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Chapter III

ELEMENTS OF STUDIES IN MANAGEMENTS OF A CONDOCIVE CLASSROOM


ENVIRONEMNT
This chapter provides discussion on the Element of studies in Management of a
Conducive Classroom Environment in terms of:

1.1. Objective of the Study


Objectives f %
Reveal misbehavior, classroom management and discipline problems
Physical 18 60%
Environment Examine the intentions of the teacher with regard to the establishment of the physical environment of
the classroom and its effects on the practice of the teacher.

Explore the psychological motivations of facility managers when they make decisions about how a
classroom is outfitted

Examine the experiences and perceptions of two first year early childhood teachers relating to the
concept of preparing the classroom environment for learning.

Aims to determine elementary students’ views on the constructivist learning environment.

To extend the understanding of the characteristics of a classroom environment that impact students’
engagement in academics

To study the role of stimulating environment in facilitating learning of the students

Understand the relationship between personalized learning spaces and attitudes about reading

Explore the perceptions that teachers have on seating assignments and arrangements

Compares the learning environments of an inverted introductory statistics class with a traditional
introductory statistics class

Contribute to the existing body of knowledge on effective and ineffective clinical and physical learning
environment characteristics.

Gain insight into a third grade teacher’s attitudes and beliefs in regard to the third grade classroom
environment.

Investigated the impact of the physical furnishings and the spatial arrangement of a classroom
environment on its occupants' perceptions and behaviors.

Understand the process of students' conceptual changes supported by the CSI learning environment as
used in a secondary school.

Explored the concept of the environment as the third teacher and how kindergarten children in a school
inspired by Reggio Emilia viewed their classroom as a space to help them learn.

Compares students' perceptions of the learning environment in a traditional science classroom and a
field study classroom.

Understand the factors within a teacher created learning environment which maximizes engagement
with students at-risk is needed.

Explores the extent of integrating educational technology in contemporary classroom environment


among the ASEAN Member States.
Gain rich contextual insights in teachers’ everyday routines as input for interaction design.
Methods / 6 20%
Approaches Investigated the goal-setting approaches used by middle grades teachers in personalized learning
environments.

Discusses the methods on involving three teachers for teaching in a c classroom of 66 students through
mutual accommodation.

Examined how traditional teaching and learning have changed in a one-to-one computing environment.

Utilize the data gathered from authentic classroom observation and explain instructional practices used
inside the classroom
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Intended to explore the degree of Multicultural Course Change exhibited by faculty participating in a
Summer Diversity Institute.
Explore how teachers manage classrooms to facilitate the intellectual engagement of disengaged
Classroom student.
3 10%
Management Investigated the classroom management practices of the student teachers.

Determine students’ and educators’ perceptions of the classroom-assigned tasks and responsibilities
program (jobs) in a middle school classroom.
Explores the dynamic nature of user experience in interaction with digital resources and investigates
Learning / students' understanding of these resources as well as their literacy practices in the current academic
1 3%
Materials setting.

Resources
Identified the learning needs of students in the multicultural classroom.
Learning 2 7%
Needs Explore and conceptualize primary school teachers' rationales for giving students feedback.

After an in depth review of 30 studies related to Management of a Conducive

Classroom Environment, physical environment earned the greatest weight of evidence in

the commonalities among the objectives of the studies. Physical environment is the way a

classroom is being set up. It encompasses a mixture of various items i.e., temperature,

spatial components, lighting, size of the room, ventilation, windows, walls, floor, seats,

desks, mats, chalkboards, whiteboards, tack boards, gadgets, PCs and so on. Thus, physical

environment is one of the elements of managing a conducive classroom environment that

affects student’s morale and learning.

Furthermore, researches about classroom condition have uncovered that physical

arrangement assumes a crucial part in the instructional process. Physical environment

alludes to the room’s physical qualities and characteristics. According to Singh (2014),

education to be effective in schools, the environment needs to be conducive to learning,

allowing the pupils space and time to interact within the learning and teaching process.

Thompson (2008, as cited by Bellamy, 2016) suggested that it is important to create a

classroom that is inviting and welcoming. Denton and Kriete (2000, as cited by Bellamy,

2016) added that when the classroom is well organized, warm, and inviting, students will

feel more at ease and able to focus their time and energy on their learning. Learners who
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feel secured and contented are probably going to obtain more information when contrasted

with the individuals who are unhappy and uncomfortable. Negative classroom condition

can debilitate the students causing them to be less ready to learn (Kausar, Kiyani, Suleman,

2017).

On the other hand, An (2016), DeMink-Carthew (2017), Sundarsingh (2015),

Prososki (2015) and Booker (2015) focused their studies on teaching-learning methods,

approaches strategies. According to www.teach.com (2019), teaching method refers to the

general principles, pedagogy and management strategies used for classroom instruction

while teaching strategies focuses on the long-term plan of action designed to achieved a

particular goal.

This study also reveals an evidence that classroom management is an element on

the management of a conducive classroom environment. Classroom management is

regarded a core component of powerful and fruitful instructional process (Kausar, Kiyani,

Suleman, 2017). Effective and inspiring classroom management starts with efficient and

effective lesson planning which assists an educator to instruct learners. Learners achieve

excellently in an encouraged and stimulated classroom environment and feel protected and

contented. With students’ perspective, powerful and fruitful classroom management gives

students chances to prepare to meet today’s demands of the global economy by

exemplifying, and embedding in instruction, the mastery of 21st century skills such as

critical thinking, problem-solving, communication, collaboration and creativity and

innovation. This includes the application of technology to support more robust instructional

methods and understanding the relationship between content, pedagogy and technology

through dissemination of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPCK) theory


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and research (American Association of Colleges of Teacher Education 2008, US

Department of Education 2010).

1.2. Profile
Profile of the Participants f %
Internal Stakeholders
School Head 4 13%
Teachers 17 57%
Students 11 37%
External Stakeholders
Family 1 3%

There is reasonable evidence from 19 studies that internal stakeholders such as the

teachers and students were the most numbered participant among the 30 studies reviewed

by the researcher. This implies that the teacher and students are the main elements in the

management of a conducive classroom environment. This notion was also indicated in the

study of Suleman, & Hussain (2014) on the effects of classroom physical environment on

students’ academic achievement scores.

Teachers have a significant role in the management of a conducive classroom

environment. As managers of the classroom, they are the one who bring about all the

elements in the teaching-learning process. Teachers facilitate learning, promote growth

mindset and motivate students to be well-rounded learners in the classroom in order to

attain a holistically developed individuals. According to Kaur (2012), teachers are also

known as the backbone of the educational system, maker of mankind and architect of the

society. The excellence of education in our society depends on the quality of teachers we

have. In the pursuit of improved student achievement, we therefore need to examine

seriously the role of teacher variables, ranging from teacher qualifications and their subject

matter knowledge, to what motivates them to take up teaching as a career and as a

consequence, how they teach in classrooms (Toh, et. al., 2006).


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Of these 30 studies, 11 utilized students or learners as their subject of study. This

implies that these students are the direct witnesses on the impact of a conducive classroom

environment. A classroom is where learners spends most of their time to learn and develop

such necessary skills needed in our global society. It is where a learner will gain

understanding of him/ herself, build dreams and imagine what they want their future to

look like, develop mindsets and perceptions, as well as knowledge of the skills needed to

reach their goals. Therefore, students' impression about their classroom can have positive

or negative impact on their learning for they are able to perceive the nature of their

classroom environment and their perception affects their attitude towards learning

(Romina, 2014).

1.3 Methodology used

Design f %
Case Study 25 83%
Grounded Theory 1 3%
Phenomenology 2 6%
Qualitative Analysis 1 3%
Literature Research 1 3%
Context-Mapping 1 3%

As with the design used in the studies reviewed, case study gained the highest

number. This simply implies that case study is the design the best suits the study. Creswell

(2014) defined case study as a strategy of inquiry in which the researcher explores in depth

a program, event, activity, process, or one or more individuals. They are bound by time

and activity, and researchers collect detailed information using a variety of data collection

procedures over a sustained period of time.

Erdogan et. al., (2010), Jones (2012), Par (2017), Smith (2009), Bas (2013),

Schussler (2009), Singh (2014), DeMink-Carthew et.al., (2017), Limpert (2017),


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Sundarsingh (2015), Kinahan (2015), Booker & Campbell-Whatley (2015), Subramanian

& Thomson (2017), Hensley (2010), Kent (2009), Erikkson, Boistrup & Thornberg (2018),

Hildenbrand & Arndt (2016), Sun, Looi & Xie (2017), Matusiak (2013), Bacolod et. al.

(2009) and Saban (2013) used qualitative case study in their design to understand a certain

activity within important circumstances. While in the mixed-method study of Kent (2009),

Avis (2017), Collins (2017), Patterson (2009), and Prososki (2009), case study was used in

their qualitative to further explore in depth a program, event, activity, process, or one or

more individuals. This implies that using case study, considering its nature and objectives,

could be considered as a suitable method for conducting researches on management of a

conducive classroom environment. Teegavarapu, Sudhakar & Summers, Joshua & Mocko,

Gregory. (2008) further indicated that case study in research analyze a phenomenon, to

generate hypotheses, and to validate a method.

1.4 Findings and Conclusions


Themes Authors
Structure Course Curriculum Erdogan et. al. 2010, Bas 2013, Schussler, 2009, Kinahan 2017, Booker
2015, Prososki 2015, Dotong 2015, DeMink-Carthew 2017, Patterson 2009,
Saban, 2013, Sun, 2017, Robson 2017, Hensley, Strayer 2012

Teacher Quality, Competent Teacher and Erdogan, 2010,Smith 2009, Bellamy 2016, Singh 2014, An, Bakker &
Teaching Quality
Eggen 2016, Kinahan 2017, Strayer 2012, Booker 2015, Subramanian 2017,
Hensley 2010, Avis 2017, Saban 2013

Application of Varied Teaching Learning Bas 2013, Schussler 2009, Singh 2014, DeMink-Carthew 2017, Booker
Strategies
2015, Collins 2017, Saban 2013, Prososki 2015, An, Bakker & Eggen 2016

Quality Assessment Bas 2013, Limpert 2017, Booker 2015, Erikkson 2018, Collins 2017,
Bacolod 2009

Livable Physical Environment Jones 2012, Smith 2009, Schussler 2009, Bellamy 2016, Singh 2014,
Kinahan 2017, Strayer 2012, Kent 2009, Collins, 2017, Singh 2014, Saban
2013, Parr 2017, Erdogan et. al 2010

Positive Classroom Culture Bas, 2013, Schussler 2009, Singh 2014, DeMink-Carthew 2017, Limpert
2017, Avis 2017, Erikkson 2018, Patterson 2009

Supportive and Affirmative School Culture Parr 2017, Smoth 2009, Bellamy 2016, Surdansingh 2015, Jones 2012,
Hildenbrand 2016, Smith 2009

Availability of Teaching-Learning Materials Singh 2014, Matusiak 2013, Prososki 2015


and Resources
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Supportive Linkages Erdogan et. al. 2010, Brooker 2015

After an extensive review of the 30 studies, it was found out that most of the

findings and conclusions of the studies is about the structure course curriculum and livable

physical environment. This implies that these two elements in management of a conducive

classroom environment are the most significant among the others.

Johnson 1967, as cited by Posner (1974) defined curriculum as structured series of

intended learning outcomes organized into some structural arrangement. The structure and

development of curriculum involves many features, including how it is organized, the goals

to be achieved in education, processes of teaching, learning and assessment, and finally

how the curriculum will cater for the future learners. Indeed, structured course curriculum

mandates how teachers manage their students in their time being spent in a conducive

classroom environment. Curriculum can help students to achieve some personal control

over their learning, to plan their semester, and to manage their time effectively, and

describes active learning Patankar & Jadhav (2013).

Livable physical environment plays a central role in strengthening students’

academic achievement. Livable physical environment is a place where learners are safe,

secured, accessible and has supportive services that allow learners stay and feel

comfortable just like home. Students get more information from their teachers in well

facilitated classrooms and consequently they show good performance (Suleman, &

Hussain, 2014). This is in parallel in the findings of Romina (2014) which revealed that

the condition of classroom physical learning environment had great impact on students'

learning and motivation including the motivation to actively participate in academic

activities. Several studies indicate that if students feel uncomfortable in classroom then
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they will likely fail to get more information from their teachers. Classroom environment

keeps students engaged and allow them to be successful within the classroom (Hannah,

2013).

1.5. Recommendations and Output


There are number of studies viewed only as abstracts and it entails large amount

of money to be able to subscribed from other databases. Therefore, the researcher was not

able to view the outputs of the study and only limited recommendations were gathered.

Hence the researcher was able to found out that enhancement of practices specifically on

physical environment, structured course curriculum and application of varied teaching-

learning strategies earned the greatest weight of evidence in the recommendations among

the 30 studies on the management of the conducive classroom environment.

In the study of Parr (2017), Kinahan (2017), and Strayer (2012), physical

environment was given importance. This only shows that physical environment could

adversely affect students’ learning. This becomes a reminder to the teachers to create and

maintain a livable physical environment all throughout the school year. On the other hand,

Bas (2013), Patterson (2009), Saban (2013) believes that enhancement in the curriculum

could have a positive effect in creating a conducive classroom environment. This implies

that changing or revising curriculum from time to time depending on the needs of the

learners should be welcome by educators. Re-evaluation of the course curriculum in the

beginning of school year is strongly encourage.

Furthermore, several researchers consider the need of training for enhancement in

order to manage a conducive classroom environment. While Parr (2017) focuses the need

of training to the facility managers, Smith (2009) recommended training for teacher
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candidates. This indicates that there should be a series of trainings of each school personnel

focusing on their respective field. This is an opportunity to expand the knowledge and

understanding to be able to perform their specific functions well.

It was revealed in this study that a number of recommendations from the studies

gathered has limitations and recommends further researches. They pointed out to increase

the number of participants to further enlightens the study. It was also indicated in the

recommendations to include other groups or larger group in further researches. This implies

that there are still qualifiers that expresses what is needed in the particular research topic.

The authors of the studies gathered had identified gaps in the literature that should be

addressed, and to which their study may or may not have contributed.