing power and wider availability of software tools for design and production, engineers are now using Computer Aided Design (CAD), Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) and Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) systems to automate their design and production processes. These technologies are now used every day for sorts of different engineering tasks. Below is a brief description of how CAD, CAM, and CAE technologies are being used during the product realization process. 1.1 PRODUCT REALIZATION PROCESS The product realization process can be roughly divided into two phases; design and manufacturing. The design process starts with identification of new customer needs and design variables to be improved, which are identified by the marketing personnel after getting feedback from the customers. Once the relevant design information is gathered, design specifications are formulated. A feasibility study is conducted with relevant design information and detailed design and analyses are performed. The detailed design includes design conceptualization, prospective product drawings, sketches and geometric modeling. Analysis includes stress analysis, interference checking, kinematics analysis, mass property calculations and tolerance analysis, and design optimization. The quality of the results obtained from these activities is directly related to the quality of the analysis and the tools used for conducting the

analysis. The manufacturing process starts with the shop-floor activities beginning from production planning, which uses the design process drawings and ends with the actual product. Process planning includes activities like production planning, material procurement, and machine selection. There are varied tasks like procurement of new tools, NC programming and quality checks at various stages during the production process. Process planning includes planning for all the processes used in manufacturing of the product. Parts that pass the quality control inspections are assembled functionally tested, packaged, labeled, and shipped to customers. A diagram representing the Product Realization Process (Mastering CAD/CAM, by Ibrahim Zeid, McGraw Hill, 2005) is shown below.

CAD/CAM, by Ibrahim Zeid, McGraw Hill, 2005) is shown below. BRIEF HISTORY OF CAD/CAM DEVELOPMENT The

BRIEF HISTORY OF CAD/CAM DEVELOPMENT

The roots of current CAD/CAM technologies go back to the beginning of civilization when engineers in ancient Egypt recognized graphics communication. Orthographic projection practiced today was invented around the 1800’s. The real development of CAD/CAM systems started

in the 1950s. CAD/CAM went through four major phases of development in the last century. The 1950’s was known as the era of interactive computer graphics. MIT’s Servo Mechanisms Laboratory demonstrated the concept of numerical control (NC) on a three-axis milling machine. Development in this era was slowed down by the shortcomings of computers at the time. During the late 1950’s the development of Automatically Programmed Tools (APT) began and General Motors explored the potential of interactive graphics. The 1960s was the most critical research period for interactive computer graphics. Ivan Sutherland developed a sketchpad system, which demonstrated the possibility of creating drawings and altercations of objects interactively on a cathode ray tube (CRT). The term CAD started to appear with the word ‘design’ extending beyond basic drafting concepts. General Motors announced their DAC-1 system and Bell Technologies introduced the GRAPHIC 1 remote display system.

During the 1970’s, the research efforts of the previous decade in computer graphics had begun to be fruitful, and potential of interactive computer graphics in improving productivity was realized by industry, government and academia. The 1970’s is characterized as the golden era for computer drafting and the beginning of ad hoc instrumental design applications. National Computer Graphics Association (NCGA) was formed and Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) was initiated. In the 1980’s, new theories and algorithms evolved and integration of various elements of design and manufacturing was developed. The major research and development focus was to expand CAD/CAM systems beyond three-dimensional geometric designs and provide more engineering applications. The present day CAD/CAM development focuses on efficient and fast integration and automation of various elements of design and manufacturing along with the

development of new algorithms. There are many commercial CAD/CAM packages available for direct usages that are user-friendly and very proficient. Below are some of the commercial packages in the present market.

AutoCAD and Mechanical Desktop are some low-end CAD software systems, which are mainly used for 2D modeling and drawing.

NX, Pro-E, CATIA and I-DEAS are high-end modeling and designing software systems that are costlier but more powerful. These software systems also have computer aided manufacturing and engineering analysis capabilities.

ANSYS, ABAQUS, NASTRAN, Fluent and CFX are packages mainly used

for analysis of structures and fluids. Different software are used for different proposes. For example, Fluent is used for fluids and ANSYS is used for structures.

Geomagic and CollabCAD are some of the latest CAD systems that

focus on collaborative design, enabling multiple users of the software to collaborate on computeraided design over the Internet.

Computer Aided Manufacturing CAM CAM

Technology involves computer systems that plan, manage, and control the manufacturing operations through computer interface with the plant’s production resources. One of the most important areas of CAM is numerical control (NC). This is the technique of using programmed instructions to control a machine tool, which cuts, mills, grinds, punches or turns raw stock into a finished part. Another significant CAM function is in the programming of robots. Process planning is also a target of computer automation.

Ex No. 1

DATE:

AIM:

To write, simulate and execute a CNC Lathe program for the job of given dimensions.

MACHINE REQUIRED:

CNC Lathe Machine: BATLIBOI Sprint 16TC

Controller: Siemens 828D

Language: Sinumeric

PROCEDURE:

1. Identify the required coordinates of the profile based on profile origin.

2. Select appropriate tool, speed, feed rate for the operations

3. Write the CNC program using appropriate Preparatory and miscellaneous codes.

4. Enter the program

5. Ensure the program should be free from errors using check syntax and dry run

6. Simulate the program.

7. Do manual setting, Take Work Offset and Tool Offset.

8. Carryout machining.

9. Inspect the Job.

PART MODEL:

program. 7. Do manual setting, Take Work Offset and Tool Offset. 8. Carryout machining. 9. Inspect

PROGRAM:

RESULT:

Thus manual part programming was written to the given dimensions, simulated and executed in CNC Lathe.

Ex No. 2

DATE:

AIM:

To write, simulate and execute a CNC Lathe program for the job of given dimensions.

MACHINE REQUIRED:

CNC Lathe Machine: BATLIBOI Sprint 16TC

Controller: Siemens 828D

Language: Sinumeric

PROCEDURE:

1. Identify the required coordinates of the profile based on profile origin.

2. Select appropriate tool, speed, feed rate for the operations

3. Write the CNC program using appropriate Preparatory and miscellaneous codes.

4. Enter the program.

5. Ensure the program should be free from errors using check syntax and dry run

6. Simulate the program.

7. Do manual setting, Take Work Offset and Tool Offset.

8. Carryout machining.

9. Inspect the Job.

PART MODEL:

program. 7. Do manual setting, Take Work Offset and Tool Offset. 8. Carryout machining. 9. Inspect

PROGRAM:

RESULT:

Thus manual part programming was written to the given dimensions, simulated and executed in CNC Lathe.

Ex No. 3

DATE:

AIM:

To write, simulate and execute a CNC Lathe program for the job of given dimensions.

MACHINE REQUIRED:

CNC Lathe Machine: BATLIBOI Sprint 16TC

Controller: Siemens 828D

Language: Sinumeric

PROCEDURE:

1. Identify the required coordinates of the profile based on profile origin.

2. Select appropriate tool, speed, feed rate for the operations

3. Write the CNC program using appropriate Preparatory and miscellaneous codes.

4. Enter the program.

5. Ensure the program should be free from errors using check syntax and dry run

6. Simulate the program.

7. Do manual setting, Take Work Offset and Tool Offset.

8. Carryout machining.

9. Inspect the Job.

PART MODEL:

program. 7. Do manual setting, Take Work Offset and Tool Offset. 8. Carryout machining. 9. Inspect

PROGRAM:

RESULT:

Thus manual part programming was written to the given dimensions, simulated and executed in CNC Lathe.

Ex No. 4

DATE:

AIM:

To write, simulate and execute a CNC Mill program for the job of given dimensions.

MACHINE REQUIRED:

CNC Mill Machine: BMV 35 TC20

Controller: Fanuc series oi Mate

Language: Fanuc

PROCEDURE:

1. Identify the required coordinates of the profile based on profile origin.

2. Select appropriate tool, speed, feed rate for the operations

3. Write the CNC program using appropriate Preparatory and miscellaneous codes.

4. Enter the program.

5. Ensure the program should be free from errors using check syntax and dry run

6. Simulate the program.

7. Do manual setting, Take Work Offset and Tool Offset.

8. Carryout machining.

9. Inspect the Job.

PART MODEL:

and Tool Offset. 8. Carryout machining. 9. Inspect the Job. PART MODEL: Depth of Cut: 0.5mm

Depth of Cut: 0.5mm

Diameter of the tool: 6 mm

PROGRAM:

RESULT:

Thus manual part programming was written to the given dimensions, simulated and executed in CNC Mill.

Ex No. 5

DATE:

AIM:

To write, simulate and execute a CNC Mill program for the job of given dimensions.

MACHINE REQUIRED:

CNC Mill Machine: BMV 35 TC20

Controller: Fanuc series oi Mate

Language: Fanuc

PROCEDURE:

1. Identify the required coordinates of the profile based on profile origin.

2. Select appropriate tool, speed, feed rate for the operations

3. Write the CNC program using appropriate Preparatory and miscellaneous codes.

4. Enter the program.

5. Ensure the program should be free from errors using check syntax and dry run

6. Simulate the program.

7. Do manual setting, Take Work Offset and Tool Offset.

8. Carryout machining.

9. Inspect the Job.

PART MODEL:

and Tool Offset. 8. Carryout machining. 9. Inspect the Job. PART MODEL: Depth of Cut: 0.5mm

Depth of Cut: 0.5mm

Diameter of the tool: 6 mm

PROGRAM:

RESULT:

Thus manual part programming was written to the given dimensions, simulated and executed in CNC Mill.

Ex No. 6

DATE:

AIM:

To write, simulate and execute a CNC Mill program for the job of given dimensions.

MACHINE REQUIRED:

CNC Mill Machine: BMV 35 TC20

Controller: Fanuc series oi Mate

Language: Fanuc

PROCEDURE:

1. Identify the required coordinates of the profile based on profile origin.

2. Select appropriate tool, speed, feed rate for the operations

3. Write the CNC program using appropriate Preparatory and miscellaneous codes.

4. Enter the program.

5. Ensure the program should be free from errors using check syntax and dry run

6. Simulate the program.

7. Do manual setting, Take Work Offset and Tool Offset.

8. Carryout machining.

9. Inspect the Job.

PART MODEL:

and Tool Offset. 8. Carryout machining. 9. Inspect the Job. PART MODEL: Depth of Cut: 0.5mm

Depth of Cut: 0.5mm

Diameter of the tool: 6 mm

PROGRAM:

RESULT:

Thus manual part programming was written to the given dimensions, simulated and executed in CNC Mill.

Ex No. 7

DATE:

AIM:

To generate tool path and CNC program for the given component using the CAD/CAM software (NX 11)

SOFTWARE REQUIRED:

NX 11

MACHINE REQUIRED:

3 axis Milling Machine

PROCEDURE:

Starting the NX 11 software:

Go to start -> All programs -> Siemens NX 11.0.

Start a New File -> Go to Model Tab.

In Model Tab -> click Model.

Change the working Directory and Title of the model -> click OK.

To Model the Part file that needs to Manufacture using CNC machine:

Start EXTRUDE command -> Click Sketch -> Select Plane -> click OK.

Sketch the profile of the Model -> Finish Sketch.

Feed the Depth of extrude -> Click OK.

Save the Model.

To start the Computer Aided Manufacturing Process:

Start a New File -> Go to Manufacturing Tab.

In Manufacturing Tab -> Go to General Setup -> Click OK.

Setting up the Model.

Click Geometric View Icon (to show MCS-MILL).

Click MCS-MILL -> Double click Work piece.

Select Part icon -> Specify the Part.

Select Blank icon -> Select Type -> Bounding Block -> Click OK.

Select Check icon -> Specify the Check.

Setting up the operations:

Face Milling

Click Create operation -> Select Type -> Mill Planar -> in operation Subtype select Floor and wall.

In Mill planar dialogue box -> Click Geometry -> Select Work piece in the popup.

Click the Cut area Icon -> Specify the Cut Region.

Pocket Milling

Click Create operation -> Select Type -> Mill Contour -> in operation Subtype select Contour Mill.

In Mill Contour dialogue box -> Click Geometry -> Select Work piece in the popup.

Click the Cut area Icon -> Specify the Cut Region.

Setting up the Tool(Create tool separately for each operation):

Click Tool Icon -> Mill Tool (in tool subtype).

Change the dimension of the tool according to the requirement -> OK.

In Feed and Speeds Section -> specify Spindle Speed -> Press Enter.

Click the Calculate Icon -> Click OK.

Stimulating and generating Operation:

Go to Actions sections -> Click Generate.

Click Verify -> Go to 3D Dynamic.

Play the Simulation of the Process and check for errors -> Click OK.

Generating CNC Code:

Click Post Process Icon.

Select the MILL 3 AXIS -> Click OK and the code is generated.

PART MODEL:

AXIS -> Click OK and the code is generated. PART MODEL: RESULT: Thus the tool path

RESULT:

Thus the tool path and CNC Code is Generated for the Model using NX11 Software.

Ex No. 8

DATE:

AIM:

To generate tool path and CNC program for the given component using the CAD/CAM software (NX 11)

SOFTWARE REQUIRED:

NX 11

MACHINE REQUIRED:

3 axis Milling Machine

PROCEDURE:

Starting the NX 11 software:

Go to start -> All programs -> Siemens NX 11.0.

Start a New File -> Go to Model Tab.

In Model Tab -> click Model.

Change the working Directory and Title of the model -> click OK.

To Model the Part file that needs to Manufacture using CNC machine:

Start EXTRUDE command -> Click Sketch -> Select Plane -> click OK.

Sketch the profile of the Model -> Finish Sketch.

Feed the Depth of extrude -> Click OK.

Save the Model.

To start the Computer Aided Manufacturing Process:

Start a New File -> Go to Manufacturing Tab.

In Manufacturing Tab -> Go to General Setup -> Click OK.

Setting up the Model.

Click Geometric View Icon (to show MCS-MILL).

Click MCS-MILL -> Double click Work piece.

Select Part icon -> Specify the Part.

Select Blank icon -> Select Type -> Bounding Block -> Click OK.

Select Check icon -> Specify the Check.

Setting up the operations:

Island Milling

Click Create operation -> Select Type -> Mill Contour -> in operation Subtype select Contour Mill.

In Mill Contour dialogue box -> Click Geometry -> Select Work piece in the popup.

Click the Cut area Icon -> Specify the Cut Region.

Setting up the Tool(Create tool separately for each operation):

Click Tool Icon -> Mill Tool (in tool subtype).

Change the dimension of the tool according to the requirement -> OK.

In Feed and Speeds Section -> specify Spindle Speed -> Press Enter.

Click the Calculate Icon -> Click OK.

Stimulating and generating Operation:

Go to Actions sections -> Click Generate.

Click Verify -> Go to 3D Dynamic.

Drilling

Click Create operation -> Select Type -> Hole Making -> in operation Subtype select Drilling.

In Hole Making dialogue box -> Click Geometry -> Select Work piece in the popup.

Click specify feature geometry Icon -> Specify the holes.

Setting up the Tool:

Drilling Operation:

Click Tool Icon -> Drill Tool (in tool subtype).

Change the dimension of the tool according to the requirement -> OK.

Stimulating and generating Operation:

Go to Actions sections -> Click Generate.

Click Verify -> Go to 3D Dynamic.

Play the Simulation of the Process and check for errors -> Click OK.

Generating CNC Code:

Click Post Process Icon.

Select the MILL 3 AXIS -> Click OK and the code is generated.

PART MODEL:

AXIS -> Click OK and the code is generated. PART MODEL: RESULT: Thus the tool path

RESULT:

Thus the tool path and CNC Code is Generated for the Model using NX11 Software.

Ex No. 9

DATE:

AIM:

To generate tool path and CNC program for the given component using the CAD/CAM software (NX 11)

SOFTWARE REQUIRED:

NX 11

MACHINE REQUIRED: 2 axis Lathe.

PROCEDURE:

Starting the NX 11 software:

o

Go to start -> All programs -> Siemens NX 11.0.

o

Start a New File -> Go to Model Tab.

o

In Model Tab -> click Model.

o

Change the working Directory and Title of the model -> click OK.

To Model the Part file that needs to Manufacture using CNC machine:

o

Start SKETCH command -> -> Select Plane -> click OK.

o

Sketch the profile of the Model -> Finish Sketch.

o

Start SKETCH command -> -> Select Plane -> click OK.

o

Sketch the profile of the Blank -> Finish Sketch.

o

Save the Model.

To start the Computer Aided Manufacturing Process:

o

Start a New File -> Go to Manufacturing Tab.

o

In Manufacturing Tab -> Go to Turning Express -> Click OK.

Setting up the Model.

o

Click Geometric View Icon (to show MCS-MILL).

o

Click MCS-MILL - Work piece > Double click TURNING_WORKPIECE.

o

Select SPECIFY PART BOUNDARIES

icon -> Select the Curves ->

Select the Profile of part.

o

Select SPECIFY BLANCK BOUNDARIES icon -> Select the Curves -> Select the Profile of Blank > Click OK.

Setting up the operations:

o Face Milling

Click Create operation -> Select Type -> turning exp-> in operation Subtype select Rough turn OD

In Mill planar dialogue box -> Click Geometry -> Select Turning work piece in the popup.

Setting up the Tool:

o Click Tool Icon -> Tool (in tool subtype).

Stimulating and generating Operation:

o

Go to Actions sections -> Click Generate.

o

Click Verify -> Go to 3D Dynamic.

o

Play the Simulation of the Process and check for errors -> Click OK.

Generating CNC Code:

o

Click Post Process Icon.

o

Select the Lathe -> Click OK and the code is generated.

PART MODEL:

Lathe -> Click OK and the code is generated. PART MODEL: RESULT: Thus the tool path

RESULT:

Thus the tool path and CNC Code is Generated for the Model using NX11 Software.

Ex No. 10

DATE:

AIM:

To generate tool path and CNC program for the given component using the CAD/CAM software (NX 11)

SOFTWARE REQUIRED:

NX 11

MACHINE REQUIRED: 2 axis Lathe.

PROCEDURE:

Starting the NX 11 software:

o

Go to start -> All programs -> Siemens NX 11.0.

o

Start a New File -> Go to Model Tab.

o

In Model Tab -> click Model.

o

Change the working Directory and Title of the model -> click OK.

To Model the Part file that needs to Manufacture using CNC machine:

o

Start SKETCH command -> -> Select Plane -> click OK.

o

Sketch the profile of the Model -> Finish Sketch.

o

Start SKETCH command -> -> Select Plane -> click OK.

o

Sketch the profile of the Blank -> Finish Sketch.

o

Save the Model.

To start the Computer Aided Manufacturing Process:

o

Start a New File -> Go to Manufacturing Tab.

o

In Manufacturing Tab -> Go to Turning Express -> Click OK.

Setting up the Model.

o

Click Geometric View Icon (to show MCS-MILL).

o

Click MCS-MILL - Work piece > Double click TURNING_WORKPIECE.

o

Select SPECIFY PART BOUNDARIES

icon -> Select the Curves ->

Select the Profile of part.

o

Select SPECIFY BLANCK BOUNDARIES icon -> Select the Curves -> Select the Profile of Blank > Click OK.

Setting up the operations:

o Face Milling

Click Create operation -> Select Type -> turning_exp-> in operation Subtype select Rough turn OD

In Mill planar dialogue box -> Click Geometry -> Select Turning work piece in the popup.

Setting up the Tool:

Click Tool Icon -> Tool (in tool subtype).

Stimulating and generating Operation:

o

Go to Actions sections -> Click Generate.

o

Click Verify -> Go to 3D Dynamic.

o

Play the Simulation of the Process and check for errors -> Click OK.

Generating CNC Code:

o

Click Post Process Icon.

o

Select the Lathe -> Click OK and the code is generated.

PART MODEL:

Lathe -> Click OK and the code is generated. PART MODEL: RESULT: Thus the tool path

RESULT:

Thus the tool path and CNC Code is Generated for the Model using NX11 Software.