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Ecotourism is one of the fastest expanding tourism markets. It has received much attention in

developing countries and economically impoverished regions around the world. As an agent of

change, ecotourism has been linked to sustainable development strategies and initiatives in many

places. However, ecotourism can induce a variety of both positive and negative environmental,

cultural and socioeconomic impacts at a destination. Operating in its ideal form (according to

some), ecotourism provides the tourist with a quality nature experience, generates funds and

support for conservation efforts, has minimal environmental impact and provides socioeconomic

benefits to local host communities. While there is evidence that ecotourism’s espoused benefits

can be realized, there are equally as many, if not more, cases where ecotourism has fallen short

of its proposed objectives. Indeed, ecotourism’s impact has been highly variable. At the same

time, some have criticized that there have been relatively few practical assessments of

ecotourism’s status at specific destinations. This study sought to assess the current status of

ecotourism at two destinations where it is being promoted as a regional development strategy.

Ecotourism has been identified as an important provincial strategy for balancing economic

growth and conservation. The study is intended to enhance the capacity of ecotourism to

generate benefits for both the local communities and destinations (the protected areas), and thus

contribute to the sustainable development of the region more generally.

Given the exploratory nature of the research, qualitative analysis was used. Interviews,

observations and secondary sources were the main vehicles of inquiry employed in this study.

Basic quantitative analysis was used to aid in the interpretation of interview results.

Triangulation, in terms of both data sources (primary and secondary) and methods (document
collection, observations, interviews, quantitative analysis), was used wherever possible to limit

personal and methodological biases.

. As such, socioeconomic benefits for the local communities have been very limited. At the same

time, residents have had to cope with reduced access to resources since the Parks were

established in the mid-1990s. Nevertheless, community residents generally support conservation

and are optimistic that tourism growth will yield benefits. Both Parks receive relatively few

tourists, and neither Park charges a user fee. As a result, (eco)tourism has not, to date,

contributed revenues towards conservation efforts. Although the Parks offer spectacular tropical

scenery, facilities are basic and educational opportunities for tourists are few. Planning direction

and recommendations are offered based on the study findings and the salient ecotourism

literature. Identified opportunities, constraints and recommendations are used to provide a

potential framework for the development of a park (eco)tourism plan at each study site.



 Appropriate and sufficient access to the site.

 Adequacy of clear directional signage which harmonize the environment and with

natural materials to the site.


 Availability of officials/local guards to take care of safety and security for visitors.

 Availability of trained staff to deal with disaster/emergency.

 Availability of communication tools/system and emergency plan.


 Availability of emergency plan.

 Provision of information about the area (e. g. prohibited area, dangerous areas and

animals for visitors before entering the site

Site Management

 Provide a check list for a monitoring program in place to assess satisfaction of local

people and tourists.

 Availability of training programs for staff on monitoring the carrying capacity,

 Eco tourism activities

 Mechanism to ensure that visitors do not stray into fragile or sensitive areas of the eco

Environmental Management

 Appropriate design and materials used for infrastructure at site which is compatible

with the local environment.

 Appropriate waste disposal that does not create any negative impacts to the


 Minimum disturbance to wildlife

 Minimum impact on local air quality

 Availability of clean restrooms


 Uses and services are design of the streets, sidewalks, and other pathways that can be used to

reach the locations.


 A zoning system can ensure that tourism activities take place at a sustainable level that

maximizes benefits and limits negative impacts. A good zoning plan and careful siting decisions

can separate user conflicts and minimize environmental disturbances of tourism.


 Building is situated on a site and the positioning of windows, rooflines, and other features. A

building oriented for solar design takes advantage of passive and active solar strategies. Passive

solar strategies use energy from the sun to heat and illuminate buildings.

In literature, negative impacts are often related to the potential risks of tourism in parks and

protected areas. Considering all the facets of tourism development and the characteristics of

parks and protected areas, it can clearly be stated that negative effects do result from tourist

visits. This does not imply that negative impacts cannot be managed and alleviated. It is the task

of protected area stakeholders and park planners to determine how impacts and risks can be

reduced and prevented.

 Costs of Tourism

Following an overall concept, negative impacts of tourism in protected areas are calculated in

costs of tourism. Therefore tourism planners face three types of costs, “financial- and economic

costs, socio-cultural costs and environmental costs”. Environmental costs are the most crucial in

terms of sustainability. Furthermore, it is the nature conservation that fosters the creation of

protected areas and national parks. Therefore, it will be elaborated on the environmental impacts

in the following section.

 Risks of Tourism in Parks and Protected Areas

The most obvious reason for the controversy of tourism in protected areas is the fact that it is

drawn to environments which are inherently sensitive in terms of ecosystems and natural

habitats. The question if tourism is acceptable in protected areas is based on assessments that

have to be as detailed and accurate as possible.


 The construction of accommodation, visitor centres, infrastructure, and other services has
a direct impact on the environment, from vegetation removal, animal disturbance

elimination of habitats, impacts on drainage etc.


 Soil compaction can occur in certain well-used areas.

 Soil removal and erosion also occurs, and may continue after the disturbance is gone.


 Concentrated use around facilities has a negative effect on vegetation.

 Fire frequency may change due to tourists and park tourism management.


 Increased demands for fresh water.

 Disposal of sewage or litter in rivers, lakes or oceans.


 Motorized transportation may cause pollution from emissions.


 Disturbance by visitors can occur for all species, including those that are not attracting


Green architecture is a green building design technique. The designs are created with the

environment in mind including focusing on the larger construction implications of environmental

sustainability. Green architecture gives careful consideration to designing energy efficient

and eco-friendly houses and buildings. Natural ecology is a key concept in green architectural

providing the basis for the construction model.

The goal of green architecture is to create models that safeguard the natural environment and are

adapted to integrate well with the existing environmental setting in terms of space and energy,

water and resource use. The designs have to be sustainable from the initial consultations, site

survey and design, plan modification, material use, harmony with the existing ecology, and green

building choices to guarantee that all the environmentally friendly details are included.


 It entails a type of use that minimizes negative impacts to the environment and

to local people.

 It increases the awareness and understanding of an area’s natural and cultural systems

and the subsequent involvement of visitors in issues affecting those systems.

 It contributes to the conservation and management of legally protected and other natural


 It maximizes the early and long-term participation of local people in the decision-making

process that determines the kind and amount of tourism that should occur.
 It directs economic and other benefits to local people that complement rather than

overwhelm or replace traditional practices (farming, fishing, social systems, etc.).

 It provides special opportunities for local people and nature tourism employees

to utilize and visit natural areas and learn more about the wonders that other visitors

come to see.


 To establish a sustainable investment framework for ecotourism.

 To contribute to financial sustainability of protected areas.

 To foster environmental awareness among host communities, local government, business

sector and visitors.

 To integrate ecotourism into local tourism plans and programs.

 To establish capability building program for ecotourism services (e.g. tour

guiding, catering, etc.), local ecotourism planning, product development and


 To improve management of data and information for easy access by stakeholders

 To provide a policy environment conducive to ecotourism development


- They preserve its natural beauty and its natural formation

- There are many amenities and facilities which add to its main attraction

- Tourist will be more entertained and satisfied in just one place which is Ecotoursim Park.

- It offers different choices of tour packages that the tourist may avail.


- Lack of an appropriate info about the usability of park.

- Negative attitude of population toward the park.

- Lack of multimedia services for the knowledge and enjoyment of natural of goods.


- More establishments what will serve eco-friendly thing materials

- More trained and educated tour guides for the tourist


- The number of squatters around the vicinity of the park is increasing that makes the place


- Ecotourism Park design guidelines

- Design of modern and environmental friendly ecotourism park

- Architectural design technique and strategies

a. Green building design

b. Resilient and tropical responsive design


- With the proper planning and determining the ecotourism park and implementation of the

design guidelines and architectural standards

- Integrating of modern and environmental friendly architectural strategies and designas a

solution toward development of ecotourism park facilities

- Applying the architectural techniques strategies in the design of ecotourism park by

incorporating green building strategies, resilient and tropical responsive design


- A well planned and designed ecotourism park facilities that are accessible, efficient, safe

and aesthetically pleasing manner

- A well planned modern and environmental friendly ecotourism park that can interactand


- A modernized ecotourism park with green building strategies, resilient and environmental

friendly design

- A facilities that complies pertinent laws