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13.

Wunavailable = T0 ∆Suniverse
The energy that is unavailable for doing work because of an irreversible
process is where ∆Suniverse is the total entropy change of the universe and T0 is the
Kelvin temperature of the coldest reservoir.
∆Suniverse – total entropy changes of the universe (J/K)
T0 – Temperature in Kelvin (K)
Wunavailable – energy that is unavailable for doing work (J)

∆E ∆Q ∆W
14. = −
∆t ∆t ∆t
∆W
The rate at which the body does work on its environment is denoted by .
∆t
The rate at which the body absorbs heat from its environment is described by the
∆Q ∆Q
term . Knowing the heat capacity of air enables us to find . The rate at which
∆t ∆t
chemical energy is lost by the system, because of the breakdown of food and the
∆E
production of waste products such as CO2 and urea, is represented by . This is a
∆t
negative quantity called the catabolic rate, which is contributed to, for example, by
the breakdown of glucose and fat.
∆E
= rate at which chemical energy is lost by the system (J/s or W)
∆t
∆Q
= rate at which the body absorbs heat from its environment (J/s or W)
∆t
∆W
= rate at which the body work on its environment (J/s or W)
∆t
The catabolic rate in kilocalories per mole per second can now be related to
the oxygen consumption rate of the person tested:
∆E ∆ O2 L
15. = 4.9
∆t ∆𝑡
∆E
= catabolic rate (J/s or W)
∆t
∆ O2 L
= volume of oxygen (in liters) consumed per second (L/s)
∆𝑡

∆ O2 L is the volume of oxygen (in liters) consumed per second by


the person. Using a simple breathing apparatus, it is easy to measure this
oxygen consumption rate, so we can determine the catabolic rate.

The efficiency e of molecular activity is defined as the work done


per second divided by the catabolic rate:
∆W
∆t
16. 𝑒 = ∆E
∆t

e = efficiency of molecular activity (no unit)


∆W
= rate at which the body work on its environment (J/s or W)
∆t
∆E
= rate at which chemical energy is lost by the system (J/s or W)
∆t

Perfectly efficient use of energy means that e = 1, while a complete


waste of catabolic energy that implies that e = 0. The efficiency rate
depends on how many muscles are used cooperatively to produce work
and on the energy used by other organs. The more muscles are used to
produce useful work compared with the activity of the other organs, the
more efficient the body is.