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ABSTRACT

Cassava is a starchy tuberous root from a tropical tree. An illustration of this tree and the
cassava root can be seen in figure 1. Cassava plants are very resilient and mostly self-sufficient
after about the first 6 weeks of life. This means that the plant can survive with little water and in
soil that is not extremely fertile making it an excellent crop for regions without perfect
agricultural conditions. Because of its resilience and high carbohydrate content it is commonly
used as a food source in tropical and poorer regions.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT ................................................................................................................................... ii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ........................................................................................................ iii

TABLE OF CONTENTS ............................................................................................................ iv

CHAPTER ONE ........................................................................................................................... 1

1.0 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................. 1

1.1 BACKGROUND ...................................................................................................................... 1

1.2 Problem statement and justification .......................................................................................... 2

1.3 Objectives ................................................................................................................................. 2

1.3.1 Overall objective .................................................................................................................... 2

1.3.2 Specific objectives ................................................................................................................. 2

CHAPTER TWO .......................................................................................................................... 3

2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW ...................................................................................................... 3

CHAPTER THREE ...................................................................................................................... 5

3.0 METHODOLOGY ................................................................................................................. 5

3.1 Machine Design ........................................................................................................................ 5

3.1.1 Machine Components and Specifications. ............................................................................. 5


3.2 Material Selection ..................................................................................................................... 5

3.2.1 Wood ...................................................................................................................................... 5

3.2.2 Mild Steel ............................................................................................................................... 6

iv
3.3 CALCULATIONS BASED ON WORKING MECHANISM OF THE PEELING

MACHINE ...................................................................................................................................... 7

3.3.1 Design calculations ................................................................................................................ 7

3.3.2 Number of brushes required to be fitted into the calculated number of wood pieces, .......... 8

3.4. Wheel specifications ................................................................................................................ 8

3.4.1 Roller Chain Design for power transmission ......................................................................... 9

3.4.2Machine Capacity and Efficiency ......................................................................................... 11

3.4.2.1Machine Capacity .............................................................................................................. 11

3.5 Machine Efficiency ................................................................................................................. 11

REFERENCES ............................................................................................................................. 17
CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1BACKGROUND
Cassava according to dictionary of contemporary English is a tropical plant whose roots yield
tapioca.Tapioca which is a type of food obtained from the underground part of the cassava
plant. Other dictionaries go further to say that cassava is a plant, possessing starchy roots.

Cassava processing thus deserves serious attention in order to meet the local and international
demand for cassava products. The unit operations involved in the processing of cassava includes
peeling, grating, boiling/parboiling, drying, milling, sieving, extrusion and frying. Several
processes for the above mentioned operations have been mechanized successfully, however,
cassava peeling remains a serious global challenge to design engineers involved in cassava
processing. Research efforts in this area have resulted in the production of several prototypes
with relatively low peeling efficiencies and quality performance.
Cassava is a starchy tuberous root from a tropical tree. An illustration of this tree and the cassava
root can be seen in figure 1. Cassava plants are very resilient and mostly self-sufficient after
about the first 6 weeks of life. This means that the plant can survive with little water and in soil
that is not extremely fertile making it an excellent crop for regions without perfect agricultural
conditions. Because of its resilience and high carbohydrate content it is commonly used as a food
source in tropical and poorer regions

Today in India, the cassava plants plagues the vast majority of farmers. Cassava is a tuberous
root from a tropical tree. It looks much like a sweet potato, only larger. However, the problem
does not lie in the plant itself but instead in the short shelf-life that the raw plant has due to
postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD). Once harvested, the cassava root begins to break
down within 72 hours, and the crop is soon considered unusable. The plant also contains
cyanogenic glycosides which are converted into cyanide in the digestive system. These toxins
must be properly handled during processing to prevent ingestion of unsafe levels of cyanide,
which can result in things such as paralysis and even death.

This report covers the development of a process and device that will allow the cassava root to be
easily and quickly converted into a safe, more stable form. The goal is to lengthen the shelf-life
of the cassava root from 72 hours to 3-6 months by processing the root into flour. This device
will be solely human-powered, and the process will assure the toxins within the root are brought
to safe consumption levels regardless of plant variety. Because of the longer shelf-life of the
flour as opposed to raw cassava root, food supplies will be increased by reducing the spoilage
caused by PPD.
In India, cassava are sometimes called "Irish cassava" or "European cassava" (Viazi Ulaya in
Swahili). Irish cassava is one of mankind’s most valuable food crops in the world with annual
production volume of 347 metric million tones, produced in an estimated area of 18.9 million
hectares (FAOSTAT, 2004). It ranks fourth in the world as food crop after maize, rice, and wheat
(FAOSTAT, 2004). Among root crops Irish cassava ranks first in terms of volume produced and
consumed followed by cassava, sweet cassava and yams, and provides roughly half of the
world’s annual output of all roots and tubers, making it the largest non cereal food and cash crop
worldwide (FAOSTAT, 2004). It contributes energy and substantial amounts of high quality
protein and essential vitamins, minerals and trace elements to the diet (Horton, 1987). A single
medium-sized Irish cassava contains about half the daily adult requirement of vitamin C, very
low in fat (about 5 percent of the fat content of wheat), more protein, and twice calcium than
maize (Horton, 1987; Dean, 1994; McGlynn, 2007). The health benefits of cassava have been
widely acknowledged and research is continuously finding new health benefits of cassava, such
as a flavonoid called quercetin (Suszkiw, 2007).

Ludaladio et al (2010). project that in the future, world cassava production is expected to grow at
a rate of 2.5% per year, thereby presenting opportunities for expanded utilisation and opening up
new market segments. To realise the full potential of this crop, developing countries must
address both supply and demand side constraints. (Lutaladio et al. 2009, 11.) Cassava are a
traditional food crop, which refers to widely used diversification between a food crop and an
export/cash crop. The FAO (2006) publication states that while cassava output has declined in
Europe, growth is so strong in developing countries that global production has nearly doubled
over the last 20 years.

Irish cassava was introduced in India during 1920s by German mission in the Southern
Highlands (SH) of India where local farmers began its cultivation in small scale gardens akobsen
and Mallya, 1976; Macha et al., 1982), it is becoming an important cash and food cro(Kelly,
2006). Since its introduction, production trends have been increasing positively (FAOSTAT,
2007).
Cassava will have growing demand in the future. The reasons for expected growth in demand are
a lack of substitute crops, an increasing population, urbanization, an improving road network,
and changing eating habits. Demand for processed products like French fries and crisps are
expected to grow. This lead to the demand of good harvesting, handling, and processing
practices
Cassava machine importance in many developing tropical economies such as the tropical parts of
Africa, West India, Brazil, Malagasy, Indonesia, Philippines, Malay, Thailand and China. In
tropical West India, cassava and other tubers like yam form the most staple food crops which are
the main source of carbohydrate in the diets of this region. Its high yield in poor soil and the
ability to stay in the soil for long periods after maturity make cassava an important food security
crop in low-income countries. the cassava crop has relatively few problems in Production, The
processing of cassava tubers for industrial or human use involves different operations of which
peeling is a major one.
This research effort therefore seeks an uncomplicated design to make it cheap to produce and
easy to use, we focus on designing and construction of a machine that can peel a particular size
of cut-to-size cassava tubers. The next effort would add–on the adjustable module for peeling
various sizes.

Cassava (Manihot esculenta), an important root crop in Sub-Saharan Africa is a carbohydrate


sta- ple food that provides energy for about 500 mil- lion people in the world. It is also the third
most important food source in the tropics after rice and maize (Cock 1985). It derives its
importance from the fact that its starchy, thickened, tuberous roots are a valuable source of cheap
calories especially in developing countries where calories deficiency and malnutrition are
widespread. In many parts of Af- rica the leaves and tender shoots of cassava are also consumed
as vegetables (Krochmal, Hahn 1991). Cassava production in Nigeria is by far the largest in the
world; a third more than production in Bra- zil and almost double the production of Indonesia
and Thailand. Cassava production in other African countries, the Democratic Republic of the
Congo, Ghana, Madagascar, Mozambique, Tanzania and Uganda appears small in comparison to
Nigeria’s substantial output. An estimate of annual produc- tion of cassava in Nigeria was
reported to be ap- proximately 34 million tons (Ashaye et al. 2005).
Global production of cassava tubers and the post-harvest processing activities have been on the
increase in the last 20 years. The products from cassava tuber are prepared for human and animal
consumption and industrial use, but with growing emphasis on animal consumption and
industrial use. Until recently, about 85% of the world produc- tion of cassava was consumed by
man. The remain- ing 15% was shared between animal and chemical industries (Adeeko, Ajibola
1990).

Ashaye et al. (2005) reported that the tuber is best administered in pelletized form, when it must
be fed, or compounded with other ingredients, as animal feed. Compounding cassava with other
in- gredients for livestock feeds has gained wide prac- tice in Latin America, Asia and the
European Un- ion. The substitution of wheat flour partially with cassava flour and production of
cassava chips and pellets for animal feed are other areas of utilization with some potential
significant in Nigeria. The pel- lets also have better keeping quality and required less storage
space compared to raw tubers (Hrishi 1974).
Pelletization is often referred to as expander treatment (Peisker 1992). In principle, expand- er
treatment is related to the extruder treatment (Prestlokken 1999). The feed material enters a
feed barrel through an inlet gate. A screw conveyor driven manually or by electrical motor forces
the feed material towards a resistor in the outlet gate, the pressure immediately drops to
atmospheric. The release of pressure and spontaneous evapora- tion of water makes the feed
material expand in volume and the temperature to drop rapidly. The temperature can rise to high
levels, but the entire process is usually completed within seconds.
Over time, series of processing equipment at dif- ferent levels of sophistication were imported
into Nigeria for the pelletization process (Pabis, Jayas 1998). Major problems associated with
such ma- chines included high initial and maintenance costs, requirement for highly skilled
maintenance engi- neering staff and dependency on expensive infra- structure facilities. On the
other hand, it is arguable that local manufacture of machines is both tech- nically and
economically feasible in Nigeria (Od- igboh 1985). In this direction, previous designs have
employed complex technological processes, mimicking the imported versions (Kwatai 1986).
Consequently, the pelletizing plant remained capi- tal intensive and prohibitive for the class of
small and medium scale investors. Therefore, the devel- opment of versions of simply designed
pelletizer should be seen as technological development to satisfy a niche market in the industry.
Thus, this work was conceived in the search for a simple technology to process cassava flour to
pellets us- ing locally available materials. Hence, the main ob- jectives of this work were to
design, fabricate and testing of the pelletizer.
1.2Problem statement and justification

In East Africa, India in particular, there are many constraints on the spread and adoption of
cassava processing line, including availability of affordable processing kits and technologies. In
developing countries, street Venders use mostly women and children to peel, slice and clean
cassava. Low cost cassava processing line can fill an important technology gap for the street
vender who makes French fries. Street venders are able to benefit from this processing line
because they can be adapted to small and medium production. Low-cost processing line retains
the benefits of conventional processing line while removing the factors that prevent their uptake
by small venders. Using this processing line will save time and the overall workload of women
and children will also significantly be reduced. There will also be a notable improvement in
income generation from use of low-cost processing line by small venders.

1.3 Objectives

1.3.1 Overall objective

The overall objective is to design and fabricate motor driven cassava processing line for small
industry.

1.3.2 Specific objectives

The specific objectives include:

(i) To design and fabricate paddle cassava peeling machine.

(ii) Peeling a cassava

(iii) Design a suitable peeler machine for industry.


The problems encountered in peeling cassava root tuber arise from the fact that cassava roots
exhibit appreciable differences in weight, size and shape. There are also differences in the
properties of the cassava peel which varies in thickness, texture and strength of adhesion to the
root flesh. Thus, it is difficult to design a cassava peeling machine that is capable of efficiently
peeling all roots due to the wide differences in properties of roots from various sources.

1.3 ADVANTAGE

1. Compact design thus occupies very little space.


2. Body is from stainless steel with cast iron ring stand for better vibration absorb.
3. Easy to operate, high rinsing and peeling ratio, no damage to cassava tubers.
4. Low temperature peeling technology thus the original ingredient cannot destroy.
CHAPTER TWO

2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW

This section reviews the work done on development, fabrication, performance evaluation of various
post—harvest equipments used in fruits and vegetable peeling. It also discusses the peeling
efficiency, peeling duration, material loss and physical and mechanical properties of root crop
vegetables.
The Central Tuber Crops Research Institute (CTCRI) under the aegis of ICAR solely involved in
R&D activities of tropical root and tuber crops to address the issues of tuber crop sand promote their
development in the northern and eastern States of lndia. They have provided the general information
on tuber crops about their future and potentiality in industrial process and Agri—export zone.
Srivastava (2002) discussed about the post—h
Srivastava (2002) discussed about the post—harvest handling and storage conditions of potato.
Under tropical and subtropical conditions, 40—50% losses occur due to poor handling and storage.
The effectiveness and efficiency of peeling of potatoes determine the yield of the finished product,
the amount of waste, and the cost of waste disposal. The ideal peeling operation should only remove
a very thin outer layer of the potato, leaving no eyes, blemishes or other material for later removal by
hand trimming

Post-harvest Manual for Export of Potatoes (Jan2003) by Agricultural & Processed Food Products
Export Development Authority (APEDA) provided the post— harvest profile of potato, history of
potato, its production status in India, nutritive values in potato and its post-harvest management.
Mainly, about the post-harvest equipment used in production of potato and its utilization and
marketing channels.
Cassava have been processed in the U.S. since 1831 when the first starch plant was established.
Cassava chips are also reported to have been first prepared during the mid-19th century, but
remained on a small commercial scale until World War II when improved peeling and frying
techniques were developed. The freezing industry was also launched in the 1940’s.
The growth in cassava processing has been phenomenal. Prior to 1960, reports on cassava utilization
did not differentiate between snack foods (chips and shoestrings) and fresh consumption. By 1970,
U.S. processed utilization was nearly equal to that of fresh. Major processing uses of cassava now are
chips, dehydration, and freezing. By the late 1980s, these three uses accounted for about 98 percent
of all processing in the U.S.

The chipping industry is more evenly spread. Chipping plants can be found in every region. The
fragility of cassava chips and the high cost of shipping low-density products make long distance
shipping undesirable. As a result, chipping plants tend to be located near heavily populated areas.
The market for processing cassava exhibits some characteristics that are quite different from the fresh
market. Since French fry processors are concerned about finished product quality, processing
contracts place emphasis on those raw product characteristics that influence finished product quality.
Specific gravity is of particular concern and processors pay premiums for high specific gravity and
penalize for low specific gravity. Other characteristics, such as tuber size and grade, have also
generated premiums. Contract provisions have changed over time in response to changes in
processing technology, production practices and the appearance of new quality factors in individual
growing areas. The processing industry is a major and expanding market for cassava which benefited
both the producer and the consumer. (Joe Guenthner, 18)

Most cassava in India are consumed as food at household level and through food service outlets such
as restaurant and street food vendors. It has been established that significant volumes of ware cassava
in major urban centre’s are consumed as French fries (chips) through food service outlet and mainly
street food vendors (SAGCOT, 50).

The processing of cassava in India is still very small-scale and undeveloped; currently it is a common
scene to find unsorted and poor packaged cassava in the market and groups of women at the market
place peeling cassava for street vendors and restaurants that make French fries. This indicates that
people who make French fries are ready to pay a little bit more for peeled cassava.
In the research made by Mwakasendo et al. (2007), found that the only company in India with a cold
store chain was the French fries Company Bright Choice Company Ltd. The firm imports frozen
French fries and does not use local (fresh) products because of the low quality and infrequent
inconstant supply. (Mwakasendo et al. 2007, 43.). However, demand for French fries in hotels and
restaurants is constantly increasing, forecasting growth for the whole cassava industry.

Low cost cassava processing line (motor driven cassava washer, peeler, sorter and slicer machines)
technology is appropriate for small venders who cannot afford conventional processing line because
of high initial investment costs, this will help them to copy with the increase in demand of snacks
food that keep on growing due urbanization and changes in life style.

2.1 Overview

Adetan el al (2003) reported that tubers constitute the main storage region. Tubers are white
or cream in colour and surrounded by a thin cambium layer. Covering the cambium layer is the tuber
peel which consists of a corky periderm on the outside and a cortex on the inside. The outer periderm
may be thick and rough or thin and smooth with surface varying considerably in colour from pink to
grey (Igbeka, 1984)

Asoegwu (1981) studied some breaking characteristics of cassava roots when subjected to
bending loads. The loading rates and root diameter were reported to have significant effect on the
breaking strength, breaking energy and breaking deformations on the roots.(Onwueme, 1978).

At the international institute of tropical agriculture (IITA) Ibadan, Nigeria, the integrated
cassava project initiated a search for an effective cassava peeler in 2005 in conjunction with the
federal university of technology Akure (FUTA) which started a conscious and desperate search for
an effective cassava peeling machine in July 2004. This effort resulted in the production of
commercial models of single and double gang hand fed cassava peeling machines. However the
machine required manual feeding and could only peel 2 to 5 tons cassava per day depending on the
variety, maturity, size of the tuber and the skill of the operator.
Peeling of cassava has been carried out traditionally by the use of hands and knives. It
involves holding the cassava tuber with one hand and the knife on the other hand pressed against
each other tangentially peeling off the outer layer of the cassava. This method is known as the hand-
knife method. Aimed at exposing the white matter of the cassava tuber which is the useful food,
another method was formulated traditionally to achieve same result without a knife. This method is
called the hand-pressing method. In this method, cassava needs to be kept inside a roller brush of
water for it to absorb enough water to soften it. Soaking is done for two to three days before it is
hand pressed by applying a little pressure to separate the brown covering from the inner white matter.
However, this is not a generally accepted way of peeling cassava, it is used only for the locally made
fufu and flour.

The above two stated traditional ways of peeling cassava show that it they are time
consuming methods of peeling.

In industrial processes, time is an important factor in production; this makes the traditional
methods inappropriate for industrial adaptation. Furthermore, methods like the hand-knife method
accommodates a large Waste of cassava food matter and it is considered unsafe for the person
carrying out the operation as it renders the hands at a state of risk of cuts. Hence the fabrication of
the automated peeling machines, aimed at achieving greater efficiencies, effectiveness and time
savings.

2.2 The automated cassava peeling machine

The fabrication of mechanically operated peeling machines to fix problems of time losses was
easily achieved at the year 1988, but yet up till current time’s effectiveness and efficiency is still
currently battled. A typical example is the milling cutter and serge (1988) claimed that peeling using
the milling cutter is one of the best methods for spherical and irregular shaped products like cassava.
In this method, one or more rotary peeling knives within at least one cutting edge to take then peel
off. This operation is similar to hand-knife peeling.

In the first stage of this method, a fixed knife had no flexibility, it could not follow the
irregular shape of the product exactly and in particular, it could not penetrate to the inside of the
grooves. The history of using milling cutter goes back to boyce et (1961) who used milling cutter in
the form of very flat milling cutter having a large number of cutting teeth distributed over a
considerably large large diameter in other to produce small chips of peel.

Conture and allard (1976) invented a cutting head comprising a blade strip bent longitudinally
in a general cylindrical shape. The peeler head was pivotally connected the body to follow the
irregular shape of the product. The machine include means for moving the cutting head along a
supported contact therewith as the cassava is rotated with the cutting edge and continuous strip of
peel is cut around the cassava.

The roller brush type cassava peeler has been designed and fabricated in our own federal
university of technology Owerri (FUTO). Its peeling operation was achieved based on the design of
components, but in the areas loading and power input capacity, this design needed much torque for
the starting load, as much power was required for this operation .(Izuakor, 2010).

Further researches however show that the issue of starting load is to be combated by the use
of self-feeders that could regulate the amount of cassava charged in at a time.

2.3 Appraisal and comparison of some selected cassava peeling machines

A research carried out at the federal college of forestry mechanization, Afaka Kaduna state
Nigeria to identify some cassava peeling machines as well as critically assessing their efficiencies.

Most machines are based on two major types

 The blade type which can be classified into knife-edge cylinder or blades arranged in
series on a plate.
 The abrasive type which has been classified into wire brush and serrated cylinders.

The assessment of these peeling machine types are based on their efficiencies, effectiveness and flesh
loss.

Along the cause of research, it was noticed that the effectiveness of the abrasive peeler on a
larger point of view is higher than the blade peeler. Works done on the cassava peeling has brought
some hope which showed that there is prospect for cassava peeling machines, as all the methods
highlighted are suitable for peeling when harnessed properly.

1. Another peeling method which is capable of peeling tubers like potatoes but not
cassava is the chemical method. Using a hot solution of sodium hydroxide. Due to
various reasons, the chemical method has been ruled out of cassava peeling.

2.4 Observations

 The abrasive peeler seems to be suitable for tubers with irregular sizes and shape.

 The blade type is suitable for tubers with regular shapes

 The abrasive type could support higher capacity loading.

 Flesh losses on the blade types are smaller for a range of tuber sizes, once exceeded leads to a
massive wastage of useful flesh or incomplete peeling.

Hence work would need to be done on how the methods can be integrated into one another, i.e. a
cassava peeler with blade and abrasive mechanism

This led to further work on peeling machines in federal university of technology Owerri (FUTO)
This time, the machine applied the use of both the abrasive type and blade type mechanisms.
This produced better results but for a short while, this was due to the abrasiveness of metal parts, a
close look would show some wearing out, also further study showed that cyanide fluid found in
cassava had corrosive effects on medium carbon steel.

This observations were backed up by O.O Oluwole of the department of mechanical


engineering, university of Ibadan, Nigeria, P.O Atanda, O.A Odekunbi and E. Adegbaju of
department of material science, Obafemi Awolowo University. They researched on a topic known as
the corrosion behaviour of 18/8 stainless steel and nickel plated low carbon steel in cassava fluid.
Test showed that plated carbon steels and stainless steel are most suitable for the cyanide
environment.
CHAPTER THREE

3.0 METHODOLOGY

The objective of this project is to design paddle driven peeling machine for small vendors. The
concept is developed based on the cost, ergonomics and easy handling of the equipment. The
following steps are designing the machine, material selection, machine fabrication, performance
analysis.

This chapter explained the processes taken to achieve the objective of this project. These
processes include;

 Design consideration and Formulation of design concept,

 Material selection: (Cost of operation, Ease and cost of manufacture, durability, etc.)

 Design analysis

 Operational overview

 Fabrication.

 Experimentation.

3.1 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS


In order to obtain considerable efficiency, and reliability, the machine was designed based on the
following considerations:

 The equipment should be relatively cheap and be within the buying capacity of local farmers
without compromising performance.

 The equipment should able to peel different varieties, shapes and sizes of cassava.
1. The equipment should be made with readily available materials.

2. It should reduce the labour input in traditional methods of peeling

3. The capacity should be higher compared to manual operations.

3.1 Machine Design

3.1.1 Machine Components and Specifications.

Singh(1995) describes the a power-operated batch type cassava peeler that includes a peeling roller
brush (670 mm in length and 450 mm in diameter) And water- spraying units. The following are
main components of the paddle driven peeling machines.

1. Feeding - this is feed party in which the cassava feeder into the roller brush. The feeder part
was designed in such a way that allows a person to open during feeding and removing
cassava after being peeled.

2. Bearings and its shaft- are used to rotate the roller brush during peeling process.

3. The peeling roller brush- the peeling roller brush fitted with brushes (40mm) on the inside
surface removes the skin from cassava by means of abrasions as roller brush rotates. The
roller brush was constructed by using wooden slats of 80mm length and 60mm in which the
brushes was fitted on it using screws.

4. MOTOR – is one of the component used for rotating the roller brush unit.
3.2 Material Selection
3.2.1 Material Selection Criteria:

Therefore we came up with these criteria:

1. Component shape

2. Dimensional tolerance

3. Mechanical properties

4. Fabrication requirements

5. Service requirements

6. Cost of the material

7. Cost of processing, and

Availability of the material.

Material selections is most important criteria during processing and handling of the food crops as
some of the materials are causing corrosion to the food and also in terms of cost some of them are
very expensive. Proper selection of material also can reduce product failure or increase product life
time. Working environment are also important issues and is taken into consideration during material
selection. The following are materials used for the design of paddle driven peeler machine.

3.2.1 Wood

Wood materials were used in the construction of the peeling roller brush.
The wood material was used in the design of machine due to the following factors:
2. Availability of wood is cheap and at low cost compared to steel and aluminum sheet.

3. Suitable for handling as materials does not undergo rusting and corrosion.

4. Wood manufacturing processes are not expensive compared to other materials like steel
and aluminum sheet.

5. The strength of wood materials is very hard and durable(high strength to weight ratio)

6. water resistant

3.2.2 Mild Steel

The machine frame is made up of mild steal materials. Uncoated mild steel can easily form
corrosion. Therefore, all surfaces for the frame have been coated with oil paint. The components
made up of mild steel are body frame, stand, rotating shaft, bearings and the gearing system.

Machine frame

This is the main skeleton of the machine as it supports all parts of the peeler. The frame is
rectangular in shape made of squire pipes. Squire pipes are held by welding joints to support the
roller brush and for stability of the machine.

Table no.1 showing materials used in design and fabrication of the machine
components Materials Reasons Manufacturing process
standard
Peeling roller
brush Wood Available, Sawing,cutting,fitting,drilling,finishing
(80*60*30mm) Cheap

Bicycle chain Mild steel Available, -


Cheap
sprocket Mild steel Available -
Quarter pins aluminum Available -
Bicycle motor Mild steel Available -
Squire pipes Mild steel Available, Welding and cutting
(40*40*3mm) Cheap
Shaft Mild steel Easy to Cutting into size
manufacture
Bearings Mild steel Available -
Bolts & nuts M8*8,M10*4 Available, -
Cheap
screws Mild steel Available -
freewheel Mild steel Available -
Selection of Manufacturing Process

Many techniques were employed in order to manufacture the machine parts and components
during designing and fabrication of this machine. These include; machining, joining and
finishing, Mechanical fastening and finishing includes coating and painting.

Fabrication

The peeling roller brush fitted with brushes was fabricated according to design specifications.

Joining Processes

Are quite important in the design and fabrication, these include; welding, jointing, fitting

Painting/Coating

Painting process is only applied on mild steel surface that tends to suffer from oxidation.
Because of its decorative and functional properties such as environmental protection, low cost,
relative ease of application and the range of available colors, paint is chosen to use as a surface
coating.

WORK PLAN
3.3 CALCULATIONS BASED ON WORKING MECHANISM OF
THE PEELING MACHINE.

3.3.1 Design calculations

Calculations of the peeling roller brush design;


Diameter of the roller brush (D) = 400 mm

Calculate total circumference = 3.142*D


=1256.64 mm

From the design, given the length of piece of wood 800mm and 60mm,

Calculating the number of wood required to round the roller brush / circle and spaces
between the wood pieces.
Number of wood = 16

From
Total space occupied by wood pieces = 16*60 width

= 960mm
Total space between the wood piece =1256-960

 2
96mm Number spacing
=16 mm

Calculating average spaces between wood piece and another


is; = 296/16
=18.5 mm
= 1.85cm

3.3.2 Number of brushes required to be fitted into the calculated number of wood pieces,

From;
Number of wood pieces = 16

One brush cover = 250mm


In one piece of wood contain = 2 brushes

Total brushes in the roller brush = 3*16 = 48 brushes

3.4. Wheel specifications

Sprocket/free, wheel Diameter

Or P= ΠD/N

Where; D = Sprocket diameter (mm), P= Chain pitch (mm) and N=Number of teeth in the
sprocket/freewheel.

In preliminary calculation the following measures are given from different sources for reliability
purpose P=13mm, so using N= 47 for sprocket and N=16 for freewheel, and crank length (L

Crank) =170mm, D can be calculated as;

D sprocket =13/sin (180/47) = 194.63mm

D freewheel =13/sin (180/16) =66.64 mm

Chain Length

L chain = 2C+ (D sprocket + D freewheel)/2


L chain = 2C + (194.6+66.64)/2

L chain = (2C+130.62) mm, for C = 600mm

L chain=1330.62

Where; L=Chain length in links

P=Pitch (mm)
C= Centre distance (mm)

N1= Number of teeth of free wheel

N2=Number of teeth of sprocket

Chain links =124

Chain Velocity (V)

Assuming it provide a constant velocity ratio as result of neither slippage no creep. Has ability of
driving single drive

V = 45.86

Velocity Ratio

VR=

VR = 47/16 = 2.97
3.4.1 Roller Chain Design for
powerTransmission
Power, force and torque delivered by chain

Assumptions

 Pitches are evenly distributed


 Centre distance doesn’t vary
 There is no slippage and creep

To calculate force and torque


Force exerted on crank (W)

Assuming the average force a man can exert is equal to 1/10 of his / her own weight. Assuming
average man having weight of 65kg.

W= mg where m=mass, g=acceleration due to gravity and W= weight/force


=65kg*9.81m/s2
=637.65N*0.1

Force exerted on the crank is about 63.765N

Torque produced by crank.

T = Force* Perpendicular distance

T crank=W*Lcrank
T crank=63.765*0.17=10.84Nm

Angular speed of sprocket ( )


The most powerful muscles in body in the most suitable motion (a smooth rotary motion) at the
most convenient speed 60-80rpm (Makungu 1995). Making average of 70rpm

Let 1=70rpm

From the relation,

N sprocket sprocket = N freewheel freewheel

Freewheel =47*70/16 =205.625rpm

Then, angular speed can be calculated by;

W = (2Π )/60

W1 = (2Π sprocket)/60

= (2Π*70)/60=7.33 rad/sec

W2 = (2Π* freewheel)/60

= (2Π*205.625)/60=21.53rad/sec
 *0.19463*10.84*70RPM*/1000
Power = 0.464 W approximately

= 0.5 W

The torque is a function of max. shear and diam- eter of the shaft:

T = τmax d3/16 (2)

where:
T – torque (Nm)

τmax – max. shear (N/m2)


d – diameter of the shaft (m)

Screw length calculation is a function of the equations of a helix, wound on a


tapered shaft:

S = 3.42(r + ml) 2

where:
S – screw length (m)
r – radius of shaft (m)
l – length of shaft (m)
m – tangent of tapering angle (rad)

2 – helix angle (rad)

The volumetric capacity of a screw is a function of the screw speed, diameter and
distance between flights of the screw:

Qv = d2HpN

where:

Qv – conveying volume (m3/s) d – diameter of screw (m) Hp –


pitch (m)
N – screw speed (r/min)

The required diameter for solid shaft with little or no axial loading but having
combined bending and torsional loads, is obtained as:

The volumetric flow rate is a function of pressure drop and viscosity:

Q = kd(ρd/μd)

where:

Q – volumetric flow rate (m3/s) ρd – total pressure drop (N/m2)


μd – dough viscosity at the die (Pa·s)
kd – die constant (fraction)

Die constant for a die of circular cross-section:


kd = τR4/8LD

where:

τ – shear stress (N/m2 )


R – nozzle radius (m)
LD – land length of die (m)

3.4.2Machine Capacity and Efficiency

3.4.2.1Machine Capacity

It is usually given as mass per unit time, can be either be measured as the through put capacity,
which is equal to the total weight of the material handled per hour or as material capacity which
is equal to the weight of material cleaned per time. Calculations involve measuring weight and
time.

Through put capacity=Total material handled by machine (kg)/ (Total time taken)

3.5 Machine Efficiency

Machine efficiency= (no. of peeled cassava)/ (total number of cassava)


=0.72 (kg)/min×60min/hr
= 43.2 (kg)
DRAFTING CAD MODEL
Roller

Framing table

Belt and pulley


FABRICATION
KINDLY ADD ALL YOUR INDUSTRY PHOTO

Costing

no Part name costing


1 BASE FRAME WITH FABRICATION 6000
2 ROLLER * 2 8000
3 PEDESTRAL WITH BEARING*4 1600
4 BELT *2 240
5 PULLEY*3 700
6 ROLLER SHAFT WITH NUT 800
TOTAL 17140
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1/7/2015.

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11.Mwakasendo, J.A., Mussei A. N., Kabungo C.D., Mende D. H. and Gondwe B. J. (2007).
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