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STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS

SECTION II-2 MATERIALS FOR EARTHWORK

202.01 Description

Materials shall meet the specifications provided in the following clauses:

202.02 Fill Material, General

The material used for filling and compacting embankments, low level areas of the roadbeds,
sidewalks, shoulders and drainage ditches and other areas on the Site shall consist of borrow
material approved for filling as specified herein and in the Particular Specifications. The Contractor
shall obtain and use approved filling material from borrow pits all in accordance with the provisions
specified herein.

It is advised to use suitable fill material excavated from within the Right-of-Way for embankments
and other backfilling purposes, prior to sourcing material from external borrow sites, subject to
approval of the Engineer. The Engineer will consider excavation unsuitable if it contains deposits of
saturated or unsaturated soil mixtures or high salt content (to be reviewed and agreed with the
Department) or organic matter unacceptable for embankment material. As directed by the
Department, the Contractor is to dispose of any unsuitable excavated material as waste.

All suitable material excavated at site, which cannot be accommodated within the Right-of-Way,
shall be disposed of as surplus materials, subject to approval of the Engineer and the Department.

The Contractor, prior to using fill material, shall be responsible for and carry out necessary field
and laboratory testing to establish the suitability of the said material for filling work. Whenever such
material indicates change in characteristics, the Contractor shall carry out additional testing as
directed by the Engineer and shall secure the Engineer's approval for continued use of such
materials. In the event the material is deemed unacceptable by the Engineer, on the basis of the
Engineer's test in accordance with Clause 200.03, Soil Information and Clause 202.07, Borrow
Material (Load Bearing), the Contractor shall be responsible for obtaining and supplying
material that will be acceptable to the Engineer.

Borrow material shall be clean and free from any objectionable matter.

202.03 Sweet Sand

The Contractor shall supply sweet sand from places permitted by the Department, provided that
the Contractor conducts prior analysis with the knowledge of and as directed by the Engineer and
suitability for agricultural purposes is established. Sweet sand shall be obtained from well-drained
inland dunes and shall be reasonably free from salts, refuse, roots, heavy or stiff clay, stones or
rocks larger than 3 cm in size, noxious seeds, sticks, brush, litter, debris and other deleterious
materials or substances.

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STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS

202.04 Water

The use of sea water or brackish water will not be permitted for roadway embankment earthwork
operations unless specifically stated to the contrary. Sea water or brackish water is not to be used
in pavement load bearing fill, hard/soft landscaping, backfill to metal pipes, structural backfill and
backfill adjacent to reinforced concrete, as specified in these Standard Specifications and/or in the
Particular Specifications, or where directed by the Engineer.

202.05 Borrow Material, General

a. Description. Borrow material shall consist of the excavation and placing of suitable and
satisfactory material obtained from areas approved by the Department for the
construction of fill and backfill specified on the Drawings and in these Standard
Specifications and as approved by the Engineer. Borrow material shall not be taken from
roadway or structure excavations unless such excavated material complies with the
borrow specifications. The Contractor shall only uses borrow material approved by the
Engineer. Any borrow material used by the Contractor in the Works which has not been
approved by the Engineer shall be removed and disposed of by the Contractor at his
own expense. A certified hazardous waste site assessment shall be furnished for borrow
areas located outside the Right-of-Way or excavation limits. An alternate borrow source
shall be provided, or more detailed testing conducted in suspect locations.

Load bearing material shall consist of granular material free of excess moisture and
other unsuitable material conforming to the following:

1. Maximum particle size: 150mm.

2. Materials shall be classified according to AASHTO M 145. In general, suitable


materials shall meet soil classifications A-1, A-2-4 or A-3.

3. Material shall have a maximum Plasticity Index of 4 and a soaked CBR after 4 days
soaking of not less than 25% when compacted to 95% of MDD.

Suitability tests including material gradation, plasticity and CBR tests shall be done in
accordance with the testing of materials, as included in Section II-8, Testing, of the
Standard Specifications.

Laboratory tests for maximum dry density, soaked CBR, optimum moisture content,
grading, liquid limit, plasticity index, laboratory CBR test, tests for sulphate (0.5% max.)
and chloride (1% max.) contents shall be taken not less than one test per layer per
1,500m3 of fill.

Field density and moisture content shall be tested not less than one test of the suitable
layer depth per 750m2 of fill. The relevant areas shall be rejected if the test results do not
satisfy the specified requirements.

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STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS

Table 202.05 – AASHTO Soil Classification

Granular Materials
General Classification
(35% or less passing the 0.075 mm sieve)
A1 A2
Group Classification A-3
A-1-a A-1-b A-2-4
Sieve Analysis, % passing

2.00 mm (No. 10) 50 max. - - -

0.425 mm (No. 40) 30 max. 50 max. 51 min. -

0.075 mm (No. 200) 15 max. 25 max. 10 max. 35 max.

Characteristics of fraction passing


0.425 mm (No. 40)

Liquid Limit - - 40 max.

Plasticity Index 6 max. N.P. 10 max.

silty or
Usual types of significant constituent stone fragments, gravel and clayey
fine sand
materials sand gravel and
sand

General rating as a subgrade Excellent to good

b. Borrow Pit Locations. The Contractor shall locate a borrow pit site within borrow areas
approved by the Department.

The Contractor shall obtain approval from the Department for the location of the borrow
pit site. The Contractor shall be responsible for determining the quantities and quality of
the available material in the borrow site approved by the Department to meet the
requirements of the Contract.

c. Changing Borrow Site Location. The Department may at any time revoke approval of a
borrow site where the Contractor is obtaining borrow material for the Works. Upon
receiving such notice from the Department, the Contractor shall immediately cease work
of removing borrow material from the said borrow site.

In the event the Department revokes approval of a borrow site, the Contractor shall
locate a new borrow pit site as specified above.

The Contractor shall not claim any additional payment from the Department for any costs
or expenses incurred by reason of the necessity of changing borrow site locations due
either to the shortage of the supply of borrow material available from the borrow pit site
approved by the Department, or due to the Department's decision to revoke approval of

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STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS

the borrow site where the Contractor is obtaining borrow material for the Works.

d. Cross-Sections. Where fill shall be measured to determine quantities of borrow material,


copies of profiles and cross-sections of borrow material in place shall be submitted by
the Contractor to the Engineer for approval as specified in Clause 203.05, Preparing
Preliminary Sections (Longitudinal and Cross-Sections), of these Standard
Specifications.

e. Condition of Borrow Pits. The Contractor shall leave borrow pits in a condition
acceptable to the Department and to the Engineer.

202.06 Natural Ground

Natural ground material is that material which originally exists outside the limits of the load bearing
elements of the works and shall be left in place. Natural ground shall be used or left in place only in
areas to be landscaped (green areas) or in service reservations or where directed by the Engineer.
Natural ground shall only be used in areas that shall not carry or support any loading including, but
not by way of limitation, such areas as pavement, structures, sidewalks or similar areas. All debris,
excess natural ground, objectionable materials and the like shall be removed from the contract site
and disposed of in a legal manner, leaving the natural ground areas neatly graded and in a clean
condition.

Unless otherwise indicated on the Drawings or when unsuitable materials are encountered or
where directed by the Engineer, the natural ground materials shall be left in place. The existing
natural ground shall be graded or sloped to the required elevation as indicated on the Drawings
and as directed by the Engineer. The surface of the existing finished natural ground shall be free of
lumps, undulations or other irregularities.

202.07 Borrow Material (Load Bearing)

a. Description. The Contractor shall take soil samples of the borrow material and submit
the samples to the Engineer for testing as specified in Clause 200.03, Soil Information,
of these Standard Specifications. Borrow material as specified in this Clause shall be
used in load-bearing areas where it shall constitute the new subgrade and/or replace
existing subgrade, and carry and support pavement, sidewalk, kerbs, structures and/or
other loads. It shall also be used in areas of high ground water table, to replace
subgrade as described herein. Borrow material to be used in areas to be landscaped
(green areas), service reservations, medians and raised islands, and under other non-
load bearing conditions shall be as specified in Clause 202.08, Borrow Material (Non-
Load Bearing), of these Standard Specifications.

b. Materials. Borrow material specified in this Clause shall be furnished and placed in
accordance with this Clause and Clauses 202.05, Borrow Material, General, and 206.02,
Fill and Backfill with Borrow Materials, of these Standard Specifications.

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STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS

c. Construction. Borrow material specified herein shall be compacted to meet the


requirements of Clause 206.05, Compaction, of these Standard Specifications.

202.08 Borrow Material (Non-Load Bearing)

a. Description. Borrow material as specified in this Clause shall be used only in areas to
be landscaped (green areas), at service reservations and at medians and raised islands
as a fill and/or backfill as indicated in the Drawings and as directed by the Engineer that
shall not carry or support any pavement, structure, sidewalk and/or other loads.

Non-load bearing material shall be reasonably free from salts, refuse, roots, heavy or
stiff clay, stones or rocks larger than 30mm in size, sticks, brush, litter or other
deleterious materials or substances.

Borrow material to be used under pavement, structures, sidewalks and/or other loads
shall be as specified under Clause 202.07, Borrow Material (Load-Bearing), of these
Standard Specifications.

b. Materials. Where required, borrow material furnished and placed by the Contractor as
specified under this Clause shall comply with the requirements of Clause 202.03, Sweet
Sand, of these Standard Specifications.

c. Construction. Borrow material specified in this Clause shall be furnished, placed and
compacted in accordance with the applicable Clauses of Section II-6, Placement of
Borrow Materials, Backfilling and Filling, of these Standard Specifications and as
specified herein.

202.09 Measurement and Payment

a. Sweet Sand. Measurement and payment for sweet sand will be made under the Bills of
Quantities Item, Borrow Material (Non-Load Bearing) unless otherwise specified in the
Particular Specifications and included in the Bills of Quantities.

b. Borrow Sites. No separate measurement or payment will be made by the Department


for obtaining borrow sites from the Department.

In the event the Contractor is required to change his borrow site, the Contractor shall not
claim any additional payment from the Department for any costs or expenses by
reason of the necessity of changing borrow site locations due either to the shortage of
the supply of borrow material available from the borrow pit site approved by the
Department, or due to the Department's decision to revoke approval of the borrow site
where the Contractor is obtaining borrow material for the Works.

c. Water. No separate measurement or payment will be made by the Department for the
use of water for Earthwork operations. All water shall be considered as a subsidiary
obligation to the Items in the Bills of Quantities.

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