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Present to
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Uruya Weesakul

Submitted by
Ms. Arisara Linpiyawan 5810751254
Mr. Buppakorn Adisetthakul 5810755313
Ms. Ketkan Phongampornsakun 5810755875
Ms. Palita Nualnok 5810755859
Ms. Thananya Jaroensuk 5810756105
Mr. Bawornwat Lertariyanu 5910750065

Department of Civil Engineering

Faculty of Engineering, Thammasat University

The present report is the outcome of communication and presentation technique course of
Thammasat University. The basic objective is to know how to write a good summary and analyze
whether it is correct or not. In order to obtain and understand the knowledge, we are required to
make a report based on summary procedure.
This project report included the knowledge about a good summary and how to make it.
Through this report, we come to know about importance of teamwork and role of devotion towards
the work and we have tried my best to keep the report free from errors, I apologize if any error is
found which was not deliberately made. If the report can help any person in providing information,
I will feel that the purpose of the report has been fulfilled.
Table of Contents
How to write a good abstract 1
Part1 Reviewing the piece 1
Part2 Writing your abstract 2
Part3 Formatting your abstract 4
Structure of Abstract 6
Sample Abstract 7
Analyze Abstract 8
Summary 9
Reference 10

Table of Figures
Figure 1 Sample Abstract 7
Figure 2 Abstract Analysis 8

How to write a good abstract

An abstract describes what you do in your essay, whether it’s a scientific experiment or a
literary analysis paper. It should help your reader understand the paper and help people searching
for this paper decide whether it suits their purposes prior to reading. To write an abstract, finish
your paper first, then type a summary that identifies the purpose, problem, methods, results, and
conclusion of your work. After you get the details down, all that's left is to format it correctly.
Since an abstract is only a summary of the work you've already done, it's easy to accomplish!

Part 1: Getting your abstract started

1. Write your paper first

Even though an abstract goes at the beginning of the work, it acts as a summary of your
entire paper. Rather than introducing your topic, it will be an overview of everything you write
about in your paper. Even if you think that you know what your paper is going to be about, always
save the abstract for last. You will be able to give a much more accurate summary if you do just
that - summarize what you've already written.
An abstract are entirely different from a thesis. The thesis of a paper introduces the main
idea or question, while the abstract works to review the entirety of the paper, including the methods
and results.
2. Review and understand any requirements for writing your abstract

The paper you’re writing probably has specific guidelines and requirements, whether it’s
for publication in a journal, submission in a class, or part of a work. Before start writing, refer to
the guidelines that were presented with to identify important issues to keep in mind.
- Is there a maximum or minimum length?
- Are there style requirements?
- Are you writing for an instructor or a publication?
3. Consider your audience
Abstracts are written to help readers find your work. For example, in scientific journals,
abstracts allow readers to quickly decide whether the research discussed is relevant to their own
interests. Abstracts also help your readers get at your main argument quickly. Keep the needs of
your readers in mind as you write the abstract.
- Will other academics in your field read this abstract?
- Should it be accessible to a lay reader or somebody from another field?

4. Determine the type of abstract you must write

There are two primary styles of abstract: descriptive and informative. You may have been
assigned a specific style, but if you weren’t, you will have to determine which is right for you.
Typically, informative abstracts are used for much longer and technical research while descriptive
abstracts are best for shorter papers.
Descriptive abstracts explain the purpose, goal, and methods of your research but leave out
the results section. These are typically only 100-200 words.
Informative abstracts are like a condensed version of your paper, giving an overview of
everything in your research including the results. These are much longer than descriptive abstracts.
The basic information included in both styles of abstract is the same, with the main
difference being that the results are only included in an informative abstract, and an informative
abstract is much longer than a descriptive one.
A critical abstract is not often used, but it may be required in some courses. A critical
abstract accomplishes the same goals as the other types of abstract, but will also relate the study
or work being discussed to the writer’s own research. It may critique the research design or

Part 2: Writing your abstract

1. Identify your purpose

The reader wants to know why your research is important and what the purpose of it is.
Start off your descriptive abstract by considering the following questions:- Why did you decide to
do this study or project?

- How did you conduct your research?

- What did you find?
- Why is this research and your findings important?
- Why should someone read your entire essay?

2. Explain the problem at hand

Abstracts state the “problem” behind your work. Think of this as the specific issue that
your research or project addresses. You can sometimes combine the problem with your motivation,
but it is best to be clear and separate the two.

- What problem is your research trying to better understand or solve?

- What is the scope of your study - a general problem, or something specific?
- What is your main claim or argument?

3. Explain your methods. Motivation

Now is the part where you give an overview of how you accomplished your study. If you
did your own work, include a description of it here. If you reviewed the work of others, it can be
briefly explained.
- Discuss your own research including the variables and your approach.
- Describe the evidence you have to support your claim
- Give an overview of your most important sources.
4. Describe your results (informative abstract only)
This is where you begin to differentiate your abstract between a descriptive and an
informative abstract. In an informative abstract, you will be asked to provide the results of your
study. What is it that you found?
- What answer did you reach from your research or study?
- Was your hypothesis or argument supported?
- What are the general findings?
5. Give your conclusion
This should finish up your summary and give closure to your abstract. In it, address the
meaning of your findings as well as the importance of your overall paper. This format of having a
conclusion can be used in both descriptive and informative abstracts, but you will only address the
following questions in an informative abstract.
- What are the implications of your work?
- Are your results general or very specific?

Part3: Formatting your abstract

1. Keep it in order
There are specific questions your abstract must provide answers for, but the answers must
be kept in order as well. Ideally, it should mimic the overall format of your essay, with a general
‘introduction, ‘body,’ and ‘conclusion.’
Many journals have specific style guides for abstracts. If you’ve been given a set of rules
or guidelines, follow them to the letter.

2. Provide helpful information

An abstract should provide a helpful explanation of your paper and your research. Word
your abstract so that the reader knows exactly what you’re talking about, and isn’t left hanging
with ambiguous references or phrases.

- Avoid using direct acronyms or abbreviations in the abstract, as these will need to be
explained in order to make sense to the reader. That uses up precious writing room, and should
generally be avoided.
- If your topic is about something well-known enough, you can reference the names of
people or places that your paper focuses on.
- Don’t include tables, figures, sources, or long quotations in your abstract. These take up
too much room and usually aren’t what your readers want from an abstract anyway.

3. Write it from scratch

Your abstract is a summary but it should be written completely separate from your paper.
Don't copy and paste direct quotes from yourself, and avoid simply paraphrasing your own
sentences from elsewhere in your writing. Write your abstract using completely new vocabulary
and phrases to keep it interesting and redundancy-free.

4. Use key phrases and words

If your abstract is to be published in a journal, you want people to be able to find it easily.
In order to do so, readers will search for certain queries on online databases in hopes that papers,
like yours, will show up. Try to use 5-10 important words or phrases key to your research in your

For example, if you’re writing a paper on the cultural differences in perceptions of

schizophrenia, be sure to use words like “schizophrenia,” “cross-cultural,” “culture-bound,”
“mental illness,” and “societal acceptance.” These might be search terms people use when looking
for a paper on your subject.

5. Use real information

You want to draw people in with your abstract; it is the hook that will encourage them to
continue reading your paper. However, do not reference ideas or studies that you don’t include in
your paper in order to do this. Citing material that you don’t use in your work will mislead readers
and ultimately lower your viewership.

6. Avoid being too specific

An abstract is a summary, and as such should not refer to specific points of your research
other than possibly names or locations. You should not need to explain or define any terms in your
abstract, a reference is all that is needed. Avoid being too explicit in your summary and stick to a
very broad overview of your work. Don’t forget to make sure to avoid jargon. This specialized
vocabulary may not be understood by general readers in your area and can cause confusion.

7. Be sure to do basic revisions

The abstract is a piece of writing that, like any other, should be revised before being
completed. Check it over for grammatical and spelling errors and make sure it is formatted

8. Get feedback from someone

Having someone else read your abstract is a great way for you to know whether you’ve
summarized your research well. Try to find someone who doesn’t know everything about your
project. Ask him or her to read your abstract and then tell you what s/he understood from it. This
will let you know whether you’ve adequately communicated your key points in a clear manner.
Consulting with your professor, a colleague in your field, or a tutor or writing center consultant
can be very helpful.

Structure of Abstract

1 | Statement of problems

2 | Objective

3 | Data Collection

4 | Methodology

5 | Results

6 | Limitations

7 | Recommendation for Further study


Sample Abstract

Figure 1: Sample abstract


Analyze Abstract

Figure 2: Abstract Analysis

1 : Statement of problems 5 : Results

2 : Objective 6 : Limitations
3 : Data Collection 7 : Recommendation for Further study
4 : Methodology


To determine whether it’s good abstract or not, you must consider about the its structure
which must include a statement of problem, objectives, data collection, methodology, results,
limitation and recommendation further study, respectively.
In this sample abstract, the structure is incomplete. There are missing of objective and
limitation of the project. According to the process of a good abstract, these parts are very important
because they indicate the purpose and limitation of the project study to a reader.
For this abstract, the readers may confuse about why the authors want to do this study.


- https://www.wikihow.com/Write-an-Abstract