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CONFLICT OF LAWS

Preliminary Course Outline

I. Nature, Definition and Scope

A. Definition
B. Nature and Functions
C. Private International Law vs. Public International Law
D. Sources of Private International Law
1. Direct Sources
2. Indirect Sources

II. Jurisdiction

Civil Code, Articles 14, 15 and 17


Revised Penal Code, Article 2
Rules of Court, Rule 14, Sections 14, 15, 16

A. Jurisdiction

1. Jurisdiction over the Subject Matter


2. Jurisdiction over the Res
3. Jurisdiction over the Person

Case:

(a) Philsec Investment et. al. vs. Court of Appeals


G.R. No. 103493, 19 June 1997
(b) Asaali vs. Commissioner of Customs, L-24170, 16 December
1969
(c) U.S. vs. Look Chaw, 18 Phil 573
(d) People vs. Wong Cheng, 46 Phil 729

B. Ways of Disposing of Conflicts Cases

1. Refusal to Assume Jurisdiction: The Principle of Forum Non


Conveniens

Cases:

(a) Bank of America NT & SA, et. al., vs. Court of Appeals, et. al.,
G.R. No. 120135, 31 March 2003

(b) Manila Hotel Corporation and Manila Hotel International Ltd., vs.
NLRC, G. R. No. 120077, 13 October 2000

(c) K.K. Shell Sekyu Osaka Hatsubaisho and Fu Hing Oil Co., Ltd.
Vs. Court of Appeals, G.R. Nos. 90306-07, 30 July 1990
(d) Communications Materials and Design vs. Court of Appeals, G. R.
No. 102223, 22 August 1996

(e) Raytheon International, Inc. vs. Stockton W. Rouzie, G. R. No.


162894, 26 February 2008

(f) Navida vs. Dizon, G. R. No. 125078, 30 May 2011

(g) Hasegawa vs. Kitamura, G. R. No. 149177, 23 November 2007

2. Assuming Jurisdiction and Application of Internal or Domestic Law

a. Application of Internal Law is Decreed


b. Failure to Plead and Prove Foreign Law
c. Exceptions to the Application of Foreign Law

3. Assuming Jurisdiction and Application of Foreign Law

Civil Code Articles 15, 16, 17, 815, 816, 819, 829 and 1039
Rules of Court Rule 132, Section 25
Rules of Court Rule 130, Section 46

Cases:

(a) United Airlines, Inc. vs. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 124110, 20 April
2001

(b) Cadalin vs. POEA Administrator, 238 SCRA 721, 774-775 (1994)

(c) Pakistan International Airlines vs. Ople, 190 SCRA 1990, G.R. No.
61594, 28 September 1990

(d) Testate Estate of Amos G. Bellis et. al. vs. Edward Belli, L-23678, 6
June 1967

(e) Spouses Zalamea vs. Court of Appeals and Transworld Airlines, Inc.,
G.R. No. 104235, 18 November 1993

(f) Garcia vs. Recio, G.R. No. 138322, 2 October 2001

(g) Asiavest Merchant Bankers vs. Court of Appeals, G. R. No. 110263, 20


July 2001

III. Application of Foreign Law and Various Choice of Law Theories

A. Theory of Comity
B. Vested Rights Theory
C. Local Law Theory
D. Caver’s Principles of Preference (Theory of Justice)
E. Harmony of Laws Theory
F. Exception to Application of Foreign Law

1. Where enforcement of foreign law is contrary to an important


public policy of the forum

2. Where application of foreign law would be against good morality


in the wider sense of the term as understood in the forum

3. Foreign Penal Law


4. Foreign Procedural Law
5. Questions Relating to Immovable Property in the Forum
6. Foreign Fiscal or Administrative Law
7. Where Application of Foreign Law would involve injustice or
injury to the Residents of the Forum
8. Where Application of Foreign Law would endanger the foreign
relations or vital interests of the state

IV. Ascertainment and Proof of Foreign Law

A. Rules of Substance vs. Rules of Procedure

1. Forum Applies its Own Procedural Laws


2. Foreign Law is Limited to Substantive Aspects

B. Proof of Foreign Law

1. Section 24, Rule 132 of the Revised Rules of Court


2. Section 46, Rule 130 of the Revised Rules of Court

Cases:

(a) Asiavest Limited vs. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 128803, 25


September 1998

(b) Wildvalley Shipping Co., Ltd. Vs. Court of Appeals and Philippine
President Lines, Inc., G.R. No. 119602, 6 October 2000

C. Effect of Failure to Plead or Prove Foreign Law

V. Nature of Conflicts Rules and the Problem of Characterization

A. Nature of Conflicts Rules

1. Parts of Conflicts Rule


2. Test Factors or Points of Contacts

B. The Problem of Characterization

1. Definition
2. Three Stages in Characterization
3. Characterization of a Rule of Law--- “Procedural” and
“Substantive”
C. Gibbs vs. Government, 59 Phil 293

VI. Renvoi

A. Definition

Case:

(a) The Matter of the Testate Estate of Edward Christensen, Adolfo Aznar
and Lucy Christensen vs. Helen Christensen Garcia, 7 SCRA 95 (1963)
(b) Bellis vs. Bellis, 20 SCRA 358 (1967)
(c) Gibbs vs. Government, 59 Phil 293

B. Four Ways of Treating the Renvoi Probelm

C. Double Renvoi

Suggested reference textbooks:

Handbook on Conflict of Laws, Alicia Sempio-Dy


Private International Law, Jovito Salonga
Conflict of Laws, Edgardo L. Paras