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1. Problem analysis:

The process of design due to punching consists of the following stages:

1.1. CALCULATION OF CRITICAL AREA AND CRITICAL PERIMETER – For every code -

calculations consist in determining the area subjected to action of a punching force. In calculation of

this zone edges of a slab and of openings are considered. Calculations of the extent and shape of the

zone and that whether slab edges and openings are considered depend on the code.

1.2. CALCULATION OF LIMIT PUCHING FORCES OR LIMIT STRESSES - This stage of calculations

includes determining maximal, allowed by the code, values of punching force or maximal stresses that

can be carried by a concrete section. The limit (maximal) force is a product of the critical area and

stresses allowed by the code.

1.3. CALCULATION OF PUNCHING FORCES OR STRESSES RESULTING FROM EXTERNAL

IMPACT – Each of the codes determines the manner how a force or stress caused by the external

impact should be received on the punching area. In the simplest case, calculations involve

multiplication of a punching force by an appropriate factor, whereas in the most complicated cases,

calculations of stresses with consideration of acting moments are required.

1.4. CHECK OF THE LOAD CAPACITY CONDITION– consists in comparing stresses or forces caused

by the external impact with the limit values. There are three states possible:

If calculated stresses are lesser than admissible ones for a concrete section, reinforcement is not

required.

If stresses are greater than admissible stresses for a concrete section and simultaneously lesser than

admissible ones (there is a need for better distinction from allowable stresses for concrete),

reinforcement is required.

If stresses are greater than admissible stresses, it means that slab section is too small.

In case when reinforcement is not required or when slab section is too small, results are presented in a

form of the maximal punching force (for calculations based on stresses, the force is calculated from

stresses multiplied by the punching area) and the ratio of admissible force to equivalent acting force. If

reinforcement is required, then calculations of the reinforcement needed are carried out by the program.

1.5. CALCULATION OF NECESSARY REINFORCEMENT – if stresses are greater than admissible

stresses for a concrete section and simultaneously lesser than admissible ones, then calculation of

punching reinforcement is necessary. Calculations are carried out according to the code guidelines

concerning bar reinforcement. The following items are presented in the program: required

reinforcement area and range of a zone within which reinforcement is required. These values are

shown in the table on the Punching tab; apart from that, the program presents value of a punching force

(for calculations based on stresses, the force is calculated from stresses multiplied by the punching

area) and ratio of the load capacity with reinforcement considered to the equivalent acting force. The

range of reinforcement zone is presented additionally in drawings.

2. Calculation parameters and result presentation:

2.1. Geometrical and additional parameters

Geometrical parameters used in design due to punching have been grouped on the second tab

(Punching) of the ”Results” dialog box on the ”Slab – provided reinforcement” layout.

Options included in this dialog box enable analysis of punching in slabs induced by the loading with

concentrated forces and reaction forces of slab supports.

The option set allows the user to:

view and define the punching verification points

group the verification points (unify the geometry)

assign geometrical properties of the head to supports (columns)

If in a structure supports at points are defined, they are automatically entered on the point list and

denoted by the letter S with successive numbers. For each support type the following items can be

read:

coordinates in the Position field

number of the node to which a support is assigned (in the Node number field)

maximum reaction value of a support in the Maximum punching force field

support geometry if that has been defined while defining the support in the Advanced dialog box.

This data is accessible after selecting each of the points provided on the point list.

Independently from supports, there may be user-defined verification points. To define a new

verification point, the user should press the New button in the Verification points field. Each time

when this operation is completed, the verification point denoted by letter P and successive number is

added to the point list. Once a verification point is chosen, the fields allowing definition of the point

position, load geometry and values of punching force become active. These values are being saved (no

additional operation to confirm them is needed).

To delete the added verification point, the user should select it and press the Delete button. The

points, which are the supports defined in structure geometry (denoted by the letter S) cannot be

deleted.

The program allows defining heads over the supports (columns) that are taken into

consideration in the punching calculations. To do it, the user should switch on the Head option (the

fields with the dimensions become available) and define the head dimensions. For the head on

rectangular support these are the lengths of the head sides on the level where head meets the slab

(denoted by the letters a and b) and the head height denoted by the letter h. For the heads over the

circular supports these are: d head diameter and h head height (for a circular head) or the lengths of the

head sides (denoted by the letters a and b) - for a rectangular head. When a support belongs to a group,

the head is applied to all elements of this group.

Both, the additional verification points and supports can be grouped to make the geometry

modification easier. The points may be grouped manually by selecting from the name list and pressing

the > button; there is also a possibility to group all the supports automatically: the >> button should be

pressed. Additional verification points can be grouped if they have the same geometry type. For

supports, compatibility of the support dimensions is also necessary. If the condition of the

compatibility of support dimensions is not satisfied, the verification points or supports not compatible

with the first item on the list are deleted at the moment when the group is being confirmed.

When grouping points with different dimensions, the dimension values are assumed on the

basis of the first point defined in the group. When a new point is added to the group, its dimensions are

automatically changed to the ones compatible with the group dimensions. Grouping of the supports

with different head dimensions is done by analogy.

Once a group is defined, any change of any group component refers to the entire group and is

modified.

This dialog box may include additional options - depending on the selected code of RC

structure design.

For the ACI 318-99 code, the above dialog box also contains the Type option which determines

position for each support: within slab, on slab edge or in slab corner. The support type is used in

calculation of the admissible punching force [ACI 318-99 11.12.2.2].

For EC2 (Belgium NAD) code, the coefficient is available in the above dialog box. The parameter

determines position of each support: within slab, on slab edge or in slab corner. This parameter value

is used in calculation of the punching force [ENV 1992-1-1 EC2 4.3.4.3].

2.2. Reinforcement parameters

Parameters concerning reinforcement due to punching are determined on the Reinforcement for

punching tab in the Calculation Options dialog box:

This tab enables defining parameters of steel used for reinforcement due to punching - steel grade and

strength. Here on this tab bar diameters are also determined – for ACI 318-99 code - bar numbers are

compatible with ASTM.

The Bar type field is used for defining a type of reinforcement applied. Since other codes besides ACI

318-99 (ACI 318-99 metric) do not distinguish between inclined bar reinforcement and bent bar

reinforcement on the calculation level, the ”bent bars” option is inaccessible for them.

For inclined and bent bars it is necessary to define the angle at which they are inclined to the slab plane.

2.3. Results

Results of punching calculations are presented in a table in the bottom part of the second tab (Punching)

of the ”Results” dialog box on the ”Slab – provided reinforcement” layout.

To obtain results, generation of zones of longitudinal reinforcement due to bending is required. If the

zones are not generated, the user should choose the Analysis / Calculations option from the menu and

afterwards – in the Calculation Option Set dialog box – run calculations after switching on the option

ensuring that once calculations are performed the result layout opens (or the current layout if calculations

are run from that layout).

Once calculations of longitudinal reinforcement are completed, modifications of options made on the

”Punching” tab or in the Calculation Options / Reinf. for punching dialog box are being updated and result

in automatic recalculation of punching conditions. It is not required to run again longitudinal reinforcement

calculations.

In the table presenting the results of punching analysis for each verification point the following values

are presented:

admissible punching force calculated by the program according to the appropriate code requirements

generalized design force defined in the ”Maximum punching force” field for the additional verification

points or read from FEM calculation results for supports

critical perimeter calculated on the basis of code requirements

reinforcement, which includes:

- reinforcement range from the member center in both perpendicular directions L1 and L2

- perimeter of reinforcement zone (if required)

- total area of reinforcement

- number and diameter of bars calculated on the basis of the total area and settings of the options for

punching

safety factor being the ratio of the maximum punching force to the admissible punching force.

Punching analysis results for individual points are presented in the color corresponding to the calculation

result:

in blue – for points that fulfill the punching conditions and do not require reinforcement

in green - for points that fulfill the punching conditions and require reinforcement

in red - for points that do not fulfill the punching conditions despite applying reinforcement

The critical perimeter is presented graphically on the ”Slab – reinforcement” layout as a green line

around columns.

The range of punching reinforcement is shown graphically in a final drawing of a slab (formwork).

3.1. ACI 318-99

3.1.1. Calculations according to chapter [11]

3.1.2. Critical perimeter is positioned in the distance of 0.5d from the column edge (surface where a

force is applied), slab edge or from the point where its thickness changes [based on 11.12.1.2]

3.1.3. In calculation of a critical perimeter the neighboring openings are taken into account.

For reinforcement due to punching, the effect of openings is reduced by half according to

[11.12.5.2].

3.1.4. Calculations are based on the admissible stresses on the punching surface.

ACI code provides the following formulas for calculation of the maximal punching force:

4

Vc( a ) 2 f c ' b0 d (11-35)

c

d

Vc(b ) S 2 f c ' b0 d (11-36)

b0

Vc( c ) 4 f c ' b0 d (11-37)

Vc( a )

Vc min Vc( b ) [based on 11.12.2.1]

V ( c )

c

where:

fc’ – concrete compressive resistance

b0 – critical perimeter

d – section height without a cover

c – ratio of the longer column side (surface where a force is applied) to the shorter one

S – factor that equals, correspondingly, 40 for interior columns, 30 for edge columns, 20

for corner columns,

The program converts these values to admissible stresses by division through punching area b 0 d

to make the calculations uniform with those performed for structures composed of columns and

plates.

Vc

vn (11-42)

b0 d

3.1.5. Check of the punching capacity condition of a concrete section:

Vn Vu (11-1)

where:

– factor =0.85

On the basis of [11.12.6.2], this relationship may be transformed to the following form:

v n vu

where:

vn – admissible stress

vn – stress resulting from the external impact

Stress resulting from the external impact is calculated taking force eccentricities into account

(structures composed of columns and plates):

Vu v M ux c x v M uy c y

vu [based on R 11.12.6.2]

Ac J cx J cy

3.1.6. If the condition discussed in 3.1.5 is not satisfied, calculations of reinforcement due to punching

are carried out.

Applying the formula determined in the code:

Vn Vc Vs ( 11-2)

where:

Vc – concrete load capacity

Vs – steel load capacity

assuming that

Vc 2 f c ' b0 d [11.12.3.1]

after converting it to stresses analogously as in point 3.1.5, the user obtains the following:

Vc Vs

vn (11-43)

bo d

calculation of the demanded amount of reinforcing steel for punching reinforcement:

for reinforcement with: perpendicular bars

Av f y d

Vs (11-15)

s

bent bars

Av f y (sin( ) cos( )) d

Vs (11-16)

s

inclined bars

Vs Av f y sin( ) 3 f c ' b0 d (11-17)

where:

Av – bar area

fy – steel strength

– angle of bar inclination

d – section height without a cover

s – bar spacing

3.1.7. Calculation of the reinforcement range results from the shape of a punching zone b 0

b0 2 a 2 b

a

4 2

3.1.8. Check of the capacity condition of a section reinforced due to punching:

Vn 6 f c ' b0 d [11.12.3.2]

3.1.9. Since the bar spacing s is not presented in results, the program provides the total reinforcement

area which satisfies the code conditions and is calculated from the following formula:

Av d

As

s

3.1.10. NOTE: Numbering of the code points –square parentheses designation and formula numbers

are compatible with ACI 318-99

3.2. BAEL 91

3.2.1. Calculations according to point: [A.5.2]

3.2.2. Critical perimeter is positioned in the distance of 0.5d from the column edge (surface where a

force is applied), slab edge or from the point where its thickness changes

3.2.3. In calculation of the critical perimeter, neighboring openings are taken into account

3.2.4. Calculations are based on the admissible punching force. The design condition is represented by

the formula below:

f cj

Qc 0,045 uc h

b

ULS p 1.5

ALS p 1.15

where:

Qc – maximal punching force

fcj – non-factored concrete resistance

uc – critical perimeter

3.2.5. If the condition discussed in 3.2.4. is not satisfied, reinforcement due to punching is calculated.

3.2.6. The critical perimeter uc is being extended until the following condition is satisfied:

f cj

Qc 0,045 uc h

b

3.2.7. Between the column face and thus-determined perimeter the reinforcement should be distributed.

It is calculated from the formula:

u 0.3 f tj k s

At s

0.9 f e cos( ) sin( ) t

0.6 0.06 f c 28

f tj min [A.2.1,12]

3.3[ MPa]

where:

s – factor equal to 1.15

k – factor equal to 1.0

s – bar spacing

t – slab thickness

u – stress on the critical perimeter:

Qu

u

uc d

At f e

0.4[ MPa]

u c st

3.2.8. Since the bar spacing s is not presented in results, the program provides the total reinforcement

area which satisfies the code conditions and is calculated from the following formula:

At d

As

s

3.3. BS 8118 Part 1

3.3.1. Calculation according to point: [3.7]

3.3.2. The basis for calculations are admissible stresses on punching surfaces.

3.3.3. The distance between the critical perimeter and the column face equals 1.5d [3.7.7.6]

3.3.4. In calculations of critical perimeter the neighboring openings are taken into account in

compliance with [3.7.7.7] and slab edges in compliance with [3.7.7.8]

3.3.5. The calculations are based on the admissible shear stresses present on the critical perimeter.

0.8 fcu

vlim min N [based on 3.7.7.2]

mm 2 ]

5[

3.3.6. In design the effective forces are used, which consider the effect of bending moments calculated

as follows:

for interior columns:

M

Veff Vt 1 1.5 t (25)

Vt x

where:

x – length of this side of critical perimeter which is parallel to the bending axis M t

for edge columns:

Mt

Veff Vt 1.25 1.5 (26)

Vt x

for corner columns:

Veff 1.25 Vt

Stresses occurring on the critical area are calculated from the following formula:

Veff

v max [3.7.7.2]

uo d

where:

u0 – critical perimeter

d – section height without a cover

3.3.7. Check of the punching capacity condition:

1 1

A 3 400 4

100 S

bv d d

vc 0.79 [based on table 3.9]

m

AS

100 3 [ based on table 3.9]

bv d

400

1 [ based on table 3.9]

d

where:

m – correction factor equal to 1.25

bv –

d –

As – average area of longitudinal reinforcement for directions x and y

NOTE: if fcu > 25 N/mm2 , fcu not greater than 40 N/mm2 is assumed in calculations,

however, the final vc is multiplied by the coefficient equal to:

1

f cu 3

[ based on table 3.9]

25

vmax vc [based on 3.7.7.4]

3.3.8. If the condition discussed in 3.3.7. is not fulfilled, calculations of reinforcement due to punching

are performed. The formula provided in the code is applied:

v vc u d

A sv sin( )

0.87

(29)

f yv

where:

– angle of reinforcement inclination

fyv – non-factored shear resistance of reinforcing steel

Asv – area of shear reinforcement

NOTE: the value (v - vc) introduced in the formula is not lesser than 0.4 N/mm2 [3.7.7.5]

3.3.9. Additional conditions concerning reinforcement due to punching:

It is required that the thickness of the plate reinforced due to punching be greater than 200mm

[3.7.7.5]

3.3.10. The rule of design:

If punching reinforcement is required, then after completing the analysis of the critical perimeter

described in point 3.3.3, the next perimeter is being analyzed – the perimeter 0.75d distant from

the previous one. The capacity condition discussed in point 3.3.7. is checked again for it. If it is

not satisfied, then successive reinforcement is calculated. The procedure lasts until the perimeter

which fulfills the capacity condition of point 3.3.7, is found.

In case when there are several punching zones that require reinforcement, only these bars are

distributed within successive zones that have not been considered in the previous zone. It results

from overlapping of zones by the width 0.75d.

3.3.12. NOTE: Numbering of the code points – square parentheses designation and formula numbers

are compatible with BS 8110:Part 1:1985.

3.4.1. Calculations according to point: [4.3.4]

3.4.2. It is required that the longitudinal reinforcement ratio of an element verified due to punching

equal not less than 0.5% in both directions [4.3.4.1] (full compatibility with Eurocode 2); if this

condition is not met, section reinforcement is increased to reach the appropriate value.

3.4.3. Calculations of the perimeter are performed in compliance with [4.3.4.2] (full compatibility with

Eurocode 2)

3.4.4. In calculations of the critical perimeter, neighboring openings are considered in compliance with

the following

as well as slab edges according to [4.3.4.2.2] (full compatibility with Eurocode 2).

3.4.5. The basis for calculations are admissible shear stresses occurring on the critical perimeter.

Calculation of stresses are carried out as follows:

VSd

Sd (4.50) (full compatibility with Eurocode 2)

u

where:

VSd – maximal punching force

– factor considering effects of the force acting on eccentricity

u – critical perimeter

The factor is defined by the user in the Results/ Punching dialog box separately for each of the

columns. The default value of the factor equals 1.15 – as for interior columns. For corner

columns the value 1.5 is required, whereas for edge columns 1.4.

3.4.6. Maximal values of stresses due to punching are calculated from the formulas:

1

v Rd1 0.1 k (100 l f ck ) 3 0.15 cp d (4.56 B)

where

200

k 1

d

d – slab thickness [mm]

l ( lx ly ) 0.015

lx – horizontal reinforcement ratio in the direction x

ly – horizontal reinforcement ratio in the direction y

N pd

cp - refers to prestressed structures and is not considered in punching analysis.

Ac

The maximal admissible stress for sections reinforced due to punching equals:

v Rd 2 1.6 v Rd1 (4.57) (full compatibility with Eurocode 2)

3.4.7. Check of the punching capacity condition:

Capacity condition:

vsd vrd1 [based on 3.7.7.4] (full compatibility with Eurocode 2).

3.4.8. If the condition discussed in 3.4.6. is not satisfied, calculations of reinforcement due to punching

are performed. The formula determined in the code is applied here:

v Rd 3 v Rd1

A sw f yd sin( )

(4.58) (full compatibility with Eurocode 2).

u

3.4.9. Additional conditions concerned with punching reinforcement:

It is required that the thickness of a plate reinforced due to punching be not lesser than 200mm

[5.4.3.3(1)]( full compatibility with Eurocode 2).

The ratio of punching reinforcement has to be greater than:

Concrete classes Steel grades

BE220 (S220) BE220 (S220) BE220 (S220)

C12/15 to C20/25 0,096 0,054 0,042

C25/30 to C35/40 0,144 0,078 0,066

C40/50 to C50/60 0,18 0,096 0,078

[5.4.3.3(2)] (full compatibility with Eurocode 2).

The ratio of reinforcement due to punching has to be greater than:

w

A sw sin( )

[4.3.4.5.2 (4)] (full compatibility with Eurocode 2).

Acirt Aload

where:

Acrit – area contained within critical perimeter

Aload – area to which load is applied

v Rd 3

3.4.10. A safety coefficient is expressed by the formula:

v Sd

3.4.11. NOTE: Numbering of the code points – square parentheses designation and formula numbers

are compliant with EC2 – Norme Belge NBN B 15-002 1e éd. décembre 1995. If a given point of

Belgian NAD is identical as in Eurocode 2, such a point has been given explanatory notes (full

compatibility with Eurocode 2).

3.5. PN-B-03264

3.5.1. Calculations are performed according to point [5.6]

3.5.2. It is required that the longitudinal reinforcement ratio of an element verified due to punching be

not lesser than 0.5% in both directions [5.6.1]

3.5.3. Angle of stress propagation (the pyramid of critical surface) equals 45 o [5.6.2]

3.5.4. The basis for calculations is the admissible punching force. It is calculated as follows:

N Rd f ctd u p d (based on 64)

where:

NRd – design (factored) section capacity

fctd – design (factored) tensile resistance of concrete

up – critical perimeter (arithmetic average of the perimeters of the surface acted upon by

a force and the surface generated on the reinforcement level assuming that lateral

planes of the pyramid are inclined at 45o angle)

d – section height without a cover

3.5.5. Check of the punching capacity condition of a concrete section:

N Sd N Rd (based on 64)

where:

NSd – design punching force

A load applied within the punching zone is not considered by the program!!! It implies a more

severe capacity condition than the one imposed by the code:

N Sd ( g q) A N Rd (based on 64)

where:

g – slab unit weight (slab dead load)

q – load evenly distributed on the plate surface

A – area cut off by sections on the (medium) level of bending reinforcement area

3.5.6. If the condition discussed in 4.5.5. is not satisfied, calculations of punching reinforcement are

performed.

The following formula specified in the code is applied:

N Rd Asw1 f ywd Asw2 f ywd sin( ) ( based on 68)

the program distinguishes two cases:

N Rd Asw1 f ywd for perpendicular bars

N Rd Asw2 f ywd sin( ) for inclined bars

On the basis of the above formulas calculation of the required reinforcement area A sw1 or Asw2 is

performed.

3.5.7. Check of the capacity condition of a section reinforced due to punching:

N Sd N Rd (based on 68)

N Sd N Rd 1.4 f ctd u p d (67)

where designations – as in points 3.5.3 and 3.5.4

3.5.8. Structural conditions of inclination of punching reinforcement 30 o <<60 o

3.5.9. The reinforcement range equals [9.1.1.4]:

min. 1.2d from column face for perpendicular reinforcement

min. 1.5d from column face for inclined reinforcement

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