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*** M 3855a Music Education Culture *** Sp 2019*** m 9548 cultural & social perspectives ***

January 15, Wednesday

Caroline: “Boz Noite” (Maculelê) Brazilian Capoira

Break into groups:

Share Reflection on your family music(s), musical self/selves. (If not this week,
then next week!!)
Annotation #1
Archibald, M. L. (2011). The Inclusion of Musical Knowledge and Perspectives of a First Nation
in Three Ontario Mainstream Schools. University of British Columbia.
Lagaert, S., Van Houtte, M., & Roose, H. (2017). Engendering culture: The relationship of gender
identity and pressure for gender conformity with adolescents’ interests in the arts and
literature. Sex Roles 77, (7-8) (10): 482-495. DOI:10.1007/s11199-017-0738-y
Onyeji, C. (2008). Drummistic piano composition: an approach to teaching piano composition from
a Nigerian cultural perspective. International Journal of Music Education, 26(2), 161-175.

*** M 3855a Music Education Culture *** Sp 2019*** m 9548 cultural & social perspectives ***

Basics of Teaching from the world: Why, the learner’s

experience, the music, context, getting close, value added

• the music comes this way
• teaching to the future
• teaching ideals of cultural diversity and pluralism
• but musics reflect the world and sometimes uncomfortable realities
The Learner’s Experience
• direct musical experience and expression is powerful
• the music, the song, the dance, the story
• not so much the words, ethnomusicological explanation – later!
• repetition, enough time with something, making it familiar
• not stomp and chomp holiday occasions (remind me to tell you . . . )
The Music
• Something you find intriguing, with teaching potential
• You need a sound source! Notation etc. is gravy
• Learn about it, Think of 2-3 things you can do with it
• Get it in your blood, fall in love with it, know it cold
• Remember you are opening a door to music, not writing a paper
• It’s just a little taste to start, work with it
• Geography, the people, the climate, food, the customs, news today
• Use online videos, pictures, stories, poems etc.
• Everyone loves instruments and this is an easy in

Getting Close
• If you can’t bring in an expert, use a recording
• If you must simplify, then simplify, but show the real thing too

Value Added
• What else can you add – an improvisation, painting, arts
• Be sure to return to this, to refer to this, to repeat
*** M 3855a Music Education Culture *** Sp 2019*** m 9548 cultural & social perspectives ***

Break into groups, exchange emails and initial ideas

Anthony and Brittany
Matthew, Jing Lin, Gillian, Adam
Caroline, Jennifer, Kirsten, Michael
Jashen, Sylvia, Alana, Sarah
Kyle, Xiaodan, Cecilia, Aiden

Think: using the resources in our textbook, the web, Smithsonian ideas and your group,
how can you teach a song (plus context) to this class. Who will go next Wednesday?

Back as a Whole for Familiar/Exotic Listenings:

Familiar Exotic

Journey “Don’t Stop Believing” Ibrahim Tatlises “Shemmame”

Canon City “Fireworks” Mongolian “My Beautiful Hangai Land”
Proclaimers “I’m Gonna Be” (500 Miles) OMNIA “Fee Ra Huri”
Benny Goodman “Sing, Sing, Sing!” Tanya Tagaq “Uja ”
Pan’s Labrinth “Lullaby” Hermeto Pascoal & “L'oeil du Cyclone, Symphonie
Jimmy Smith “The Cat” Sid Robinovitch “Ta Tikee Tei”
Dave Matthews Band “Grey Street” Vat-Kha “"Karangailyg Kara Hovaa"

Break into groups:
Readings Chapter 1

Brainstorm Final Project
*** M 3855a Music Education Culture *** Sp 2019*** m 9548 cultural & social perspectives ***

Chapter 1 Chapter 1 Sound: The Materials of Music Jan 16, 2019

GILLIAN   I never knew anything about the organology or the Sachs­Hornbostel System which 
really peaked my interest; knowing how each musical instrument is classified really helps 
understand them. . . 
1. Do we actually have to “subdivide the listening process into manageable
parts” to be able to enjoy music?
2. Do we as humans actually think about each part of music
subconsciously while listen to it?
3. Why do many music traditions use irregular or asymmetrical meters?

KIRSTEN One specific topic that I found to be of particular interest a bit farther into the chapter is the
topic of voice and the distinctive sounds which it can produce. The variety of ways the voice can be used
to produce unique sounds is fascinating to me. As Western musicians, and as the chapter points out,
these vocalizations are unexpected and unnatural to us. I listened to the “Katajjaq on the Syllable
“Hamma” (Inuit Vocal Game)”, and found it very interesting to listen to and read about. Although music
like this which is so unfamiliar to us in our culture may initially sound weird or undesirable, with more
consideration I really appreciate culturally unique music like this piece. It reminds me of the music of
Inuk throat singer Tanya Tagaq, which I have grown to like upon studying it in its cultural context.
1) What do you consider to be the most accurate definition of music in our Western culture?
2) Would you feel comfortable trying out a culturally unique vocal technique such as the one
demonstrated in the listening? (Cultural appropriation stuff aside)
*** M 3855a Music Education Culture *** Sp 2019*** m 9548 cultural & social perspectives ***

3) How do you feel at first when listening to music from other unfamiliar cultures? How does
that change upon deeper consideration?
*** M 3855a Music Education Culture *** Sp 2019*** m 9548 cultural & social perspectives ***

I was also really intrigued by her discussion on duration. Shelemay presented
different types of durational aspects in music, such as regular rhythm vs. free rhythm. The
concept of “free rhythm” never even occurred to me since my whole life I have grown up on
a regular rhythm with beats. This section opened my mind to many other possibilities and
ways to play with the concept of musical duration.
1. Other culture’s instruments are based so strongly on their history. Does Canada have
any instruments like this not including indigenous instruments?
2. If other cultures don’t use the concept of a pitch scale the same way Western music
does, do they have tonal centers the same way Western music does?
3. How are songs that are composed with free rhythms notated?

Organology: study of musical instruments


Musical creativity allows listeners to understand different sounds, ways of performance, improvisation and
composition. I like how Kay says “The distinctive sounds, textures, and forms of a particular music
tradition arise several interconnected processes of human creativity” (Shelemay, 2015, p. 59).
1. As a future music educator, is it important to include improvisation activities in my classroom? What are
the pros and cons?
2. Why do you listen to music?
3. What do you think of instruments being identified for males and females? Is this fair?
4. Should the human voice be included in the Sachs-Hornbostel classification system?
5. Which is more important when learning new music, rhythm or melody?

Although it was informative to learn about the different categories of instruments from around 
the world, I also found that my brain took an interesting turn when processing this information. 
For example, when reading a fragment such as, “Membranophones, popularly known as 
drums…” I first thought of the prototypical example of a drum in Western music, a drum kit in a 
band or tympani in a symphony orchestra. We have all of these preconceived notions in our 
minds of these different instruments, and I would be curious to see how our perception of 
different musical genres and “foreign” music would change if we could get rid of our brain’s 
1. Do you think that the language we use to describe the music that we hear, for example the 
adjectives forte, piano, raspy, bright, or dark, contribute to the emotions we feel and the way in 
which we listen to music?
*** M 3855a Music Education Culture *** Sp 2019*** m 9548 cultural & social perspectives ***

2. Do you think the way Western music evenly shapes time influences the way we speak?
3. When we hear music with more flexible and free rhythmic organization, such as Rag Des 
(Listening Guide 12), how does that make us feel in relation to our inner pulse? 


The first thing I have to say is that this textbook just turns me immediately into a philosopher
and I’ve never experienced that before. I’m actually happy about it, though. Music is defined as
organized sound that is meaningful to people within a specific time and place. I found this
interesting, as then there is no real definition of what constitutes music, just what people
perceive music to be. What I value and define as music could be completely different from any
other member of the society I live in and will be different than someone who has a different
cultural background. As a cultural whole, there are universal definitions of what music is, but
there are also several subsets of people that have varying opinions on what they as individuals
connect to within any given culture.
1. Can music be defined as music in external cultures if it is not viewed as music within the
culture the sounds originate from?
2. Do cultures as a whole decide what fits their definition of music, or are some aspects of
sound considered music to subsets of individuals within the culture?
3. From the definition of music being meaningful to specific people within a specific time
and place, what actually constitutes music? Is there a global definition of what music
could be?
*** M 3855a Music Education Culture *** Sp 2019*** m 9548 cultural & social perspectives ***

I found the first chapter of Kay Kaufman Shelemay’s “Soundscapes” very eye opening. The chapter is
broken down into a couple sections, first talking about four characteristics of sound; Quality, Intensity,
Pitch and Duration.

Why does the author suggest breaking down sound into only four acoustical characteristics?
What characteristically differences does Balinese music have compared to Western music?
What are the different compositional processes and why are they different dependant on culture?

 Music rarely stays in the same place
 Music in same geographical location can overlap and influence each other
 Place is important to many music traditions and the contributions that musical creativity
makes to the settings of which music making is a vital part
1. Is music always meaningful to everyone? What does meaningful mean in this context?
 Amazing how we use one term “music” that has many meanings to different groups of
2. Why does music mean different things in different cultures?
 Every culture has their own unique characteristics in their music (nasal quality in American
country/Chinese opera).
3. How does a culture agree upon a set sound? Does everyone in the culture like it?
 Interesting to see how there are endless possibilities when it comes to making music. There
is always a new way to manipulate sounds, instruments, voices and materials to create new
*** M 3855a Music Education Culture *** Sp 2019*** m 9548 cultural & social perspectives ***

3855b: Due Tuesday 7pm:
1) Notes on Chapter 2 and 3-5 fabulous questions. Post to OWL
2) This would be a good time for a concert. See the Irish Dance below!

Remember Familiar/Exotic – listen, post to OWL if you haven’t yet.

1) Post your proposal for your personal or shared project on our OWL site under
assignments slot. Arrange to meet with me if you’d like some help with this
2) Read chapter 2 and listen to musical examples, no need to annotate.
3) Find and annotate one current and interesting article/book/source following your own
interests in cultural perspectives. Upload pdf of article and your annotation to OWL.
These will be shared with the class.

Upcoming Events
Irish Dance Ceili January 19 2019
The London Irish Folk Club is hosting an Irish Dance Ceili, Saturday January 19, 2019
at the German Canadian Club, 1 Cove Rd., London, 8:00 pm – 12. Live traditional Irish
music by Traddicted. All dances instructed by Maureen O’Leary, no dance experience
necessary. Everyone welcome!! Tickets $15 or $12 with a $10 annual membership.
Cash bar. Kids 12 and under free. Call 519 471 9008 or email