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Appendix D

Physical Properties
This appendix contains physical properties of some frequently encountered mate-
rims in the transport of momentum, energy and mass. The reader should refer to
either Perry's Chemical Engineers' Handbook (1997) or CRC Handbook of Chem-
istry and Physics (2001) for a more extensive list of physical properties.
Table D.1 contains viscosities of gases and liquids, as taken from Reid et al.
(1977). Table D.2 contains thermal conductivities of gases, liquids and solids.
While gas and liquid thermal conductivities are compiled from Reid et al. (1977),
solid thermal conductivity values are taken from Perry's Chemical Engineers' Hand-
book (1997). The values of the diffusion coefficients given in Table D.3 are com-
piled from Reid et al. (1977), Perry's Chemical Engineers' Handbook (1997) and
Geankoplis (1972).
Table D.4 contains the physical properties of dry air at standard atmospheric
pressure. The values are taken from Kays and Crawford (1980) who obtained the
data from the three volumes of Touloukian et al. (1970). The physical properties
of saturated liquid water, given in Table D.5, are taken from Incropera and DeWitt
(1996) who adapted the data from Liley (1984).
A widely used vapor pressure correlation over limited temperature ranges is the
A n t o i n e equation expressed in the form

B
In psat __ A
T+C

where psat is in mmHg and T is in degrees Kelvin. The Antoine constants A, B


and C, given in Table D.6 for various substances, are taken from Reid et al. (1977).

575
576 A P P E N D I X D. P H Y S I C A L P R O P E R T I E S

T a b l e D.1 Viscosities of various substances.

Substance T tt x 104
K kg/m. s

Gases

273 0.9
Ammonia
373 1.31

303 1.51
Carbon dioxide
373.5 1.81

383 1.11
Ethanol
423 1.23

313 1.35
Sulfur dioxide
373 1.63

Liquids

313 4.92
Benzene
353 3.18

303 8.56
Carbon tetrachloride
343 5.34

313 8.26
Ethanol
348 4.65
577

Table D.2 Thermal conductivities of various substances.

T k
Substance K W/m. K

Gases

273 0.0221
Ammonia 373 0.0320

300 0.0167
Carbon dioxide
473 0.O283

293 0.0150
Ethanol
375 0.0222

Sulfur dioxide 273 0.0083

Liquids

293 0.148
Benzene
323 0.137

Carbon tetrachloride 293 0.103

293 0.165
Ethanol
313 0.152

Solids

Aluminum 300 273

Brick 300 0.72

Copper 300 398

Glass Fiber 300 0.036

Steel 300 45
578 APPENDIX D. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

Table D.3 Experimental values of binary diffusion coefficients at 101.325 kPa.

T "DAB
Substance
K m2/s

Gases

A i r - CO2 317.2 1.77 • 10 -5

A i r - Ethanol 313 1.45 • 10 - 5

A i r - Naphthalene 300 0.62 • 10 - 5

Air- H20 313 2.88 • 10 - 5

H 2 - Acetone 296 4.24 • 10-5

N2 - SO2 263 1.04 • 10-5

Liquids

N H 3 - H20 288 1.77 x 10 - 9

Benzoic a c i d - H20 298 1.21 • 10 - 9

C O 2 - H20 298 1.92 x 10 - 9

E t h a n o l - H20 283 0.84 x 10-9

Solids

B i - Pb 293 1.1 x 10-20

H2 - Nickel 358 1.16 x 10-12

0 2 - Vulc. Rubber 298 0.21 x 10 - 9


579

Table D.4 Properties of air at P - 101.325 kPa.

T p # x 106 v x 106 k • 103


Pr
K kg/m 3 kg/m. s m2/s kJ/kg. K W/m.K
100 3.5985 7.060 1.962 1.028 9.220 0.787
150 2.3673 10.38 4.385 1.011 13.75 0.763
200 1.7690 13.36 7.552 1.006 18.10 0.743
250 1.4119 16.06 11.37 1.003 22.26 0.724
263 1.3421 16.70 12.44 1.003 23.28 0.720
273 1.2930 17.20 13.30 1.004 24.07 0.717
275 1.2836 17.30 13.48 1.004 24.26 0.716
280 1.2607 17.54 13.92 1.004 24.63 0.715
283 1.2473 17.69 14.18 1.004 24.86 0.714
285 1.2385 17.79 14.36 1.004 25.00 0.714
288 1.2256 17.93 14.63 1.004 25.22 0.714
290 1.2172 18.03 14.81 1.004 25.37 0.714
293 1.2047 18.17 15.08 1.004 25.63 0.712
295 1.1966 18.27 15.27 1.005 25.74 0.713
298 1.1845 18.41 15.54 1.005 25.96 0.712
300 1.1766 18.53 15.75 1.005 26.14 0.711
303 1.1650 18.64 16.00 1.005 26.37 0.710
305 1.1573 18.74 16.19 1.005 26.48 0.711
308 1.1460 18.88 16.47 1.005 26.70 0.711
310 1.1386 18.97 16.66 1.005 26.85 0.710
313 1.1277 19.11 16.95 1.005 27.09 0.709
315 1.1206 19.20 17.14 1.006 27.22 0.709
320 1.1031 19.43 17.62 1.006 27.58 0.709
323 1.0928 19.57 17.91 1.006 27.80 0.708
325 1.0861 19.66 18.10 1.006 27.95 0.708
330 1.0696 19.89 18.59 1.006 28.32 0.707
333 1.0600 20.02 18.89 1.007 28.51 0.707
343 1.0291 20.47 19.89 1.008 29.21 0.706
350 1.0085 20.81 20.63 1.008 29.70 0.706
353 1.0000 20.91 20.91 1.008 29.89 0.705
363 0.9724 21.34 21.95 1.009 30.58 0.704
373 0.9463 21.77 23.01 1.010 31.26 0.703
400 0.8825 22.94 26.00 1.013 33.05 0.703
450 0.7844 24.93 31.78 1.020 36.33 0.700
500 0.7060 26.82 37.99 1.029 39.51 0.699
550 0.6418 28.60 44.56 1.039 42.60 0.698
600 0.5883 30.30 51.50 1.051 45.60 0.699
650 0.5431 31.93 58.80 1.063 48.40 0.701
700 0.5043 33.49 66.41 1.075 51.30 0.702
580 APPENDIX D. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

Table D.5 Properties of saturated liquid water.

T psat llx103 ~ Cp #x106 kx103 Pr


273 0.00611 1.000 2502 4.217 1750 569 12.99
275 0.00697 1.000 2497 4.211 1652 574 12.22
280 0.00990 1.000 2485 4.198 1422 582 10.26
285 0.01387 1.000 2473 4.189 1225 590 8.70
288 0.01703 1.001 2466 4.186 1131 595 7.95
290 0.01917 1.001 2461 4.184 1080 598 7.56
293 0.02336 1.001 2454 4.182 1001 603 6.94
295 0.02617 1.002 2449 4.181 959 606 6.62
298 0.03165 1.003 2442 4.180 892 610 6.11
300 0.03531 1.003 2438 4.179 855 613 5.83
303 0.04240 1.004 2430 4.178 800 618 5.41
305 0.04712 1.005 2426 4.178 769 620 5.20
308 0.05620 1.006 2418 4.178 721 625 4.82
310 0.06221 1.007 2414 4.178 695 628 4.62
313 0.07373 1.008 2407 4.179 654 632 4.32
315 0.08132 1.009 2402 4.179 631 634 4.16
320 0.1053 1.011 2390 4.180 577 640 3.77
325 0.1351 1.013 2378 4.182 528 645 3.42
330 0.1719 1.016 2366 4.184 489 650 3.15
335 0.2167 1.018 2354 4.186 453 656 2.88
340 0.2713 1.021 2342 4.188 420 660 2.66
345 0.3372 1.024 2329 4.191 389 664 2.45
350 0.4163 1.027 2317 4.195 365 668 2.29
355 0.5100 1.030 2304 4.199 343 671 2.14
360 0.6209 1.034 2291 4.203 324 674 2.02
365 0.7514 1.038 2278 4.209 306 677 1.91
370 0.9040 1.041 2265 4.214 289 679 1.80
373 1.0133 1.044 2257 4.217 279 680 1.76
375 1.0815 1.045 2252 4.220 274 681 1.70
380 1.2869 1.049 2239 4.226 260 683 1.61
385 1.5233 1.053 2225 4.232 248 685 1.53
390 1.794 1.058 2212 4.239 237 686 1.47
400 2.455 1.067 2183 4.256 217 688 1.34
T- K; psat= bar; V = mU/kg; A - kJ/kg; C p - kJ/kg.K;
#- kg/m.s; k - W / m . K
581

Table D.6 Antoine equation constants.


Substance Range (K) A B C
Acetone 241 - 350 16.6513 2940.46 - 35.93
Benzene 280- 377 15.9008 2788.51 - 52.36
Benzoic acid 405- 560 17.1634 4190.70 - 125.2
Chloroform 260 - 370 15.9732 2696.79 - 46.16
Ethanol 270- 369 18.9119 3803.98 -41.68
Methanol 257- 364 18.5875 3626.55 -34.29
Naphthalene 360- 525 16.1426 3992.01 -71.29

REFERENCES

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4 th Ed., Wiley, New York.

Kays, W.M. and M.E. Crawford, 1980, Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 2 nd
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Liley, P.E., 1984, Steam Tables in SI Units, School of Mechanical Engineering,


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582 A P P E N D I X D. PHYSICAL P R O P E R T I E S

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