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Analysis of Green Supply Chain Management Enablers in

FMCG sector using integrated ISM and MICMAC


Prabhakar Vivek1, Jha Sanjay Kumar2

1-2 Department of Production Engineering, Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, 835215,
Email id – prabhakarvivekrke@gmail.com

Abstract: The objective of this paper is to identify and model the relationship
amongst various Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM) enablers
encountered while implementing GSCM practices in Fast Moving Consumer
Goods (FMCG) industry. 11 key enablers were identified and Interpretive
Structure Modeling (ISM) is used to construct a model describing mutual
relationship amongst various enablers. Matriced’ Impacts Croise´s
Multiplication Applique´ea´ un Classement (MICMAC) analysis ia conducted to
give results regarding driving and dependence power of enablers. The results of
this study can be considered by the top management while formulating
strategies for implementation of GSCM practices in their respective

Key Words: Interpretive structural modeling; MICMAC; Green supply chain

management; GSCM enablers

1 Introduction

During present times, organizations need to adopt an environmentally conscious approach

in their business framework to sustain themselves. Supply chain of an organization forms
the backbone of a business, starting from extraction of material up till delivery of goods to
customer and in the process, producing large amount of waste and harmfully effecting the
environment [1].
GSCM involves implementing a greener approach in all supply chain actions starting
from green purchasing up to retrieval of the recyclable scrap back to the organization [2].
The sudden focus towards GSCM implementation is driven due to increased profit value,
higher market shares and customer goodwill it brings [3]. GSCM practices
implementation demands that the manufacturers, customer and supplier work together so
as to design an environmentally sound supply chain structure [4]
Diabat and Govindan (2011) [5] used ISM MICMAC analysis to rank barriers of
GSCM and it was established that government regulations and reverse logistics were
amongst the chief barriers identified. Dube and Gawande (2016) [6] used a combination
of ISM and Fuzzy MICMAC approach to model the enablers for GSCM implementation.
Malviya et al (2018) [7] used fuzzy ANP technique to identify best strategy for
sustainable supply chain implementation. Sari (2018) [8] combined VIKOR and AHP
technique under fuzzy environment to develop a novel framework for GSCM

2 Problem Description

There are 4 firms selected for this study that are leading manufacturers of FMCG products
in India. 5 experts from academician and 4 from industry, working in the field of GSCM
are selected to provide consultation and opinions on the importance of drivers identified in
the study. After rigorous literature survey and comments from the expert panel 11 drivers
were selected for the study.

3 ISM Methodology and model development

ISM can be defined as a learning technique used to obtain a structure showcasing various
indirect and direct relationships existing between different factors. The model developed
using ISM can be used by an individual or a group to obtain a map of the complex
interrelationship existing between various factors of a complex problem.

3.1 Structural self-interaction matrix

After extensive literature review, 11 most relevant enablers were identified for the study
namely Government Rules and Regulations (GRR), Top Management Commitment
(TMC), Reverse Logistics (RL), Financial Support (FS), Adoption of Cleaner Technology
(ACT), Global Competitiveness (GC), Global Competitiveness (GC) Society and Public
Pressure (SPP), Green Manufacturing (GM), Green Purchasing (GP) Supplier
Involvement (SI) and Environmental Training (ET) and these enablers were further
revaluated by the expert panel consisting of 4 experts from academic and 4 from industry
well versed with GSCM practices and their implementation in the FMCG industry. The
same expert panel was asked to give comments on the interrelationship existing amongst
the enablers so as to develop a contextual relationship matrix shown in table 1. Following
annotations have been used in the SSIM matrix to represent the various interrelationships
amongst the enablers (i represents row and j represents column):

V – GSCME i helps achieving GSCME j

A – GSCME j helps achieving i
X – GSCME i and j help achieving each other
O – GSCME i and j are not related.

Table 2. Structural self-interaction matrix

11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2
3 RL V A X V A O V A
4 FS O A V V A V V
6 GC O O A A O
8 GM V A A
9 GP A A
10 SI V
11 ET -

3.2 Initial reachability matrix

SSIM obtained in the previous steps is further converted into binary matrix known as
Initial Reachability Matrix (Table 4). This is achieved by substituting the symbols V,A,X
and O into 1 and 0 i.e if enabler i effects j, input 1 and if it does not, input 0 in the
corresponding column. After we have obtained initial reachability matrix, we check for its
transitivity. After application of transitivity rule the final matrix is obtained in Table 2.

Table 2 Reachability Matrix


TMC(1) 1 1 1 1a 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11
RL(2) 0 1 1 1 1a 1 0 1 1 1 1a 9
ECL(3) 0 0 1 0 1 1a 0 1 1 0 1 6
MD(4) 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 6
IT(5) 0 0 1a 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 6
EPM(6) 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1
AS(7) 0 1 1 1 1 1a 1 1a 1 1 1a 10
SCI(8) 0 0 0 0 1a 1 0 1 1a 0 1 5
RTC(9) 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 5
FC(10) 0 1 1a 1 1 1a 0 1 1 1 1 9
LNS(11) 0 0 1a 0 1 1a 0 1a 1 0 1 6
Dependence 1 4 9 5 10 11 2 10 10 4 8

3.3 Level partitions

After obtaining the final matrix, antecedent set as well as reachability set for each enabler
were found out. Reachability set included the enabler itself as well as other enablers it is
helping to achieve, also antecedent set included the enabler itself as well as other enablers
which are helping to achieve the given enabler. After that the intersection of these sets are
identified for each enabler. Those enablers for which the intersection set and the
reachability set are identical are placed at top level of hierarchy. Top level enablers do not
help achieving any other enabler. After identifying the top level enabler, they are
eliminated for the further analysis hereby completing the first iteration shown in Table 3.
Subsequent iterations were done after which final reachability matrix is obtained as

Table 3. Final Reachability Matrix

Enablers Reachability Set Antecedent Set Intersection Level

GRR 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11 1 1 I
TMC 2,3,4,5,6,8,9,10 1,2,7,10 2,10 III
RL 3,5,6,8,9,11 1,2,3,4,5,7,9,10,11 3,5,9,11 V
FS 3,4,5,6,8,9 1,2,3,4,5,7,8,9,10,11 4 IV
GC 3,5,6,8,9,11 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11 3,5,9,11 V
SPP 6 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11 6 VII
ACT 2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11 1,7 7 II
GM 5,6,8,9,11 1,2,3,4,5,7,8,9,10,11 5,8,9,11 VI
GP 3,5,6,8,9 1,2,3,4,5,7,8,9,10,11 3,5,8,9 VI
SI 2,3,4,5,6,8,9,10,11 1,2,7,10 2,10 III
ECT 3,5,6,8,9,11 1,2,3,5,7,8,10,11 3,5,8,11 IV
3.4 Building the ISM mode

The final reachability matrix is then used to obtain the final structured model. The blocks
in the final model indicate the enablers with the arrow from I to j indicating that enabler I
leads to enabler j. For the final step, the transitivity associated with the model is removed
to obtain the final ISM model shown in Fig. 1.

3.5 ISM model formulation for GSCM drivers

The final ISM model developed is depicted in Fig. 1. ‘Global Competitiveness’ is the top
level enabler and ‘Government Rules and Regulations’ stands as the bottom level barrier
in the final structure followed by ‘Society and Public Pressure’ The enablers at the bottom
portion influence those at the upper portion of the model and hold greater significance.
ISM model can be used to understand interrelationship amongst enablers and its result are
further used as input for MICMAC analysis.

Fig1 Final ISM Model

3.6 MICMAC analysis
MICMAC analysis is conducted to identify the driving as well as dependence powers for
the variables and is based upon the matrix multiplication properties. After doing the
MICMAC analysis, the various enablers can be classified into four categories depending
upon their driving and dependence power:

From the results of Table 1 the driving and dependence power for various enablers is
calculated which is further used to draw the Driving Dependence Power Diagram shown
in Fig 2.

Fig 2 Driving Dependence Power Diagram and MICMAC analysis

4 Results and Discussions

Results from ISM model and MICMAC analysis dictate that GRR and SPP are the key
enablers that drive GSCM implementation and if pursued, will form the way for other
enablers. GC forms the top most level, thus it is the weakest enabler. Management need
not focus on GC because it will be taken care of by other enablers once they are pursued.
TMC and SI are codependent and driven by societal pressure and are two of the key
enablers for GSCM which in turn effect other enablers such as ET, FS, RL etc
The MICMAC analysis revealed that RL (3), ACT (5) and ET (11) are Linkage
Enabler enablers with high driving dependence power which implies that these enablers
have high driving as well as dependence power. These enablers are most unstable in
nature and can disrupt the whole model, hence most vital to the system. Enablers GC(6),
GM(8) and GP(9) namely are Dependent Enablers with strong dependence and weak
driving power with no effect on structure. SI(1), FS(2), SPP(4), GRR(7) and TMC(10) are
the Independent enablers with strong driving and weak dependence power. These enablers
drive other enablers and hence play a key role in GSCM implementation. No enablers
were found the occupy quadrant I i.e. Autonomous Enablers category.

5 Conclusion and Future Scope

GSCM implementation can be a complex task, especially if a number of variables are

involved with complex interrelationship existing amongst them. Therefore it is imperative
for a firm to identify which enablers are of the most vital importance and should be
pursued first. Also the complex relationship amongst the enablers has to be adequately
explained. For this purpose an ISM model was developed after identifying the chief 11
enablers involved in GSCM implementation in FMCG sector using past literature
research. The ISM model clearly showcases the various relationships and hierarchy of the
enablers in a lucid and well defined manner. It can be concluded that the Enablers
‘Government Rules and Regulations’ and ‘Societal Public Pressure’ are the key enablers
and form the bottommost level in ISM. Thus these enablers should be approached first
while implementing GSCM.
Further MICMAC analysis was conducted for the enablers obtained to classify
enablers into four categories based on their driving and dependence power. The results of
the analysis indicated that no autonomous enablers were identified for the study.
Furthermore 3 enablers fall in Linkage category, 5 in Independent and 3 in Dependent
enabler category.
The following study can be used for various managerial implications while
implementing GSCM in existing supply chain of FMCG industry. Furthermore, it acts as a
blueprint for future studies to be conducted in the FMCG sector regarding GSCM studies.
Extension of the work can be further carried out by conducting Structural Equation
Modeling (SEM), to validate the model. Hypothesis testing can also be carried out for
validation purposes.

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