Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 23

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 1 ­ Introduction and Overview 

Contents 
ABBREVIATIONS ............................................................................................................................................... V
1 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................... 1-1
1.1 BACKGROUND ................................................................................................................................................ 1-1
1.2 SCOPE ........................................................................................................................................................... 1-1
1.3 PURPOSE ....................................................................................................................................................... 1-2
1.4 OVERVIEW ..................................................................................................................................................... 1-2
1.4.1 Volume 1 – Introduction and Overview ............................................................................................... 1-2
1.4.2 Volume 2 – Surveys and Site Investigation .......................................................................................... 1-2
1.4.3 Volume 3 – Water Projects Design ...................................................................................................... 1-3
1.4.4 Volume 4 – Highway Design ................................................................................................................ 1-3
1.4.5 Volume 5 – Bridge Design .................................................................................................................... 1-3
1.4.6 Volume 6 – Public Buildings and Other Related Structures Design .................................................... 1-3
2 DESIGN PREPARATION PROCESS ........................................................................................................ 2-1
2.1 LEGAL RESPONSIBILITIES ................................................................................................................................ 2-1
2.2 DESIGN PREPARATION PROCESS ...................................................................................................................... 2-1
2.2.1 New Infrastructure ............................................................................................................................... 2-2
2.2.2 Upgrading, Repairs and Retrofitting of Existing Infrastructure ........................................................ 2-2
2.3 DESIGN REVIEW ............................................................................................................................................. 2-3
2.3.1 Detailed Design Stage Review .............................................................................................................. 2-3
2.4 APPLICATION OF THE GUIDE ............................................................................................................................ 2-3
2.4.1 Context Sensitive Solutions .................................................................................................................. 2-4
2.5 RISK.............................................................................................................................................................. 2-5
3 DESIGN FOR EMERGENCY RESPONSE .................................................................................................. 3-1
3.1 EVALUATION.................................................................................................................................................. 3-1
3.2 TEMPORARY REPAIRS ..................................................................................................................................... 3-3
3.3 PERMANENT REPAIRS..................................................................................................................................... 3-3
4 SAFETY ................................................................................................................................................... 4-1
4.1 SAFE DESIGN ................................................................................................................................................. 4-1
4.1.1 Safety of Personnel and the Public....................................................................................................... 4-1
4.1.2 Working Environment.......................................................................................................................... 4-2
4.1.3 Particular Requirements for Site Investigation .................................................................................. 4-2
5 ENVIRONMENT ...................................................................................................................................... 5-1
5.1 LAWS, POLICIES AND PROCEDURAL REQUIREMENTS ON ENVIRONMENTAL PRESERVATION ................................... 5-1
5.2 ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS IN INFRASTRUCTURE DESIGN ...................................................................... 5-2
5.3 SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT CONSIDERATION IN INFRASTRUCTURE DESIGN ................................................................ 5-3
6 GENDER .................................................................................................................................................. 6-1
7 PROVISIONS FOR ACCESSIBILITY ........................................................................................................ 7-1
8 ENGINEERING PLANS/ DRAWINGS ...................................................................................................... 8-1
9 SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE DPWH DESIGN GUIDE ................................................................ 9-1
10 ALTERNATIVE DELIVERY METHODS ................................................................................................ 10-1
10.1 TRADITIONAL APPROACH .......................................................................................................................... 10-1
10.2 PERMITTED ALTERNATIVE METHODS ......................................................................................................... 10-1
10.3 NEW ALTERNATIVE METHODS ................................................................................................................... 10-2
10.4 DESIGN AND CONSTRUCT PROCUREMENT .................................................................................................... 10-3
10.5 PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP .................................................................................................................. 10-4
10.5.1 PPP in the Philippines ..................................................................................................................... 10-5


Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 1 ­ Introduction and Overview    Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 1 ­ Introduction and Overview 

11
10.6 SELECTION OF PROCUREMENT METHOD .........................................................................................................…..10-6
REVISION...............................................................................................................................................…….11-1
Volumes  
Volume 1 Introduction and Overview
Volume 2A GeoHazard Investigation

 
Volume 2B Engineering Surveys
Volume 2C Geological and Geotechnical Investigations
Volume 3 Water Projects Design
Volume 4 Highway Design
Volume 5 Bridge Design
Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures
 
   

ii  iii 
Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 1 ­ Introduction and Overview    Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 1 ­ Introduction and Overview 

Abbreviations 
 

Tables and Figures 
Acronym  Definition 
Table 2-1 Qualitative Risk Analysis Matrix Level of Risk ...................................................................................................2-6
Table 2-2 Risk Assessment for Design ........................................................................................................................................2-6 AASHTO  American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials 

  CNC  Certificate of Non­Coverage 
    CSS  Context Sensitive Solutions 
DENR  Department of Environment and Natural Resources 
DGCS  Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards 
DOLE  Department of Labor and Employment  
DPWH  Department of Public Works and Highways 
ECA  Environmental Critical Area 
ECC  Environmental Compliance Commitment 
ECC  Environmental Compliance Certificate 
EIA  Environmental Impact Assessment 
EIARC  EIA Review Committee 
EISS  Environmental Impact Statement System 
EMB  Environmental Management Bureau 
IEE  Initial Environmental Examination 
KPI  Key Performance Indicators 
LRFD  Load and Resistance Factor Design 
MTPIP  Medium Term Philippine Investment Plan 
NECA  Non­Environmentally Critical Area 
OSHC  Occupational Safety and Health Center  
PDR  Project Description Report 
PEIS  Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement 
PHP  Philippine Pesos 
PICE  Philippine Institute of Civil Engineers 
PPE  Personal Protective Equipment 
PPP  Public Private Partnership 
RDIP  Regional Development Investment Program 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

iv  v 
Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 1 ­ Introduction and Overview  Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 1 ­ Introduction and Overview   

1  Introduction All computations shall contain the scope of work, the design criteria, a description
of the calculations, and an explanation of any computer program output, supported
with sketches and shall be independently checked and approved.
1.1  Background
Special specifications, to be used in conjunction with the DPWH Standard
The six Volumes of the Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards (DGCS) published
Specification, shall be prepared for each project, to provide details of any non-
in the year 2015 replace the two Volumes of the DGCS published in 1984. This
standard materials, processes or control.
guide will be the official guide for designs carried out within the Department of
Public Works and Highways (DPWH) or for DPWH. Quantity estimates for each project, based on the detailed design drawings, shall
be prepared based on the DPWH standard quantities, to show quantities of
The DPWH functions as the engineering arm of the Government of the Republic of
different items of work and shall form the basis of a Bill of Quantities to be
Philippines and as such is responsible for the establishment of appropriate design
incorporated in the Contract Drawings.
standards for the purposes of ensuring the safety of public infrastructure and the
production of detailed designs for public engineering projects. The DGCS was
prepared to specify the design policies, standards and procedures that are used by 1.3  Purpose
the DPWH and by consultants engaged by the DPWH. The purpose of the DGCS is to provide unity and uniformity of design in the
preparation of design for all classes of infrastructure projects undertaken by the
1.2  Scope DPWH in accordance with following overriding requirements:

The DGCS shall apply to the preparation of concept, preliminary and detailed   Ensure the safety of all infrastructure users and third parties.
engineering for categories of infrastructure projects undertaken by DPWH   Protect property and the public welfare.
including stream and flood control, roads and bridges and buildings. It has not
been developed as a text book or a substitute for engineering knowledge,   Provide an adequate level of service for all infrastructure to meet the design
experience or judgment. No attempt is made to detailed techniques for which requirements.
reference to appropriate technical studies and literature is required.   Provide design structures for appropriate loads and load combinations.
The DPWH DGCS also includes requirements for surveys, site investigations to be   Provide infrastructure that is functional and aesthetic, and require an optimum
undertaken for DPWH projects and shall be used as the basis for the preparation level of maintenance appropriate to an optimum whole life costs and
of design and estimates of costs of projects. maximizing asset value.
The DPWH DGCS shall be used by all Regional Offices, District Engineering Offices,   Provide guidelines for using new technology that improves the performance of
Bureaus and Services of the DPWH and by consultants engaged by DPWH. DPWH infrastructure.
The design guidelines contained in the DPWH DGCS shall be governed by   Optimize the use of indigenous materials, labor and other resources.
applicable provisions of existing laws, codes (latest editions) and Departmental
issuances as identified in each of the Volumes. 1.4  Overview
Adherence to the provisions of the DGCS shall ensure that reasonably feasible and The DPWH DGCS consists of six volumes:
economical designs should be developed for the preparation of detailed design of
projects. 1.4.1  Volume 1 – Introduction and Overview
In general, all structures shall be designed for all loads and loading conditions to Volume 1 provides an introduction and overview to the complete document, and
which they shall be subjected. Loads include dead loads, live loads, earth pressure, includes material common to the full range on infrastructure design.
wind loads, hydraulic loads, traffic loads, impact loads and seismic loads which act
on parts or the entire structures. The effects of temperature variations, shrinkage 1.4.2  Volume 2 – Surveys and Site Investigation
and swelling, long-term loadings, repetitive loadings and impact shall be Volume 2 comprises of three sub-volumes:
considered. The stability analysis of structures shall allow for construction
Volume 2A – GeoHazard Investigation
sequences. The design method for structures shall be based on load and resistance
factor design (LRFD) principles, also called limit state design. Volume 2B – Engineering Surveys
All design shall adopt the Metric System of units. Volume 2C – Geological and Geotechnical Investigation

1­1  1­2 
Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 1 ­ Introduction and Overview  Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 1 ­ Introduction and Overview 

Volume 2 covers GeoHazard Investigations, Engineering Surveys and Geological


and Geotechnical Investigations during the planning or concept development,
2  Design Preparation Process
design development and detailed engineering phases of projects.
2.1  Legal Responsibilities
The requirements for surveys and site investigations apply across the full range of
Engineers are professional persons who operate under and within the limits set
infrastructure design.
under their registration which is managed through the Professional Registration
Commission.
1.4.3  Volume 3 – Water Projects Design
Volume 3 covers structures related to flood control, drainage and coastal For example, the Board of Civil Engineers registers civil engineers upon passing of
structures. The volume includes material on hydrology, hydraulics, flood studies, a board examination. The practice of civil engineering is defined as covering
climate change and scour that is also applicable to the design of highways and services in the form of consultation, design, preparation of plans, specifications,
bridges. estimates, erection, installation and supervision of the construction of streets,
bridges, highways, railroads, airports and hangars, port works, canals, river and
shore improvements, lighthouses, and dry docks; buildings, fixed structures for
1.4.4  Volume 4 – Highway Design
irrigation, flood protection, drainage, water supply and sewerage works;
Volume 4 covers geometric design, pavement, safety facilities, drainage,
demolition of permanent structures; and tunnels. The enumeration of any work in
intersection, earthworks, ground treatment, landslide control/slope protection,
this section shall not be construed as excluding any other work requiring civil
street lighting, GeoHazard management, environmental safeguard, etc. for
engineering knowledge and application. The Philippine Institute of Civil Engineers
highways. The volume includes the Standards and Guidelines for safety planners,
(PICE) is the accredited professional organization for civil engineers recognized by
safety design and road safety risk assessment in consonance with 2012 DPWH
the Board.
Road Safety Design Manual and International Road Assessment Program Star
Rating Roads for Safety. Civil engineer members of PICE are required to operate under the PICE Code of
Ethics that impose the following requirements on members, Although the
1.4.5  Volume 5 – Bridge Design following principles are applicable only for Civil Engineers, they can be applicable
Volume 5 covers bridge aesthetics, and the design of all types of bridges under to all other professions as well.
Philippine conditions based on the AASHTO LRFD bridge design specification. The All professionals undertaking planning, investigations and design of public
volume covers all types of structures required for highways and bridges including infrastructure shall comply with their registration and the Code of Ethics of their
long-span structures, tunnels, cut-and-cover structures and retaining walls. accredited professional organization.
Retrofitting of existing bridges is also included.
Engineers and other professionals are responsible for their actions and can face
sanctions if they act outside the scope of their registration or code of ethics.
1.4.6  Volume 6 – Public Buildings and Other Related Structures Design
Volume 6 covers the design of buildings and other related structures based on Engineers and other professionals shall not unilaterally act outside their
current international design standards. The volume covers architectural, experience and expertise. Where engineers and other professionals determine that
structural, electrical, electronics, mechanical and sanitary/plumbing design, they are required to undertake design outside their experience and expertise, they
retrofitting of existing buildings and performance-base design. The structures should advise their superiors, should seek advice and/or mentoring from
include steel and concrete buildings, towers, earth retaining-structures, elevated engineers or professionals with the necessary experience and expertise, and
and underground water reservoirs and water/sewage treatment plants. should ensure that their work is reviewed by an engineer or professional with the
necessary experience and expertise.

2.2  Design Preparation Process


Design is prepared at the Bureau of Design (BOD) of Central Office, Planning and
Design Divisions of Regional Offices, Planning and Design Sections of District
Engineering Offices and by external consultants engaged by DPWH.
The District Engineering Offices and the Regional Offices prepare designs up to the
delegated level of authority for them based on the estimated cost of the project.
The design of projects above their delegation level are generally sent for the
approval of the higher level office (eg: from District Engineering Offices to Regional
Offices and from Regional Offices to BOD).

1­3  2­1 
Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 1 ­ Introduction and Overview    Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 1 ­ Introduction and Overview 

When the work load is excessive and there are no resources available internally, prepared to show the preparation of the areas to be repaired or retrofitted and the
then some design work is outsourced to external consultants after going through scope of the work.
a procurement process to engage them. Designs completed by external consultants
In all cases, a detailed inspection of the damaged infrastructure and the original
are usually sent to BOD for review and recommending approval.
design drawings shall be undertaken to establish the cause(s) of any damage, to
UPMO manages large projects including all foreign funded projects and some ascertain if the original design was inadequate, and to recommend design changes
locally funded projects. The design work for UPMO managed projects is usually in the new work to reduce the risk of similar future damage. This inspection and
outsourced to external consultants. Those designs are reviewed and outcomes shall be documented in an inspection report.
recommended for approval by the BOD to higher authority before procurement
Any systematic design deficiencies in the DGCS that lead to the wide occurrence of
commences.
the same or similar defects shall be identified and an analysis of the deficiencies
The design preparation process is defined in the DPWH Design Procedures shall be undertaken to put forward changes to the DGCS to reduce the occurrence
Manual. . of such issues.

2.2.1  New Infrastructure 2.3  Design Review


This section applies to the design of new infrastructure or the complete The design review is conducted by different offices depending on their level of
replacement of existing infrastructure. The design infrastructure will generally authority.
involve:
  If the estimated cost of the project is within the delegated limit, then the design
  Assessing the design requirements by conducting a site reconnaissance,
review is completed within the office where the design was prepared.
preparing a preliminary geohazard assessment and preparing the design
criteria.   If the estimated cost of the project is over the delegated limit of the office where
the design was prepared, then the design is sent to the next higher level office
  Conducting surveys to collect all data required for design.
that has the delegation to review.
  Conducting preliminary design to confirm the layout of the project.

  Conducting detailed design to prepare the final drawings, technical 2.3.1  Detailed Design Stage Review
requirements and cost estimates for the project. Design review of all detailed design for all infrastructure projects shall be
completed by engineers independent of the design engineers. These design
reviews are distinct from design reviews undertaken within the design team. For
2.2.2  Upgrading, Repairs and Retrofitting of Existing Infrastructure
work undertaken in-house by the DPWH, the design review should be undertaken
This section applies to the design of upgrading, repairs or retrofitting of existing
by another DPWH office or by an external consultant. The purpose of the design
infrastructure. The general design requirements depend on the estimated cost of
review is to confirm that the design:
the project. However, the process will be the same as for new infrastructure but
include the following additional requirements in the preliminary design stage:   Complies with the requirements of the DPWH DGCS.

  Assessment of the available documentation, design and condition of the   Has considered all requirements and site constraints.
existing infrastructure to confirm that the existing infrastructure is suitable for   Has been optimized for the site conditions and constraints.
upgrading, and
  Is acceptable and ready to be issued for construction.
  Consideration of complete replacement of the existing infrastructure as one of
the options considered. The scope of the design review should vary depending on the magnitude of the
project. Where a project has significant technical issues, the appropriate design
Repairs and retrofitting of existing infrastructure include all periodic maintenance experts (for example, geotechnical engineer) may be included in the review to
to infrastructure to repair damage resulting from traffic, scour, earthquake and confirm that the technical issues are adequately addressed in the design.
other causes. It does not cover routine maintenance or emergency repairs to
enable infrastructure to be maintained or restored to service.
2.4  Application of the Guide
The design process shall be the same as for new infrastructure except that the
The DPWH DGCS sets out the minimum standard for the design of infrastructure.
design of the repairs or retrofitting shall normally be undertaken based on the
The optimum design of infrastructure requires the designer to consider the range
original design drawings, if available, but specific repair drawings should be
of engineering solutions possible to determine the design that best provides the
required level of service without adverse impact on the local community and at a
minimum cost.

2­2  2­3 
Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 1 ­ Introduction and Overview    Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 1 ­ Introduction and Overview 

2.4.1  Context Sensitive Solutions   The project development process is tailored to meet the circumstances. This
Context sensitive solutions (CSS) should be considered and adopted for all process should examine multiple alternatives that will result in a consensus of
infrastructure projects that have large potential impacts on communities and approach methods.
environments to ensure that the infrastructure is appropriate to minimize any
  A commitment to the process from top agency officials and local leaders is
adverse impacts while meeting the objectives of the project.
secured.
CSS is a collaborative, interdisciplinary approach that involves all stakeholders to
  The public involvement process, which includes informal meetings, is tailored
develop infrastructure that fits its physical setting and preserves scenic, aesthetic,
to the project.
historic and environmental resources, while maintaining safety and mobility. CSS
is an approach that considers the total context within which an infrastructure   The landscape, the community, and valued resources are understood before
project will exist. CSS principles include the employment of early, continuous and engineering design is started.
meaningful involvement of the public and all stakeholders throughout the project   A full range of tools for communication about project alternatives is used (e.g.
development process. visualization).
CSS requires opportunities to be provided for involvement of the public and
participating agencies in the development of project objectives and the range of 2.5  Risk
alternatives shall be selected to support the intent of the CSS principles. The
All engineering design activity involves risk and there is a balance between the
implementation of a CSS approach to navigating the project development process
costs of construction of infrastructure and the safety of the infrastructure users. In
will ensure the best possible outcome to the environmental review process.
general, guidelines, design codes and standards are the principal tools in the
Qualities of a project that demonstrate excellence in infrastructure design include: management of risk as these documents provide surety that infrastructure
designed in accordance with these documents have a high probability of
  The project satisfies the purpose and needs as agreed to by a full range of
satisfactory service and minimization of the risk to infrastructure users.
stakeholders. This agreement is forged in the earliest phase of the project and
amended as warranted as the project develops. Nevertheless designers of infrastructure are required to manage the risk in design,
to ensure the correct application of the guidelines, codes and standards.
  The project is a safe facility for both the user and the community.
Risk management is the implementation of a deliberate strategy to identify
  The project is in harmony with the community, and it preserves environmental,
hazards, assess the risks they pose and the elimination or control of those risks to
scenic, aesthetic, historic, and natural resource values of the area, i.e., exhibits
acceptable levels.
context sensitive design.
A hazard is something that has the potential to cause harm.
  The project exceeds the expectations of both designers and stakeholders and
achieves a level of excellence in people's minds. Risk is an expression of the extent of adverse impact that might arise from the
occurrence of a particular hazard.
  The project involves efficient and effective use of the resources (time, budget,
community) of all involved parties. Risk assessment is an evaluation of the level of risk, based on the level of adverse
impact, following the occurrence of a hazard and the likelihood of that interaction
  The project is designed and built with minimal disruption to the community.
occurring.
  The project is seen as having added lasting value to the community.
To assess a hazard, three decisions need to be made:
The characteristics of the CSS process that will contribute to excellence include: 1.  What is the hazard?

  Communication with all stakeholders is open, honest, prompt, and continuous. 2.  What is its likelihood of occurring?

  A multidisciplinary team is established early, with disciplines based on the 3.  What is its potential severity?
needs of the specific project, and with the inclusion of the public, including
Assessing the risk of a hazard can be achieved using the risk matrix included in
women.
Table 2-1. The risk increase as the likelihood and consequences of a hazard
  A full range of stakeholders is involved with transportation officials in the increase.
scoping phase. The purposes of the project are clearly defined, and consensus
on the scope is forged before proceeding.

2­4  2­5 
Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 1 ­ Introduction and Overview    Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 1 ­ Introduction and Overview 

Table 2­1  Qualitative Risk Analysis Matrix Level of Risk  For example, standard single-span bridges may be considered as medium-risk
Consequences  design projects but multi-span bridges may be considered as high-risk design
Likelihood 
Insignificant  Minor  Moderate  Major  Catastrophic  projects.
Almost certain  M  H  H  E  E  The design requirements for extreme-risk projects require appropriate high-level
Likely  M  M  H  H  E  approaches or design procedures are beyond the scope of the DGCS, but the
Possible  L  M  M  H  E  requirements of the DGCS still apply. Design for Emergency Response.
Unlikely  L  M  M  M  H 
Rare  L  L  M  M  M 

Projects assessed as being at extreme-risk (E) shall require a detailed action plan
to demonstrate how the hazards will be addressed in the design.
Projects assessed as being at high-risk (H) shall include the attention of senior
management to ensure that the risks have been considered in the design.
Projects assessed as being at moderate-risk (M) require increased management
responsibility to ensure that appropriate designs are prepared.
Projects assessed as being at low-risk (L) may be managed using routine
procedures.
The project risk needs to be determined for each project as the extent of work
required to be undertaken for each project design will depend on the project risk.
More demanding projects or projects where the potential costs and impact of
failure are high require more oversight and assessment during the design process.
The assessment of project risk should consider the complexity, importance, safety
and cost of the project. Typical criteria that may be used in the assessment are
listed in Table 2-2.

Table 2­2  Risk Assessment for Design 

Project Risk  Low  Medium  High  Extreme 


Total team size  <5  5 to 9  10 to 14  >15 
Work groups  1 to 2  3 to 4  5 to 6  > 7 
involved 
Required  New  Learning   Familiar   Expert 
competencies 
Complexity  The design is  The design has  The design is  Very complex 
well defined and  identified problems  demanding but not  multi­discipline 
no problems are  and issues  outside the  project with 
expected  capability of the  significant 
design team  interfaces 
Safety risk due to  No issues  Minor injuries  Major injuries  Loss of life 
project failure 
Public Profile  Unit  Director  Secretary  President 
Cost  <PHP 20 million  PHP 20 – 50  PHP 50 – 100  >PHP 100 
million  million  million 

2­6  2­7 
Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 1 ­ Introduction and Overview  Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 1 ­ Introduction and Overview   

3  Design for Emergency Response   Determine the type of permanent repairs.

  Ensure that appropriate and adequate resources are mobilized to commence


The Philippines is frequently subject to disasters resulting from the GeoHazards
the work, especially if equipment or materials have to be brought from outside
inherent in the Philippine location and climate. These disasters normally result
the area.
from flooding, tsunamis, earthquakes and landslides. These events can result in
major damage to public infrastructure including roads and bridges, flood control   Ensure that time and money is not wasted by misguided work.
structures and buildings.
  Set the priorities for temporary repairs.
The emergency response depends on the nature of the disaster. The response to
Evaluation of the damage from a disaster would commence:
disasters resulting from earthquakes and tsunami are directed to restoration of
damage after the events. Some disasters, for example those caused by flooding or   Immediately after the disaster for earthquake and similar disasters,
volcanic eruptions, may require evaluation and implementation of emergency   As soon as the potential threat is recognized, or
work during the disaster, to repair or raise dykes, to limit damage that may follow
  As soon as engineering staff can be mobilized from the DPWH offices.
if preventive action is not done, or to provide evacuation routes.
Damage to roads and bridges results in traffic congestion, severs access routes and DPWH should maintain emergency response plans with contact details for
engineering staff in each Regional and District Engineering Office to enable staff to
delays the arrival of emergency response teams and supplies. It can also sever
be mobilized quickly and aware of their functions and responsibilities.
services to communities including telephone services, water supplies, etc. Damage
to roads and bridges can result in the complete isolation of communities. The evaluation is critical to determine the extent of damage to public
infrastructure, and to identify those parts of the public infrastructure that are
Damage to buildings also delays the emergency response as the buildings are not
available for use for their support roles or temporary accommodation. unusable and are hindering access into the disaster areas.
The general procedure would be:
The DPWH has an essential function of rapidly restoring DPWH infrastructure
following disasters to enable assistance to be provided to the victims of the   Conduct rapid inspections by road, helicopter or boat to determine the general
disasters, to enable the damage to communities to be assessed, to permit extent of damage to infrastructure, record lists of observed damage.
implementation of remedial works and enable the regular activities to be assumed.
  Conduct quick inspection of standing structures such as bridges to confirm if
Often a disaster leads to a reactive response, particularly when limited or no they are in a fit condition to carry traffic.
warning of an emergency is provided. The DPWH can also consider the likely
  Conduct quick inspection of buildings to determine if they have suffered
impact of a disaster and plan a proactive response when sufficient warning of the
damage, if they can be utilized albeit with damage, or if temporary repairs
disaster is provided.
would enable their use. This may require the use of tarpaulins, for example,
Much emergency response work may have to be undertaken during the course of where rooks have been blown off by typhoons.
disasters in the case of flooding or while aftershocks are occurring in the case of
  Conduct quick inspection of failed structures to determine option for
an earthquake. DPWH should always undertake emergency response work while
temporary replacement, for example use of Bailey bridges.
ensuring the safety of DHWH staff, workers and third parties.
  Conduct quick inspection of other listed infrastructure to type and scale of
The DPWH response to disaster management has three phases:
necessary temporary works; for example, estimate the volume to restore a
  Evaluation slumped section of road.
  Temporary repairs   Assess which infrastructure can be quickly returned to service or which have

  Permanent repairs
to be returned to service. Prioritize the temporary repairs considering
availability of usable alternative routes, most important routes, and needs of
These phases are described in the following sections. emergency response routes.
  Design emergency repair works (matchbox design). Temporary designs would
3.1  Evaluation normally be rule-of-thumb by the DPWH engineers on-the-ground to enable
Evaluation of the requirements of any emergency response is critical to: work to commence. This could be followed-up later with design DPWH staff to
  Recognize the scale of the disaster. confirm the work underway and to incorporate appropriate modifications if
necessary.
  Determine the type of temporary repairs.

3­1  3­2 
Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 1 ­ Introduction and Overview  Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 1 ­ Introduction and Overview   

The Engineers in the Regional and District Engineering offices where a disaster Minor and major damage to infrastructure and the need to replace damaged
occurs should be familiar with the local infrastructure to enable the evaluation to infrastructure should be identified.
be quickly undertaken.
All permanent repairs shall be undertaken in full compliance with the DGCS.
Priority in undertaking permanent repairs should be given to damaged
3.2  Temporary Repairs
infrastructure that is essential to the local communities and to infrastructure that
Temporary repairs would normally be commenced at critical sites by the affected has experienced significant damage.
District Engineering and Regional Offices as soon as possible after the required
work at those sites had been assessed, and equipment and materials obtained.
Temporary work would commence before the evaluation has been completed
across the affected area. The DPWH would work with other Government disaster
response teams and would coordinate their actions to ensure that the most urgent
requirements are given priority.
Temporary works would normally utilize the resources immediately available to
the DPWH in the Regional and District Engineering Offices.
Emergency repair works include:
  Deployment of Bailey bridges to replace collapsed spans of bridges.

  Propping of damaged columns and components of bridges.

  Earthworks to bridge approaches to enable vehicle access.

  Earthworks to restore damaged or closed roads.

  Repairs to other infrastructure as required.


 
The emergency works may be phased, for example the initial repair to a critical
bridge may be a simple earthwork to enable emergency response vehicles to cross
the bridge at low speed with follow-up earthworks later to enable the use of all
traffic lanes and/or higher speeds.
The only issue that may delay the temporary repairs would be the allocation of
funds which would be obtained through the emergency services.
The temporary measures are only intended to remain until permanent repairs to
or replacement of damaged infrastructure can be implemented. Where necessary,
temporary repairs would be closely monitored to detect any further deterioration
of damaged infrastructure. Damaged structures may have hidden damage that is
accelerated by normal working conditions and ongoing deterioration may increase
the risk to the infrastructure users and third parties. Some damaged infrastructure
may require ongoing work to maintain public safety.
Temporary repairs would be undertaken on an ad hoc basis using emergency
response funding.

3.3  Permanent Repairs


Permanent repairs would be implemented after the disaster to restore or replace
damaged infrastructure. All temporary repairs would be reconstructed to return
the infrastructure to the design condition. All permanent repairs would be
undertaken in full compliance with the DGCS.

3­3  3­4 
Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 1 ­ Introduction and Overview  Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 1 ­ Introduction and Overview   

4  Safety Rule 1080 of the provision contains the Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) and
Devices in which the following PPE’s may be necessary:
Safety is a key parameter for the design of infrastructure to minimize the risk to
  Rule 1082 Eye and Face Protection
health and safety of all persons involved throughout the life of infrastructure,
including design, construction, operation, maintenance and eventual removal.   Rule 1083 Respiratory Protection

  Rule 1084 Head Protection


4.1  Safe Design
  Rule 1085 Hand and Arm Protection
Safe design means the integration of control measures early in the design process
to eliminate or, if this is not reasonably practicable, minimize risks to health and   Rule 1086 Safety Belts. Life Lines and Safety Net
safety throughout the life of the infrastructure being designed.   Rule 1087 Use of Safety Shoes
The safe design of infrastructure will always be part of a wider set of design
objectives, including practicability, aesthetics, cost and functionality. These 4.1.2  Working Environment
sometimes competing objectives need to be balanced in a manner that does not Hazardous workplaces are where:
compromise the health and safety of those who work on or use the infrastructure   The nature of work exposes the workers to dangerous environmental
over its life. elements, contaminants or work conditions including ionizing radiation,
Safe design begins at the concept development phase of a structure when making chemicals, fire, flammable substances, noxious components and the like.
decisions about:   The workers are engaged in construction work, logging, firefighting, mining,
  The design and its intended purpose. quarrying, blasting, stevedoring, dock work, deep-sea fishing and mechanized
farming.
  Materials to be used.
  The workers are engaged in the manufacture or handling of explosives and
  Possible methods of construction, maintenance, operation, demolition or
other pyrotechnic products. Only licensed workers should handle explosives
dismantling and disposal.
in coordination with approving agency.
  Comprehensive engineering surveys and site investigations.
  The workers use or are exposed to power driven or explosive powder actuated
  Subsurface investigation. tools.
  Geohazard assessment.   The workers are exposed to biologic agents such as bacteria, fungi, viruses,

  Relevant Republic Acts, Laws and Department Issues.


protozoans, nematodes, and other parasites.

Safe design also applies during design development and detailed design to ensure Relevant references are:
that all necessary safety features are included in the design, in accordance with the   Rule 1410: Construction Safety for detailed safety requirements for
requirement of the DPWH DGCS. construction.
  Relevant documents of OSHC–DOLE and other relevant seminars for a
4.1.1  Safety of Personnel and the Public
comprehensive discussion of safety requirements.
The safety of personnel involved in the design, construction and maintenance
should be considered. This specifically applies to the safety of design personnel
4.1.3  Particular Requirements for Site Investigation
visiting project sites for inspections.
The requirements for site investigations are discussed in DGCS Volume 2.
It is mandated by the constitution under Executive Order No. 307 establishing the
All work on live highways shall be undertaken in accordance with the DPWH Road
Occupational Safety and Health Center (OSHC) – Department of Labor and
Safety Design Manuals to ensure the safety of road users, third parties and of the
Employment (DOLE) and Presidential Decree (P.D.) 626 to ‘protect every
personnel undertaking any site investigations.
workingman against the dangers of injury, sickness or death through safe and
healthful working conditions, thereby assuring the conservation of valuable Prior to undertaking any invasive investigation on a site the likelihood of the
manpower resources and the prevention of loss or damage to lives and properties, presence of services shall be assessed and where services are suspected the utility
consistent with national development goals and with the State’s commitment for companies shall be contacted to identify the locations of services.
the total development of every worker as a complete human being.’ In the event that excavations or exploratory holes encounter contamination or
human remains, work shall be stopped and expert input obtained to decide on
procedures for continuing the investigation.

4­1  4­2 
Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 1 ­ Introduction and Overview  Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 1 ­ Introduction and Overview   

5  Environment   Assess and provide counter measures at an early stage in design to avoid
changes and environmental problems. Deforestation associated with
Designers must consider environmental factors in the design of infrastructure to infrastructure projects should consider the risk of flooding due to changes in
ensure that the adverse impacts on environment are minimized by adopting landscaping and water resources in the area.
suitable and appropriate design standards. Environmental considerations must
  Avoid costs and delays in the implementation due to unanticipated
be identified, assessed and mitigation measures provided at early stages of design
environmental problems.
to avoid major changes and costly variations in the future.
Further details on the preparation of Environment Impact Assessment may be
This Chapter only provides a brief description of environmental considerations in
obtained from the Revised Procedure Manual for DENR Administrative Order No.
relation to infrastructure design as a general guide only. For more information on
30-03 (DAO 03-30) titled ‘Implementing Rules and Regulations of Presidential
systematic Environment Impact Assessments and other environmental studies
Decree No. 1586, Establishing the Philippine Environmental Impact Statement
and assessments, the readers should refer to other documents specialized in this
System’, Environmental Impact Assessment and Management Division (EIAMD),
field. Some of the documents that the readers may refer to are provided in the
August 2007 (2nd Printing: January 2008).
sections below.
A list of current Department Orders, Special Orders, Department Memorandum
5.1  Laws, Policies and Procedural Requirements on Environmental Preservation Circulars and Unnumbered Memos is available on the DPWH intranet.

In Philippines, the laws in relation to environmental preservation start at the


highest level of government. Under the Presidential Decree No. 1151 (‘Philippine 5.2  Environmental Considerations in Infrastructure Design
Environmental Policy’) Section 3, ‘the Government recognizes the right of the Infrastructure projects may impact on the physical and social environment in
people to a healthy environment. It shall be the duty and responsibility of each various different ways. The designer must be aware of the impact on the
individual to contribute to the preservation and enhancement of the Philippine environment and incorporate measures to minimize adverse impacts. Some of the
environment.’ factors on the physical and social environment that the designers should consider
are:
In addition, the designers must take the following laws directives in to account in
infrastructure design:   Impacts on natural habitats of flora and fauna.

  Presidential Decree PD 1156 (1977), requires Environmental Impact   Impacts on movement habits and population dynamics of different species.
Assessment (EIA) preparation for projects affecting environmental quality.
  Impacts on water resources around the area including both surface water and
  PD 1586 (1978) defines the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and its ground water resources.
scope for Environmental Critical Projects and Environmental Critical Areas.
  Impact of risk of flood and consequences of flood affecting the environment.
Projects are scrutinized through Environmental Impact Assessment, which is
an important tool in all aspects of project cycle.   Impacts on water consumption by human populations as well as animal
populations.
  The Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) Department
Administrative Order No. 30 Series of 2003 (revised August 2007) describes   Impacts due to changes in landscape.
various documentary requirements for environmental certificates. The   Impacts due to deforestation associated with infrastructure work.
certificates are Environmental Compliance Certificate ECC and / or Certificate
  Impacts due to air pollution and noise pollution.
of Non-Coverage (CNC), where issuance depends on the significance of the
social and environmental impacts due to project activities.   Impacts on areas of historic or cultural significance.

EIA helps to determine the impacts of the proposed project and to formulate   Impacts from energy use during construction and operation of machinery and
countermeasures to prevent, minimize, mitigate, or compensate the adverse equipment, transportation, lighting and other electricity use.
impacts caused by the project. Environmental consequences should be recognized
  Impacts due to possible contamination with construction materials and/or
early in the project cycle to account for the project selection, siting, planning, and
construction waste.
design integration of environmental assessment in the early stage of planning is
essential to:   Impacts on the local community, local and non-local economy and the built and
natural environment.
  Address environmental issues in a timely and cost-effective fashion.

  Incorporate alternatives to the proposed project.

5­1  5­2 
Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 1 ­ Introduction and Overview  Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 1 ­ Introduction and Overview 

5.3  Social Environment Consideration in infrastructure Design 6  Gender


Infrastructure projects have the potential to impact the social environment both
Gender shall be considered in the design all infrastructure projects to ensure that
directly and indirectly. These impacts may be localized or affect the entire
adequate provisions are included in projects to improve the function of new
economy of the country, depending on the project. These impacts may be either
infrastructure for the users and third parties, especially women, and to address
positive or negative. It is important during project planning to ensure the positive
gender issues included in policies and strategies for infrastructure development.
impacts are maximized and the negative ones are minimized or eliminated where
possible. The designers should consider the following social factors, as a minimum: The incorporation of gender into the design process requires an understanding of
the different living conditions and needs of women and men at project planning
  Improvements in travel time
stage, and taking these requirements into account in the design and
  Improvements in safety issues implementation of projects.
  Introduction of safety issues (e.g. new presence of car strike potential due to a Gender policies include:
new highway)
  Women and men must equally participate in climate change, disaster risk
  Reduction in vehicle operating costs reduction, decision-making processes and other government programs at
  Improved accessibility community, regional and nationwide levels.
  Integration of gender-sensitive criteria into planning, design implementation,
  Employment
monitoring and evaluation of programs, projects and initiative.
  Social inclusion/exclusion (e.g. highways bypassing communities, roads
  Allocation of adequate resources to address the needs of women, for example
connecting previously excluded communities)
by funding appropriate, environmentally sound technologies and supporting
  Changes to the economy women’s grassroots initiatives in sustainable use of natural resources.
  Impact on Indigenous People Communities and their culture The implementation of these-policies requires the inclusion of appropriate
  Impacts on human health (e.g. as a result of changes to air quality, noise, waste) activities in the design process, including but not limited to the following;

  Impacts on land value   Undertake environmental planning through public consultation and/or
stakeholders forums, and identify gender issues and concerns in the
  Cumulative effects
involvement of women, youth, senior citizens and persons with disability in
The Local Government Unit concerned with a project should decide on the social infrastructure development. Women should constitute at least 30% of the total
acceptability of a project. Technical acceptability of the social impact assessment, participants.
however, and the corresponding commitments to address any impacts is within
  Develop gender-based information within the influence area of the proposed
the jurisdiction of DENR – Environmental Management Bureau.
project.
  Conduct social gender analysis such as trend of employment of women at all
levels (actual construction, technical and management) in infrastructure
projects or services, capacity of women to influence decisions about the
planning design, operation and maintenance of infrastructure facilities;
resettlement of women and their families as a result of the construction of
infrastructure; access of women to water, and health and transport services.
  Maintain existing cross communication routes such as foot paths where
crossed by new infrastructure and maintain the amenity and usability of
existing infrastructure adjacent to new work.
  Identify appropriate public infrastructure, for example access steps and
pathways to the water at dykes and bridges that may be included in
infrastructure projects to maintain and improve access for third parties.
  Include appropriate works to enhance the safety of users and third parties
including pathways, guardrails, pedestrian bridges, and other safety facilities
and structures.

5­3  6­1 
Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 1 ­ Introduction and Overview    Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 1 ­ Introduction and Overview 

  Prepare standard gender-sensitive design of infrastructure and facilities that


caters the needs of women, aged people and children, such as wider space on
7  Provisions for Accessibility
restrooms for women, provision of access stairs in the abutments of bridges The rights of persons with disabilities (PWDs) have been protected by law in the
and dikes. Philippines. Law have been enacted to ensure the rights of PWDs and it is the duty
of every citizen to uphold them. The main legislation specifying the rights of
  Incorporate the provision of gender-sensitive structures/facilities in feasibility
disabled persons is the Republic Act 7277 (1992), which is also known as Magna
studies, including separate provision and costs in project budgets.
Carta for Disabled Persons and its subsequent amendments. This Act specifies
provisions for the rehabilitation, self-development and self-reliance of PWDs and
their integration in to the mainstream of society and for the other purposes.
Chapter VI of the act specified the Accessibility requirements for PWDs including
provision of a barrier-free environment, mobility, access to public transport
facilities and implementing rules and regulations.
The other important legislation relevant to infrastructure design is the
Accessibility Law, also known as Batas Pambansa Bilang 344 and its Amended
Implementing Rules and Regulations. This Act specifies the requirements to
enhance the mobility of persons with disabilities by requiring certain buildings,
institutions, establishments and public utilities to install facilities and other
devices. A summary of requirements in the Act relevant to DPWH infrastructure
design is:
  Section 1 stipulates that no license or permit for the construction, repair or
renovation of public and private buildings for public use unless provisions for
accessibility have been installed or incorporated in such facilities. This also
requires that the DPWH shall ensure all government buildings, streets and
highways are provided with architectural facilities or structural features for
persons with disabilities. In the case of parking places, suitable spaces should
be reserved for PWDs.
  Section 2 requires that special bus stops shall be designed for PWDs and
discrimination against PWDs in the carriage or transportation of passengers
has been declared unlawful.
Implementing rules and regulations as amended of Batas Pambansa Bilang 344
(Accessibility Law) provides more specific requirements in relation to public
infrastructure design. Some of the important provisions are:
  Rule II provides the minimum requirements for accessibility including
categories of PWDs, anthropometrics and dimensional data as a guide for
design, and basic physical planning requirements. Appendix A provides
minimum requirements for accessibility for buildings, parking, inside
buildings and structures, and safety provisions.
  Rule II provides specific requirements for buildings and related structures for
public use including classification of buildings by use of occupancy,
architectural features and facilities, standards of accessibility for special type
of facilities, provisions for computation of accessible units and application of
barrier free facilities and features.
  Rule IV provides requirements for public transportation including
classification of public conveyances by mode of transport the minimum
requirements for them to ensure accessibility.

6­2  7­1 
Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 1 ­ Introduction and Overview    Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 1 ­ Introduction and Overview 

  Rule V provides the administrative mechanism for the provisions and


enforcement procedures.
8  Engineering Plans/ Drawings
The use of drawings based on previous designs rather than original design that is
It is mandatory that the designers incorporate the above provisions in the design
optimized for the new site should be discouraged.
of public infrastructure.
With the change to AutoCAD for production of drawings, each project should have
a complete set of project specific drawings, which may include some standard
drawings.
To support the AutoCAD production of drawings, the DPWH should establish a
library of standard details for the control of AutoCAD drawings. The library would
hold:
  Standard AutoCAD settings for drawings including layer details, pen details,
drawing title blocks, etc.
  Standard details for use in the production of drawings; these details would
have a maximum life of four years.
The AutoCAD library should be maintained and controlled by the Bureau of Design.

7­2  8­1 
Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 1 ­ Introduction and Overview  Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 1 ­ Introduction and Overview   

9  Scope and Limitations of the DPWH Design Guide   Negative attitudes: Design innovation will not occur if decision-makers are
reluctant to adopt new designs in projects.
The DPWH DGCS is intended to be the principal design reference for infrastructure
  New technology: Where a designer fails to recognize and consider new
designed within the DPWH. It will also be of value to consultants working on behalf
materials and processes, infrastructure costs may be higher than they should
of the DPWH and to third party organizations involved with the development of
be.
infrastructure within The Philippines.
  Strict adherence to requirements: Designers traditionally develop designs
The economic potential of the Philippines has been limited largely by a lack of
that exceed the requirements and result in over-design and inflated
infrastructure. The use of the DPWH DGCS will contribute to the development of
construction costs.
infrastructure by encouraging the development of cost-effective and appropriate
designs for infrastructure.   Performance at any cost: Designers must be aware of not over-engineering
infrastructure projects to avoid cost-blowouts. Design features must be
The DPWH DGCS provides only a limited coverage of many design issues that will
optimized commensurate with the requirements of the project.
be appropriate in most cases. However, the DPWH DGCS provides details of other
relevant published guidelines, some of which are readily available on the Internet,   Poor communication: Design teams need to work together to produce cost
and others which have been recommended for purchase under the design tools effective designs. Involvement of the full range of expertise in design and
review. Designers may consult these published guidelines to increase their design review is always worthwhile.
understanding of particular design issues and to improve the design where
necessary.
The use of the DPWH DGCS will be appropriate for the majority of the standard
infrastructure projects undertaken by the DPWH. Some major projects will fall
outside the scope of the DPWH DGCS and will require the adoption of the
appropriate international design standards. In all cases, the requirements of the
DPWH DGCS remain the underlying basis for the design.
Designers shall avoid the following traps that will limit the value of the DPWH
DGCS in the production of cost-effective and appropriate designs for
infrastructure:
  Lack of information: Failure to obtain all relevant information can contribute
to a lack of understanding of the full requirements for a project.
  Wrong beliefs: Design based on erroneous beliefs rather than facts, including
prejudice against changes, can result in inappropriate design.
  Habitual thinking: Designers should update their knowledge to cover changes
in technology and practices. Design based on previous designs without
consideration of alternatives may result in outdated designs. Standard designs,
procedures and customs entrench this problem.
  Risk of personal loss: Risk adverse designers tend to stick to previously
successful designs rather than adopt new solutions. This makes it difficult for
better solutions and innovation to improve designs.
  Reluctance to seek advice: Designers are reluctant to seek advice as this may
reflect on their competence and standing. Designers must always seek advice
from appropriate experts to address design issues and maximize design
efficiency.
  Time constraints: The demand for projects to stay on schedule frequently
limits the efficiency of design and results in inappropriate design, over-design
and increased construction costs.

9­1  9­2 
Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 1 ­ Introduction and Overview  Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 1 ­ Introduction and Overview   

10  Alternative Delivery Methods These forms of procurement are discussed in Section 10.4 and Section 10.5.

The current method for procurement of infrastructure construction, including the


10.3  New Alternative Methods
engaging of consultants, is based on lump sum tenders with any variations limited
to a maximum 10% of the original contract sum. The maximum amount of each There are other forms of procurement that have been used in other countries to
contract is set by the DPWH prior to tendering based on the cost estimates construct infrastructure but they have not been used in The Philippines at the
prepared by the DPWH, and any tenders above this amount are rejected. This present time and enabling legislation may be required to permit their use.
practice is restricting the quality of work and limiting the options for improved Other forms of procurement include:
design and innovation. Alternative forms of infrastructure delivery may enable
Schedule of Rates: This type of arrangement is widely adopted for the
provision of improved infrastructure and reduce procurement costs.
construction of infrastructure. The contractors are paid for all work undertaken
on a unit rate basis at tendered rates. The final construction cost is based on the
10.1  Traditional Approach amount of work undertaken and the scope of work may be easily amended during
The normal approach to the construction of infrastructure in The Philippines is the the construction. This type of procurement requires additional supervision staff to
traditional design, bid, build method which comprises: survey and measure the amount of work undertaken by the contractors. This form
of contract should be considered for site investigations and other projects where
  Design either by DPWH in-house or by a consultant appointed by the DPWH,
the scope of work will vary depending on as per actual field conditions, to enable
leading to the preparation of a full set of full drawings and construction
the contractor to be compensated for the actual work undertaken.
specification.
Build, Operate, Maintain and Transfer: This type of arrangement enables the
  Construction by a contractor selected by tender, normally based on the lowest
Government to defer the payment for infrastructure development by requiring the
price.
contractor to fund the development. The contractor designs, constructs and
This approach is recognized as not providing the best outcome for many reasons operates the infrastructure, normally under a fixed period contract and is
including: reimbursed by annual or other payments from the Government. This form
  The design is not innovative and tends to be the same as previous similar encourages the contractor to optimize the design for minimum cost and also for
projects as this is the best way to ensure design approval and avoids any issues lowest maintenance costs. The development occurs in a similar manner as for a
in trying to get new designs accepted though they offer the chance of improved PPP project. This arrangement is attractive to Government in cases when the
performance and / or lower construction costs. Government does not have the available funding or access to suitable loan funds.

  The contractor has to construct the documented design and there is no Construction Management: This type of arrangement includes the engagement
flexibility for the contractor to modify the design to reduce construction costs. of a construction manager to manage and coordinate the construction to a design
provided by the government. This form is used in cases where design cannot be
  The contractor has to employ equipment suitable to execute the documented
completed prior to commencement of construction and in cases where the original
design and there is no opportunity for the use of other equipment or
contractor has collapsed part way through a contract.
technology that would reduce construction costs.
Alliancing Contracting: In this form of delivery, the Government collaborates
The traditional approach also requires the government to fund the development
with one or more designers and contractors to share the risks and responsibilities
project up-front, utilizing either revenue funds or loan funds. For major projects,
in delivering the construction phase of a project. The alliance model is based on a
this can be a major impediment to the timely development of critical
no-fault, no-blame culture and unanimous decision-making requiring all
infrastructure.
participants to find best for project solutions. The non-Government participants
are guaranteed reimbursement of direct costs on an open-book basis, payment of
10.2  Permitted Alternative Methods a fee to cover corporate project overheads and share in a gain share if the project
Other forms of project implementation have been developed to achieve improved meets agreed KPIs for cost, schedule and other key parameters. This approach is
technical and financial outcomes for infrastructure owners. used for projects where there are large construction risks and design has to be
integrated into the construction.
The Handbook of Philippine Government Procurement, 6th edition 2012, allows two
alternative methods of procurement: Early Contractor Involvement: In this approach the contractor is selected to
assist the designer in development of the design for constructability issues. The
  Design and construct.
Government retains the right to tender the design if final price agreement cannot
  Public Private Partnership (PPP). be agreed with the contractor.

10­1  10­2 
Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 1 ­ Introduction and Overview  Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 1 ­ Introduction and Overview   

Long Term Performance Based Maintenance: This type of arrangement is used   Class C and Class D projects where the contractor may be able to offer lower
for contract maintenance of public infrastructure. The contractor is appointed for construction costs by tailoring the design to suit his equipment, expertise and
a set period to plan, program and execute the necessary maintenance works to capability.
meet specified service standards. The length of contract allows the Contractor to
  Large infrastructure projects that will be designed and constructed as a single
be innovative in terms of materials, methods, scheduling and work practices.
package where the component designs can be standardized to suit the project
requirements (this will already occur for road projects developed under a
10.4  Design and Construct Procurement PPP).
Design and construct procurement is allowed in the following circumstances: For a design and construct project, the DPWH shall undertake the design
  Flagship, priority and fast-track projects included in the Medium Term development (preliminary design) but with the following modifications to the
Philippine Investment Plan (MTPIP) and Regional Development Investment requirements:
Program (RDIP).   The design development drawings for the project shall be developed to show
  Infrastructure projects requiring advanced technology or construction the physical requirements of the project (for example, for bridges the
technology. waterway area, design flood levels, deck level, number of lanes, walkways,
scour protection, river training) but will not define the form of the
  Infrastructure projects where manufacturer’s input is required in the design.
infrastructure to be developed.
  Small projects of standard design.
  The project alignment shall be finalized.
In this form of procurement, the contractor is responsible for the design and the
  Inclusion of a detailed scope of work of the project giving complete
construction of the project.
requirements for the project and setting out the contract limits.
The advantages of design and construct procurement are:
  The design and construction are in the hands of the contractor, who is 10.5  Public Private Partnership
responsible for design, quality, cost and schedule; Public Private Partnerships (PPP) are a partnership between the public and
  The contractor is able to submit a lower cost for the project as he has the ability private sectors to deliver infrastructure and related non-core services.
to tailor the design to suit his equipment, expertise, capability and resources; There are two types of PPP:
  The work can normally be completed earlier compared to the traditional   Where the Government pays the developer over the contract’s term based on
approach as the design and construction can overlap; services delivered based on the achievement of key performance indicators
  For complex infrastructure such as large bridges, this type of procurement is (KPIs). There are no payments before the infrastructure has been completed
essential as the design will depend on the method of construction of the and commenced operation.
infrastructure; and   Where the Government makes no payments to the developer and the developer
  Innovative design solutions are developed that provide improved recovers his costs through service charges (tolls) on the infrastructure users.
infrastructure. The only form of PPP adopted in The Philippines to date is the second type where
A successful design and construct contract does not happen by itself and will there are no direct payments by the Government. The Government may contribute
require the DPWH to provide: to construct some related infrastructure.

  A detailed scope of work for the project that set out explicitly the performance Research has shown that PPPs are the most efficient method for the provision of
and requirements for the infrastructure; and large infrastructure projects with a construction cost over two billion pesos. The
implementation of Government funded PPPs should consider cost and schedule
  Adequate supervision of the contract to ensure that the completed works
due to the benefits that can be obtained in the provision of infrastructure. This may
comply with the requirements of the plans and DPWH DGCS.
require legislation to be amended.
Design and construct should be considered for the following types of
infrastructure projects:

10­3  10­4 
Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 1 ­ Introduction and Overview  Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 1 ­ Introduction and Overview   

10.5.1  PPP in the Philippines   Survey drawings and reports.


The Government of the Philippines has established the Public-Private Partnership
  Hydrologic and hydraulic reports.
Center of the Philippines, attached to the National Economic and Development
Authority, to facilitate the implementation of the country’s PPP Program and   Complete set of preliminary design drawings.
Projects.   Geotechnical and geological investigation reports.
PPP projects are undertaken under the following legislation:   Detailed design reports.
  Revised Implementing Rules and Regulations of R.A. No. 6957, ‘An Act   Complete sets of design calculations.
Authorizing the Financing, Construction, Operation and Maintenance of
  Complete sets of drawings for construction.
Infrastructure Projects by the Private Sector and for Other Purposes’, as
Amended by Republic Act No. 7718.   All other reports and drawings prepared for the design and construction of the

  An Act Amending Certain Sections of Republic Act No. 6957 entitled ‘An Act
projects.
Authorizing the Financing, Construction, Operation and Maintenance of
Infrastructure Projects by the Private Sector, and for Other Purposes. 10.6  Selection of Procurement Method
The PPP Program is a cornerstone strategy for national development aimed at Many Government infrastructure agencies require that the procurement method
accelerating infrastructure and other development services, in order to sustain be selected for each project to ensure that the optimum approach is adopted
national economic growth. It enables projects to be developed without considering all relevant factors.
government funding, provided the project is able to generate sufficient revenue The preferred procurement methods for infrastructure projects are:
through tolls and other charges to pay for the operation and maintenance of the
  Class A Project: Design, bid, build.
infrastructure, and to repay the cost of construction and funding. PPP projects
normally operate for a defined period at the end of which the infrastructure is   Class B Project: Design, bid, build unless site suits design and construct.
handed over to the government.
  Class C Project: Design and construct
PPP projects are selected based on the following criteria:
  Class D Project: Design and construct or Public private partnership
  Project readiness / preparation.

-  Completed initial business case.

-  Included in the priority projects of the Implementing Agency.

-  Initial preparation is on-going, for example the feasibility study has been
commenced.
  Responsiveness to the sector’s needs (for example, part of the transport
network system, water supply / sewerage, electric power capacity).
  High implementability (bankable, no major issues).

The PPP process is a funding conduit for the development of infrastructure and the
form of implementation of the infrastructure included in a PPP project is a matter
for the developer. The most likely form would normally be a design, construct,
operate and transfer sub-project aligned to the PPP agreement under the aegis of
the developer based on the feasibility study report.
PPP project conditions should include compliance with all provisions of the DPWH
DGCS, including the submission of the design documentation to the DPWH, and
complying with all DPWH requirements. Design information that should be
supplied to DPWH includes:
  Feasibility study reports.

  Design development (preliminary design) reports.

10­5  10­6 
Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 1 ­ Introduction and Overview 

11  Revision
The DPWH DGCS is intended to be updated on a regular basis to reflect changes in
procedure, requirements, standards, materials and technology.
The Division Chiefs shall receive any comments on their discipline volumes of the
DGCS from BOD Divisions, Regional Offices, District Engineering Offices and
Consultants and shall maintain a register of comments and proposed
modifications.
A review should be undertaken by the Division Chiefs in the BOD of their discipline
volumes of the DGCS, on an annual basis and recommend revisions for
consideration by DPWH. The register of comments and proposed modifications
shall be the basis for the annual reviews.
Individual volumes or sections may be updated as required to incorporate
significant recommended revisions as developed from the annual reviews. It is
expected that individual volume may require revision at 5-year intervals.

11­1