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INSTRUCTIONAL LEADERSHIP

Introduction
a. Definition
School heads shall be both an instructional leader and administrative manager.
Instructional Leadership is the management of the school's process of producing
and providing an appropriate teaching and learning environment to improve the quality of
instruction. In this regard, principals must lead the way in using more effectively the school's
available resources (personnel, time, space and materials) in enhancing pupil achievement.
This consist direct or indirect behavior that significantly affect teacher instruction which
results to student learning (Daresh and Playko, 1995)

b. What is The Most Important Role Of A School Principal?


1. To provide a learning environment that makes effective teaching and make
maximal learning possible.
Time spent for Instructional Supervision= 70%

For Administrative Supervision= 30%

The difference between staff development and in-service education

Staff development:
 Something the teachers do for themselves.
 Assumes need for people at work to grow and develop on the job
 Assist teachers in personal change- ( the ability to see themselves)
 Renewal concept: teachers continually revisiting and reflecting on themselves.

In-service Education:
 assumes deficiency in teachers and that certain skills need to be developed.

c. What are the supervision?


1. The function in schools that draws together the discrete elements of instructional
effectiveness into whole-school action. (Glickman, 1985)
2. Set of activities designed to improve the teaching learning process (McQuarrie and
Wood. 1991)

d. What are the intents of supervision?


1. face to face interaction and relationship building between the teacher and the
supervisor.
2. the improvement of students' learning through the improvement of the teacher's
instruction.
3. data based decision making.
4. capacity building of individuals and organizations.
5. trust in the processes, each other and the environment.
6. change that results in a better development life for teachers and students and their
learning.
7. help teachers how to increase their own capacity to achieve professional
learning goals for their students.

e. What are some strategies in the performance of a principal's instructional leadership


role?
The Principal:
1. Has operational supervisory plan with varied and innovative
supervisory strategies to suit different needs/ abilities of teachers.
2. Observes classes to ensure that all teachers have knowledge and skills
3. Evaluates regularly teachers' lesson plans and other work plans. Assists teachers in
preparing local instructional materials Implements innovative strategies, programs
and projects to
4. respond to current and future needs of teachers.

f. How can we classify teachers so that principals can coach or mentor those who most
need help?
SUGGESTED PARADIGM OF TEACHER CATEGORIES

Reference: "Instructional Supervision: A Tool for Teachers' Growth"


QUADRANT I TEACHER DROP-OUTS

 Low level of commitment and low level of abstraction


 Have little motivation for improving their competencies
 Cannot think about what changes could be made and are satisfied to keep the same
routine day by day.
 Do not see any reasons for improvement
 In their view, it is the student or the administrator or the community that needs help,
never the teacher.
 They come to work exactly on time and leave the school as soon as officially
permissible.
QUADRANT II UNFOCUSED TEACHERS

 High level of commitment but low level of abstraction


 Enthusiastic, energetic and full of good intentions
 They want to become better teachers, work very hard and usually leave school with
materials to be done at home.
 But their good intentions are thwarted by their lack of
ability to think problems through and then act fully and realistically.
 They usually get involved in multiple projects and activities but become swamped by
self-imposed and unrealistic tasks.
 The result: they rarely complete any particular instructional improvement
effort before undertaking a new one.
QUADRANT Ill ANALYTICAL TEACHERS

 Low level of commitment but a high level of abstraction


 They are intelligent, highly verbal people who are full of bright ideas.
 Can discuss the issues clearly and think through the steps necessary for successful
implementation.
 Their ideas often do not result in any action.
QUADRANT IV PROFESSIONALS

 High level of commitment and a high level of abstraction


 Committed to continually improve themselves, their students, and their fellow
faculty members.
 Can think about the task on hand, consider alternatives
 , make a rational choice and develop and carry out an appropriate plan of action.
 Others regard them as informal leaders, people to whom others go willingly for help.
 Not only do they provide ideas, activities and resources, but they become actively
involved in seeing through the completion of any proposed plan .
 They are both thinkers and doers.

After classifying the teachers in her school, how can a principal help those who are in need
of help?
g. Conducting classroom observation and clinical supervision
1.1. Classroom Observation Cycle :
1st: Orientation Meeting: Principal and teacher review the purpose and procedure of
classroom observation.
2nd: Pre-observation Conference: Principal discusses with the teacher the details and
goals of the observation as well as the materials needed in advance.
3rd: Announced Classroom Visits: These are announced classroom observations.
4'h: Unannounced Classroom Visits: Principal observes teaching and classroom
management behavior under natural conditions.
5'h: Post-observation conference. Principal and teacher analyze the findings and data
from the observation.
6'h: Summative Evaluation: Includes agreed upon job improvement targets resulting
from two or three observations done during the year.
1.2. Exploration Conferences:
During the conference, the teacher is encouraged to discuss his/ her plans, hopes
and dreams for the year.
Possible Trigger Questions:
a) How do you plan to deal with clarifying homework! assignments?
b) What problems do you foresee in implementing the curriculum/ program?
c) How will you assess the reading ability of your class?
d) What reading materials will you use with low-level groups?
1.3. Informal Visits:

a) Purposes of Informal Visit


 To determine what is actually happening (room, teacher, pupils)
 To confirm teacher's plans (that what the teacher ha written is what is really
being done in the classroom)
 To monitor progress (determine if certain suggestions you made are being
implemented)
 To look for potential trouble spots
b) When are informal visits most effective?
 When done in varied times during the day. (during prime instructional time;
during late mornings and late afternoons)
 Length of stay depends on what you see and what you are looking for.
c) Guidelines for informal visits :
 Carry with your paper and pencil, but keep these out of the teacher's sight.
 Avoid taking notes while inside the classroom. Record your mental notes as soon
as you leave the classroom.
 Have a mental outline of what to look for:
-teacher attitude - student activity
- teacher activity - room management
- teacher location - room appearance
- materials in use
Basic Approaches Used in Instructional Supervision (IS)
In determining the approach to use, take into account the commitment, expertise and
needs of your individual teachers.
1.) Non-directive approach - facilitate the teacher’s thinking in developing self-plan. Provide
maximum teacher choice.
2) Collaborative approach - the instructional supervisor and the teacher show information
and possible practices as equals in arriving at a mutual plan.
3) Directive informational approach - the IS provides the focus and parameters of possible
actions and the teacher is tasked to choose from among the supervisory suggestions.
4) Directive control approach - simply tell the teacher what to do. The teacher has no
choice.

II.
Mentoring Teachers on their Identified areas for Development

d) a special kind of relationship where objectivity, credibility, honesty,


trustworthiness and confidentiality are critical.

e) simply one to one meeting to support the teacher in her desire to improve his
personal situation.

f) is a deliberate pairing of a more skilled or experienced person with a lesser


skilled or experienced one, with agreed upon goals . The lesser skilled person is
assisted to grow and develop certain specific proficiencies.

B. Who is the Mentor?


The mentor is:
1. a wise and trusted adviser.
2. a significant person who played a role to another person on different times in
different degrees for a different length of time.
3. an experienced individual who is willing to share his knowledge with others who are
less experienced in a relationship of mutual trust.
4. one who share enthusiasm to provide encouragement by sharing enthusiasm for his job.
(Ciutterback, 1991)
5. a person who helps others to achieve their potentials, (Shea, 1992)
6. one who behind every successful person.
7. one who cares about the growth and development of someone, somewhere and
somehow. (Kaye, 2000)
The mentor is available at the various stages of the personal and
professional life of the mentee, from the start and possibly up to retirement. His goal is to
help build self-confidence, self-awareness and self- esteem of the mentee.

C. Personal qualities of a mentor:


*wise and kind *objective and credible

*role model *honest and positive

*willing to help *firm yet flexible

D. What are the professional qualities of a mentor?


He/she:
a) has the desire to help people gain insights into how they think
b) has a proven track record of working with others and the ability to recognize
their needs and problems.
c) has ability to work with others with different social and ethnic background and
command the confidence of others.
d) has ability to listen and identify potential barriers and engage in strategies to
overcome these barriers.
e) has ability to assess and plan appropriate responses by tapping other resources.
f) has ability to work effectively by networking with the public and private sectors
g) has ability to see mentoring as a long term activity designed to achieve set goals
and not a quick fix.

E. What are the MENTEE's roles?


1. to be open to the process. This means that the mentee is open to the idea of
receiving inputs from the mentor.
2. to commit to the relationship. The mentee must view his/her role as a partner to
his/her mentor in pursuing effectiveness and fulfillment.

3. to continue learning, mentees must also be willing go commit to the time it takes to
work with someone else.
4. to see his/her role as that of a learner, a lifelong learner.
Remember: Behind every successful person , there is someone, somewhere,
somehow who cares about his growth and development. This person is the mentor.

F. What are the BENEFITS OF MENTORING:


1. It promotes self-learning and encourages the mentee to reflect on the wide range of
learning opportunities available to attain their personal and professional goals.
2. It improves the capacity of the mentees to deal with the change. It gives them a
greater sense of self-determination to succeed by looking at change as a healthy way
of meeting life's challenges and problems. Mentees are not afraid to try out new things
or methods because the mentor is there to help, support, and guide them.
3. It is a sustainable framework which can be reviewed periodically by the mentor and
mentees. Doing these generates confidence and trust with each other as the
challenges and problems come. Sharing of small successes inspires them.
4. It increases effective communication. The frequent contact of the mentor and the
mentees to discuss problems and issues require that they improve their listening and
asking questions, guiding and leading skills.
5. It introduces a culture of self-development. The mentor motivates, encourages and
supports mentees to think for themselves, grow in confidence and take responsibility
for today and tomorrow.

G. How is mentoring done?


Assessment and supervision is a cyclical process as illustrated below. It includes:
*discussion with the mentee before the lesson.
*observation of the mentee
*discussion following the observed lesson in which targets are set. These targets
are likely to provide the focus for the next cycle
1. Pre-lesson discussion: Discussion before the lesson is needed to maximize the
effectiveness of the mentor's observation and the mentee's learning related to it. The
length and nature of the discussion will depend on factors like:
*time available
*the mentee's needs and
*how much time has passed since the last observation
During this period, it is important to do the following :
a) Establish the focus of the observation. : take into account the mentee's over-all
progress and level of confidence. For example: In the first few weeks of school, they
tend to be concerned with discipline and control. It will be unproductive to focus on
other issues.
b) Go through the plans for the lessons- Earlier, the lesson must have been planned
by the mentor and the mentee in the pre-lesson discussion. The mentor will check
that the mentees are fully prepared for the lesson. Later, as the mentees take the
responsibility in planning the lesson, they will need to take the mentor through the
plans, outlining the aims and how these are to be achieved.
c) Sort out timing of the post-lesson debriefing: soon after the observation.
d) Decide on how the observation is to be carried out: the agreed focus, the type of
lesson, the mentee's level of confidence.
2. Observation: Mentor may observe part of the lesson or all of it. Observing the whole
lesson will give him/her a clear idea of how the mentee is progressing.
Observing a part of the lesson will depend on the focus for the observation. The
mentor collects information.
Example: If the focus is on explanation, mentor records word for word how mentee
does it.
3. Debriefing/Post Conference: Together mentor and mentee decide on the time and place.
Mentee talks about the lesson; mentor listens.
IS MENTORING FOR YOU?
 It means investing in others.
 Are you emotionally prepared to invest time and effort in helping others?
 Do you have the skills, the freedom to devote yourself to another person.
 Are you ready for occasional inconvenience?

REMEMBER: Mentors believe in the value of their work, without


worrying about returned favors.

Ill. CONDUCTING ACTION RESEARCH TO IMPROVE THE TEACHING LEARNING


PROCESS
{Reference :DepEd, BEE, Project LEARN, Module for Teachers, "Conducting
Action Research in Schools ")
1. Definition:
Applied in schools, action research investigates actions or activities which are
experienced by teachers, supervisors or administrators. It is a form of inquiry or
investigation aimed at solving a specific and practical school problem. Hence, the results are
valid only in a particular place, and are not meant to apply to other situations.

2. Essential Aim of Action Research:


Improvement of: a) a practice; b) the situation in which the practice takes place. The
linking of the terms "action" and research" means that ideas are tried out in practice as a
means of improving them and as a means of increasing knowledge about them.

3. What Are The Kinds Of Action Research?


a) Diagnostic: For example: a principal may request the division science supervisor and a
science specialist researcher to visit his/her school and observe how the teachers
teach science and identify possible causes of poor academic performance.
b) Participant: the people who are to take action should also be involved in the research
process from the beginning. This results in broader ownership of the action program
decided upon. This leads to better and closer collaboration among those who will
carry out the action program.
c) Empirical: For example, community projects such as community education, greening
the environment, livelihood programs and the like. It is primarily record-keeping and
accumulating experience in a day to day work. In this research, the same individual is
responsible both for the conduct of the action and the conduct of the research. This is
a disadvantage due to possible subjectivity that may result in performing both
roles.
d) Experimental: It is controlled research on the relative effectiveness of different action
techniques. There are many ways in accomplishing something. The problem is to find
out which is the best way. This is research on action, in the strictest sense of the
words.
Example: The principal and the teachers collectively agree to compare the
effectiveness of three ways of teaching addition and subtraction and addition and
multiplication of fractions. They form three experimental groups of pupils in each
grade level, with each group being taught using one particular technique of
teaching , and compare how the three groups perform.
Of the four kinds of action research, the experimental has the greatest potential
value for the advancement of scientific knowledge, since it can provide a definite
test of hypothesis.
It is also the most difficult form of action research .

4. How to conduct action research: (Steps in Action Research)


a) The Spiral Model
1st: Initial reflection on your situation in the light of your area of concern. The
insights gained will provide inputs for the action plan. At this stage, the researcher
examines closely how clearly teachers understand and use key terms in an area of
concern.
For example: How do teachers translate the concept of teaching science
into teaching methods ? Assessment of learning? Is there a need to change the
way " teaching science " as a concept is understood and being used.
The result of this stage is a diagnosis of the area of concern. The researcher now
decides on what to act on, where and when it will act, and to justify the course of
action.
For example: to shift questioning strategy by teachers, to encourage
students to explore, discover or construct answers to their own question. The
researcher ends this stage by writing a statement about the diagnosis of the situation
in the area of concern.
Example: "Many students think that science is simply recalling facts spoon-fed
by the teachers and books. This is shown by the questioning strategies used by
teachers, which required students to respond to their questions; and also in the test
or assessment questions formulated by the teachers, which focus heavily on mastery
of information.
2nd: Planning for improvement. The final plan shoul :
- describe your thematic concern and justification why the researcher/shave chosen it.
- indicate the members of the action group
- give a short rationale for specific changes you plan to make ( e.g., teaching
practices, student assessment techniques, classroom organization and
management, etc.)
- provide a more detailed statement of activities to
undertaken and the corresponding time schedules accomplishing them ( whatwill be
done, who will them, when,where and how) how will the researcher change ways
of operating in the situation. (how are you going to implement your
strategies)
- describe what changes in practices, methods and techniques and organization ;
- describe the data to be collected as evidence

3rd: Enacting the Plan and Observing How it Works:


The researcher implements the proposed alternative practice, technique or
methodology, classroom management and organization system, assessment procedures, etc.,
and collect systematically relevant data to determine how the alternative works, how it can
be improved or adjusted, or course of action to optimize benefits. Data are gathered to
provide evidence of effects of proposed alternative action. This may be done through :
a. Anecdotal Records: These are written, descriptive, longitudinal accounts of what a
particular person or group of persons think , say or do. The description should
provide a clear description or interpretation for the phenomenon such as 'teaching
science."
b. Field Notes: Similar to anecdotal records. The difference is that field notes include
simple impressions and interpretations. Descriptions may include reference to better
lessons, petty squablings or conflicts or observed inconsiderate behaviors.
c. Chronological Behavior Description. This seeks complete sequence of behavior.
d. Document Analysis: Variety of documents such as letter to parents, memoranda to
staff, faculty circulars, newsletters, syllabi, students' work on display, test papers, school
publications, rules, procedures and policies, and annual and periodic reports may be
analyzed to construct a picture of the issue being studied.
e. Diaries: Personal accounts written on a regular basis about a topic of particular
concern.
f. Portfolio: A collection of materials for a purpose; may contain minutes of staff
meeting relevant to the issue under study; correspondence, newspaper clippings,
and the like.
g. Interaction schedules and Check Lists: Maybe used as observation instruments to
describe and analyze what is happening in the classrooms where teachers are teaching
science. Various behaviors are recorded in categories as they appear so as to build a
picture of the sequence of teacher and pupil behavior, both verbal and nonverbal that
will enable the researcher to describe what the phenomenon in this case the
teaching of science, is all about.
h. Other data gathering tools: questionnaires, interviews, use of cassette tapes, video
recordings, photographs, slides and tests of student performance.
4th: Reflection: The researcher analyzes, synthesizes, interprets and explains the data
gathered and to draw conclusions. The researcher wants to know the achievements and
limitations of the first action steps and to begin thinking about the implications to the next
move.

Some questions that may be asked:


a. What were the intended effects of the alternative course of action you took? What
were the intended effects if any?

b. Did the practice of "science teaching" improve, such as on the questions asked
by teachers , on the activities engaged by teachers, on the learning
c. What re-planning is necessary? What further alternatives are appropriate to
improve the teaching of the subject and its effects on the learning achievement?
d. Write a statement synthesizing your conclusions. Then draw implications for your next
step or action.

5th Replanning: The researcher work through the cycle again: Planning, Acting, Observing and
Reflecting.
b) What are the Steps in a Problem Based Action Research Process?
1st: Problem/Difficulty Identification. This can proceed in different ways : in individual or
group conferences where identification of problems and difficulties is in the meeting
agenda.
2nd: Problem/Difficulty/Need Analysis. This involves several types of activities:
a. analysis of causes and consequences of the problem/s or difficulties mentioned.
b. examination of the assumptions made;
c. study of the research data available;
d. securing some preliminary data so as to clarify the issue.
Example: Why teachers use only lower level "what" questions and skip asking higher
level questions " Why';"How';"What if"

3rd: Formulating Hypothesis: Involves stating or suggesting tentative ideas about the factors causing
the problem.
For example : Language difficulty may be the reason why teachers do not use higher
level questions. Or it can be lack of training of teachers on higher level skills; or lack of
instructional strategies.

4th: Experimentation and Action: Involves setting up of experiments:


a. reshaping curriculum content;
b. a method of teaching;
c. a plan for grouping, or a new emphasis on classroom procedure
d. developing alternative materials and learning delivery modes of training and
development of teachers and administrators.

5th: Evaluation: The action researcher assesses the result of the experimentation and
determines the extent to which the problem is solved by the action taken.

IV. Assessing The Effectiveness Of Curriculum, Programs And/or Instructional Strategies


A. School-Wide Student Assessment Framework:
Under the School Based Management, the school needs to have its own school-wide
assessment program. This includes the following:
1. Start-of-the- School Year Assessment of non-readers, non
numerates, entry level skills in the different subject areas and students with
special needs among others.
2. Application of suitable interventions to address different learning difficulties and
corresponding formative tests or authentic or portfolio assessment, to name a few.
3. Setting up of regular testing program ( e.g. per grading period) to support teaching
and learning.
4. End-of-the-school year student evaluation, and
5. Provision of information to students, teachers, parents, community, government and
other stakeholders, regarding school and student performance.
Below is an illustration of the Framework for the School Wide Student Assessment
Program:
The school based SA (student assessment) program is best administered by a
permanent school committee of teachers, parents and interested professionals in the
community who shall see to it that the above processes are followed , from start to end of
the school year.

B. Assessment Instruction Driven Framework


Test Results are used to classify pupils according to their level of mastery on the
skill and competency taught after which appropriate adjustments are made during
instruction to improve achievement. Pupils who did not learn the skills are given remedial
instruction . Those who learned but did not master the skill are provided with reinforcement
exercises. Those who achieved are given challenging activities for their optimum
development.

1. What are the elements under an assessment instruction driven framework?


a . Statement of Learning Objectives.
 What is/are my learning objective/s or target/s?
 Is/Are the content appropriate to attain the objective/s?
b . Pre-Assessment and Lesson Planning.
 Do my students have the prerequisite knowledge and
 skills to attain the objective/s?
 What will interest my students? What will motivate
them to learn?
 What teaching strategies or materials should I use?
c . Classroom instruction .
 Are my students participating actively in the lesson?
 Do they interact with the instructional materials? With their peers? With
their teacher?
 What types of questions should I ask? To whom?
 How should I respond to students' questions?
 Who needs extra help? Who can be left alone?
 How can the advanced students be encouraged to help their peers?
d. Evaluation
 Are my measures for evaluation congruent with the objectives?
 Did I use non-paper and pencil test when needed? How much have my
students learned?
 What should I do next? Do I need to review anything the class didn't
understand?
 How should I improve my instruction next time?

e . Adjustments
 Go to the next higher skill or
 Reteach using different materials or strategies or
 Provide reinforcement/ enrichment or
 Do remediation based on the results of the formative test evaluation.

2. What are the Guidelines on Student Assessment?


a) Develop a continuing assessment program where:
 students with learning difficulties/problems are identified through appropriate
instruments.
 suitable interventions are applied to improve learning achievement.
 a regular testing program is in place to support teaching and learning and
progress regularly tracked down.
 information about performance of students, teachers, and school is provided
to stake holders.
b) Ensure improvement of student achievement through the implementation of
assessment driven instruction.
c) Monitor closely and regularly the implementation
assessment driven instruction. Results are reported teachers and
solutions/instructions are worked out address the problem.
d) Provide support to teachers through mentoring and coaching on the
following :
 Test construction and utilization of results
 Collaborative development of Formative Tests and associated
teaching activities.
 Demonstration on analysis of test results
 Use of portfolio assessment and other non-traditional assessment
techniques

V. Using Data Base ( National Regional Division District Assessments) To Improve


Pupil/Student Outcomes
A. Why do we use data base to improve pupil/student outcomes?

{Ref.: Functionally Literate Filipinos: An Educated Nation}

1. Stakeholders in every school use the results of school assessment as their platform for
identifying and implementing school or community actions for continuous and
accountable improvement of school quality.
2. The assessment process leads to formulation of a social contract between the school
and the community , with the support of educational authorities.
3. Activities are geared to get every stakeholder to take collective responsibility for their
own school's educational performance.

B. What are the guidelines in interpreting test results?

{Ref.: Oriondo, L. and Antonio E. "Evaluating Educational Outcomes: Tests,


Measurement and Evaluation," Manila: Rex Book Store, c. 1989)

1. Test results should be interpreted:


a) in terms of the test items from which they are obtained.
b) in relation to other information about the background or characteristic of the
learner.
c) in terms of our purposes or the decisions we are about to make.
d) with the support of other evidences.

2. What is norm-referenced testing?


The items are constructed based on criteria, then the learner's performance is
referenced or related to a norm group. The norm group is composed of people who share
certain characteristics with the individual.

For example :
In a classroom examination, the norm group will be other persons taking the same
course; in an intelligence test, children of the same age.
In a class of 50 learners, an individual's score may place him in the third or fourth
in relation to the performance of the whole class. The learners are ranked in order of their
achievement, based on the total scores in the test.

3. What is criterion referenced testing?


The scores provide information on how well the objectives are learned. Teachers are
interested in the learning task that the learner can or cannot do. Scores tell which specific
knowledge and skill each learner can perform.
In the development of the test, items that are directly relevant to the learning outcomes
( whether they are easy for the learner or not) are included.
In norm-referenced testing, the very easy and very difficult items are eliminated, unlike
in the criterion referenced testing, where all items are included.
Consider a teacher reporting to a mother that her child's score placed the child at
the top ten %of the class. This is a norm referenced interpretation, thus giving the mother a
valuable information.
If the mother asks" What skills has my daughter mastered? Here, the mother is asking
some detailed information about her child's performance in terms of the content I skills the
child has mastered, not in terms of performance relative to the classmates. The question
needs a criterion referenced interpretation of the child's score.

VI. DEVELOPING AND IMPLEMENTING RESULT DRIVEN, RESEARCH BASED COLLABORATIVE


PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT
In 1995, SEAMEO-INNOTECH, conducted Project LEAD, (Learning for Administrative
Development: A Pilot Study) and came out with six competency indicators of a school
head . Four of these indicators are important in the development of result driven, research
based collaborative professional development, to wit:
Planning Innovative School Programs, Projects and Activities :
a) Assess Needs
b) Set Goals and Objectives
c) Search for the Best Solutions
d) Conduct a Brainstorming on Alternative Solutions'
e) Identify Resources and Constraints
f) Design and Try-out Selected Solutions
g) Plan to evaluate the Selected Solutions

2. Implementing School Programs, Projects and Activities


a) Communicate with Different Publics
b) Provide Technical and Moral Support
c) Manage Resources
d) Monitor Programs, Projects and Activities

3. Evaluating School Programs, Projects and Activities


a. State Evaluation Goals and objectives.
b. Plan and Evaluate Design
c. Conduct and Evaluate Data Gathering Instruments
d. Conduct Formative Evaluation
e. Revise Based on Formative Evaluation Feedback
f. Conduct Summative Evaluation
g. Collect, Analyze and Interpret Evaluation Data
h. Prepare and Evaluate Report

4. Introducing Innovation/Change in the School


a. Identify Main Element in the Diffusion of Innovation
b. Perform Roles of a Change Agent
c. Identify and Analyze Facilitators and Barriers to Change Use Appropriate Strategies
in Diffusion Innovation Prepare Diffusion Plan for Introducing Change

VII. Assessment for Learning

 Manages the processes and procedure in monitoring student achievement.


 Ensures utilization of a range of assessment processes to assess student performance.
 Assesses the effectiveness of curriculum/co-curriculum progress and/or instructional
strategies
 Utilizes assessment results to uniform learning
 Creates and manages a school process to ensure student progress is conveyed students
and parents/ guardians, regularly.
VIII. Developing Programs and/or Adopting Existing Programs

 Develops/ adapts a research- based school programs


 Assists implementing an existing, coherent and responsive school-wide curriculum
 Addresses d-ciencies and sustains success of current programs collaboration with
teachers and learners
 Develops a culture of functional literacy
IX. Implementing Programs for Instructional Improvement

 Manages the introduction of curriculum initiatives in line with DepED policies (e.g. K to
12, Madrasah, MTB-MLE, etc.)
 Works with teachers in curriculum review
 Enriches curricula offerings based on local needs
 Manages curriculum innovation and enrichment with the use of technology
 Organizes teams to champion instructional innovation programs toward curricula
responsiveness.
X. Conducting Instructional Supervision
Instructional supervision is characterized by assistance, guidance, sharing of ideas,
creation of facilitation to help teachers improve learning situation and quality of learning in
school.
 Prepares and implements an instructional supervisory plan
 Conducts instructional supervision using appropriate strategy
Some support interventions are:

 Job-embedded Learning
Refers to professional development that occurs during the course of one’s work,
where daily access to necessary materials, knowledge and assistance are readily
available.
Types:
1. Study Groups- a group of teachers interested in collegial study and action.
They meet to study and support one another as they design curriculum and
instruction innovations. Teachers develop a shared understanding about
topics such as values, pedagogy and learning. At maybe conducted in the
school at least twice a month.
2. Peer Coaching- two teachers (at times 3 or more) come together, share in
convention about their teaching practices, observe each other’s classes,
observe one another’s classrooms with the school head and then reflect and
refine their practices.
3. Conferencing- a follow-on conference between a school head and a teacher. If
correctly employed, it gives each teacher the special help needed to become
proficient in self-analysis, self- appraisal and self- improvement.
4. Walk through- a process of visiting classrooms for short period of time of 5-15
minutes, where the instructional programs is observed, feedback is provided
to teachers, students talk about what they are doing, and data is gathered to
inform curricula decisions. (Walker, 2005)
Tools:

1. Pre-observation Information (sample)

Teacher ____________________________ School___________________________

Grade/year & section_________________ Subject___________________________

a. When would you like to have instructional supervision and support?


_____________
b. In which of your classes would you like to be observed? ____________________
c. In what specific teaching-learning parameters would you like to focus in? ______
_

Submitted by: Noted by:

_____________________ ____________________________

Teacher/ Name & Signature School Head Name & Signature


Post-observation Information (Sample)

Teacher _________________________ School __________________________

Grade/year & Section: _____________ Subject: _________________________

School Year _____________________

Sample Post- observation Information

1. What did your learners gain in your lesson in terms of Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes
(KSAs)?
2. How did you work in learners gain in KSAs?
3. What did your pupils/ students do in order to gain/ learn the KSAs?
4. Were you able to accomplish your lesson objective? , etc.

STAR Observation Technique (Sample)

Name of Teacher ____________________ Date & Time Observed ________________

School _____________________ Class ______________ Subject _________________

Observation (Record in details of possible)

What to observe

 Situation- context of teaching episode


 Task- Teacher’s actions in particular
 Action- situation (learners action- relative to the teachers task)
 Result- the end results or outcomes; qualitative and quantitative

____________________________ _______________________________
Name & Signature of the observer Name & Signature of Teacher
Date: _______________________ Date: ___________________________
 Evaluates lesson plans as well as classroom and learning management.
For Lesson Plans:
As to congruency of materials, strategy, formative evaluation to objective/ competency
sufficiency of materials, exercises, assessment
relevance of materials, lessons, exercises, etc.

For classroom and Learning Environment


o Is it conducive, encouraging, motivating environment?
o Is it gender-fair?
o Art of questioning of teacher

 Provides in a collegial manner timely, accurate and specific feedback to teachers’ regarding
their performance
 Provides technical assistance and instructional support to teachers

Practice Test

Instructional Leadrship
1. Which of the following is the most important role of the school head?
A. Prepare the school improve Plan
B. Use effectively the school’s resources
C. Plan and implement school and programs and projects
2. Among the following school heads spends the ideal time allotment for instructional and
administrative supervision?

School Heads Administrative Instructional Service

A. Miss Reyes 50% 50%

B. Mr. Rivera 75% 25%

C. Mr. San Gabriel 30% 70%

D. Mrs. San Francisco 70% 30%

3. Which of the following is the basic characteristic b\of effective leadership?


A. It is potent force for increasing supervisory effectiveness.
B. It employs techniques for observing and analyzing data.
C. It encourages the use of sound principles.
D. It provides opportunities for professional growth.
4. Which skills of an effective instructional supervisor summarize the speaker’s message for
verification?
A. Clarifying
B. Negotiating
C. Reflective
D. Reinforcing
5. Which of the following are intents of supervision?
i. Relationship building
ii. Improvement of student’s learning
iii. Capacity building]
iv. Better life for teachers and students
A. i and iv
B. ii, iii and iv
C. i, ii, iii and iv
D. i, ii and iii
6. Teachers may be classified according to their level of commitment and level of
abstraction and place them, inside the corresponding quadrant. Which quadrant can we
classify a teacher who is energetic and full of good intentions, but cannot act fully and
realistically?
A. Quadrant 1 Teacher Drop Outs
B. Quadrant II unfocused Teachers
C. Quadrant III Analytical Teachers
D. Quadrant IV Professional Teachers
7. What do we call teachers with low level of commitment but are intelligent?
A. Teachers Drop-Outs
B. Unfocussed
C. Professionals
D. Analytical
8. In the classroom observation cycle, what does the principal do in the pre-Observation
conference?
A. The principal discusses with the teacher the details and goals of the observation as
well as the materials need.
B. The principal and teacher review the procedure of classroom observation
C. Principal and teacher agree upon job improvement targets
D. Principal and teacher analyze the findings and data.
9. What is the focus of clinical supervision?
A. To view outputs and products so as to verify what they have learned and
incorporated in their growing store of information and skills.
B. To observe classroom environment and dramatically affects learning.
C. To confirm teacher’s plan to assess learners’ achievement.
D. To see what the teachers does in the classroom
10. In the development process of clinical supervision, when do we give feedback?
A. Pre-Conference
B. Observation
C. Analysis
D. Post-Conference
11. Principals can help teachers by making informal visits. Which of the following is Not a
purpose of informal visits?
A. To check lesson Plans
B. To determine what is actually happening (room, teacher, pupils)
C. To confirm teacher plans (that what the teacher has written is what really being done
in the classroom)
D. To monitor progress (to determine if certain has written is what really being done in
the classroom)
12. Which of the following describes mentoring?
i. It is the process where experienced teachers help guide or counsel young
or new teachers through different stages of their career.
ii. It is a special kind of relationship where objectivity, credibility. honesty,
trustworthiness and confidentially are critical
iii. It is simply one to one meeting to support the teacher in her desire to
improve his personal situation
iv. It is the process which supports learning development thus improves
performance by an individual or a team.

A. i and ii only
B. i and iii only
C. i, and ii, and iii only
D. i, ii, iii and iv only
13. What does it means to be open to the mentoring process?
A. Mentor must see his/her role as that of a lifelong learner
B. The mentee must view his/her role as a partner to his/her mentor in pursuing
effectiveness and fulfillment
C. Mentee must also be willing to commit to the time it takes to work with someone
else
D. Mentee is willing to receive inputs from the mentor.
14. Why do assessment and supervision complete a cyclical process in mentoring?
A. It starts with discussion, then observation and setting of targets
B. Targets are set after observation and plans made for the future
C. After observing the mentee, the mentor writes a brief summary of what was
observed
D. The observation ends inside the classroom
15. What can a mentor observe only a part of the lesson?
A. In the mentor is busy with other concerns
B. If the mentee shows signs of resistance
C. If the mentor wants to have a clear idea of how the mentee is progressing
D. When the mentor has a specific focus for the observation
16. Which of the following statements is NOT true about action research?
A. It investigates action or activities which are experienced by teachers, supervisors or
administrators.
B. Results are valid only in a particular place and are not meant to apply to other
situations
C. It is a scientific approach aimed at rating teachers.
D. It aims to solve a specific or practical school problem
17. Which kind of action research is controlled research on the relative effectiveness of
different action techniques?
A. Diagnostic
B. Participant
C. Empirical
D. Experimental
18. Which of the following can be source of data for an action research?
i. Diaries
ii. Portfolio
iii. Interviews
iv. Field notes
A. i and ii only
B. ii and iii only
C. i, ii and iii
D. i, ii, iii and iv
19. the fourth step in a problem based Action Research is:
A. Problem/ difficulty Identification
B. Problem of difficulty/Need of Analysis
C. Experimenting and Action
D. Evaluation and assessment
20. Which steps in a Problem-Based Action determines the extent to which the problem is
solved?
A. Need Analysis
B. Evaluation
C. Problem Identification
D. Formulating Hypothesis
21. In the school wide student assessment program, what should be done with learners
diagnosed with learning problems?
A. Give program Interventions
B. Give formative tests
C. Identify their entry skills
D. Use the authentic assessment
22. Which of the following statements best describes norm-referenced testing?
A. The items constructed based on criteria then the learners performance is referenced
to a group that shares certain characteristics with the learners
B. The items are directly relevant to the learning outcomes with very easy and very
difficult items included.
C. The scores provides information on how well the objectives are learned
D. A and C
23. To which competency indicator can we include the activity on performing roles of a
change agent?
A. Planning innovative school programs, projects and activities
B. Implementing school programs, projects and activities
C. Evaluating school programs, projects and activities
D. Introducing innovations in the school.
24. In which step is communicating with different publics?
A. Planning School Programs
B. Implementing School Programs
C. Evaluating School Programs
D. Introducing change
25. Which of the following is one way of making use of assessment results?
A. Rate performance of teachers
B. Improve the learning environment
C. Improve learning of pupils and students
D. Rate achievement of pupils and students
26. What kind of culture should SHs develop in adopting existing programs?
A. Basic literacy
B. Multiliteracy
C. Quality and excellence
D. Functional literacy
27. With whom should SHs work in implementing programs for instructional improvement?
A. Teachers
B. District Supervisors
C. Assistant Superintendent
28. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of instructional supervision?
A. Guidance
B. Assistance
C. Sharing of ideas
D. Dictating and Sermonizing
29. Which of the following is a process of visiting classrooms for 5-15 minutes?
A. Classroom observation
B. Checking lesson plans
C. Greeting the class
D. Walkthroughs
30. In the STAR Observation Technique, what is A?
A. Action
B. Ability
C. Addition
D. Abstraction

Key to Correction

1. D- Provide a learning environment for effective teaching and maximal learning


A- Just one of the functions and is done with the SGC
B- Just one and it is not the most important
C- Not the most important
2. C- 30%- 70%- the ideal
A- Not ideal
B- Not ideal
D- Not ideal. Must have more time for supervision
3. A- basic characteristic
B
C but not the basic
D
4. C- Reflecting
A
B do not summarize
D
5. C- all are purposes of supervision
A- only 2
B- only 3
D only 3
6. B
7. D
8. A
9. D
10. D
11. A
12. D
13. D
14. A
15. D
16. B
17. D
18. D
19. C
20. B
21. A
22. A
23. D
24. B
25. C
26. D
27. A
28. D
29. D
30. A
REFERENCES
DepED (BESRA). (2010). Instructional Supervision: Standards, Procedures and Tools

Department of Education, BEE Project QLEARN :Module for Teachers,


" Conducting Action Research in Schoors."- And'' rnstructronar
Supervision: A Tool for Teachers' Growth"

NOPTI, 9TH ANNUAL Convention, 2010, Handout on "Effective


Instructional Leadership/ Supervision

Oriondo, L. and Antonio, E. "Evaluating Educational Outcomes: Tests, Measurement and


Evaluation" Manila: Rex Book Store, c. 1989)
Garvey, Dan J. (2000) Mentoring beginning Teachers Program Handbook, the Albuta Teachers
Association