Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 103

2013 Edition

PROCESS Playbook
The bottom line on core automation issues
for the continuous processing industries

 Control System Security and Access

 Operator Interfaces and the Mobile Workforce
 PLC vs DCS
 Fieldbus, Ethernet & Wireless
 Energy & Emissions Management
 Safety: Lifecycle and Procedural Automation Approaches
 Start-Ups, Upgrades & Migrations

4 Contributors
Sponsored by:
7 Introduction
8 Tips for Successful Project Development

11 PLC vs. DCS: Which is Right for Your Operation?

14 PLC Lifecycle Management

17 Operator Interface Trends

20 How Reusable Code Streamlines Recipe Management

24 Are Intelligent Instruments The Right Choice?

28 Managing Emissions with Automation

31 How to Conduct an Energy Audit

36 Energy Management Best Practices

41 The Impact of Variable Speed Drives

44 Safety: The Lifecycle Approach

49 Procedural Automation for Greater Safety and Productivity


52 Four IT Standards You Should Understand

55 Fieldbus & Ethernet in Continuous Process Applications

59 Understanding the Differences Among Industrial Ethernet Protocols

66 Wireless Trends

69 Wireless Sensor Applications

71 Wireless Protocols for the Process Industries

73 How to Avoid Mistakes with Control System Remote Access

77 Control System Security Tips

80 Leveraging Analytics and Community for a Mobile Workforce

84 Automation as a Continuous Improvement Tool for Everyone

89 Combining OEE and Automation for Improved Performance

92 Four Considerations for Upgrades & Migrations



CONTRIBUTORS The following experts

contributed to this playbook:

Brooke Robertson John Rezabek

Project Manager Regional Control Specialist, EPCD Process Control Specialist
Momentive Specialty Chemicals Inc. Ashland Specialty Ingredients

Michael Thibodeaux Joe Staples

Industrial Automated Systems Security Engineer Head of Manufacturing Systems North America
BASF Bayer CropScience

Dennis Brandl Chris Wells

President Senior Staff Instrumentation Engineer
BR&L Consulting ExxonMobil Chemical Company

Steven Toteda Steve Elwart, P.E.

Chairman of WINA Director of Systems Engineering
(Wireless Industrial Networking Alliance) Ergon Refining Inc.

Dave Woll Bob Rochelle

Vice President Food and Packaging Industry Specialist
ARC Advisory Group Inc. Staubli Corporation

CONTRIBUTORS The following experts

contributed to this playbook:

Cyle Nelson Chris Bacon Ariel Pérez

Senior Software Architect Operations Productivity Analyst Control Systems Group Leader
Adept Technology ISS Productivity Bechtel

Ethernet Protocol Experts

Richard Harwell Carl Henning
EtherNet/IP Profinet

Scott Hibbard Shaun Kneller

Sercos III Ethernet Powerlink

Chuck Lukasik Joey Stubbs

CC Link IE EtherCAT

CONTRIBUTORS The following CSIA experts

contributed to this playbook:

Control System Chetan Chothani Bryan Curtis, P.E.

Integrators Association President Senior Consutant, Power/Facilities
(CSIA) Adaptive Resources Dept., Matrix Technologies
Automation World worked with CSIA to
gain access to the expertise of its sys-
tem integrator members to bring you Alan E. Lyon, P.E. Antonio Manalo
much of the content in this playbook.
Lead Engineer Automation Systems Integrator
To become a member of CSIA, a
Avid Solutions Avid Solutions
control system integration firm must
demonstrate experience and com-
mitment to the field. Members who Alex Palmer Dario Rossi
earn CSIA Certification have passed Team Lead Chief Engineer
an independent audit of 80 criteria Aseco Integrated Systems Aseco Integrated Systems
covering all aspects of business per-
formance, including general manage-
ment, financial management, project
Scott Saneholtz, P.E. Robert Snow
management, quality management,
supporting systems, human resources Manager - Process Solutions Dept. Senior Process Control Engineer
and more. To maintain their certifica- Matrix Technologies Optimation
tion, CSIA Certified members must be
re-audited every three years.
Ronald Studtmann, P.E. Russel Treat
For more information about CSIA and
Associate Dept. Manager, Power/ President-CEO
its system integrator members, visit
Facilities Dept., Matrix Technologies Enersys Corp

By David Greenfield Automation may not be such a big word when it comes to letter count, but when it comes
Director of Media & Events to meaning and concept it’s a doozy. The term automation encompasses everything from
for Automation World controls, sensors, networks and interfaces to motors, drives, actuators and software. When
you’re deeply involved with the production operations typically conducted by facilities
dealing with chemicals, metals, mining, or oil & gas, all the potential automation applications
that must also be considered can boggle the mind.

Knowing how confusing all these technological options can be, Automation World has
developed this continuous processing-focused “playbook” to provide a resource on some of
the most basic automation issues encountered in the industry.

Using this playbook as a helpful resource, you’ll have a handy, quick-read reference on topics
ranging from fieldbus and industrial Ethernet basics, operator interface trends, and control
system security to project start-up concerns, system migration issues, and variable speed
drive considerations.

We hope you’ll find this continuous process playbook to be a useful source of information
now and in the years ahead as you plan for new projects or upgrade existing production
functions. 



Tips for Successful

Project Development
By Marty Weil Project development is not an everyday occurrence at continuous process facilities. To help
contributing writer ensure you are covering all the major issues involved in these infrequent work scenarios, here
Automation World are some tips and considerations to facilitate a successful project startup.
David Greenfield
Media and Events Director 1. Clearly identify the project specifications. What do you want to do? What is
Automation World your existing process? Define operator involvement, quality control issues, interface points
with other systems, and the technological capability available in-house.

2. Conduct a job risk assessment (JRA). Performing a JRA before the start of work
highlights any hazards that could produce undesirable results to personnel or property. A
safety assessment must be completed to ensure that the scheduled work can be performed in
a safe manner and to address any hazards that are uncovered as a part of the review process.

3. Operator training is key. The operators must learn how to navigate and operate
their process in the new control system. The training must be performed just in time (about
two weeks before start-up) so that the information is fresh in their minds. During the
instruction, it is critical that the operators be trained using the operator interface graphics
they will encounter.

4. Emphasize communications. Communicating with the site maintenance and



continued operations departments is critical to the success of the project. Maintenance and Operations
Tips for Successful need to schedule their duties with enough lead-time to support the installation and start-up
activities. With enough time, maintenance can even contract back-fill support for the duration
Project Development
of the project start-up activities. For operations, the work and vacancy relief schedule will
have to be organized so that enough operators are available to cut-over and start-up the
plant. This is especially important if a hot cut-over is involved.

5. Have a detailed cut-over plan. Planning is crucial to any stage of an automation

project. By putting together a detailed cut-over plan, the personnel performing the work
will have a clear directive of the activities that need to be completed each day. The cut-
over plan will help keep the activities on task and allow the project manager to assess the
progress of the work, create workarounds for problematic situations, coordinate with the
plant operations, and drive the project to completion. A cut-over plan, at minimum, should
include the I/O to be cut-over and tested (including the order in which they are to be tested),
any water testing through the process to verify configuration on the live plant, and the actual
order of the first products to be run on the unit.

6. Devise a roles-and-responsibilities matrix. Defining the roles and

responsibilities of all personnel and contractors involved in the project is key to delivering
a successful project. By putting together this matrix and using it as a pre- and post-training
reference for all staff, everyone involved will understand their responsibilities and perform the
appropriate work.

7. Get management involved. Management at various levels, including upper

management, needs to understand what is involved in the start-up process and why it is


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 10 / 103


Tips for Successful

Project Development
critical to delivering on management’s expectations of the
continuous process facility’s operations. Communication
and internal buy-in throughout the organization are
very important aspects to a successful startup, and
management’s visible support and connection to the
project is critical to these aspects.

8. Be thorough in examining outside

support. Be sure to determine if outside personnel, such
as systems integrators, have experience in your industry. Is
their knowledge transferable to the project? Evaluate their
background and capabilities. What is the range of services
they provide? Are there any commercial issues outstanding?
Check references. Consider cost, but understand that the
lowest bid is not always the best. A good resource for
companies looking to hire control system integrators is the
Control System Integrators Association, www.controlsys.org.
This organization not only validates industry expertise, but
also supports dependable business practices by its system
integrator members. 


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 11 / 103

PLC vs. DCS: Which is Right

for Your Operation?
By Jeanne Schweder Over the past decade, the functionality of different control systems has been merging.
contributing writer Programmable logic controllers (PLCs) now have capabilities once found only in distributed
Automation World control systems (DCSs), while a DCS can handle many functions previously thought more
appropriate for PLCs. So what’s the difference between the two control approaches, where’s
the dividing line and are there still reasons to choose one over the other?

PLCs grew up as replacements for multiple relays and are used primarily for controlling
discrete manufacturing processes and standalone equipment. If integration with other
equipment is required, the user or his system integrator typically has to do it, connecting
human-machine interfaces (HMIs) and other control devices as needed.

The DCS, on the other hand, was developed to replace PID controllers and is found most often
in batch and continuous production processes, especially those that require advanced control
measures. The vendor handles system integration, and HMIs are integral.

As users demanded more production information, PLCs gained processing power and
networking became common. PLC-based control systems began to function like a mini-
DCS. At the same time, the DCS hybridized to incorporate PLCs and PCs to control certain


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 12 / 103

continued functions and to provide reporting services. The DCS supervises the entire process, much like
PLC vs. DCS: Which the conductor in an orchestra. Protocols, like OPC, have eased interactions between the two
control systems.
is Right for Your
Operation? Since PLCs are less expensive and can now perform much like a DCS, wouldn’t it make sense
to convert everything to PLCs? The answer, like most things in the world of automation, is that
it depends on the needs of your application. Here are six key factors to consider:

1. Response time
PLCs are fast, no doubt about it. Response times of one-tenth of a second make the PLC an
ideal controller for near real-time actions such as a safety shutdown or firing control. A DCS
takes much longer to process data, so it’s not the right solution when response times are
critical. In fact, safety systems require a separate controller.

2. Scalability
A PLC can only handle a few thousand I/O points or less. It’s just not as scalable as a DCS,
which can handle many thousands of I/O points and more easily accommodate new
equipment, process enhancements and data integration. If you require advanced process
control, and have a large facility or a process that’s spread out over a wide geographic area
with thousands of I/O points, a DCS makes more sense.

3. Redundancy
Another problem with PLCs is redundancy. If you need power or fault tolerant I/O, don’t try to
force those requirements into a PLC-based control system. You’ll just end up raising the costs
to equal or exceed those of a DCS.


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 13 / 103

continued 4. Complexity
PLC vs. DCS: Which The complex nature of many continuous production processes, such as oil and gas, water
treatment and chemical processing, continue to require the advanced process control
is Right for Your
capabilities of the DCS. Others, such as pulp and paper, are trending toward PLC-based control.
5. Frequent process changes
PLCs are best applied to a dedicated process that doesn’t change often. If your process is
complex and requires frequent adjustments or must aggregate and analyze a large amount
of data, a DCS is typically the better solution. Of course, the very flexibility of a DCS system
also makes it much more vulnerable to “meddling” by operators that can cause spurious

6. Vendor support
DCS vendors typically require users to employ them to provide integration services and
implement process changes.

System integrators perform similar functions for PLC-based systems. It has also become
common for PLC vendors to offer support services through their network of system integrator

Process control has become increasing complex. It’s difficult for any individual to know
everything about these sophisticated systems, increasing the need for vendor support.
Manufacturers also continue to reduce factory staff and a generation of experienced process
control personnel has begun to retire. As a result, the quality of support has become a critical
factor in vendor selection. 


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 14 / 103

PLC Lifecycle Management

By David Greenfield Discussion of controllers in the continuous process industries typically centers on distributed
Media and Events Director control systems (DCSs). However, programmable logic controllers (PLCs) play as important
Automation World a role in the process industries as they do in discrete manufacturing, particularly when it
comes to operations reliability and protection of personnel. Some of the more significant
applications for PLCs in the process industries include control of safety-instrumented systems
and control of major machinery.

Like many discrete manufacturing operations, most process operations use a variety of PLCs
from different vendors. As a result, your ability to effectively operate and manage these
disparate PLC versions has a direct impact on your plant reliability and safety.

Following is a list of the top three PLC lifecycle management concerns for the process
industries and how some of your peers are working with PLC suppliers to address those
issues, compiled from presentations delivered at The Automation Conference 2012.

1. Long plant maintenance shutdown intervals limit the opportunity to modify,

maintain and upgrade PLCs. Many process industry units, particularly in continuous process
operations, run eight years or more without shutting down. As a result, your opportunity to
do anything with the PLCs in that unit is very limited. Therefore you need to ensure that PLC
management is a key part of your unit maintenance focus.


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 15 / 103


PLC Lifecycle Management

a giant breakthrough 2. Standardization of PLCs is difficult, if not

impossible in a multi-plant operation, and leads to
in small readers
challenges with spare parts management and training.
Because across-the-board standardization is unlikely due
to regional differences tied to support and availability, a
strategy for PLC support and training for each region should
be developed to ensure that these critical controllers are
maintained in a standardized fashion.

3. Integration with main control systems

— Three aspects are critical to any plan involving the
integration of PLCs with DCSs. 1) The integration process
needs to be reliable and shareable with all other plants to
standardize the process for ease of maintenance;
Meet the DataMan 50L. The tiny barcode reader that brings
big performance to the food & beverage industry. 2) the integration plan should be flexible for adaptability to
Don’t let its size fool you. The DataMan® 50L is huge in barcode reading performance. local requirements; and 3) it must address industrial control
Measuring just 23.5mm x 27mm x 43.5mm and featuring an IP65-rated housing, the
DataMan 50L is premium technology designed for 1-D-oriented barcode reading. The system security. (See “Control System Security Tips” in this
DataMan 50L delivers read rates that can surpass 99% through Cognex’s proprietary
Hotbars™ image-analysis technology. playbook for more details on this topic.)
The new DataMan 50L is a powerful upgrade for applications that use small laser
barcode scanner systems. Visit us at www.cognex.com/50L.

To better manage your PLC lifecycle, following is a set of

three requests that many top process industry operations
Scan to Learn More


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 16 / 103

continued are asking of their PLC vendors to help them better manage their PLC assets over the long,
PLC Lifecycle continuous operation periods common to the process industries.

Management 1. Life extension. Because of the long periods of time that typically pass between
maintenance shutdowns in process facilities, users need to be able to source and use
components for longer-than-expected lives. Many facilities in the continuous process
industries are still looking at 20 to 30 years as a life cycle for their equipment. Talk to your
vendor about their ability to support backwards compatibility with new components as they
become available over these long lifecycles. These new components should be able to be
integrated into your system without requiring a shutdown for upgrading.

2. Online upgrades. More vendors are coming around to this request of process
industry end users, as it is often the easiest way to upgrade a PLC’s logic without shutting it
down or rewiring the I/O. One process industry end user told us: “If you look at the total cost
of an upgrade, the cost of the hardware is dwarfed by the cost of labor to re-do things like I/O
rewiring and the cost of the unit shutdown.” Therefore, online version upgrades that can be
installed while the PLC is running and that work with the existing I/O is ideal.

3. Increased flexibility in design to address standardization. More end

users in the process industries are looking for scalable PLC systems from vendors that use
the same hardware. Having the same hardware requirements across-the-board for your
PLCs enables you to better manage spare components, training, and configurable I/O
requirements. 


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 17 / 103

Operator Interface Trends

By Marty Weil Operator interaction with production machinery is critical from both a standard operations
contributing writer aspect as well as for analytical and safety reasons. Following are some of the most significant
Automation World recent developments in operator interface (OI)/human machine interface (HMI) technologies
for the process industries:
David Greenfield
Media and Events Director
Automation World • Better Decision-Making Intelligence for Operators
Improved graphics provide detailed context for machine data, enable faster analysis, and
facilitate better and more rapid understanding of information. Operators are presented the
right information, in the right format, at the right time. This empowers them to make timely,
informed decisions and to take immediate actions to reduce costs and operational incidents,
improving productivity across the total operation.

• Training
The higher level of functionality and interaction embedded in today’s HMI better reflects the
essential experience of a machine or process. This is ideal for training, and speeding time-to-
competency among operators. The value provided by HMI in the training arena is reflected
in ease-of-use, higher efficiency and productivity, reduced time to complete tasks, improved
user satisfaction, greater trust in systems, and fewer user errors.

• Workforce Demographics
Over the next decade, process industries face the challenge of replacing an aging workforce
with an Internet-driven, computer-savvy, video-gaming generation of employees. Industries


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 18 / 103

continued must preserve, maintain, extend, and institutionalize their workforce knowledge efficiently
Operator Interface and effectively to sustain operational excellence. Improved HMI technology, including HMI
with virtual reality techniques, is helping in this critical effort, providing an effective means
Trends to train the “new workforce” in ways that dovetail with their generational interests and native

• Virtual Reality
Though virtual reality techniques are primarily being used for new user training applications
related to basic equipment operations, they can also be used to expose personnel to
simulated hazardous situations in a safe, highly visual, and personally interactive way.
Customized simulations of plant layouts, dynamic process operations, and comprehensive
virtual environments can be set up to allow users to move within the virtual plants, make
operational decisions, and investigate processes at a glance. Trainees see the consequences of
correct and incorrect decisions immediately, providing the opportunity to directly learn from
their successes and mistakes.

• Open Platform Architecture

As you explore available HMI technologies, ask yourself: Is it easy to exchange essential
information from this HMI with different systems or controllers? Is the application code
locked for customization of objects or functions? Will runtime software be able to operate on
different hardware platforms? These are the kinds of questions being discussed between HMI
vendors and their customers, and increasingly the right answers to these questions depends
on the HMI’s use of open platform architectures. As HMI products evolve in their use of these
platforms, HMIs will be less proprietary and more open, offering greater freedom to the user
in terms of choice of runtime platforms.


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 19 / 103


Operator Interface Trends

Think automation is
just another business cost?
• Emerging Issues Drive Innovation
Among the issues facing HMI developers are user-
Think automation is tactical constrained environments, collaborative work functions,
and not strategic? and facilities for individuals with restricted mobility. These
challenges have led to a number of HMI innovations,
Think no one has enough of the right including:
resources to execute your automation work?
• Gestural interface technology to support
communication to a system without contact through
Think again. Think MAVERICK. a keyboard or touch screen;

• Automated generation of HMI code based on an

abstract specification of required user interactions
independent of operation modes or device

• Advanced speech recognition to allow operation

in noisy environments without the use of special
training or requiring a specific speech recognition
Call MAVERICK: 888.917.9109 start trigger. 
or visit us online at mavtechglobal.com


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 20 / 103

How Reusable Code Streamlines

Recipe Management
By Jeanne Schweder Looking for a way to implement a flexible production strategy without breaking your budget
contributing writer or spending weeks or months writing new software code? The answer can be found in ANSI/
Automation World ISA-88.00.03-2003, a control industry standard that establishes best practices for automating
batch manufacturing plants and batch control.

Although originally designed for batch manufacturing processes, the ISA-88 standard is also
helping users save time and money in automating continuous production processes.

Common Process Control Language

ISA-88 accomplishes this by defining a common language for process control to improve
communication between the various players involved in controlling plants and production
processes. It also creates a structure with consistent concepts and models for batch processes
that provides a map for how developers should organize their software code.

The standard sets forth a set of building blocks for process control at all levels: enterprise,
site, area, process cell, unit, equipment module and control module. The three highest levels
explain how the standard’s language can interface with the business systems of the area,
plant site and business enterprise as a whole.


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 21 / 103

continued The next two levels, process cell and unit, are the building blocks of the production process.
How Reusable Code One or more units are contained in each process cell. Each unit is a collection of controlled
Streamlines Recipe
Management Within the unit are the equipment and control modules. An equipment module defines a
small group of equipment with a process function and can contain control modules and
subsidiary equipment modules. The control module contains the equipment and systems that
perform the actual process control.

Universal Structure
The standard can be applied to either simple or complex processes, so that one programming
system can be used for all production processes in a plant. Using this methodology, users and
programmers can:

• Identify the structure and format for recipes and procedures;

• Define levels of recipes and procedures;
• Recognize product-specific recipes and procedures that are separate from process-
oriented equipment and its direct control;

• Identify a hierarchy of manufacturing equipment and its dedicated control;


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 22 / 103

• Recognize equipment capabilities used during recipe and procedure driven
How Reusable Code production; and
Streamlines Recipe
Management • Recognize the need for modular and re-usable control functionality.
Re-usable software code blocks are central to the ISA-88 standard and are programmed using
IEC 61131-3-compliant software, which is available from all major automation vendors. Code
can be programmed in ladder diagram as well as structured text, function block diagram,
instruction list or sequential function chart languages.

Each vendor includes libraries of reusable control modules and algorithms that define
common machine functions and recipe steps in their software. Once the initial process or
recipe has been programmed, modular code blocks can be reused for the same functions
with minimal modifications. This eliminates the need to reinvent the wheel for different
recipes, and allows future changes to be made almost dynamically.

According to industry experts, users typically achieve a 30 percent savings in programming

time and costs for the first project, and as much as 70 percent savings on subsequent projects.

Broad Applicability
Industry experts say an estimated 50 percent of all U.S. manufacturing is now accomplished
using techniques and technologies consistent with the ISA-88 standard, which has been
proven in thousands of applications and can be applied in either DCS or PLC control


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 23 / 103


How Reusable Code Streamlines

Recipe Management
Stop Programming Batch Tasks.
Start Configuring The ISA-88 standard can be so widely applied because its
central objectives are to:
S88 Builder is the first process control
system that is configured rather than
programmed. Configuration requires two • Reduce a user's time to reach full production levels
steps, define the devices that make up the for new products;
physical system and define specific tasks,
such as mixing, flow control, heating, etc.,
that the devices team up to accomplish.
• Enable vendors to supply appropriate tools for
Configuration is easier, more accurate and implementing batch control;
faster than programming.

By configuring instead of programming • Enable users to better identify their needs;

batch control tasks, S88 Builder speeds
project development by up to 90%.
• Make recipe development straightforward enough
S88 Builder lowers the total cost of to be accomplished without the services of a control
ownership for a batch control system by:
systems engineer;
• Lowering initial development costs
Learn More About
• Reducing time-to-market for new products
• Reducing waste and downtime
the Many Cost-Saving
Benefits offered by
• Reduce the cost of automating batch processes; and
S88 Builder
www.S88Builder.com • Reduce life-cycle engineering efforts. 
(800) 471-3273


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 24 / 103

Are Intelligent Instruments

The Right Choice?
By Jeanne Schweder The process industries are increasing use of intelligent instruments that provide operators
contributing writer and plant managers with a broader range of operational information than their analog
Automation World predecessors. Now that these instruments have been available for years, its apparent that
the difference in application success with them often hinges on whether or not the company
using them is prepared to take advantage of the benefits they offer.

Intelligent Instruments Defined

A control device is considered “intelligent” when it provides more than just raw engineering
values, such as whether a valve is open or shut. A flow meter that also measures density,
temperature and other properties of the flow is an example of an intelligent instrument.
Having this kind of multidimensional data simplifies diagnostics and provides a context for
smarter decision-making.

Industry efforts to improve quality and productivity, as well as regulatory requirements and
liability risks, are the key factors behind the increased use of intelligent instruments. Makers
of many consumer products, such as pharmaceuticals, food, and even tires need to capture
detailed process information that allows them to trace and track product defects to the


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 25 / 103

continued Intelligent instrument capabilities and vendor offerings vary widely. As a result, one of the
Are Intelligent biggest challenges to gaining all the benefits offered by intelligent instruments has been the
lack of uniform methods for accessing information. To overcome this, the control industry has
Instruments The begun setting standards such as Field Device Tool, or FDT, making it easier to communicate
Right Choice? with and configure different devices from multiple vendors.

Core Benefits
• Intelligent instruments control processes at the device level, so information is usually
more accurate and reaction times faster, enabling tighter process control.

• Ethernet networks make it easy to calibrate, configure and adjust process parameters
remotely, similar to how a printer driver works on a computer.

• Smart devices can self-address and self-report their status, simplifying remote
troubleshooting and reducing maintenance costs and manpower.

• Smart instruments with multiple capabilities reduce the number of devices required,
as well as the cost of programming, wiring and installation, lowering the total cost of

• Process data that lets you anticipate failures can improve predictive maintenance,
increasing uptime and reducing waste.

• Getting better information faster, can help you improve process efficiency, increase
productivity and actually reduce the cost of innovation.


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 26 / 103

continued Drawbacks
Are Intelligent Intelligent instruments are not plug-and-play. While more information can be gathered more
accurately, enabling you to adjust processes more quickly, an intelligent control system can
Instruments The
also be more complex to manage and maintain.
Right Choice?
There’s a steep learning curve for intelligent instruments. You have to be realistic. If your
control engineering staff isn’t willing to move away from centralized decision-making or
your maintenance staff has a break-fix mentality, it’s unlikely they’ll be willing to learn how to
manage and support the new systems.

Intelligent instruments also need to be properly installed. Follow vendor guidelines, install
devices correctly, validate your networks and update your cyber security methods. Otherwise,
you’ll be wasting your investment.

If this is your first attempt to use intelligent instruments, it’s best to select the vendor with
the broadest offering of applicable devices. Once your team has learned how to manage one
vendor’s instruments, it will be easier to learn another’s.

Justifying the Investment

It isn’t enough to claim that intelligent instruments will improve production processes.
You need to understand how an investment can return money to the business. That means
focusing on the most important processes with the biggest potential returns.


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 27 / 103

continued In one recent installation, a company invested $5 million in intelligent systems and was able
Are Intelligent to save $27 million in expensive raw materials used in its production process. Those are the
kind of numbers that can attract the attention of the people who control the budgets.
Instruments The
Right Choice? What It Takes To Be Successful
As a first step in evaluating whether intelligent instruments can add value to your business,
ask a few questions:

• What information is most important to gather for effective decision-making? Too much
information is just noise and can actually be a barrier to making process improvements.

• Do you have industrial networks capable of handling the information flow to and from
smart devices?

• Does your plant follow a proactive program of preventive maintenance?

• Do the people who manage your control, IT and energy systems talk to each other?
Intelligent control systems cross multiple domains and require integration of people as
well as devices.

If your company’s production processes are spread out over large areas or involve multiple
facilities with similar processes, the benefits from intelligent instruments can be even more
significant. Being able to remotely diagnose and fix devices, or replicate process improvements
multiple times in multiple locations can deliver big benefits to the bottom line. 


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 28 / 103

Managing Emissions
with Automation
By Jeanne Schweder Industries where emissions control is critical include electric utilities, oil and gas, chemical
contributing writer processing, iron and steel, paper, food, mining, metals and cement. But emission control
Automation World concerns are not limited to these industries. Systems to control and reduce emissions are
required for any industrial process that produces sulphur and nitrogen dioxides (popularly
referred to as SOx and NOx), the major causes of acid rain, as well as airborne particulates and
volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

On the horizon are new regulations designed to limit mercury emissions in flue gas. These
rules will also apply to industrial facilities, including trash burners and industrial boilers, even
if they only generate process steam. More stringent controls on particulates will also require
new investments in emissions technologies.

NOx and SOx Reduction

The U.S. Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the pending Casper regulations and proposed
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) limits on greenhouse gases are driving the
development of improved emissions control technologies. Casper regulations will further
reduce NOx and SOx emissions limits in the Northeast and in certain Midwestern states
such as Texas and Illinois. In addition to these government measures, green initiatives by
corporations also emphasize emission reductions.


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 29 / 103

continued The list that follows touches upon the primary emission reduction methods used in industry:
Managing Emissions
with Automation • Optimized process control is central to reducing NOx emissions from coal-fired power
plants. Oxygen is injected into the boiler to improve combustion and prevent pockets
of NOx from being created. A secondary technology, selective non-catalytic reduction,
or SNCR, injects urea or ammonia into the boilers, further reducing NOx emissions by
up to 20 percent. New low-NOx burners have also been introduced that allow a cooler,
more complete burn.

• The most successful NOx reduction technology—at 90 percent—has been selective

catalytic reduction, or SCR. This capital-intensive technology, which is viable only for
large coal-fired plants, involves very large reactors and again injects ammonia into the
flow. Automated systems measure NOx levels before and after the reduction process,
enabling operators to fine-tune the process.

• Distributed control systems manage the complex processes involved in balancing

boilers, injecting air and adjusting dampers to optimize combustion, measure
emissions and control heat levels within the boiler to prevent the build-up of slag. By
tightening process controls, operators can decrease the amount of raw materials and
energy used while reducing waste.

• Scrubbers, using either dry or wet processes, use automated systems that regulate
water flows, monitor pH levels and spray lime or apply a slurry of limestone to remove
95 percent or more of sulphur dioxide. A by-product of the scrubber process is calcium
sulphate, which is then used to make wallboard.


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 30 / 103

• At the stack, the air from the process is passed over a rack of sensors that measure
Managing Emissions oxygen, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide levels, as well as sulphur dioxide,
with Automation sulphur trioxide and nitrogen oxide content.

• Most air pollution control devices (APCDs) come as pre-built OEM packages that
include PLC-based automation systems that tend to operate independently of the
central DCS system. As new regulations drive greater investment in these APCDs, these
systems will need to work together in a more holistic fashion. Achieving this goal will
likely require additional automation integration.

Alternative Fuel Strategies

Although coal has traditionally made up 50 percent of the fuel source for American electric
utility plants, many operators have begun building natural gas-fired plants that do not
produce nitrogen or sulphur dioxide. Others are using flexible fuel processes, replacing up
to 25 percent of their coal fuel with natural gas. Still others are blending coal from different
regions, mixing high-sulphur but lower cost Appalachian coal with low-sulphur but higher
cost Western coal to reduce the amount of sulphur dioxide their processes have to remove.

Each of these alternative fuel strategies, however, can complicate process control and require
additional steps and systems to optimize combustion and reduce emissions. Blending high-
and low-sulphur coal, for example, can create a slag layer in boilers that requires installing a
soot-blowing system to break up and remove it. 


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 31 / 103

How to Conduct an Energy Audit

By Jeanne Schweder Whether your plant is processing food or chemicals, wastewater or steel, the process used
contributing writer to audit your energy usage and find ways to use or waste less of it is much the same. Before
Automation World beginning your energy audit process, it is important to realize that, though there are
many energy saving steps that result in short-term payback, the average payback time for
investments to increase energy efficiency is five years. The older the facility and its equipment,
the greater the probability that the energy savings potential—and your return on investment
from corrective actions—will be significant.

Where Are You Using Energy?

There’s no better way to start the audit process than by walking the floor and identifying
where and how the facility is using energy. It’s not just about electricity. Any equipment
powered by water, air, gas, electricity or steam (a group of power sources often referred to as
WAGES), should be the core focus of an energy audit.

It often helps to have an outsider’s eyes, such as a system integrator or a vendor, on this
walkthrough. They’ve typically been involved in many similar projects and will know what to
look for. They also bring a different perspective to the task than a maintenance person, who
has different priorities.

Identify the Low-Hanging Fruit

Considering that the average ROI time on energy savings investments is five years, it helps to
get some early wins from the audit process that can be achieved with minimal investment.


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 32 / 103

continued Look for steam or compressed air leaks. Are there improperly working natural gas regulators?
How to Conduct Does the plant have programmable thermostats? How energy-efficient are the lighting
fixtures? Do infrared scans detect any hot spots on the electrical equipment?
an Energy Audit
Also consider the energy efficiency value to be found in straightforward upgrades of existing
equipment. For example, have variable frequency drives been installed on motors serving
high-energy-consuming equipment, such as cooling towers? Older cooling towers, for
example, tend to have motors that run either slow or fast, with none of the gradients that
drives can provide to match energy consumption to different operating conditions.

Go beyond direct asset-related energy use and ask questions like: Is there lighting that’s on
when no one is working in a room? Where are the large motor loads, and how and when are
they being operated? Are start times being staggered to avoid electrical peak power demand
surcharges? Is the plant subjected to extreme seasonal temperature fluctuations between
summer and winter?

Understand the Electric Utility Contract

It’s essential to get a working knowledge of the electric utility contract and the billing history
for the facility to understand how you’re being billed and what penalties are being charged
for over-consumption. Different utilities use different ways to calculate rates and to penalize
high consumption.

Determining which of the WAGES energy types are used most in your facility is important for
prioritizing corrective actions. Different industries use different types of energy more than


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 33 / 103

continued Steel plants, for example, are the largest consumers of electrical energy and also incur the
How to Conduct most frequent energy spikes because of their use of arc furnaces. The chemical and refining
industries, on the other hand, make greater use of compressed air and steam.
an Energy Audit
Draft a Pre-Plan
Once you have the initial findings from the walkthrough, draw up a pre-plan to address the
obvious areas of waste and identify the processes that consume the most energy. Most older
plants are poorly metered. If the only meter in the facility is the one measuring the main utility
feed, then it will be impossible to determine which machines or processes are contributing
the most to your utility bill.

The pre-plan should identify where meters are to be located to divide and measure energy
use among different processes. The information gathered from these sub-meters can then be
used to justify capital expenditures and enable you to develop a longer-term plan based on
where the best savings are for the least amount of investment.

Most importantly, make sure this plan focuses on the processes used to create the products
that contribute the most to the company’s productivity and profitability. It should also define
a program of preventive maintenance to maintain energy-efficient production processes and
allow you to continue to innovate in the future.


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 34 / 103

continued Corrective Actions

How to Conduct Companies are taking many corrective steps to increase their energy efficiency. Among the
most common:
an Energy Audit
• Install variable speed drives to match power output with process requirements.
• Take advantage of the software controlling motors to regulate equipment start-up
times and prevent unscheduled starts.

• Install the most energy-efficient light bulbs and other lighting fixtures.
• Apply automatic lighting controls that turn off lights when rooms are unoccupied.
• Use programmable thermostats to match temperatures within the plant to operating

• Eliminate leaks in compressed air and steam systems.

• Update capacitor banks to maintain correct power factors when new equipment is

• Install Ethernet-based power management systems. These create an open database

of the information collected from your processes that can be used to write custom
reports and new applications to address the unique requirements of your facility.


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 35 / 103

• Make preventive maintenance a priority for maintenance staff by incorporating it into
How to Conduct their job descriptions or creating reward programs for meeting PM objectives.
an Energy Audit
• Changing our attitudes about energy consumption can change our behaviors and lead
to energy savings.

There are also more significant capital investments that can be made depending on
conditions at your facility.

With electricity rates high and natural gas rates currently low, it may make sense to invest in
gas-powered turbines. Justifying that kind of investment, however, requires an analysis of the
predictability of rates going forward. Further efficiency can be captured with a co-generation
system to produce steam as well as electricity, or even tri-generation if your processes require
hot water.

Another possibility is heat recovery. Investment in piping and heat exchange equipment can
allow energy to be passed from one process stream to another, reducing the load on utility
sources such as steam and cooling water.

How much you can expect to reduce your energy costs will vary from industry to industry and
plant to plant. No matter the savings potential at your facility, an energy audit is the first step
toward achieving your energy efficiency goals. 


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 36 / 103

Energy Management Best Practices

By Jeanne Schweder The path to achieving energy efficiency is shaped as much by attitudes and organizational
contributing writer skills as by the physical aspects of reducing energy demands. But its goals can never be
Automation World achieved without the automation technologies that make it possible to mine information and
control the operation of machines.

A 2009 study by the Aberdeen Group, a research and consulting firm, found that industry
leaders seeking to reduce energy consumption at their facilities viewed energy management
as strategic to their business success. The primary tools they applied in their endeavors
included advanced visualization, information collection and consumption monitoring.

Among the best practices adopted by industry leaders in reducing energy consumption and
costs, according to the study, are:

• Making energy usage data available to decision-makers in real time. The faster changes
can be made to equipment operations, the greater the energy savings.

• Taking energy costs into account when scheduling production. Peak demand charges
can account for as much as 60 percent of a company’s energy bills.

• Establishing metrics to quantify the benefits of energy management programs. If you

don’t measure it, the activity can’t be valued.


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 37 / 103

• Tying operational metrics to financial metrics. It’s essential to understand how the costs
Energy Management of energy for production and facilities affect the company’s bottom line.
Best Practices
• Investing in technology to automate how energy data is collected and monitored. If
you can’t see it, you can’t measure it or change it.

Since energy can constitute as much as 25 percent of a manufacturer’s operating costs, even
small improvements can have a dramatic impact on the bottom line.

Understand Consumption
From a practical perspective, any energy management initiative must start by gaining an
understanding of consumption patterns and cost sources from production processes and
facilities. Here’s a go-to short list to kick off your initiative:

• Analyze energy utility contracts and penalties;

• Conduct an audit of all equipment and their energy sources—water, air, gas, electricity
and steam (WAGES);

• Acquire and analyze energy consumption and cost data;

• Establish a consumption baseline; and
• Identify potential savings.


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 38 / 103

continued Prioritize Opportunities

Energy Management By first attacking the low-hanging fruit, such as leaks in compressed air and steam systems,
lack of energy-efficient lighting and utility penalties for peak demand and reactive power,
Best Practices
you’ll gain some early wins at minimal cost. A next step can include installing sub-meters to
identify which production activities contribute the most to your energy bills.

Ultimately, prioritization means that you must first establish goals, and then phase in a
planned program of corrective actions. Here’s an outline to follow as you establish your
priorities and ensuing goals:

• Fix the basics;

• Focus on processes and assets that are high consumers of energy;
• Decide where and what to meter; and
• Develop a phased corrective plan.
The bulleted list below highlights the predominant users of energy in an industrial facility for
which automated solutions exist.

 otors. Whether they power production equipment, cooling towers or pumps and
fans in HVAC systems, motors are the biggest sources of industrial energy usage, as
well as waste. Adding variable speed drives will better match energy use to operational


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 39 / 103

• L oads. Staggered start-times and software to prevent unscheduled equipment
Energy Management starts will help avoid peak demand penalties. Utility incentives for demand response
Best Practices programs can be substantial. Automated controls ensure essential loads keep working
while minimizing costs.

• L ighting accounts for as much as 35 percent of energy bills. Programmable

lighting controls turn off lights when rooms or production areas are not in use. Match
illumination levels to task needs. Install energy-efficient bulbs and lighting fixtures.

• H VAC systems. Drives, automated air dampers and programmable thermostats

can help limit energy usage correlated to operational needs.

• P ower quality. If your plant is experiencing unexplained power outages and motor
failures, or paying penalties for reactive power, low power factor and harmonics may
be the cause. Upgrade capacitor banks or electrical equipment where necessary and
install corrective filters to extend equipment life.

• E nergy management. Using software to track power quality, meter energy use,
and control remote monitoring systems will help you access energy information in
an organized fashion that speeds decision-making and lets you know where to take
corrective action.


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 40 / 103

continued Measure ROI

Energy Management Energy management is not a one-time event. To achieve sustained savings requires a
proactive program of measurement, monitoring and preventive maintenance to make sure
Best Practices
that equipment and systems are working in optimal fashion. Periodically measuring the
progress achieved in reducing energy consumption and associated costs savings will build
support for continuing improvements. As you go about measuring your progress, keep the
following in mind:

• Always compare actual consumption to baseline;

• Measure and report all savings;
• Update plans and priorities based on what you learn from measurements;
• Incorporate preventive maintenance as part of the process to reduce downtime and
increase savings potential.

The core takeaway of these tips is to realize that having a greater awareness of the cost
of energy is the first step in changing attitudes about energy consumption and related
behaviors in your facility. Following the best practices described above that have been
developed and implemented by other processing companies can favorably impact your
company’s bottom line. 


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 41 / 103

The Impact of
Variable Speed Drives
By Marty Weil Continuous processing facilities are finding increasing utilization for variable speed drives/
contributing writer variable frequency drives (VSD/VFD) to control the motors on pumps, fans, conveyors,
Automation World etc. This is due to the reliability and low cost of an AC induction motor, as well as the high
performance of AC drives. Even though the up-front cost of an AC drive control unit is greater
David Greenfield
Media and Events Director than that of a DC drive, many factors quickly make up the difference. Conservative data
Automation World indicate a 17 percent savings as a percentage of total system and installation cost using AC
drives. Some end users have experienced up to 30 percent savings.

While energy usage savings are the primary factor for VSD utilization as utility costs continue
to increase, these savings are further supported by increased flexibility in selection of
product feed rates, improved accuracy for dispensing of materials, and an increase in access
to secondary process performance due to greater access to VSD parameters via control

Maintenance can become an issue if there is minimal to no in-house experience with VSDs,
however. But most of these concerns can be eliminated with comprehensive training of the
maintenance staff prior to project implementation, and reinforced by using the maintenance
staff during commissioning.


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 42 / 103

continued Considerations in Applying VSDs

The Impact of A variable speed drive is the most cost effective choice if the duty cycle is more evenly
distributed over the entire range of flow rates. Relative energy savings improve if the
Variable Speed Drives
performance and system resistance curves are steep. Many potentially good VSD applications
are passed over because benefits other than energy savings are overlooked. Frequently,
process control and reliability far outweigh efficiency-related benefits to the user. By using
only the average cost of energy in savings analyses, the savings can be understated for VSD
applications. Instead, both the energy and demand charges of the local utility’s rate schedule
should be used in the analysis.

For variable torque loads, the VSD savings can be significantly greater since the horsepower
varies proportionally to the cube of the speed. For horsepower applications above 25 hp,
installation costs are usually comparable to the total capital cost for the drive. Below 25 hp,
installation costs may be more than the cost of the drive.

VSD Best Practices

With a VSD, a tachometer or inferential speed feedback signal should be sent to the process
controller in the control system that is sending the signal to the drive. The speed feedback
should be used in a similar way to the position feedback from a digital positioner to prevent
the process controller output from changing faster than the VSD can respond. The use


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 43 / 103

continued of the dynamic reset limit option for the loops in the control system can automatically
The Impact of prevent the process controller from outrunning the response of any type of final element.
For best performance, users should consider the following during the specification and
Variable Speed Drives implementation of variable speed drive systems:

• High-resolution input cards;

• Pump head well above static head on-off valves for isolation;
• XPLE (cross-linked polyethylene) jacketed foil/braided or armored shielded cables;
• Separate trays for instrumentation and VSD cables;
• Inverter chokes and isolation transformers;
• Pulse width modulated inverters;
• Properly set deadband and velocity limiting in the drive electronics;
• Drive control strategy to meet range/speed regulation requirements; and
• Dynamic reset limiting using inferential speed or tachometer feedback. 


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 44 / 103

Safety: The Lifecycle Approach

By James R. Koelsch Production safety is generally thought of as a series of steps necessary to ensure safe
contributing writer interaction with industrial equipment. The process of identifying, agreeing upon and
Automation World delineating those steps is where things tend to get complicated. That’s why international
standards groups play such a significant role, as they set the guidelines for all of industry to
Dave Woll
Vice President follow.
ARC Advisory Group
—and— For the process industries, IEC 61511 is probably the most widely used safety standard, as it
David Greenfield applies to those industries that base their safety systems upon instrumentation. The goal of
Media and Events Director safety-system design in IEC 61511 is for the process, whatever it may be, to go to a safe state
Automation World
whenever a process parameter exceeds preset limits.

A New Way of Approaching Safety

Understanding IEC 61511 means that you must know a thing or two about IEC 61508 —
a functional safety standard that provides the framework for building industry-specific
functional standards. IEC 61511 was created from the guidelines established by IEC 61508.

The key point to understand about IEC 610508 is that it is designed to establish an
engineering discipline that will generate safer designs and build safer processes. The uniform
procedures built on these disciplines are contingent upon appropriate experts within a
company contributing to projects. In addition, the standard also makes it easy for outside
auditors and governmental agencies to follow the process.


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 45 / 103

continued IEC 61508 can seem confusing at first, because its underlying philosophy is new for
Safety: The Lifecycle safety standards. Older, more conventional safety standards, stipulated specific rules and
specifications for making processes safe. IEC 61508 and its derivative standards, such as IEC
Approach 61511, departed from this approach by being more functional, or performance-based.

A principal aspect of this new approach to safety standards is that it leverages two
fundamental principles: safety lifecycles and probabilistic failure analysis. Unlike previous
standards that claimed to cover the entire lifecycle of a project, IEC 61508 and its offshoots
actually do—from project conception to maintenance to decommissioning.

In essence, the standards specify safety lifecycle activities that need to be followed over
the entire life of a production system. Safety lifecycle management provides a method or
procedure that enables companies to specify, design, implement and maintain safety systems
to achieve overall safety in a documented and verified manner.

Four Phases of The Safety Lifecycle

The IEC 61511 standard promulgated by the International Electrotechnical Commission
specifies twelve steps in the safety lifecycle. These are segmented into four phases: analysis,
realization, maintenance and ongoing functions.


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 46 / 103

continued Safety Lifecycle I: Analysis Phase

Safety: The Lifecycle The analysis phase includes the initial planning, identification and specification of safety
functions required for the safe operation of a manufacturing process.
Specific activities include:

• Perform hazard and risk analysis: Determine hazards and hazardous events, the
sequence of events leading to hazardous condition, the associated process risks, the
requirements of risk reduction and the safety functions required.

• Allocate safety functions to protection layers: Check the available layers of

protection. Allocate safety functions to protection layers and safety systems.

• Specify requirements for safety system: If tolerable risk is still out of limit, then
specify the requirements for each safety system and their safety integrity levels.

Safety Lifecycle II: Realization Phase

The realization phase not only includes design, installation and testing of safety systems,
but also the design, development and installation of other effective risk reduction methods.
Specific activities include:

• Design and engineer a safety system: Design system to meet the safety


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 47 / 103

• Design and develop other means of risk reduction: Means of protection other than
Safety: The Lifecycle programmable safety systems include mechanical systems, process control systems
Approach and manual systems.

• Install, commission and validate the safety protections: Install and validate that the
safety system meets the all safety requirements to the required safety integrity levels.

Safety Lifecycle III: Maintenance Phase

The maintenance phase begins at the start-up of a process and continues until the safety
system is decommissioned or redeployed. Specific activities include:

• Operate and maintain: Ensure that the safety system functions are maintained during
operation and maintenance.

• Modify and update: Make corrections, enhancements and adaptations to the safety
system to ensure that the safety requirements are maintained.

• Decommissioning: Conduct review and obtain required authorization before

decommissioning a safety system. Ensure that the required safety functions remain
operational during decommissioning.


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 48 / 103

continued Safety Lifecycle IV: Ongoing Functions

Safety: The Lifecycle Certain functions are ongoing. Examples include managing functional safety, planning and
structuring the safety lifecycle, and performing periodic safety system verification and safety
audits over the whole lifecycle. Specific activities include:

• Manage functional safety, safety assessment, and safety audit: Identify the
management activities that are required to ensure that the functional safety objectives
are met.

• Plan and structure safety lifecycle: Define safety lifecycle in terms of inputs, outputs
and verification activities.

• Verify safety system: Demonstrate by review, analysis and/or testing that the required
outputs satisfy the defined requirements for each phase of the safety lifecycle.

Activities for Phases I to III are typically carried out consecutively, while Phase IV runs
concurrently with the other phases. However, like all models, the safety lifecycle is an

Bottom Line: A Requirements Definition

Readers should note that the standards define requirements for safety management, rather
than system development. Not all safety lifecycle phases will be relevant to every application;
management must define which requirements are applicable in each case. The standards do
not prescribe exactly what should be done in any particular case, but guide management
toward decisions and offer advice. 


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 49 / 103

Procedural Automation for

Greater Safety and Productivity
By Jeanne Schweder Continuous process environments tend to be stable — until they’re not. When that happens,
contributing writer the consequences can be catastrophic. Think Deepwater Horizon.
Automation World
The very stability of a continuous production process often induces a false sense of security in
operators. Lack of experience with system failure or unexpected alarms can lead operators to
freeze when systems suddenly cascade out of control.

Procedural automation standards originally developed for batch processes and discrete
manufacturing hold promise for helping continuous process operators deal more effectively
with sudden emergencies, as well as the more routine changes in state that can occur.

Processing’s Most Vulnerable Areas

The fact is, every continuous process has non-continuous elements, such as start-up, ramp-up,
emptying and filling of tanks, shutdown, emergency shutdown and clean-in-place activities. A
continuous process is really just a batch process with a very long steady state in the middle.

The ISA-88 standard has established a common terminology and a framework for writing
software to control batch production processes and procedures. ISA-95 did the same for
enterprise to manufacturing data integration. ISA-95’s “common denominator” data structure


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 50 / 103


Procedural Automation for

Greater Safety and Productivity
facilitates communication between business and process
systems, so that operators and managers can make better

The thinking behind both of these standards has important

implications in areas where continuous process control
is most vulnerable—process variations and disruptions.
These can result in unanticipated shutdowns that plant
operators can be ill equipped to counter because they’re
not confronted with them frequently enough to hone their

Automating procedural steps can counteract variations

in operator skills and will become increasingly important
as the current generation of experienced process control
engineers retires. Defining common process procedures
can also provide additional support for employees who are
executing operations that can be more manual, such as is
typical in equipment and plant startups, shutdowns and


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 51 / 103

continued ISA-106 Defines Continuous Process Procedures

Procedural A new ISA committee is working to develop standard methods and terminology for
automating continuous process procedures. “ISA-106, Procedural Automation for Continuous
Automation for
Process Operations”, will define repeatable procedural steps that can lower the chances of
Greater Safety and accidents due to human error. The intent of the new standard is to reduce process variability,
Productivity reduce risk to facilities and increase operational productivity in continuous process industries.

The ISA-106 committee plans to issue series of documents to help users standardize designs
to handle operator errors in normal, critical, and abnormal situations.

As a first step, the ISA-106 committee, which includes representatives from the largest
companies in the petrochemical industry, is working on its first technical report targeted
at oil refineries, upstream offshore oil rigs and chemical plants. The report will give users
common definitions to describe the requirements in improvements, upgrades, and changes
in procedural automation to system integrators and automation suppliers.

The technical report will also include standards for modularizing procedural steps, exception
handling for abnormal situations, state mode procedural logic, process unit orientation and
current practices. 


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 52 / 103

Four IT Standards
You Should Understand
By Dennis Brandl Imagine a world without electrical standards, such as 110V at 60hz, or 220 at 50Hz, or a
Chief Consultant world where every phone had a different type of connection and required a different type
BR&L Consulting Inc. of switchboard. Just as these standards are critical to the basic functioning of electrical
equipment, there are also IT standards used daily to ensure optimal functioning of production
systems in the process industries.

There are four production-related IT standards of special interest to the processing industries:

• The ANSI/ISA 88 standard on batch control;

• The ANSI/ISA 95 standard for MES and ERP-to-MES communication;
• The ANSI/ISA 99 technical reports in industrial cyber security; and
• The new ANSI/ISA 106 technical report on procedure automation.
These standards and technical reports define the best practices for implementing automated
and manual control on the systems that reside above the PLC (programmable logic controller)
and DCS (distributed control system) level, and which perform the basic control that keep
production running. These four standards all share a common view of a production facility,


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 53 / 103


Four IT Standards
You Should Understand
Stop Programming Process Tasks.
Start Configuring providing a consistent terminology that makes it easier to
compare plants within a company and across companies.
S88 Builder is the first process control
system that is configured rather than
The ANSI/ISA 88 standard defines the most common and
programmed. Configuration requires two
steps, define the devices that make up the effective method for defining control systems for batch
physical system and define specific tasks, operations or for continuous and discrete startups and
such as mixing, flow control, heating, etc.,
that the devices team up to accomplish.
Configuration is easier, more accurate and
faster than programming. The ANSI/ISA 95 standard defines the most commonly
By configuring instead of programming used method for exchanging information between ERP
process control tasks, S88 Builder speeds systems, such as SAP or Oracle, and the multitude of shop
project development by up to 90%. floor systems. It has also become the de facto standard for
S88 Builder lowers the total cost of defining MES (manufacturing execution system) and MOM
ownership for a process control Learn More About
the Many Cost-Saving
(manufacturing operations management) specifications.
system by:
Benefits offered by
• Lowering initial development costs S88 Builder
The ANSI/ISA 99 reports define structures and policies
• Reducing time-to-market for new products www.S88Builder.com
for designing effective and secure networked production
• Reducing waste and downtime
(800) 471-3273 facilities.


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 54 / 103


Four IT Standards
You Should Understand
The new ISA 106 reports define the procedural control
strategy for continuous production during upsets,
switchovers, and other types of process changes.

Because these standards establish a commonly accepted

terminology, functions and process models by which
technical professionals are trained, and upon which solution
providers develop applications used in batch and process
production operations (as well as discrete manufacturing),
they should be of particular interest to those who are
new to the field and those who seeking a refresher on the
fundamentals of industrial processes. 


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 55 / 103

Fieldbus and Ethernet in

Continuous Process Applications
By Marty Weil In most process industry facilities, the predominant means of communication between field
contributing writer devices and control systems was, for many years, a 4-20 mA analog connection. Though this
Automation World connection method is highly dependable and still in use, the amount of wiring required is
substantial, as each device on the network must have its own separate connection to the
David Greenfield
Media and Events Director controller.
Automation World
As digital technologies emerged on the industrial scene, the capability of fieldbus protocols
became a more attractive alternative to analog 4-20 mA communication because of the
reduced wiring requirements of fieldbus networks. Less wiring is required with fieldbus
because a fieldbus segment can carry both DC power and digital communication signals to
numerous separate devices over one fieldbus cable.

The predominant fieldbus protocols in the process industries are: Foundation Fieldbus, HART,
and Profibus.

As Ethernet more clearly becomes the network of choice, not just for the front office, but in
production areas as well, the move toward Ethernet-based communications in the process
industries is gathering a great deal of attention. Evidence of this can be seen in the increase
of end devices for process industry applications that now come standard with an Ethernet


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 56 / 103


Fieldbus and Ethernet in

Continuous Process Applications
a giant breakthrough
in small readers port. Most fieldbus protocols now offer Ethernet-based
versions of their protocol, thereby enabling ease of network
management and connection to enterprise systems.

With all the networking options now facing the process

industries, following are a few of the core facts you should
be aware of when it comes to assessing your fieldbus and
Ethernet options.

The HART (Highway Addressable Remote Transducer)

protocol is considered by many to be the global standard
in the process industries for sending and receiving digital
information across analog wires between smart devices
Meet the DataMan 50L. The tiny barcode reader that brings
big performance to the food & beverage industry. and control or monitoring systems. HART is a bi-directional
Don’t let its size fool you. The DataMan® 50L is huge in barcode reading performance. communication protocol that provides data access between
Measuring just 23.5mm x 27mm x 43.5mm and featuring an IP65-rated housing, the
DataMan 50L is premium technology designed for 1-D-oriented barcode reading. The
DataMan 50L delivers read rates that can surpass 99% through Cognex’s proprietary
intelligent field instruments and host systems. A host
Hotbars™ image-analysis technology.
can be any software application from technician's hand-
The new DataMan 50L is a powerful upgrade for applications that use small laser
barcode scanner systems. Visit us at www.cognex.com/50L. held device or laptop to a plant's process control, asset
management, safety or other system using any control
Scan to Learn More


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 57 / 103

continued Originally intended as a replacement for the 4-20 mA standard, Foundation Fieldbus can
Fieldbus and Ethernet be found in many heavy process applications such as refining, petrochemicals, and power
in Continuous
Process Applications Two forms of Foundation Fieldbus are available, each uses different physical media and
communication speeds:

• H 1 works at 31.25 kbit/s and generally connects to field devices. It provides

communication and power over standard twisted-pair wiring. Conforming with IEC
61158-2 (as does Profibus, detailed below), power can be delivered over the bus to field
instruments, while limiting current flows so that explosive conditions are not created.

• H SE (High-speed Ethernet) works at 100 Mbit/s and generally connects input/output

subsystems, host systems, linking devices, gateways, and field devices using standard
Ethernet cabling. It doesn't currently provide power over the cable, although work is
under way to include this feature.

Another significant process industry fieldbus protocol is Profibus PA (process automation),

which also operates at 31.25 kbits/s. This protocol is a standard for fieldbus communication
in automation technology, first promoted by the German department of education and
research (BMBF) and then adopted for use by Siemens. The protocol is commonly found in
petrochemical, food/beverage, water and waste treatment plants.

Profinet is the open Industrial Ethernet standard from the Profibus/Profinet International
group. Profinet uses TCP/IP and IT standards and operates at Ethernet speeds.


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 58 / 103


Fieldbus and Ethernet in

Think automation is Continuous Process Applications
just another business cost?
Continuous process companies using a fieldbus protocol
Think automation is tactical typically cite its use based on easier regulatory compliance
and not strategic? because it is a digital network. As a result, documentation is
more precise (e.g., it is time stamped). Foundation Fieldbus,
Think no one has enough of the right for example, has an integral mechanism to measure data
resources to execute your automation work? quality, communicating to users whether the data received
from devices is good, bad, or of uncertain quality.

Think again. Think MAVERICK. In addition, nearly all continuous process applications
today rely to some degree on the precision and diagnostic
power of microprocessor-based field devices. Diagnostics
are most valued for abnormal situation avoidance. After
all, if instruments can an alert an engineer to a problem
before the safety valves lift and the flare starts roaring
due to a spurious upset, the savings are huge. Fieldbus
protocols provide a means of standardizing the integration
of microprocessor-based devices and modern distributed
control systems. 
Call MAVERICK: 888.917.9109
or visit us online at mavtechglobal.com


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 59 / 103

Understanding the Differences

Among Industrial Ethernet Protocols
By David Greenfield The rapid adoption of Ethernet on the plant floor over the past decade underscores the
Media and Events Director need for more production information for better decision-making and the need to simplify
Automation World networks for easier access and maintenance. But just as there have been “wars” between
the varying fieldbus protocols over the years, a similar posturing over the capabilities of the
different protocols persists in the Ethernet arena.

To help you make sense of the main differences between six of the major industrial Ethernet
protocols, we turn a spotlight on CC-Link IE, EtherCAT, Ethernet/IP, Ethernet Powerlink,
Profinet, and Sercos III.

CC-Link IE

• CC-Link IE is gigabit speed industrial Ethernet.

• It is an inherently deterministic network that uses token passing as the mechanism to
guarantee deterministic performance.

• No Ethernet switches are required in the basic topology.

• The protocol is based on ISO model IEEE.802.3 Ethernet at the physical layer.
CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 60 / 103

• CC-Link IE protocol fits at the transport network layer. It is not a TCP/IP or UDP-based
Understanding the network. This is one of the reasons that it’s a separate protocol in order to guarantee
Differences Among deterministic operation out of the box.
Industrial Ethernet
Protocols • Frame format of the data is the Ethernet frame. Within the Ethernet frame is a CC-Link
IE frame with header and data information.

• CC-Link EE works with Mitsubishi Electric’s MES Interface IT hardware appliance to

move shop floor data to enterprise level and avoid the need for gateway PCs.


• The master does not require a special card to run EtherCAT, and each slave device
or node on the network has an ASIC or FPGA chip inside that implements the entire
protocol. The slave doesn’t need a micro-controller or random access memory, which
means frames can be read and written as data goes through the network at a line
speed of 100 Mb/s with no switches built in.

• EtherCAT’s fieldbus memory management unit uses logical addressing so that each
slave device knows where to find its data in the frame, regardless of its physical
location. One read-write cycle is capable of talking to all the devices without a great
deal of CPU overhead on the controller side.


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 61 / 103

• EtherCAT supports multiple scan rates and multiple acyclic data exchange rates on the
Understanding the same network for use in multiple industrial automation processes including motion,
Differences Among I/O, condition monitoring, and data acquisition.
Industrial Ethernet
Protocols • There is no separate backplane and, therefore, no conversion needed from EtherCAT
to another protocol to the I/O level. This is due to use of LVDS (low voltage differential
signal) — a third physical layer in addition to CAT 5 and fiber used to pass the EtherCAT
packets directly through all the I/O terminals so that each I/O terminal can be its own
independent node on the network.

• EtherCAT can synchronize down to the nanosecond level on a standard PC with no

special fieldbus cards for timing.


• EtherNet/IP is a control network designed to address enterprise communication rather

than focusing on segments across a machine or line. This enterprise design reportedly
allows for easy integration with other devices, as well as network traffic from other
protocols and Web servers.

• Safety aspects are addressed through CIP (common industrial protocol) Safety, which
allows safety devices to coexist with standard control devices on the same CIP network,
with or without a safety PLC. In this environment, safety sensors can operate alongside


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 62 / 103

continued variable speed drives, safety controllers with standard PLCs and proximity switches.
Understanding the Regardless of the combination of devices used, the integrity of the safety control loop
cannot be affected by any of the standard control devices.
Differences Among
Industrial Ethernet • CIP Motion addresses synchronization in motion. CIP Motion, as part of EtherNet/IP,
Protocols combines the requirements of deterministic, real-time, closed loop motion control
with standard, unmodified Ethernet, and complies with Ethernet standards, including
IEEE 802.3 and TCP/IP. EtherNet/IP with CIP Motion technology enables multi-axis,
distributed motion control through application profiles designed to allow position,
speed and torque loops to be set within a drive.

Ethernet Powerlink

• Ethernet Powerlink is a broadcast-based system, meaning that the network doesn’t

have to transmit the packet through every single station. When the system transmits
back, every node transmits the packet back as a broadcast. This makes it possible
to multiplex nodes, which means the node doesn’t have to transmit its information
back on every single scan, allowing for network optimization and high-speed

• By using a slot protocol, where each node has a certain slot time on the network and
passes data back to the master in a slot manner, this illuminates any collisions on the
system. This gives Ethernet Powerlink fast and predictable cycle times and also allows
for the removal and reconnection of nodes to the network without interrupting the


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 63 / 103

• Redundancy is built in for ease of network recovery whether using a ring, star or daisy
Understanding the chain topology. If any part of network is disconnected, the system will self recover and
Differences Among report back that the network has gone down.
Industrial Ethernet
Protocols • Ethernet Powerlink can be implemented via free download from Sourceforge.net. It’s
based on C, so it’s transportable to controllers or PCs using a standard Ethernet port.
With that in place, any system can be connected to a Powerlink network and control
Powerlink nodes.

• The synchronization is around 100 nanoseconds with a guarantee of minimal jitter.


• Profinet uses standard, unmodified Ethernet media, but does not use TCP/IP to
transmit real-time information. When real-time data is being sent, those two layers are
skipped. Diagnostic information, however, is accessed over TCP/IP.

• Bumpless redundancy — meaning that each node sends its message out in both
directions around the ring (when using a ring topology) to ensure at least one message
will always get through.

• In depth diagnostics are available from the I/O rack level down to a module in that rack.
• Profinet supports real time I/O for motion control as well as machine-to-machine,
controller-to-controller or peer-to-peer types of communication.


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 64 / 103

• Profinet allows for integration of other buses (including Foundation Fieldbus, Interbus,
Understanding the ASI, HART, DeviceNet, and others) via proxies, allowing for maintenance of legacy
Differences Among nodes.
Industrial Ethernet
Protocols • ProfiEnergy is a vendor- and device-neutral data interface based on Profinet that
permits a coordinated, centralized shutdown of devices during idle times. This means
that individual components or entire subsections of a plant can be switched off
automatically when not in use without the aid of external hardware.

• Since there is no explosion-proof industrial Ethernet, Profinet leverages Profibus

PA (the process automation version of Profibus), which can be installed in such an
atmosphere and then brought in through a proxy to Profinet.

Sercos III

• Sercos III uses a tightly controlled time synchronization signal emitted from a master
control in the system once for every update cycle, providing nanosecond determinism
across the network. The time base is a phase-lock loop for deterministic control,
allowing for the synchronization of serially connected servo drives, CNCs, and motion

• Each message sent from the control contains a master sync telegram for hard real-time
function. This also places fewer burdens on the host processors, freeing them up for
tasks such as running control algorithms and machine programs.


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 65 / 103

• The collective telegram approach underlying Sercos III means that each device places
Understanding the its input data on common answer telegrams. During the remaining time in the cycle,
Differences Among which for a typical application can be 80 percent or more of the available bandwidth,
Industrial Ethernet any standard Ethernet protocol can be transmitted over the network.
• Bumpless, single fault redundancy means that Sercos III nodes are specified to detect
broken links in less than 25 microseconds and immediately re-route telegrams back in
a double line configuration.

• No telegram data is destroyed in a communication cycle over Sercos, thereby allowing
direct cross communication of data between slaves without the CPU burden or time
delay that a re-transmission of data by a master would impose.

• Sercos III can be integrated with EtherNet/IP, allowing integrators to mix Sercos III,
EtherNet/IP and TCP/IP components within a single machine on a single cable. 


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 66 / 103

Wireless Trends
By David Greenfield The history of wireless networking in industry has largely been that of cable replacement. It
Media and Events Director was simply a tool to deliver communications in places where you simply couldn’t run cable
Automation World for a variety of reasons. Maybe it was too expensive. Or maybe the cable would be running
in a hazardous zone. Through these types of applications, wireless secured a foothold in the
process industries over the past two decades.

Now we are beginning to see a shift in the types of wireless technologies used, as well as
different types of applications. This shift is coming from a user-needs perspective, rather than
from pure technological capabilities.

According to the most recent survey from WINA (Wireless Industrial

Rapid Pace of Wireless Adoption Networking Alliance), the biggest use of wireless technology today is for
Currently (2011) and in the future (2015) what percent of your field devices
do/will communicate using wireless technology? asset management and condition monitoring. Through the use of wireless
<5% 10% 15% 20% >30% sensors that can be positioned nearly anywhere on a piece of equipment,
maintenance personnel can get a steady stream of data from that equipment
about the state of its condition.
The other use of wireless technology, coming in a close second, is
13 incremental process measurements — the classic measurements of level,
2011 9
6 temperature, pressure, and flow. It’s not difficult to think of many different
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70%
places in, say, a refinery or water treatment facility, where it makes sense to
Source: WINA get incremental temperature readings from segments of the process where


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 67 / 103

continued you have not been able to collect that data before. Of course, this wouldn’t make sense if you
Wireless Trends had to dig a 1,000-yard trench and stop part of the plant for a couple of weeks while you did
that. But if you could easily put a wireless sensor in that part of the plant and do that very cost
effectively, that’s effective incremental process measurement. Such small
Top Industry Applications For Wireless steps can certainly help you improve your efficiency and, when examined
from the aspect of a large process, like a refinery, there are huge overall
Asset Management / Condition Monitoring 58% efficiency numbers involved in the end result.
Incremental Process Measurements 57%
Wireless sensors are, perhaps, the biggest area for substantial capital
Mobile Operator / HMI 44% expenditure savings in the process industries, especially when you think
Voice, Video, Data 30% about the potential benefit of establishing pervasive sensor networks.
When you literally start to put hundreds and thousands of devices out in the
Asset Tracking 26%
facility or a refinery, that's when you begin to see real cap-ex savings versus
Control 13% hard wiring. And this has already been documented. For example, using
Source: WINA Annual Survey of End Users - December 2011 temperature sensors positioned directly on the roller can produce a small
percentage of improvement in the surface finish of sheet steel by precisely
achieving the proper manifold temperature; this small improvement in quality translates into
millions of dollars in savings over the course of the process run.

The third most prevalent trend for wireless technology is supporting mobile operators.
Access Full Presentation
And it’s easy to see why: Removing the step of having to connect via an Ethernet jack as
Click here to access the full measurements are taken at each stop is a big improvement in process.
presentation made by WINA Chairman
Steven Toteda at The Automation


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 68 / 103

continued Following mobile in the fourth and fifth spots are voice/video data communications and
Wireless Trends asset tracking. These types of wireless applications have been around for years and continue
to be deployed due to their successful track record, so it’s not surprising to see them among
the top trends.

What is surprising is the application that came in at number six in the 2012 WINA survey —
control. This is surprising because wireless control had never even ranked in the survey prior
to this year. Now, however, 13 percent of survey respondents considered control to be their
“top application” of wireless. In industries like mining, wireless pump control has been around
for years, because there is no other way to really do it. But this result indicates that people
across industry are beginning to experiment with closed-loop control using wireless. 


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 69 / 103

Wireless Sensor Applications

By David Greenfield If you’re working in a facility without a great deal—or any—wireless sensors in place, you
Media and Events Director may be suspicious about the viability of wireless sensor networks. To help illustrate how
Automation World ubiquitous wireless sensors have become across industry, following are a few examples of
wireless sensor deployments that have become so common that they could be considered
textbook application examples.

 ireless limit switch networks are commonly used to prevent the
overflow of liquid storage tanks. Their operation is simple: As the tank fills
up, the fluid level forces a change in the position of the limit switch. The wireless limit
switch then sends a signal to the pump controller to start pumping out the tank to
lower the level. When the fluid level drops to a safe level, the switch then sends a signal
to the controller to turn off the pump.

• T he safety and security of oil pipelines is largely handled by

wireless sensor networks, according to Steve Toteda, vice president and
general manager of the wireless business unit at Cooper Industries and chairman of the
Wireless Industrial Networking Alliance (WINA). “We're doing a lot of work in Mexico
now to monitor and maintain oil pipelines,” he says. “In these applications, there is a
hierarchy of networking tools with sensor networks being used with instrumentation
on the pipeline itself to capture data and transmit it back to the control system


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 70 / 103

continued via high-speed backhaul. This combination of technologies—wired, wireless and

Wireless Sensor cellular—has really brought wireless to the forefront because you’re mixing multiple
technologies to monitor pipelines in 20-30 kilometer segments. As you do this
Applications with several segments, you’re effectively able to monitor hundreds of kilometers of

• A major pharmaceutical manufacturer recently decided to

instrument all of its R&D equipment, such as incubators and cryofreezers,
and connect them to the company’s control systems for 24/7/365 monitoring. Because
much of this equipment has casters, it was difficult to wire them, as they need to be
moved around. This project is still ongoing, but there are currently nearly 2,000 pieces
of equipment equipped with wireless sensors on the company’s R&D campus, which
covers an area of about 1.5km. 


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 71 / 103

Wireless Protocols
for the Process Industries
By Renee Robbins Bassett Two similar wireless protocols—WirelessHART, promulgated by the HART Communication
Managing Editor Foundation (www.hartcomm.org) and ISA 100.11a, promulgated by the International
Automation World Society of Automation (www.isa.org)—are competing for dominance as the enabler of smart
instrumentation in Europe and North America. Complicating the issue for end users is the fact
that these two standards don’t work together. In addition, a third standard, WIA-PA, exists in
China and further complicates the task for those with Asian operations.

Most process facilities use a mix of wired networks along with their diverse array of
instrumentation, but the inability to integrate the two main wireless standards makes that
difficult in the wireless realm. Unlike with wired instrumentation, if you want to mix brands of
wireless field devices to get an optimum mix of measurements, you can’t. You have to have
two separate host systems to talk to two different types of field devices. And they have to
come from different vendors.

In many ways, WirelessHART and ISA 100.11a are alike. They are designed to serve the same
market in the same way. At an application level, they perform the same function and have the
same benefits. Both ISA 100.11a and WirelessHART implement IEEE 802.15.4 radio hardware.
Both protocols use DDL and Device Description files. Both can eliminate a lot of PLC I/O
hardware, wiring and associated schematics.


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 72 / 103

continued The principal difference between the two protocols is in the specification of the protocols’
Wireless Protocols for application layer. WirelessHART, for example, specifies HART as the application layer while
ISA100.11a leaves that layer undefined. This means that data in the application layer of
the Process Industries ISA100.11a can be transferred using Foundation Fieldbus, Profibus, Modbus, HART or other
protocols. While this makes ISA100.11a highly flexible, the customer must decide which
protocol to use. WirelessHART’s decision to specify only HART in the application layer was
done to deliver simplicity via use of a single data communication specification through the
network, meaning that data communication on the network is well-defined and understood.

Considering the potential for integrated use of the two wireless protocols, the obstacles
preventing a convergence seem to be more commercial than technical. Though the two
protocols are similar, investments have been made, vendors and early adopters are lined up
on either side, and product certification processes have been established. The two protocols
have been developed into products for sale. Marketing programs designed to win over
additional customers and vendor partners are in high gear. Both sides believe their approach
is “right” and others should come over to their way of thinking. 


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 73 / 103

How to Avoid Mistakes with

Control System Remote Access
By Marty Weil As more operations aspects are tied to Ethernet networks and, therefore, are open to Internet-
contributing writer based access, the potential for greater collaborative operation and a freer work environment
Automation World increases. But so do the potential for security problems. Following are some basic tips and
considerations for achieving secure and reliable remote access:
David Greenfield
Media and Events Director
Automation World 1. Map out your project from the start. When companies fail to map out their
projects thoroughly from the start, they often find themselves saddled with applications
and automation products that don’t work cohesively as a single system. Once you start
implementing various silos—be they applications or products—things get more complex.
This is typical of problems that occur when automation products are implemented hastily,
without doing proper research, planning, or analyzing current and future goals, or without
realizing that implementing remote access monitoring for a facility is just step one of many.

2. Anticipate network interactions. When people have installed devices on a

proprietary network then try to use something different (e.g., Wi-Fi or another protocol),
individual systems may conflict. Or they may just cancel each other out, so that there is
no communication whatsoever. More often you find yourself managing so many different
applications, protocols, and systems that you have more work and headaches than you
imagined possible. This issue can be avoided if you select a network that is open and allows
everything to work together.


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 74 / 103

continued 3. Understand users and roles. Understanding users and their roles can have
How to Avoid a significant impact on how the remote access strategy evolves. In most control systems
operations, the roles that may require remote access to control assets may include, but are
Mistakes with Control
not limited to:
System Remote
Access • System operators and engineers for local systems;
• System operators and engineers for remote systems;
• Vendors;
• System integrators;
• System support specialists and maintenance engineers;
• Field technicians;
• Business/supply chain partners;
• Reporting or regulatory entities; and
• Managed service providers.
The roles of users that would require remote access to mission-critical operations can
be extensive and the assignment of specific access depending on those roles can be


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 75 / 103

continued complicated. Map out and document all acceptable access policies and procedures related to
How to Avoid allowable network access and coordinate this with industrial control system security experts.
Any user access that goes beyond simple viewing of data and permits changes to system
Mistakes with Control parameters should be extremely limited.
System Remote
Access 4. Know your vulnerabilities. Beginning at the remote user and following the
connection to the data or service, remote access can be compromised at any of the following

• T he user or system can be impersonated to fool the target system.

• T he attacker can use captured or guessed credentials to impersonate the user.
• T he attacker can intimidate or coerce the user to provide valid credentials, or to
perform activities at the attacker’s demand.

• T he user’s access device (laptop, PDA, etc.) can be attacked, compromised, and used to
access the control system network.

• T he target system can be impersonated by an attacker to fool the user and thus gain
credentials or other information from the user system.

• C ommunication can be listened to by third parties anywhere along the

communication chain.


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 76 / 103

• T he communication can be interrupted or jammed.
How to Avoid
Mistakes with Control • C ommunications can have data injected into them by an attacker.
System Remote
Access • C ommunication can be hijacked after it has been initiated (does not rely on
impersonation) or intercepted during initiation (impersonating both user and target,
also known as a man-in-the-middle attack).

• P arts of a communication can be replayed to a target, even if the attacker cannot

decipher the content (also known as a replay attack).

• T he target communication software listening for requests can be attacked and

potentially compromised.

• A n attacker can impersonate a valid communications node and gain access to the
underlying communications medium.

• A denial-of-service attack can happen to the authentication server

(e.g., radius server or RAS).

• A denial-of-service attack can happen to the outward communication device

(e.g., an outside router for remote access). 


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 77 / 103

Control System Security Tips

By Marty Weil Recognizing that the biggest security risk to your control system assets are the operators who
contributing writer interface with the system on a daily basis is the most important step to successfully securing
Automation World your systems. For a thorough analysis of your risks and setup of reliable control system
security technologies and processes, consult an industrial control system security expert such
David Greenfield
Media and Events Director as scadahacker.com, byressecurity.com, or industrialdefender.com. Following are the ground
Automation World level security steps that a continuous process facility should implement at a bare minimum:

1. Assess your systems. Compile an accurate list of all the assets in your plant: make,
model, and serial number. Where are your computers? Where are your PLCs? It’s difficult to
secure something when you don’t know it exists. This should be a high-level assessment in
which you go through your plant and figure out what is high risk and what is low risk, which is
determined by two key factors: how likely is a problem to occur? How serious is the problem?
For example, if something happened to your chlorine tank, it would be really ugly. That chip
pile, not so ugly. Get a feel for the significant risks. Where do you have to focus your effort?
The answer is going to drive your decisions and your capital allocation.

2. Document your policies and procedures. No company operates in a

vacuum. Each company will have a series of policies and procedures for things like safety
and performance, reliability, and change management. Lay those out and understand how
they impact control systems and security, and then build on that to create a set of additional
security requirements.


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 78 / 103

continued 3. Start training. No one is going to follow policies unless they know about them and
Control System understand why they are necessary. All levels of employees that interact with the control
system need to understand what an attack looks like and how to respond to one. You should
Security Tips
end up with a matrix of training for the various levels of users; it doesn't have to be onerous,
but it has to be done.

4. Understand your traffic flows. You need a diagram that shows all the things that
require intercommunication. Smart companies will have a comprehensive diagram showing
that the accounting department needs data out of this area, and maintenance needs data out
of this area, and so on.

5. Remember that SCADA security is used to control access. Access should

be segmented to specific network resources, hardware resources, and HMI. Effective security
practices should prevent access to all layers by unwanted external connections.

6. Leverage safety reports. Those responsible for safety, when they do reports and
analyses, have done a good deal of the work needed to understand the security risks.

7. Use separate networks. Though this step is becoming less and less practical, some
still advocate that the process control network be kept separate from business networks,
and also isolated from the Internet. For this approach, which may not be viable in the longer
term, utilize operating system (OS) implemented security, with active directory “domain group
security” as the preferred approach.


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 79 / 103

continued 8. Security in the operator interface should be considered broadly. With

Control System advanced human-machine interface technologies, security can be implemented for individual
attributes. HMI should be the only accessible program, with user-specific exceptions,
Security Tips
connected to the control operating system at a dedicated user station. All other resources for
that particular terminal should be restricted.

9. Use unique user accounts and passwords. All users should have unique user
accounts and passwords to minimize the risk of unauthorized access.

10. Provide port security. With this approach, the Ethernet MAC address connected
to the switch port allows only that MAC address to communicate on that port. If any other
MAC address tries to communicate through the port, port security will disable it. Most of the
time, network administrators configure the switch to send an SNMP trap to their network
monitoring solution that the port’s disabled for security reasons. When using port security,
you can prevent unwanted devices from accessing the network.

11. Administer antivirus protection. Use an antivirus solution that is compatible

with the installed SCADA software.

12. Open and facilitate communications between IT and process

control groups. Roles need to be defined and an understanding of what each group
needs must be accomplished so true collaboration can take place to begin and continue the
process of enabling a fully functional control system with adequate security protection. 


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 80 / 103

Leveraging Analytics and

Community for a Mobile Workforce
By David Greenfield Most businesses in the processing industries have spent the past several years establishing
Media and Events Director solid technology platforms and infrastructures to gather production data to improve
Automation World operations. The next step lies in intelligently using those technologies to foster better
decision-making, communication, and process improvement.

As an example of how this is actually occurring in industry, Joe Staples, head of

Manufacturing Systems North America for Bayer CropScience (Kansas City, MO), said that
Bayer CropScience has equipped its operators with Invensys Intellitrack mobile devices with
workflow software to direct them on how to safely perform the operations required of them.

During his presentation at The Automation Conference 2012, Staples said Bayer CropScience
is now looking to extend its use of mobile applications so that plant managers, engineers,
technicians, and maintenance can get the information they need at any time without have to
carry their laptops around or refer to a terminal or a PC.

Now the company is looking at extending its use of mobile applications so that plant
managers, engineers, technicians, and maintenance can get the information they need at any
time without have to carry their laptops around or refer to a terminal or a PC.


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 81 / 103

continued Core to this extension of the mobile workforce at Bayer CropScience is a push for greater
Leveraging Analytics employee and operations connectedness through the use of analytics and communities.

and Community for a Analytics for Operations, Training and Risk Evaluation
Mobile Workforce
As part of a long-range goal to use all the data they are collecting in their various systems to
enable better safety through a more rapid identification of risks, Bayer CropScience is first
targeting its process control systems.

Having a set workflow process accessible via a mobile device, the interaction of operators
with the control systems can be better managed, said Staples. Standard operating procedures
can be kept up to date and automatically pushed to operators. All changes to the system are
instantly recorded and shared.

For operators that may not be fully trained in all production aspects, the operator at the
machine now has full access to the information needed to do the job. The same goes for
maintenance inspections; when coordinated through workflow on a mobile device, all
maintenance activities are captured and accessible for future reference.

“What we ultimately want from this is to be able to have a better risk evaluation and faster
notification,” said Staples.

For example, if an operator who hasn’t been fully trained is interacting via a mobile unit with
a control system on which certain interlocks have been by-passed, managers could remotely


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 82 / 103

continued shut the system down or not let it go to the next step until a properly trained engineer or
Leveraging Analytics plant manager is there to review and give the go-ahead to move forward.

and Community for a Community

Mobile Workforce
Bayer CropScience is actively looking at using social media to help in its operations.

One of the questions they’re asking is: Why can’t the machine participate in a social network?
After all, since those devices are now connected, they can provide information via a Facebook
page about its health and what it’s doing. And someone in maintenance at the facility can
access that information just as an engineer in another part of the world can.

Beyond ubiquitous communication and connectedness, Bayer CropScience is looking to use

social networks as a means to leverage its widely scattered technical resources for better
collaboration across the globe.


These are the benefits Bayer CropScience is already seeing and expects to see more of from its
deployment of mobile devices to take advantage of analytics and community:

• R etention and sustainability of knowledge. The company is now

capturing the expertise of operators and dispersing it so that any operator can become
the best operator.


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 83 / 103

• I mproved performance. In operations where mobile devices are in place, Bayer
Leveraging Analytics CropScience is achieving higher and higher levels of consistency across the board.
and Community for a
Mobile Workforce • H igh-velocity collaboration of experts. Communities enabled by mobile
devices are proving to be the best way to get people involved immediately in
understanding what’s going on and being able to contribute quickly.

• B etter, more rapid focus on issues. By giving operators the information they
need to have, Bayer CropScience is creating a collaborative work environment among
all workers no matter where they are located. “We can now collaborate on a global
basis to deal with issues that arise anywhere,” said Staples. 


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 84 / 103

Automation as a Continuous
Improvement Tool for Everyone
By David Greenfield Whether the term used is “continuous improvement”, “Lean”, “Six Sigma” or “kaizen”, most
Media and Events Director discussions around these terms focus on how large, world-class companies have achieved
Automation World these cultural and procedural changes to improve their businesses. Often missing from the
discussion is how smaller operations, with far fewer resources, can adopt these practices for
significant benefit.

Chris Bacon, production manager at Pepsi Bottling Ventures (PBV) in Nampa, ID, described
Access Full Presentation how this small facility (which processes just one-tenth the amount of cases produced at PBV’s
largest facility), leveraged automation technologies with real-time monitoring controls to
Click here to access the full bolster a culture of continuous improvement.
presentation made by PBV’s Chris
Bacon at The Automation Conference. Though this example originates in the batch process sector, PBV’s approach to overall
equipment effectiveness (OEE) has lessons for continuous process as well.

Connecting OEE and Continuous Improvement

Once Pepsi Bottling Ventures had established its three-step, OEE-centered process for
performance improvement (detailed in “Combining OEE and Automation for Improved
Performance,” also found in this playbook), the facility now had a system that reported and
archived all data from each production run, and calculated OEE while providing a real-time
visual representation for personnel to manage and validate their activities.


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 85 / 103

continued With these data now available, it was decided to disseminate select operational opportunities
Automation as to all employees and use improvement tools to support the overall goal of maintaining
high quality at the lowest cost. Armed with the new data and point-of-contact analysis, line
a Continuous availability and final quality became areas for continuous improvement focus.
Improvement Tool
for Everyone Line Availability
The original human machine interface (HMI) screens designed for the mix run filler were
cluttered and difficult to decipher. Without in-depth working knowledge of the system, it was
easy to lose track of the process flow. By remapping both machine centers in the HMI, the new
visuals more accurately captured the physical layout of the systems and improved real-time
process flow evaluation. To accomplish this, a simple color code scheme was mapped to relay
real-time processes. Green was used for gases, brown for syrup, and blue for water. This simple
redesign not only helped during the initial project, but has also allowed for expansion of the

HMI Designs
The new HMI visuals, using color-coded
schemes, more accurately capture
the physical layout of the systems
and improved real-time process flow
evaluation. Green is used for gases,
brown for syrup, and blue for water.


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 86 / 103

continued facility’s trained knowledge base for support — growing from one person to eight members
Automation as of the operation staff across all departments.

a Continuous Furthermore, using Active Factory trending, analysis and reporting software from
Improvement Tool Wonderware to determine the root cause of a recurring stoppage at both the mixer and the
for Everyone filler, all rinse sequences for the mixer were changed to act only as event triggers (rather
than being time- or event-based, as they were in the previous system). This change not only
streamlined the programming process, but it eliminated any chance for one trigger sequence
starting ahead or at the same time as another, causing the reset status.

Another issue was the distribution of water between the filler and mixer during a flavor
changeover. In the original programming for the system, the mixer had to complete its rinse
before water could be sent to the filler, making it a highly inefficient symbiotic system. With
revised programming, both systems perform their end of run functions and rinse sequences

Because of these modifications, a reduction of product changeover time from an average of

65 minutes in 2008 to 23 minutes in 2009 was achieved, exceeding PBV’s initial 50 percent
reduction goal.

Leveraging OEE calculations for final quality proved to be a major issue, particularly with
regard to delivering first-time-through start-ups within specification for the product.


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 87 / 103

continued To achieve this goal, it was necessary to establish a repeatable Brix:TA blend for products at
Automation as start-up. With scale timers being the most constant factor in the transfer of syrup from the
batch room to the mixer, using this measure proved the most logical approach. Once these
a Continuous timers were established to ensure a match with proper product specification, the focus
Improvement Tool moved to the actual blending of water and syrup within the mixer itself.
for Everyone
Because of multiple points in the piping that trapped water, offline testing determined that
it was necessary to enrich the syrup higher at start-up to compensate for the water that was
impossible to remove. Not wanting to waste more syrup than necessary, testing at multiple
points in the piping was performed to test Brix:TA to determine optimum enrichment ratios.

From this analysis, it was determined that exceeding OEM Brix set points by 9 percent for the
PBV Mixers first 70 gallons of syrup, before allowing the recipe to default back to the original set point,
Mixers in use at Pepsi Bottling Venture was the right approach.
in Nampa, ID.


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 88 / 103

continued This calculation was based on analysis and measurement derived from piping length and
Automation as water left in the system. With these testing methods and trend analysis, first-time-through
start-up quality improved nearly 99 percent for all SKUs.
a Continuous
Improvement Tool Bottom line: This PBV facility went from throwing away as much as 1,800 pieces of production
for Everyone per run to, in most cases, throwing away zero pieces.

With an original project start date in late 2008 to design an integrated system for collecting
production data, PBV paid for the original project with the yield gains over time reduction
based on improved performance by mid 2009; they were also able to produce additional
products based on increased line availability. 


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 89 / 103

Combining OEE and Automation

for Improved Performance
By David Greenfield Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) is a metric designed to evaluate how efficient a
Media and Events Director production operation truly is based on the real-world availability of the equipment used.
Automation World Commonly used as a key performance indicator in Lean production efforts, the OEE concept
has been around nearly 50 years. It is now starting to gain a stronger foothold in facilities of all
sizes due to advances in automation software.

Chris Bacon, production manager at Pepsi Bottling Ventures (PBV) in Nampa, ID, described
Access Full Presentation how this small facility (which processes just one-tenth the amount of cases produced at PBV’s
largest facility), combined the use of automation and OEE tracking as part of its improvement
Click here to access the full efforts. The key for the Nampa facility was leveraging automation with real-time monitoring
presentation made by PBV’s Chris controls.
Bacon at The Automation Conference.
Though this PBV example originates in the batch process sector, the approach to OEE and
continuous improvement has lessons for continuous process as well.

This project began as a way to improve the OEE (overall equipment effectiveness) on the
facility’s bottling line, but also became an important bridge towards improving problem
solving and developing a continuous improvement culture.


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 90 / 103

continued Step 1: Tracking Performance

Combining OEE Faced with limited personnel resources and numerous low volume production runs, the
number one challenge was to develop a system to track the lines’ performance as a total
and Automation
unit and by each machine center. Measuring and capturing relevant data would provide the
for Improved ability to evaluate the line at each machine center to formulate real-time impressions of the
Performance opportunities, while the background data could be pulled from the system for point-in-time
analysis. Having this data, accurate downtime reason codes could be implemented for root
cause analysis.
Color-coded HMI
Color combinations on the HMI Step 2: How, When and What to Measure
screens correlate to real-time activities For the OEE calculation to be as accurate as possible, the production line must have a
of the line. standardized time. As fundamental as this sounds, many facilities do not have this, due to a
non-standardized approach to all primary and ancillary activities necessary
for quality control, maintenance, and production personnel.

To remedy this problem, a 7:00 a.m. start-up time became the new standard.
The tracking system was designed to start OEE calculation at 7:00 a.m. each
morning and capture every minute of non-production time based on release
of the bottle stop or filler. A specific reason code was automatically attached
to accurately reflect the root cause impeding production. These reason
codes were directly pulled from that machine center’s PLC.


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 91 / 103

continued Step 3: Putting Data Into Action

Combining OEE Once the facility was finally measuring and capturing relevant data, the next priority was to
design a visual representation of the system so that each member of the team could discern
and Automation
some useful information from it.
for Improved
Performance Opting for a very simple design that mirrored the facility’s machine center flow, color
combinations on the human machine interface screens would correlate to real-time activities
To read more about ongoing of the line in accurate fashion. Red meant a machine center was in stoppage mode with the
discussions surrounding the perceived reason code available in the drop-down visual. Yellow meant a machine or machine centers
effectiveness of OEE, click here were idle, either through changeover mode or awaiting upstream or downstream machine
centers to be released from stoppage mode.
Read More About OEE
Armed with this new production insight, one root cause for low performance at the PBV
facility was quickly identified — the periodic jamming of a vacuum drum on the labeler. PBV
realized this problem because of the reason codes now built in to the downtime tracking

To learn how Pepsi Bottling With an OEM upgrade to the processor and a few creative internal modifications, PBV was
Ventures used OEE data to able to reduce downtime by 55 percent at this specific machine center. With this gain in
foster a culture of continuous performance, the OEM upgrade was paid off in five months.
improvement, see “Automation as
a Continuous Improvement Tool” Long-term results with improved performance also exhibited a 43 percent decrease in labor
also in this playbook. over time (from 2009 to 2011). 


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 92 / 103

Four Considerations for

Upgrades and Migrations
By Marty Weil Regardless of whether you want to increase productivity or shorten time-to-market, attaining
contributing writer success in these areas depends on the application of suitable automation technologies in a
Automation World continuous process operation. Following are the principal steps involved in assessing your
plant’s technology to gauge whether a technology upgrade or migration is in order:
David Greenfield
Media and Events Director
Automation World 1. Consider the full range of aspects that relate to your existing
systems, such as:

• Risk of unplanned plant downtime and production stoppages;

• Ability to expand production or introduce new products;
• Ability to integrate with enterprise level business software and at what cost;
• Ongoing maintenance costs;
• Need for continuing support of the legacy system; and
• Effect on the efficiency and productivity of plant personnel.


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 93 / 103

continued 2. In each case of upgrade or migration, return on investment plays a

Four Considerations crucial role. A huge investment in hardware and application software is associated with
the installed process control system, as well as the accumulated know-how of the operating,
for Upgrades and
engineering, and maintenance personnel. For this reason, the prime objective of any
Migrations migration strategy should be to modernize the installed base gradually without any system
discontinuity and, if possible, without any plant downtimes or loss of production that would
negatively affect the investment return.

3. Assess the long-term security of existing investments. This assessment

is important in order to maximize the return on assets (ROA). For this reason, every migration
should include a robust lifecycle support strategy for the new system that considers not only
the availability of the components, but also product warranties, on-site service, and ongoing
technical support.

4. Obsolescence. When deciding whether to upgrade or migrate to a new system,

there are two aspects of obsolescence to assess. In a migration, it’s important to understand
the history of the technologies supported by the company behind the product under
consideration. Does this company actively support the long-term lifecycles of products as
they are typically employed in a process operation? Do upgrades have significant backwards
compatibility? How often are upgrades typically released for this system and what is required


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 94 / 103

continued for installation? For upgrades, it’s important to understand what the future outlook is for
Four Considerations the system under consideration. With the significant maintenance and security issues tied
to process control systems, you should always consider your risk of system obsolescence
for Upgrades and and the associated costs incurred with such a scenario versus the costs of moving to a
Migrations better-supported system. The good news is that, in the process industries, most vendors
are very aware of the long-term use of their systems by end users and thus tend to support
their systems for multiple decades rather a single decade, as is more common with office
IT systems. As newer automation technologies become core components of process
control systems, be sure to talk with your supplier about their support plan for those newer
technologies. 


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 95 / 103


Discrete/Machine Control Strategies: Sensors

Cognex Corporation is the world’s leading provider of vision systems,

vision software, vision sensors, industrial ID readers and surface
inspection systems used in manufacturing automation.

Vision: Cognex vision helps companies improve product quality,

eliminate production errors, lower manufacturing costs, and exceed
consumer expectations for high quality products at an affordable
price. Typical applications for machine vision include detecting defects,
monitoring production lines, guiding assembly robots, and tracking,
sorting and identifying parts.

ID: Cognex offers the most advanced technology available for

1D barcode and for 2D Data Matrix code reading regardless of the
size, quality, printing method, or surface the codes are marked on.
Combined with the best performing hardware on the market, in both
handheld and fixed-mount reader formats, Cognex can successfully
read codes that other readers cannot. As a result, image-based readers
are rapidly replacing laser scanners in a wide range of manufacturing
and logistics applications.

COMPANY: Cognex  ADDRESS: One Vision Drive, Natick, MA, 01760

Phone: (508) 650-3000  WEB: www.cognex.com


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 96 / 103


DataMan 300 Code Reader

A quantum leap in barcode reading performance, the DataMan®
300 series of readers was developed to handle the most difficult-to-
read DPM (Direct Part Mark) codes as well as challenging 1-D linear
barcodes and 2-D Data Matrix codes and for indexed or high-speed

In-Sight 7000 Series

Small, tough and very smart, the In-Sight® 7000 series of vision
systems features powerful vision tools, autofocus, faster image capture,
integrated lighting and lens and the capability to power and control
a range of external lighting—all in a compact, industrial IP67 package
that makes the system ideal for more applications than ever before.

• Integrated Lighting and Lens

• Smarter Tools
• Faster Image Capture
• Lighting Power and Control
Unlike most vision systems, the In-Sight 7000 has the capability to key company contact
power and control specialized lighting directly which eliminates the phone: (508) 650-3000 • location: Natick, MA
need for external power supplies.  email: contactus@cognex.com

COMPANY: Cognex  ADDRESS: One Vision Drive, Natick, MA, 01760

Phone: (508) 650-3000  WEB: www.cognex.com


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 97 / 103


ECS – Focused on Your Process Automation
We are focused on increasing your process Automation and Information Experience
automation return-on-investment. Sure, with Capabilities That Industry Trusts
we are control engineers, but we are One source for all of your control and information systems needs.
versed in business too. This is why we offer Over the last 30 years, we have been delivering exceptional return-
assistance in: on-investment results through the
• Project Planning – The first step in the use of the latest technologies and
process is understanding your goals and techniques.
resources, as well as your future needs. • Discrete and Process Control Case History

• Flexibility – We design-in flexibility for every system to ensure your Systems Software, Hardware and
Seventy Unit Batch
System Configured in
system will be ready for challenges without excessive upgrade costs. Migrations Just 11 Weeks.

• Installation – You can count on ECS to make sure your system is up • Information Systems Including
and running in record time to meet your time-to-market requirements. Network Architecture, Data Collection, S88 Builder

• Operation – At the heart of an ECS system is ease of use. We Historians and Data Access
White Paper
Provides best practices
design the system with operators in mind to ensure maximum • Engineered Systems Including for developing device
tasks within a process
operational productivity. Power Distribution, Energy system.
• Maintainability – Within an ECS system are standard products, Management, Drives and Motors awgo.to/ecs2
software and compliance to recognized standards such as ISA. It all S88 Builder
keeps downtime to a minimum. Demos
Watch as S88 Builder
goes through its paces.
COMPANY: ECS Solutions, Inc.  ADDRESS: 2616 Kotter Avenue, Evansville, Indiana 47715
Phone: (812) 479-5170 | Toll Free: (800) 471-ECSE  WEB: www.ecssolutions.com


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 98 / 103


Over 30 Years of Industry

Experience – We Speak Your
• Consulting Services
• Electrical and Control
Design Services
Chances are your industry is one
• Full Range of Project Delivery Services
that the people of ECS Solutions are
well versed in. Industry knowledge
• Emergency and Contract Service
that results in a cost-effective, flexible
New: S88 Builder: A new paradigm for
and productive return-on-investment.
batch and continuous process control
• Food, Pharmaceutical and Personal Care
S88 Builder is the first process control system
• Aluminum and Ferrous Metals
that is configured rather than programmed. It
• Power Generation
lets users configure devices such as valves, pumps, or tanks – then
• Water/Wastewater
configures the devices into specific tasks such as mixing, flow control,
• Automotive
heating, etc. Configuration is easier, more accurate and faster than
• General Manufacturing
programming, especially in batch control.
• Common Manufacturing Solutions
• Information Technology Solutions
key company contact
Our Team Can Be on Your Team to Fill Out Your Roster
ECS Solutions, Inc.
Our individual services are available a`la carte to meet your specific
phone: (812) 479-5170 | Toll Free: (800) 471-ECSE
support needs. No matter which services you choose, expect first class
location: Evansville, IN • email: Info@ecssolutions.com

COMPANY: ECS Solutions, Inc.  ADDRESS: 2616 Kotter Avenue, Evansville, Indiana 47715
Phone: (812) 479-5170 | Toll Free: (800) 471-ECSE  WEB: www.ecssolutions.com


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 99 / 103


MAVERICK Technologies:
Continuous Process Optimization
No matter your industry, you can depend on MAVERICK Technologies for a range of services designed to
optimize your process. We work across all major platforms and deliver integrated process automation solutions
designed to meet your specific objectives and ensure future success. Our continuous process service areas include:

Strategic Manufacturing Solutions Industrial Automation

• Make strategic advances, reduce costs and • Improve quality, efficiency and
unlock value across your entire organization safety of your plant WEB RESOURCES
• DCS migration services through DCSNext® • Automation Solutions
• 24/7/365 remote operations support • I&C Field Services VIDEO
Inside DCS Next:
through PlantFloor24® • Advanced Process Control Straight Talk on
• Sustaining Services DCS Migration
• Operational Consulting WHITE PAPER
Remote Management
Enterprise Integration Best Practices: How to
• Collect and share the data • Recipes & Batches • Maintenance Management Utilize New Automation
needed to make more • Quality Management • ERP for Manufacturing bit.ly/Maverick_4
informed decisions • Manufacturing Execution • Manufacturing Supply Chain WHITE PAPER
• Data Historians • Manufacturing Intelligence • Strategic Engagements Aligning Business and
Automaton Strategy
with Proven ROI Results
COMPANY: MAVERICK Technologies  ADDRESS: 265 Admiral Trost Drive; Columbia, IL 62236 bit.ly/Maverick_3
Phone: (888) 917-9109  WEB: www.mavtechglobal.com


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 100 / 103


About MAVERICK Technologies

Founded in 1999, MAVERICK Technologies is the largest and overall profitability. The company’s people, processes and
independent systems integrator in North America, and is a technical capabilities ensure delivery of the right solution for every
global leader in industrial automation, enterprise integration and project, using the most appropriate technology. Organizations around
strategic manufacturing solutions for clients across a wide range the world depend on MAVERICK’s responsiveness, results-driven
of manufacturing and process industries. Leveraging its unique approach and dedication to their success. Over the years, MAVERICK
enterprise-wide perspective, MAVERICK identifies suboptimal has completed more than 10,000 successful projects in 45 countries
operations and improves performance for greater safety, efficiency across six continents. 

key company contact

Jim Bouler
Every day, MAVERICK employees connect with our customers
phone: (850) 780-6477
on continuous process projects across a broad spectrum of
EMAIL: james.bouler@mavtechglobal.com
industries. Now we're sharing our experiences with you through
LIVE CHAT: Click here to live chat with Jim!
this blog. It's written by engineers, for engineers, and we hope it
will help you take your operation to the next level.

COMPANY: MAVERICK Technologies  ADDRESS: 265 Admiral Trost Drive; Columbia, IL 62236
Phone: (888) 917-9109  WEB: www.mavtechglobal.com


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 101 / 103


Winsted is a worldwide leader in control room console solutions. We inspire. Our commitment to customer service
create attractive, ergonomic consoles that work with your operators is second-to-none and your satisfaction is
to improve comfort guaranteed.
and optimize Since its inception in 1963, Winsted has
efficiency. We offer consistently been a pioneer in product design and development.
stock, customized Product concepts and designs are driven by industry needs and
and custom demands, with many product ideas
consoles suitable suggested by customers and developed WEB RESOURCES
for any control with their input. Our modular system White Paper:
room application. approach, developed for the early Human Factors: Planning & Designing
a Control Room
Whether you are broadcast industry, has become the
building a state- industry standard for all markets, and resources_literature/human_
of-the-art control our experience developing specialized factors.pdf
room from the ground up, or simply need to upgrade your operations, custom products enables us to offer
Online Catalog:
Winsted can provide the ideal solution. Our experts combine the console and furniture solutions for any http://catalog2012.winsted.com/
disciplines of industrial design, ergonomics and interior design to application. t1.asp
create solutions that are both efficient and eye-catching. We give A dominant factor in U.S. markets
YouTube Channel:
special consideration to the ergonomic requirements of your operators for many years, Winsted expanded into http://www.youtube.com/user/
to build consoles that reduce fatigue, improve productivity and overseas markets in 1975, primarily winstedcorp

COMPANY: Winsted  ADDRESS: 10901 Hampshire Ave. South, Minneapolis, MN 55438 USA http://winsted.com/products.htm
Phone: 800-447-2257  WEB: winsted.com


CONTINUOUS PROCESS Playbook 102 / 103


in England. 2010 and solidifies our mission of providing

In 1976 the the highest quality console and furniture
company began solutions to mission critical facilities around
concentrated the world.
efforts to establish In 2011, Winsted further expanded its
distribution in the custom capabilities with the launch of a new
Far East. Winsted’s division. Winsted Custom Wood will focus on manufacturing custom
international cabinetry and millwork for control room installations. The Custom
distribution was Wood Division enables Winsted to further expand our custom control
firmly established room capabilities and fully realize our value proposition of offering
in 1984 with stock, customized and custom console solutions to our customers.
the formation With the expansion, Winsted has added many skilled craftsmen who
of Winsted, Ltd. in England. Since then, Winsted, Ltd. has become bring years of custom woodworking experience, as well as a state-of-
a successful marketing and manufacturing operation serving the the-art production facility.
European, Middle Eastern and African markets. In 1986, distributor Our family of companies, broad range of capabilities and an ongoing
agreements were established in Australia, Japan, Hong Kong, Taiwan commitment to Customers, Products and Service is why Winsted is
and Korea. “Preferred by Professionals Worldwide.” 
In 2002, Winsted acquired Technical Interiors, a Georgia-based
key company contact
company with 25 years of experience designing and manufacturing
custom consoles of the highest standards for the nuclear power phone: 800-447-2257 • location: Minneapolis, MN
email: brentl@winsted.com
industry. Technical Interiors was renamed Winsted Custom Division in

COMPANY: Winsted  ADDRESS: 10901 Hampshire Ave. South, Minneapolis, MN 55438 USA
Phone: 800-447-2257  WEB: winsted.com


103 / 103

Thank you for downloading Automation World's

Continuous Process Playbook!
Now that you've had a chance to review it,
we'd love your feedback. Share your thoughts!