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International Journal of Reviews in Computing

© 2009 IJRIC. All rights reserved. IJRIC
www.ijric.org E-ISSN: 2076-3336

1 2 3
Research Scholar, EEE Dept., JNTU, Hyderabad-85, Andhra Pradesh, India,
Associate Professor, MITS, Madanapalli, Chittor Dist, AP, India.
Phone : +91 09441078630, Email : obulesh_d@yahoo.co.in, dakkaobulesh@gmail.com
Professor & HOD, Dept. of EEE, Aurora Engg College, Bhongir-508116.
Phone: +91 09866666660, Email : kodadsf@rediffmail.com
Professor, Dept. of EEE, JNTUCE, Kukatpally, Hydarabad-85.
Phone: +91 09849303342, Email : bvsram4321@yahoo.com


This paper presents a novel development of a fuzzy logic controlled power system using UPFCs to damp
the oscillations in a FACTS based integrated multi-machine power system consisting of 3 generators, 3
transformers, 9 buses, 4 loads & 2 UPFCs. Oscillations in power systems have to be taken a serious note
of when the fault takes place in any part of the system, else this might lead to the instability mode &
shutting down of the power system. UPFC based POD controllers can be used to suppress the oscillations
upon the occurrence of a fault at the generator side or near the bus side. In order to improve the dynamic
performance of the multi-machine power system, the behavior of the UPFC based POD controller should be
coordinated, otherwise the power system performance might be deteriorated. In order to keep the
advantages of the existing POD controller and to improve the UPFC-POD performance, a hybrid fuzzy
coordination based controller can be used ahead of a UPFC based POD controller to increase the system
dynamical performance & to coordinate the UPFC-POD combination. This paper depicts about this hybrid
combination of a fuzzy with a UPFC & POD control strategy to damp the electro-mechanical oscillations.
The amplification part of the conventional controller is modified by the fuzzy coordination controller.
Simulink models are developed with & without the hybrid controller. The 3 phase to ground symmetrical
fault is made to occur near the first generator for 200 ms. Simulations are performed with & without the
controller. The digital simulation results show the effectiveness of the method presented in this paper.

Keywords : UPFC, POD, Fuzzy logic, Coordination, Controller, Oscillations, Damping, Stability,
Simulink, State space model.

1. INTRODUCTION angles. One of the controllers being used in the
work presented in this paper is the UPFC based
Applications of ANN to power systems are a fuzzy coordination scheme for the damping of
growing area of interest. In the modern day power power system oscillations [1].
system stability, operation & control (PSOC),
The FACTS initiative was originally launched
FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission Systems) plays
in 1980’s to solve the emerging problems faced due
a very important role. Usage of FACTS in the
to restrictions on transmission line construction,
power systems not only enhances the dynamic
and to facilitate growing power export / import and
performance, but also increases the stability of the
wheeling transactions among utilities. The two
power systems, enhances the controllability &
basic objectives behind the development of FACTS
increases its power transfer capability. Some of the
technology; is to increase power transfer capability
devices used in the control of FACTS are the SVC,
of transmission systems, and to keep power flow
over designated routes, significantly increase the
FACTS controllers utilize power electronics based
utilization of existing (and new) transmission
technology and can provide dynamic control on line
assets, and play a major role in facilitating
power flows, bus voltages, line impedance & phase


Gyugyi proposed the Unified It is possible to vary the impedance of specific Power Flow Controller which is the new type transmission line to force power flow along a generation of FACTS devices in the year 1991 [26]. control problem has also investigated using linear control techniques [13-15]. controllability of the power system is increased with these objectives. In general. the most promising device in the FACTS concept. shunt. The with desirable voltage magnitude and phase angle controlling of the power flow and increasing the in a line can provide a powerful means of precisely transmission capacity of the existing transmission controlling the active and reactive power flows. connection in the network. system technology [25]. Dynamic reactive power compensation and damping power system FACTS devices enhance the stability of the oscillations can also be achieved using FACTS power system with its fast control characteristics controllers. The all combined series-series. FACTS devices have shown very promising it can perform the control function of the results when used to improve the power system transmission line real / reactive power flow. one that alters the line series reactance formed due to the combination of the two other or bus shunt reactance or voltage phase difference FACTS devices. A unified power flow controller (UPFC) is minimal requirements for new transmission lines. Two fuzzy logic controllers based on Compared with other FACTS devices. the utilization of the existing reliability can be enhanced while operating and power system comes into optimal condition and the transmission investment cost can be reduced. The power-feedback control scheme feedback TCSC controller based on the pole is used in the control mechanism of UPFC [32]. series. viz. In addition. These can be divided into four categories based on their are connected to each other by a common DC link. Based on Nabavi–Iravani model [20]. The selection of suitable location for UPFC was studied and composite-criteria based fuzzy logic Many research efforts have been devoted to the was used to evaluate the network contingency control of TCSC.which is the model a UPFC for steady-state and transient abbreviation of Flexible AC Transmission Systems. Several trials have been reported in the literature to According to IEEE. and power transfer capability”.. studies. This device was principles. they have been very The control mechanism and the controller have promising candidates for utilization in power an important effect on the performance of UPFC. TCPS. and TCSC. The FACTS controllers optimization of the power flow in the electrical have been broadly developed on two different power transmission systems [7]. International Journal of Reviews in Computing © 2009 IJRIC. The first generation the literature. Thus. In addition. because of bus voltage and the shunt-reactive-power flow the extremely fast control action associated with control [29]. by lines are the two main objectives of FACTS which system stability can be improved. power [30]. and to regulate the unwanted loop power the member of the FACTS device thus emerged as flows and parallel power flows in the one of the effective controllers for controlling and interconnected system. FACTS . All rights reserved. UPFC steady state performance. voltage and phase angle) can be combination [2]. and continuous compensating capability. placement technique [16]. al. being one systems. several control mechanisms are used FACTS devices include SVC. the TCPS logic scheme for the control purposes [3]. is defined as “alternating current transmission Wang developed two UPFC models [21-23] which systems incorporating power electronics based and have been linearized and incorporated into the other static controllers to enhance controllability Heffron-Phillips model [3]. and combined series-shunt. Chen et. Other TCSC optimal and The power fluctuation is damped readily and the nonlinear control schemes proposed in the literature 26 . FACTS controllers Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC). desired “contract path” in the emerging power Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC). control simultaneously by UPFC [28]. designed a state ranking [31].ijric. we have used the series-shunt (impedance. FACTS-device operations. Injecting the series voltage phasor. In system damping enhancement. Based on the equal area criterion. which is a typical a storage capacitor. It in UPFC models. A novel fuzzy inference system has been found that SVCs can be effective in described in matrix form was proposed and used to damping power system oscillations if a improve the dynamic control of real and reactive supplementary feedback signal is applied [11-12].org E-ISSN: 2076-3336 contractual power flow in electricity markets with [17-19]. little Mamdani type fuzzy logic were used. In our work attention has been paid to TCPS modeling and considered. parameters of the power transmission line In our work. we have used the Mamdani type fuzzy control. namely Static Synchronous across a line and utilizes conventional thyristor Compensator (STATCOM) and the Static switches for control. IJRIC www.

universal approximation theorem and frequency oscillation in a power system constrains rules-based algorithm [5]. This has been showed by few speed and power flows over tie-lines should remain researchers in their papers [10]. Controlled Series Compensation for Improving power systems with oscillation frequency in the Stability of Multi-Machine Power Systems in [17]. [36]. range of 0. there is no proposed in 1965 to deal with the system control change in the value of the real power. It has been shown that a of the power system [4]. properly designed direct fuzzy controller can out- perform conventional proportional integral Damping of electromechanical oscillations derivative (PID) controllers [8]. generator rate and power. of electromechanical oscillations occurring in [4]. be observed in most power system variables like bus voltage. a fuzzy control algorithm consists of a terms of load and power flow condition and so set of heuristic decision rules and can be regarded causing problems of line transmission capacity. giving robust performance under parameter system research and applications. nowadays. But. All rights reserved. method of variable interval-fuzzy-mutual is used in The concept of FLC is to utilize the qualitative the control mechanism of UPFC [33]. International Journal of Reviews in Computing © 2009 IJRIC. The knowledge of a system to design a practical performance of UPFCs is observed by using three controller. However. FLCs combined with UPFC Very few researchers have worked on multi- can definitely reduce the POD in multi-machine machine control of FACTS systems. Note that fuzzy between interconnected machines in a integrated logic controllers are nothing but rule-based power system is always necessary for a secured controllers in which a set of rules representing a system operation. the fast progress in the field of The control doesn’t need accurate mathematical power electronics has opened new opportunities for model of a plant. in contrast system oscillation stability & refers to the damping to a conventional feedback control algorithm [3]. as an adaptive and non-mathematical control But.ijric. systems [9]. control algorithm embeds the intuition and experience of an operator designer and researcher. However. Of course. The deregulation variation and load disturbance effect [8]. Further. majority of them wide range of operating conditions with much are confined to single machine infinite bus systems. and therefore. IJRIC www. The fuzzy logic control technique has been an Power system oscillations were first observed as active research topic in automation and control soon as synchronous generators were theory since the work of Mamdani proposed in 27 . to 2 Hz. Of course. excellent results can be obtained using the fuzzy logic In an interconnected power system. [6]. low frequency electromechanical control scheme with a UPFC for a FACTS power oscillations may occur when a disturbance is system to dampen the power system oscillations applied to the power system. 2] will imply a new scenario in In general. In this paper. [8]. of interconnection of large power systems. line current. threatens explored the potentials of fuzzy control for machine system security and damages the efficient operation drive application [7]. some problems exist like power algorithm based on a linguistic process. we make a modest attempt to simulate a fuzzy logic However. These low-frequency Fuzzy control using linguistic information oscillations are the consequence of the development possesses several advantages such as robustness. a fuzzy different controllers comparisons in [34-35].org E-ISSN: 2076-3336 value of reactive power is minimized as possible by 1974 based on the fuzzy sets theory of Zadeh using several time constants. A FACTS controller always control decision mechanism to adjust the effect of increases the transmission capability and the certain cases coming from power system is stability. Oscillation Stability analysis and fuzzy control is basically non-linear and adaptive in control has been an important subject in power nature. the concepts. In recent years. these FLCs do not require a methods for damping of power system oscillations mathematical model of the system & can cover a using FACTS devices. constant under normal operating conditions. The control problems which are not easy to be modeled [36]. fuzzy control Unified Power Flow Controller which offer an algorithm can be developed by adaptation based on alternative means to mitigate power system learning and fuzzy model of the plant [14]. and competitive environment in the contemporary power networks [1. Recent literature has the capability of power transmission. For a process control system. it suits well to a the power industry via utilization of the controllable process where the systems with uncertain or Flexible AC Transmission System devices like complex dynamics. The oscillations [5]. this yields satisfactory results [6].2 Hz. Researchers have developed a number of considered. These oscillations can [7]. robustness inherency. A low model-free. neural network concepts & the genetic synchronous generators should rotate at the same algorithms.

for EPS using FACTS to damp the oscillations was presented by Korba et. it was system state matrix of size (n × n). 2 Fuzzy Transmission lines are connected between the buses Logic Controller 3-9-4-6. 1 3 Gen 3 Simulation results are presented in section 5. In section 3. the design of the controller is presented. Section 2 presents the mathematical [12]. IJRIC www. modeling of the multi-machine system along with 9-bus interconnected power system model with 4 the parameters. model with 4-loads without the controllers 5 and 8. 1 : A 3-machine. (1) other at frequencies of around 1 – 2 Hz. loads L1 to L4 & 2 UPFCs is given in table I. Bus 9 Load 1 Load 3 Load 4 2. a brief introduction to the FACTS. Fig. Since. the UPFC controller & the oscillations are reduced quickly in no time. i. we know that the power system is a Gen 2 Bus 7 Bus 6 dynamic one.. for Bus 8 Transformer 2 Load 4 stepping up & stepping down purposes. Controller Gen 1 Bus 5 Bus 2 Three transformers T1 to T3 are also used in Bus 9 POD 1 the integrated power system near the generator Load 1 Load 3 UPFC buses for the power transmission purposes. definitely. the control strategy.al. Load 2 Simulink environment. B is the control noticed that this kind of excitation system always input vector of size (n × r). Conclusions are finally presented at the end in Gen 1 section 6. ∆u is the input vector of length r. POD 2 For modeling & simulation purposes in the Matlab. International Journal of Reviews in Computing © 2009 IJRIC. MODELING OF THE 3-MACHINE. 1 & 2 respectively [10]. Two UPFC’s are used for controlling & damping the power system oscillations in the UPFC integrated plant [10]. By linearizing about an operating point. D is the feed-forward matrix oscillations.org E-ISSN: 2076-3336 interconnected to provide more generation capacity the total linearized power system model (the plant and more reliability to a power system [10]. applications. ∆y is the output vector of length introduced to prevent the generators from loosing m. Load 2 line diagram (single line diagram) with & without the controllers in the Figs. its disturbances taking place like the faults. The simulation parameters of the 3-machine. Damper ∆y = C ∆x + D ∆u. Note that for this linearized power system model. the fairly closely connected generators were observed to swing against each ∆x& = A ∆x + B ∆u. a numerical model is needed. controllers are designed and put in loop with The organization of the paper is as follows. 2 and 3 are connected to buses 1. Advanced tuning of POD controllers of size (m × r). the evolutions.ijric. [37]. model) is represented finally in the state space form as [10] Originally. After fast excitation systems were number of states n. 9-bus interconnected power system The generators 1. ∆x is the state vector of length equal to the increasing. All rights reserved. thus fuzzy logic controller was presented in the previous becoming a closed loop feedback control system paragraphs. C is the control input tends to reduce the damping of the system vector of size (m × n). windings on the generator’s rotor were used to prevent the amplitude of oscillations from where. 28 .e. it is a non-linear system. One is connected between Bus 1 Transformer 1 1 Bus 3 Bus 4 Transformer 3 bus 2 & 3 and the other is connected between buses Fuzzy Gen 3 Logic 6 and 7. A is the synchronism following a system is fault. 9-BUS Bus 8 Transformer 2 INTEGRATED POWER SYSTEM The integrated multi-machine power system Gen 2 model consisting of 3 generators used for the Bus 7 Bus 6 simulation purposes is shown in the form of a one. Section 4 presents the development of the Simulink model for Bus 1 Transformer Bus 3 Bus 4 Transformer the damping of the power system oscillations. the plant model so that when there are any Firstly. This is followed by the acronyms & the Bus 5 Bus 2 references.

The first From the control system point of view.) damping of power system oscillations using Power lines Oscillation Damping (POD). Vse max = 0. [4].0. the UPFC consists of a boosting A controller is a device which controls each & transformer and an excitation transformer linked by every operation in the system making decisions. better and faster X d 1 = X d 2 = 1.u.u.17 ( p. back-to-back converters 1 and 2. 2 H 3 = 10 thyristor controlled systems [13]. In addition. Moreover.65 ( p. control of power flow.305 ( p. it is converter 1 is connected in shunt and the second bringing stability to the system when there is a one 2 in series with the line.) It can be connected in series with a X q1 = X q 2 = 1. International Journal of Reviews in Computing © 2009 IJRIC.). generally not attainable by conventional Generators 2 H1 = 2 H 2 = 8 s.1VOper including ours [10]. one of their applications is the Transmission Z l1 = Z l 2 = Z l 3 = 0. X d 3 = 2 ( p.56 ( p. using Base value VB = 220 KV . power in steady-state conditions. Vse min = −0. In this section.) connecting sub-systems in a large interconnected power system [7].u.u. i. It has the possible to control real and reactive power flow. been attracting the interest of many researchers. UPFC further X d 1 = X d 2 = 0. high voltage transmission networks & is generally used speed of operation of thyristor devices makes it as a controller in loop with the plant. control of voltage and system stability. The main task of the UPFC is to control the flow of acting reactive power compensation on high. controller or a combination of both.e. As shown in Fig.u. performances of a power system as they allow more Td 03 = 6 s accurate control of the power flow. S B = 100 MVA solid state controllers. It has a capability D1 = D2 = D3 = 0.). IJRIC www. Converter presented. [6]. It may be the series converter through a common DC link [1].) system in coordination with damping controllers Transformers X T 1 = X T 2 = X T 3 = j 0.9 ( p. which provide functional flexibility. hardware based controller or a software based [2]. 9-bus interconnected power system used to control active and reactive power flows in a model with 4-loads & 2 POD-UPFC & the fuzzy transmission line. transmission line inside a system or in a tie-line X q 3 = 1.u. line The UPFC can be employed to enhance power impedance and phase angle. It consists of two solid-state synchronous voltage Table I : Machine parameter details source converters coupled through a common DC link capacitor as shown in Fig.) [8]. of improving both steady-state and dynamic Td 01 = Td 02 = 4. As a result.1VOper .. 3.). thus providing the in a integrated power system in between some voltage support.06 ( p. i. DEVELOPMENT OF THE source inverters sharing a common DC storage CONTROL STRATEGY capacitor. 2 provides the main function of the UPFC by The unified power flow controller (UPFC) is injecting additional voltage with controllable one of the most promising device & most versatile magnitude and phase angle in series with the controller device used in the FACTS family [1] .org E-ISSN: 2076-3336 Fig.u. 29 .0 + j 0. and can also system damping by modulating the converter independently provide (positive or negative) voltages.05 ( p.u.. the silicon controlled rectifiers. The shunt converter is disturbance or a noise or a fault.).49 s. 2 : A 3-machine. The heart of the UPFC is the power electronic L4 = 0. 3. controller The concept of UPFC makes it possible to handle practically all power flow control and transmission line compensation problems. Loads L1 = L2 = L3 = 0. improves the dynamic performance of the power X d 3 = 0. It is an electrical device for providing fast. [5]. 2 voltage 3.25 ( p. The UPFCs are used at certain locations reactive power injections. capability to control voltage magnitude.u.25 ( p. & can be buses [3]. All rights reserved.u.ijric. Converter 1 can also generate or absorb the development of the control strategy for damping reactive power and thereby provide independent the oscillations in FACTS based power systems is shunt reactive compensation for the line. transmission line through series transformer [26].e. which recently has UPFCs VOper = 220 KV .) devices. thus safeguarding primarily used to provide active power demand of the equipment from further damages. Two coupling transformers are used.

This automatic voltage control mode.. the oscillations. the settling time buses to be 9 & Two UPFCs connected between may be more. the uncontrolled mode. Hence.. especially UPFC output is in the series compensation mode when large faults & disturbances takes place. This trio concept not only Fig. the line impedance emulation In the POD-UPFC base controllers for the mode & the automatic power flow control mode. International Journal of Reviews in Computing © 2009 IJRIC. In the conventional methods - considered. the voltage is perpendicular to the line current this case.e. Since the it may swing into the instability mode. This trio concept not only of convenience. ringing bus 2. the control of power system Capacitor 2 oscillations with fuzzy scheme & POD . T r a n s m is s io n lin e D C C o n tr o lle r 2 There are a lot of advantages of UPFC schemes C o n tr o lle r 1 used in FACTS. the VAR control mode and the power system. IJRIC www. UPFC is operated performance characteristics may be deteriorated & in the direct voltage injection mode. performance is very good for Wang et. for the multi-machine problems. But. 4 : Expanded view of the UPFC scheme used in obtained when the POD based UPFC scheme is FACTS coordinated with a fuzzy scheme.al. still accurate results can be Fig. by the usage of POD & A C A C UPFC in coordiantion with a fuzzy controller in the FACTS based power systems. of the power system oscillations may be perfectly the inductive mode & the capacitive mode [17]. the of the power system oscillations. viz. 7. FACTS systems. this concept. in order to achieve desired performance (Iline) and the phase angle of the line current is of the multi-model system using the POD based 30 . oscillations with fuzzy scheme & POD .ijric. the damping concept in his paper. i..UPFC is Some of them are just mentioned here for the sake used in our paper. but also increases the stability. In our work used in FACTS. this DC Link Converter concept. 2 control modes are used for the improves the dynamics & the characteristics of the shunt control. 3 and 6. but also increases the stability. the settling time. the Shunt Series oscillations. the ringing effects of various power side side Converter 1 system parameters would be still less then the previous counter-part (still improved with accurate damping). effects may be more. 4 control modes can be observed in the simulation results presented are used for the series control. we have taken the total number of FACTS + POD controller + UPFC. [9] has used the 3 control scheme single machine infinite bus problems. viz. oscillations may be more. 4. i.. by the usage of POD & Series Transformer UPFC in coordiantion with a fuzzy controller in the i j FACTS based power systems. In the Fig. the series inner details used for the dynamic simualtion in the compensating damping control can be achieved in a Simulink is shown in the Fig. the ringing effects of various power system parameters would be still less then the Inputs Inputs U P F C C o n tr o lle r previous counter-part (still improved with accurate damping). shown.org E-ISSN: 2076-3336 The expanded model of the UPFC with its ahead of Vse. viz. But. In (Vse). By the control of the Vse. the control of power system UPFCs can be operated in a number of modes. phase angle shifter emulation mode. In the conventional methods - FACTS + POD controller + UPFC. ringing C effects may be more.. the settling time may be more. But.e. voltage injection mode. the direct in section 5 in this paper [19]. still accurate results can be Transformer Shunt C obtained when the POD based UPFC scheme is coordinated with a fuzzy scheme. In achieved. All rights reserved. 3 : A block diagram of the UPFC scheme used in improves the dynamics & the characteristics of the FACTS (single line diagram) power system. But. the i and j represents the buses in the There are a lot of advantages of UPFC schemes integrated power system model. 3 coordinated manner [18]. the settling time. This can be observed in the simulation results presented S h u n t Tra n sfo rm e r Series Transformer in section 5 in this paper [19]. But.UPFC is used in our paper. the work considered in this paper for the damping using POD based UPFC controllers. oscillations may be more. Hence.

which means that an element may partially belong to more than one set. PID) & the conventional controllers (POD-UPFC). International Journal of Reviews in Computing © 2009 IJRIC. The necessary inputs to generic element x ∈ X and its membership function the decision-making unit blocks are the rule-based µ : X → [ 0 1]. 5. This is very viz. The decision making unit the fuzzy rules among the linguistic variables [27].org E-ISSN: 2076-3336 UPFC controller. between the POD-UPFC controllers. one has to use multiple POD. Actual output Then. Fuzzy set is an extension of a ‘crisp’ set where an element can only belong to a set (full membership) Fig. For multi-machine follows [23]. which associates a number µA(x) : units and the data based block units. such as the Data base Rule base Decision Making simplicity of control. 5 : A diagrammatic view of a typical fuzzy logic controller used along with POD-UPFC for controlling the or not belong at all (no membership). the fuzzy logics can be used along with the UPFC POD-UPFC controller. A fuzzy logic fuzzification unit converts the crisp data into controller is based on a set of control rules called as linguistic variables. The X → [ 0 1]. because a single POD-UPFC making logic (inference system) and the de- controller is used for the control of different fuzzification. decides in the linguistic variables with the help of These rules are expressed in the form of conditional logical linguistic rules supplied by the rule base statements. which are explained in brief as parameters in a single machine. All rights reserved. may be represented by the fuzzy sets. fuzzification.decision much essential. The output of the decision-making unit is 31 . system. Fuzzy sets oscillations in a power system allow partial membership. These Fuzzy coordination controller fuzzy controllers have got a lot of advantages compared to the classical (P. the coordination between the different POD based UPFC controllers plays a very important role System (Plant) Power in the stability of the power systems [20]. IJRIC www. low cost.ijric. definitely. to each element x of X. A fuzzy set A of a universe of discourse X is The internal structure of the fuzzy coordination represented by a collection of ordered pairs of unit is shown in the Fig. To achieve excellent coordination between the various parameters of the POD based UPFC controllers in FACTS. (Power angle) UPFC controllers for controlling the oscillations. Fuzzification Fuzzy logic is one of the successful Unit applications of fuzzy set in which the variables are linguistic rather than the numeric variables & emerged as a consequence of the 1965 proposal of fuzzy set theory by Lotfi Zadeh. which yields excellent performance. defined as variables whose values are sentences in a natural language (such as large or Refer ence small). knowledge base . one has to take the coordination in the power system consists of 3 important parts. [5]. De-fuzzification fuzzy logic controller is used to coordinate between the various parameters of the multi-machine based Unit FACTS power system along with the POD-UPFC as shown in the block diagram in the Fig. high reliability. 5. Linguistic variables. Our basic structure of the fuzzy logic unit and the relevant data supplied by the data base coordination controller to damp out the oscillations [8[. In the research work considered in this paper.. Unit compactness of the hardware (since fuzzy logic controller just makes use of fuzzy rules) and the possibility to design without knowing the exact mathematical model of the process [22]. PI. This type of hybrid controller concept is considered in order to keep the existing POD based UPFC controller performance and POD further improve its control performance using the fuzzy scheme [21].

The membership function of the small form of an algorithm as follows : set is given by the Eqn. in the first stage. B). Power inputs of UPFC 1 and UPFC 2 are membership functions as mentioned in the above given to fuzzy controller. the value of the function is having a 7. Eqns. International Journal of Reviews in Computing © 2009 IJRIC. If (input_1 is mf2) and (input_2 is mf1) then where x. ⎧ 0 x < ( p − N) ⎪ ( x + N − p) The fuzzification maps the 2 input variables to ⎪ ( p − N ) ≤ x ≤ p (4) µ Big ( x) = ⎨ N linguistic labels of the fuzzy sets.org E-ISSN: 2076-3336 given as input to the de-fuzzification unit and the ⎧ 0 x< p linguistic variables of the signal are converted back ⎪( x − p ) (3) into the numeric form of data in the crisp form [5]. In between the 2 (output_1 is s1)(1) inequalities. (output_1 is mf3)(1) The membership function of the big set is 8. IJRIC www. which can be observed from the algorithm mentioned below [24]. when it is greater 6. (2) as [10] 1. µ Big ( x) = ⎨ N p ≤ x ≤ ( p + N) The decision-making unit uses the conditional rules ⎪ 1 x > ( p + N) ⎩ of ‘IF-THEN-ELSE’.e. If (input_1 is mf3) and (input_2 is mf2) then given by the Eqn. The fuzzy (− x + N + p ) p ≤ x ≤ (p + N) ⎪ N coordinated controller uses the linguistic labels : ⎪ {(Small S mf1). (3) as [10] (output_1 is mf2)(1) 9. In the The membership function of the medium set is fuzzification process. If (input_1 is mf1) and (input_2 is mf2) then ⎪− x + p µ small ( x) = ⎨ N ( p − N) ≤ x ≤ p (2) (output_1 is mf2)(1) ⎪ 3. the crisp given by the Eqn. The membership function of triangular Note that p is the parameter which can be type is used in our work & is shown in the Fig. The output of the fuzzy.ijric. If (input_1 is mf1) and (input_2 is mf3) then ⎩ 0 x> p (output_1 is s1)(1) 4. All rights reserved.. If (input_1 is mf1) and (input_2 is mf1) then (output_1 is mf3)(1) ⎧ 1 x < (p − N) 2. which are further rule base for the fuzzification process is explained given as inputs to the POD [25]. The output of the fuzzy-converter will genarate The developed fuzzy rules included in the the pulses. (Medium M mf1). If (input_1 is mf2) and (input_2 is mf2) then this equation. controllers [27]. graphically in the form of a diagram in the Fig. the value of the function is 1. If (input_1 is mf3) and (input_2 is mf1) then decreasing slope of −1 [26]. If (input_1 is mf2) and (input_2 is mf3) then than p. which are further given as inputs to the fuzzy coordinated controller is given below in the POD [25]. 7. the value is zero. µ(x) Small Medium Big mf1 mf2 mf3 1 PUPFC-1 FUZZYSVPWM (Mandani) Ouput 0 p−n p p+n 1 x PUPFC-2 Fig. From 5. The whole concept of the M. If (input_1 is mf3) and (input_2 is mf3) then (output_1 is s1)(1) 32 . i. (4) as [10] variables PUPFC-1 and PUPFC-2 are converted into fuzzy variables or the linguistics variables [7]. we see that when x is less than (p− (output_1 is mf2)(1) N). ⎩ 1 x > ( p + N) Each fuzzy label has an associated membership function. determined on the basis of the rated values of the The inputs are fuzzified using the 3-fuzzy sets (S. (Big B mf2)}. is the inputs to the Fuzzy-POD-UPFC (output_1 is mf3)(1) controllers. 6 : FIS Fuzzy editor with 2 inputs and 1 outputs Fig. 7 : Membership function used in the fuzzification process. 6. namely the PUPFC-1 and PUPFC-2. (2) to (4) which are used in generating the converter will genarate the pulses.

the amplification block. This process is what is called as de-fuzzification. In our work. This operation along with the operation of fuzzification is critical to the design of fuzzy systems as both of these operations provide nexus between the fuzzy set domain and the real valued scalar domain [31]. the 9 output variables of the inference coordination controller used in the work is shown system are the linguistic variables and they must be in the block-diagram in the Fig. maximum methods. set S set M B PUPFC2 ↓ mf1 mf2 mf3 The control signal generated from this combined fuzzy-POD-UPFC is given to the multi- Small set S mf1 B M S machine model which is further used to dampen the Medium set M mf2 B M S oscillations [34]. As is given as input to the UPFC controller. The main advantage of putting Big set B mf3 M S S the fuzzy coordination controller before the UPFC- POD in modeling is the amplification part of the Table II : The 9-fuzzy rules used for determining the conventional controller being modified by the fuzzy output decisions (Inference table) rule base used for the coordination unit. (5) as 9 ∑ µ (u ). which in turn rules for determining the output decisions [28]. in this way. POD based UPFC controller. Defuzzification is the process of producing a quantifiable result in fuzzy logic. The inference involves a set of further given as the input to the POD. M. i.. B). the shown in the Fig. Thus. To determine the The modeling of this is done in Simulink and is degree of memberships for the output variables. the the table II as follows : conventional POD controllers are tuned by making PUPFC1 → Small Medium Big Set use of the fuzzy-coordination controllers. they have to be de-fuzzified [30]. thus increasing the power system control purposes stability. centre of singleton method. the wash out coordination controller has a set of 9 rules for each link. There are so many methods to perform the deffuzification.. Note that controller (PUPFC-1 and PUPFC-2) are the active power both the controllers use the same rule base system flow through the UPFCs. the marginal properties of the centroid methods & so on. viz.e.ijric. 2 stage of lag-lead blocks and a limiter. The overall structure of the fuzzy- Now. 33 . 8. The output of the fuzzy-coordination controller according to the centre of gravity method is given by the Eqn. converted into numerical output. 9. centre of gravity method.org E-ISSN: 2076-3336 The control decisions are made based on the The output of the fuzzy-coordination unit is fuzzified variables. The rule base fuzzy-POD combination is the command signals to for the decision-making unit is written as shown in the UPFCs [33].. we use the centre of gravity method. IJRIC www. the fuzzy logic blocks. viz. The POD there are 2 input variables PUPFC-1 and PUPFC-2 & (Power Oscillation Damping) uses 5 individual three fuzzified variables (S. (5) 9 ∑ µ (u ) i =1 c i where ui corresponds to the value of the control output for which the membership values in the output sets are equal to unity [32]. uc i i u= i =1 . All rights reserved. The defuzzifcation transforms a fuzzy set information into a numeric data information. Only the input is exchanged. The output signal of the [29]. International Journal of Reviews in Computing © 2009 IJRIC. Note that the inputs to concept of min-max inference is used.

. the conventional POD controllers are 34 . 9 : Transfer function model of one of the 2 POD controllers used for simulation purposes with the numerical values 3.2 1 + s T2 1 + s T2 1 + sT1 1 + sT1 1 + s Tw 1 + s Tw s Tw s Tw Coordinator Coordinator Controller Controller Fuzzy Fuzzy 1 2 PUPFC-1 PUPFC-2 1 0.1 POD Controller . International Journal of Reviews in Computing © 2009 IJRIC. sub. feedback control system consisting of the plants. we present the development of basic functions available in the Simulink library & the Simulink model for the multi-machine power from the various tool-boxes available.[3 1]) tf([0. i. DEVELOPMENT OF THE SIMULINK systems. transformers. a wash-out block and mc stages system modeled in Simulink is a closed loop of lead-lag blocks & the limiters [35]. shows the simulation model of 3-generator. the output sinks (scopes) & MODEL the input sources [39]. 10 are used for voltage step up & step down purposes. Transformers system with and without the controller. first one between 2nd and the 3rd bus 3-stage first order transfer functions consisting of an and second one is at 6th and 7th bus.e. 8 : The Fuzzy coordinated-POD-UPFC controller the plant signal to Controller Controller UPFC UPFC 1 2 Vmax Vmax Limiter Limiter V min V min Control signal to UPFC-2 1 + sT3 1 + s T4 1 + sT3 1 + s T4 Control signal to UPFC-1 POD Controller . The Simulink model is developed from the In this section.7 tf([3 0]. integrators. The entire amplification block. The Fig.[0. POD controller & given as input to the UPFC.05 1]) tf([0. the POD is amplification signal adjusted to the UPFC mux.05 1]. state-space models. IJRIC www.05 1]. 9-bus The sub-system shown in the Simulink model system installed with two Fuzzy-POD-UPFC consists of FACTS POD controller and it involves a controllers.ijric.org E-ISSN: 2076-3336 Final control Fig.[0. feedback systems. All rights reserved.05 1]) 1 In1 Out1 Gain Amplification Wash-out link Two lag-lead blocks in cascade Limiter Block Fig. The output signal of the Fuzzy coordinated controllers. In this way. comparators. de-mux.

the power [36]. 12. 10 : The developed Simulink model of a 3-machine. the combined effect membership function is shown in the Fig. installed without the controllers. The the simulation model of 3-generator. fuzzification. the The 3 phase to ground symmetrical fault is simulation results were observed with & without the made to occur near the first generator for 200 ms controller. results. This is done in order to compare the developed controller. It is clearly first cycle to the tenth cycle like in the model with observed from the simulation results that with the the controller. A set of 9 fuzzy rules are the first generator for 200 ms from the first cycle to written and called in the form of a file in the the tenth cycle & is also simulated in the Simulink developed Simulink model with the controller. Further. inference. The step size for the simulation was the amplification part of the conventional controller taken to be very small so that we get very accurate is modified by the fuzzy coordination controllers. and the de. phase to ground symmetrical fault is also made to The comparative response curves with & without the occur near the first generator for 200 ms from the controller both is shown in the Fig. SIMULATION RESULTS characteristics take less time to settle & reach the Simulations are carried out in Matlab 7. 9-bus system rule viewer for the same is presented in the Fig. 16 and 17 respectively. angle characteristics curves exhibit very less overshoots & undershoots. IJRIC www. 18. to ground symmetrical fault is made to occur near fuzzification blocks. 10. 15. the considered shown in the Fig. All rights reserved. The 3 and is shown in the Figs. The fuzzy editor with 2 inputs & 1 from the first cycle to the tenth cycle. The 3 phase viz. an open loop control system vs. 14. Fuzzy we had taken a 3-generator nine bus system with coordinated controller consists of 3 basic blocks 220 KV line and 100 MW generators. The response curve of power angle in degrees This system is thus. 13.org E-ISSN: 2076-3336 coordinated dynamically by means of fuzzy-logic & controller. time is obtained without & with the controller because of the absence of the controller [40]. For the software implementation purposes. thus acting as a pre-amplifier [38]. 9-bus system with Fuzzy-POD-UPFC (with controller) 35 .ijric.. the dynamic performance of effectiveness of the incorporated controller in the the power system is quite improved with the model when the fault takes place with the model incorporation of the fuzzy coordination scheme. The response 5. The Fig. Due to the occurrence of the fault. The final steady state value. 11 shows coordination scheme is shown in the Fig. In the work output is shown in the Fig. The oscillations are also damped out in a lesser time. It without the controller when the fault takes place is also observed that with the controller. simulation was run for 2 secs with & without the To Workspace Vabc Continuous x1 PQ pow ergui Iabc timefuzzy To Workspace1 Clock 3-phase To Workspace4 x2 Instantaneous Vabc deltafuzzy Active & Reactive Power m Delta PQ Iabc To Workspace3 3-phase A a Out1 Vabc Vabc A A A Power Plant #1 B Iabc Iabc Pnom=1000 MW3 B b C Aa B a B a a A Out1 Power Plant #1 Bb b b A C c Pnom=1000 MW2 C C Cc B c c A b B C C A B T hree-Phase Three-Phase B4 B V-I Measurement V-I Measurement1 c C C A B C Three-Phase 1 C A B Series RLC Load1 z Three-Phase Unit Delay Series RLC Load2 y Conn1 To Workspace2 Current Regulator Conn2 1 Iabc* Conn3 1 z Pulses Subsystem1 Unit Delay2 Conn4 Conn1 z In1Out1 V* Iabc In1 Conn5 Unit Delay1 I* Conn2 V Fuzzy Logic Conn6 Subsystem 1 Conn3 Controller Conn7 z Conn4 Current Regulator2 In1Out1 V* Unit Delay3 Conn8 Conn5 In1 I* Iabc* V Conn9 Fuzzy Logic Pulses Conn6 Subsystem4 Subsystem2 Controller2 Iabc Conn7 a b c Conn8 Conn9 C A B C A B Out1 A B C Power Plant #1 Pnom=1000 MW1 Fig. International Journal of Reviews in Computing © 2009 IJRIC. The 9 of Fuzzy-POD-UPFC is mainly used for power fuzzy rules used in the development of fuzzy logic system oscillation damping [37]. model.

International Journal of Reviews in Computing © 2009 IJRIC.5 Vf _ 5 C C c B B B b 1000 MVA Out1 0. 12 : FIS Fuzzy editor with 2 inputs & 1 output Fig. All rights reserved.ijric.5 Vf _ 1000 MVA C C c B3 3 C A B Pref Vf A Aa 13.org E-ISSN: 2076-3336 Continuous B3 B9 pow ergui m Delta Va bc A A Out1 Scope3 Iab bc Out1 B5 A A a Aa Ba aB Aa a A A Aa Aa B Bb B b Bb b b Bb b B B Bb Cc C C C c Cc c c Cc c C C C Cc B1 B2 B4 Generator 2 C A B C Generator 1 A A B cC B6 aA bB C A B B C timewithout a b c Load 1 Load 4 To Workspace Clock Load 3 C A B Generator side 1 system 1 Generator side 3 system cC B3 aA bB m A 4 Pm m Pm A A a m A1 Pm B B b 2 A A a m Pm 0.8kV 1000 MVA C1 Reg_M1 B8 Reg_M2 1 Generator 3 Load 2 Out1 2 Out2 Fig. 13 : Developed membership functions using the Simulink 36 . 15 : Rule viewer for 2 inputs & one output Fig. 11 : The developed Simulink model of a 3-machine. IJRIC www.8 kV/230 kV 1000 MVA1 1000 MVA 13. 14 : 9-Fuzzy rules used in the development of the fuzzy logic coordination scheme Fig.8 kV/230 kV1 6 C Cc 13.8kV 1000 MVA C B Bb Pref Vf 13. 9-bus system without Fuzzy based UPFC-P OD (without controller) Fig.

D. while we check the power angle on the first generator. M. Edris. D. 4. IEEE Trans. 18 : Comparison of the simulation results of POD Power Oscillation Damping power angle v/s time PSOC Power System Operation & Control (without UPFC & with UPFC & fuzzy control) IEEE Institute of Electrical & Electronics SVC Static Var Compensator TCSC Thyristor Controlled Series Compensator 6. the nine bus system will be having more (without Fuzzy-POD-UPFC) disturbances. on Power modeling is the amplification part of the Systems. [2]. The system stabilizes quickly. pp. time were observed with and IEEE’96 Winter Meeting. from the incorporation of the Fuzzy- POD-UPFC coordination system in loop with the plant gave better results there by reducing the disturbances in the power angle and also the post fault settling time also got reduced a lot. Simulations were run in Matlab 7 & the and dynamic models of unified power flow results were observed on the scope. The performance of the developed method in this paper thus demonstrates the damping of the power system oscillations using the effectiveness of Fuzzy-POD-UPFC coordination concepts over the damping of power system oscillations without the Fuzzy-POD-UPFC coordination scheme. M. modeling. 4. reliable. The fuzzy control strategy was [1]. pp. Nabavi-Niaki and M. IJRIC www. Ghandari. Graphs of controller (UPFC) for power system studies”. Fig. 323–332. L. There are lot of ringing oscillations (overshoots / undershoots) & the output takes a lot of time to stabilize. The control strategy was also developed by writing a REFERENCES set of fuzzy rules. and may be easy to implement in real time applications. 3 loads with DC Direct Current and without the 2 Fuzzy-POD-UPFC controllers was AC Alternating Current considered in this paper. [4]. Angquist.M.R. 16 : Simulation result of power angle v/s time controller. which can be observed from the simulation results. Iravani. thus increasing the power system [3]. conventional controller being modified by the fuzzy 1997.ijric. Noroozian. 1629–1634. Simulink models were FLC Fuzzy Logic Control developed in Matlab 7 with & without the Fuzzy. Vol. and The main advantage of putting the fuzzy G. No. “Steady-state stability. But. 1992. 12. From the simulation results. and A. PD Proportional Derivative POD-UPFC controllers for the considered multi. thus damping the local mode oscillations and reducing the settling time immediately after the occurrence of the fault. CONCLUSIONS TCPS Thyristor Controlled Phase Shifter SSSC Static Synchronous Series Compensator A FACTS based multi-machine power system STATCOM Static Synchronous Compensator comprising of 3 generators. Vol. without the controller. Gyugi. 9 buses. 1996. Hamai. “Use of UPFC for optimal coordination controller before the POD-UPFC in power flow control”. PID Proportional Integrator Derivative machine model in order to damp out the oscillations. All rights reserved.. “Unified Power flow concept for designed based on the conventional POD-UPFC flexible AC transmission systems”. C.org E-ISSN: 2076-3336 Fig. power angle vs. coordination unit. Paper 96. Schauder. 17 : Simulation result of power angle v/s time (with The developed control strategy is not only UPFC & fuzzy control) simple. No. it was observed that without the Fuzzy-POD-UPFC “Operation of the Unified Power Flow 37 . International Journal of Reviews in Computing © 2009 IJRIC. 139. Anderson. IEE controller & put before the POD-UPFC in the Proc. L. NOMENCLATURE UPFC Unified Power Flow Controller FACTS Flexible AC Transmission System Fig.

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[27]. Visakha. 4. 321-327. & simultaneously [34]. 3. Transmission and Distribution Matlab. pp. 3 Park Avenue. and Hyderabad. Doctoral control of UPFC”. M. Ranebennur. 1 – 7. NY 10016-5997. Technology. A. 2008. Venayagamoorthy. Proc. Society General Meeting. India in the Dept. Lutfu Saribulut. M. Zurich. L. D. Orizondo. 2007. S. P. 2004. Nov. in Power Controller”. Vol. pp. India [32]. “Damping Multi-modal Power System Oscillation Using a Hybrid Fuzzy Controller for Series Connected FACTS Devices”.Tech. etc. He has got a teaching [33]. S. Karnataka.R. pp. “A New Unified experience of nearly 08 years. IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics from Dr. W. Trans. 2005. P. Mehmet Tumay. 2000. Madanapally. A. Mishra. Interconnected Systems”. Chittoor Dist. he is Power Flow Fuzzy Control Method”. Watanabe. 2006. working as Associate Professor in Madanapalli Innovative Computing. power electronics. “Performance Analysis of Fuzzy Logic “Real and Reactive Power Coordination for a Based Unified Power Flow Controller”. [38]. 2003. Mishra. doing his Ph. Electronics. [39].R. J. “Damping Power System Oscillations Using “Advanced tuning of POD controllers for a Fuzzy Logic Based Unified Power Flow EPS using FACTS”. ISSN 2070-3740. Control. and G. Vol. L. 4. B. Power and Energy Systems. R. M. Electrical & Electronics Engg. Transmission and Distribution. Korba. 6-11. Electrical and Computer Congress. IEEE 39 . Y. S. on Power Systems. S.K. B. S. and Đlyas [29]. Currently. 2000. artificial intelligence.F. Qing. Dash. [30]. national & international journals & conferences. Eldamaty. 481–490. S. Vol. 152. “Steady State Analysis of Power His area of interests are neural networks. K. Jayaram. pp. Y. L. 15. R. Unified Power Flow Controller”. Akagi. Andhra Pradesh. Korea. pp. Engineering and Transactions on Power Systems. [36]. Eker. Liu. H. O. Vol. S. FACTS devices using non-linear Takagi- Transmission & Distribution Conference and Sugeno fuzzy controller”. Mustafa. 1454 – 1461. Controller”. of the 17th World Controller”. Industrial Electronics. Issue 6. Vol. M. 1360–1366. pp. 19. Kannan. Nov. Institute of Technology. Li. [28]. Power Engineering Thesis. He has Instrumentation.K. M. 11077. Issue 5. A.E.P Kalyani. Salama. Electrical Exposition. 35. IFAC. Trans. Zin. pp. of pp. pp. Seoul. Hou. IEE Proceedings degree in EEE from STJ Generation. Aboreshaid. 1950 –1953. from the prestigious Jawaharlal Unified Power Flow Controller”. A. 479 – 479. Proc.D. Proc. A. 13-17 Jul.G. India. A. 3. Obulesu received the B. Chaudhuri. B. 2003. Vol. Panda. H. fuzzy Transmission Using Unified Power Flow logic. IEEE World Academy of Science. pp.org E-ISSN: 2076-3336 Engineers. 682 – 690. 2005. 2008. 14. Andhra Pradesh. Issue 3. Y. Alves. (Research Scholar) in Electrical & “Investigation of Dynamic Controllers for a Electronics Engg. All rights reserved. International Journal of Reviews in Computing © 2009 IJRIC. F. pp. pp. 1996. Vol. Jul. “Control from Karnataka University and Analysis of a Unified Power Flow and M. Conference and Exhibition. 1021 – University in the year 2000 1027. Kadir. T. “Use of FACTS Devices Crow. Jr. Dasha. Round. . “Damping of and Control Using the ATP/EMTP and multimodal power system oscillations by MATLAB/Simulink Programs”. [31]. IEEE/PES. Segundo. Rusejla Sadikovi´C. Norum. Faried. 2049 – 2053. IJRIC www. Fujita. Control. Undeland. On Nehru Technological University (JNTU). Inc. 2003. K. Lu. Thukaram. [37]. 1764-1769. 1999.ijric. New York. Jenkins. P. and 2005 respectively. R. Second International Conference. 11076- Engineering. 2006. “Improvement of System Security with Unified Power Flow Controller at Suitable Locations under Network Contingencies of D. IEEE Vol. “UPFC Simulation [40]. Vol. Swiss Federal Institute of Technology. “Neuroidentification of system for Power Flow Control and Damping of parameters for the shunt & series branch Oscillations in Power Systems”. published a number of research papers in various [35]. 25. FACTS. G. Information and Institute of Technology & Sciences. No.

S. the M. His research interests include power country in different institutions and also conducted system reliability and Flexible AC Transmission a few courses.D.Tech. from Osmania University. He is also guiding a number of Ph.org E-ISSN: 2076-3336 Dr. Andhra Pradesh. experience of more than 20 years. IJRIC www. from JNTU. power electronics. Electronics Engg. symposiums in the various parts of the systems. International Journal of Reviews in Computing © 2009 IJRIC. of Electrical & working as Professor in JNTU College of Engg. degree in Electrical India. V. from JNTU. Engg. He of guest lectures and various seminars and is also guiding a number of research scholars in participated in a number of courses. he is working as Professor & Management Finance. 2004. F. Renewable energy sources. 40 . from JNTU. seminars. students. papers in various national & international journals He has published a number of papers in various & conferences & done a number of in-house & national & international journals & conferences & industry projects. fuzzy logic. power electronics & it is applications. His area of interests are neural networks. various topics of engg. He has specialized in power workshops. degree in Energy degree in Power Systems Systems Engg. etc. Hyderabad. He has got a teaching Head in Aurora College of Engg. Currently. India in the year Hyderabad. Sankar Ram Institute of Technology. India Electrical Engg.. Currently. Hyderabad. Matlab.D. Hyderabad. of Electrical Engg. India in the Dept. received the B.ijric.E. he is Andhra Pradesh.E. Hyderabad.E. He received his Ph. He obtained Diploma in Candidate 21 years. power systems.D. Kodad received the B. artificial intelligence. Karnataka. 1992. He has published a number of Hyderabad. He has also presented a number done a number of in-house & industry projects. India in the Dept. India in the year degree in Electrical Engg. B. systems. degree in EEE from STJ Dr. He has got a teaching experience of nearly India. from from Karnataka University and Osmania University & M. All rights reserved. He received his Ph. degree in Ranebennur.