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Analysis and Design

of RC Columns
(Based on 2010NSCP)
Columns are the main vertical
load-carrying members in
buildings. They are members used
primarily to support axial
compressive loads and with a
ratio of height to the least
dimension of 3 or greater.
A column subjected to pure axial loads
does not exist in concrete buildings.
However it can be assumed that axially
loaded columns are those with
relatively small eccentricity, e, of about
0.1h or less, where h is the total depth
of the column and e is the eccentric
distance from the center of the column
Types of Columns
Based on loading
1.Axially loaded columns – where loads
are assumed acting at the center of the
column section.
2.Eccentrically loaded columns – loads
are acting at a distance e from the center
of the column section.
3.Biaxially loaded columns – where the
load is applied at any point of the column
section causing moments about the x-
and y-axes simultaneously
Types of Columns
Based on length
1.Short columns – where the column’s
failure is due to crushing of concrete or
the yielding of the steel bar under the full
load capacity of the column.
2.Long columns – where buckling effect
and slenderness ratio must be taken into
consideration in the design, thus
reducing the load capacity of the column
relative to that of a short column
Types of Columns

Based on the shape


1.Square
2.Rectangular
3.Round
4.L-shaped
5.Octagonal
6.Or any desired shape
Types of
Columns
Types of Columns
Based on column ties
1.Tied columns – containing steel ties to confine
the main longitudinal bars in the columns. Ties
are normally spaced uniformly along the height
of the column.
2.Spiral columns – containing spirals to hold the
main longitudinal reinforcement and help
increase the column ductility before failure.
In general, ties and spirals prevent the slender, highly
stressed longitudinal bars from buckling and bursting
the concrete cover
Types of Columns

Based on frame bracings


1.Braced against sidesway – columns maybe
part of a frame that is braced against
sidesway. Bracing maybe achieved by using
shear walls or bracings in the building frame.
Columns resist mainly gravity loads, shear
walls resist lateral loads and wind loads.
2.Unbraced against sidesway – columns resist
both gravity and lateral loads, which reduce
the load capacity of the columns.
Types of Columns
Types of Columns

Based on materials
1.Reinforced concrete
2.Prestressed concrete
3.Composite (containing rolled
steel sections)
4.Combination of rolled steel
section and reinforcing bars
Axially-loaded Columns

When an axial load is applied to a


reinforced concrete short column, the
concrete can be considered to
behave elastically up to a low
stress of about 1/3f’c. If the load on
the column is increased to reach its
ultimate strength, the concrete will
reach its maximum strength and the
steel will reach its yield strength, fy
Axially-loaded Columns
Ultimate nominal load capacity of the
reinforced concrete columns is obtained
using the equation below:

'
Po = 0.85 f Ac + Ast f y
c

where Ast = total steel compressive area


Ac = Ag − Ast
Ag = gross concrete area
Axially-loaded Columns
NSCP 2010 Limitations
1.Strength Reduction factors, φ
Tied columns: φ =0.65
Spiral Columns: φ =0.75
2.Longitudinal steel percentage, ρg
ρmin = 1%
ρmax = 8%
3.Minimum number of longitudinal bars
Tied columns: 4 bars
Spiral Columns: 6 bars
For other shapes – one bar at each corner
Axially-loaded Columns
NSCP Limitations
4.Minimum ratio of spiral reinforcement, ρs

 Ag  f c'
ρ s = 0.45 − 1
 Ac  fy
where;
Ag = gross area of section
Ac = area of core of spirally reinforced column
measured to the outside diameter of spiral
fy = yield strength of spiral reinforcement
Axially-loaded Columns
NSCP Limitations
5.Minimum diameter of spirals = 10mm
• Clear spacing should not be more than
75mm nor less than 25mm
• Splices may be provided by welding or
lapping
• Lapping – 48 bar diameters (48D) or a
minimum of 300mm
6.Minimum diameter of ties
• 32mm diam. long. bars or smaller = 10mm
• Larger diameter bars = 12mm
Axially-loaded Columns

NSCP Limitations
7.Spacing of ties shall not exceed:
• 48 times tie diameters
• 16 times longitudinal bar diameter
• Least dimension of the column
Axially-loaded Columns
Equations for investigation:

for tied columns :


[
Pu = φPn = φ (0.80) 0.85 f (Ag − Ast ) + Ast f y
c
'
]
for spiral columns :
[
Pu = φPn = φ (0.85) 0.85 f c' (Ag − Ast ) + Ast f y ]
Axially-loaded Columns
Design Equations:

[ '
(
Pu = φPn = φKAg 0.85 f + ρ g f y − 0.85 f
c c
'
)]
where;
φ = 0.65 and K = 0.80( for tied columns );
φ = 0.75 and K = 0.85( for spiral columns );
Ast
ρg =
Ag
Axially loaded Reinforced
Concrete Columns
(Example Problems)
Design of Axially Loaded Square Column

Design a square tied column


to carry a factored axial load
of 1750kN. Use f’c = 30MPa
and fy=415 MPa and a steel
ratio of 2%
[ '
(
Pu = φPn = φKAg 0.85 f + ρ g f y − 0.85 f
c c
'
)]
Pu
Ag =
[ (
φ(0.80) 0.85 fc + ρg f y − 0.85 fc
' '
)]
1,750(1000)
Ag =
(0.65)(0.80)[0.85(30) + (0.02)(415− 0.85(30))]
Ag = 101,092.96 mm2
2
Ag = 101,092.96 mm
for a square section
2
b = Ag = 101,092.96 mm
b = 317.95mm say 320mm
2
Ag = (320mm ) = 102,400mm 2
( 2
A s = 0.02 102,400mm = 2,048mm ) 2

using 20mm - diameter bar


2
An = π
4
(20) = 314.16mm 2

As 2,048
number of bars = = = 6.52
A n 314.16
say 8 pcs
Investigation :
( )
As = 8 314.16mm 2 = 2 ,513.27 mm 2
φPn = φK [0.85 f c' (Ag − As ) + As f y ]
φPn = (0.65)(0.80)[0.85(30)(102,400 − 2,513.27 ) + (2,513.27 )(415)]
φPn = 1,866.86kN > Pu = 1750kN

Ties
Use 10mm diameter
Check minimum spacing
s = 48 (10 ) = 480 mm
s = 16 (20 ) = 320 mm
s = 320 mm
use s = 320 mm
Design of Axially Loaded Square Column

320mm

8-20mm- diameter
longitudinal bars
320mm

10mm- diameter
ties at 320mm o.c.
Design of Axially Loaded
Rectangular Column
Design a rectangular tied column to carry a
factored axial load of 1750kN. Use f’c =
30MPa and fy=415 MPa. Adopt a steel ratio of
2%. One of its dimension is 300 mm since it is
connected to a beam with a width of 300 mm.

Pu
Ag =
[ (
φ (0.80) 0.85 f c' + ρ g f y − 0.85 f c' )]
1,750(1000)
Ag =
(0.65)(0.80)[0.85(30) + (0.02)(415 − 0.85 x30)]
Ag = 101,092.96 mm 2
2
Ag = 101,092.96mm
width is given : b = 300mm
2
Ag 101,092.96 mm
h= =
b 300 mm
h = 336.97 mm say 340 mm
Ag = (300mm )(340mm ) = 102,000 mm 2
( 2
As = 0.02 102,000mm = 2,040mm ) 2

using 20mm - diameter bar


2
An = 4 (20)
π
= 314.16mm 2

As 2,040
number of bars = = = 6.49
A n 314.16
say 8 pcs
Check :
( )
As = 8 314.16mm 2 = 2,513.27 mm 2
φPn = φK [0.85 f c' (Ag − As ) + As f y ]
φPn = (0.65)(0.80 )[0.85(30 )(102,000 − 2,513.27 ) + (2,513.27 )(415)]
φPn = 1,861.56kN > Pu = 1750kN

Ties
Use 10mm diameter
Check minimum spacing
s = 48(10 ) = 480mm
s = 16(20) = 320mm
s = 300mm
use s = 300mm
Design of Axially Loaded
Rectangular Column

300mm

8-20mm- diameter
longitudinal bars
340mm

10mm- diameter ties at


300mm o.c.
Eccentrically Loaded Columns
Design Assumptions for Columns

1.Strains in concrete and steel are


proportional to the distance from the
neutral axis

2.Equilibrium of forces and strain


compatibility must be satisfied

3.The maximum usable compressive


strain in concrete is 0.003
Design Assumptions for Columns

4.Strength of concrete in tension can


be neglected

5.The stress in the steel is fs= εEs ≤ fy

6.The concrete stress block must be


taken as rectangular shape with
concrete stress of 0.85f’c that extends
from the extreme compressive fiber a
distance a=β1c