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Abstract

Humans have always had an impact on their surroundings. Garbage is one of our biggest effects

on nature. Unlike other animals, humans create too much waste for nature to keep up. Total

amount of solid waste in INDIA is 165-170 million tons per year. Almost 42 percent of that

garbage is in paper wastes. With the continually rising of the earth’s population, the situation is

going to get harder and harder to slow it down, or fix it. With garbage comes pollution; from the

burning of garbage we are destroying the atmosphere just as fast as we are just leaving the

garbage on the ground. When you burn garbage it gives off extremely poisonous gases into the

atmosphere. If a person breathes this air it can hurt their lungs and if untreated can result in

cancers or even death. Even if we burry our garbage not all of it will decompose, as there are

some material needs centuries to decompose. By polluting the ground it can seep into our

farming soil and even into our ground water, which can cause dramatic consequences.

Compacting trashes is considered a great solution for the problem of throwing garbage as it was

examined in well developed countries and solved the problem of thrown garbage in the streets or

burning extra garbage which is the same problem that Egypt is facing , and in result it also

reduce the pollution amount due to the smoke of burning garbage and the diseases caused

because of the uncovered garbage in streets where people walk through and others live nearby .

Key words: Garbage, Waste, Pollution, Burning, Atmosphere, Compacting.

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Table of Contents
Abstract i

Ethics ii

Acknowledgement iii

Table of contents iv

List of Symbols vi

List of tables viii

List of figures ix

Report writing contribution sheet xi

Chapter I: Introduction

Problem Definition 2

Proposal Approach 4

Relevance of Study 5

Chapter II: Literature review

Historical Background 7

literatures Survey 10

Proposed Systems 10

Pneumatic system survey 24

Frame Survey 44

Control System Survey 46

Chapter III: Design of the bin trash compactor

System Component Description 50

Design Calculation 59

Chapter IV: Manufacturing

Structure manufacturing 73

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Pneumatic system manufacturing 77

Control system assembly 80

Chapter V: Economical Anaylsis

Economical study 85

Bill of material 87

Chapter VI: Conclusion and Recommendations

Conclusion 89

Recommendations 90

Reference 92

Appendices 94

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List of Symbols

Sym Description

Aann Annulus Area

AP Area of Piston

Apipe Pipe Line Area

APR Annular Piston Area.

c Half the Length of Beam

DR Piston Rod Diameter

DP Piston Diameter.

Dpipe Pipe Line Diameter.

E Modulus of Elasticity

F Force

Fb Force per Beam

Fc Compression Force

I Moment of Inertia

l Beam Length

L Maximum Permissible Stroke.

Ls Piston Stroke Length.

Le Effective Length

M Maximum Bending Moment

n Factor of Safety

P Working Pressure.

P2 Pneumatic Pressure.

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PH Pneumatic Pump Power.

Required Flow Rate Delivered


Q1
from the Pump

SF Safety Factor

Su Ultimate Tensile Strength

t Thickness of Rectangular Beam

Ts Advance Stroke Time

V1 Piston Advance Stroke Speed.

V2 Piston Return Speed

V Volume.

w Distributed Load.

ɸ Area Ratio

ɳ Total Efficiency

ɳvol Volumetric Efficiency of the


Pneumatic Jack

σc Cylinder Rod Strength

λ Slenderness Ratio.

λg Design Slenderness Ratio

σa Allowable Stress

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List of Figures
Figure 2.1 Pneumatic patent 13
Figure 2.2 Crank mechanism 13
Figure 2.3 Manual compaction 14
Figure 2.4 Manual compaction patent 15
Figure 2.5 Mechanical compaction patent 16
Figure 2.6 Mechanical compaction patent 2 17
Figure 2.7 Mechanical compaction patent 19
Figure 2.8 Pneumatic compression patent 1 22
Figure 2.9 Pneumatic compression patent 2 24
Figure 2.10 External gear pump 25
Figure 2.11 Internal gear pump 26
Figure 2.12 Vane pump/compressor 27
Figure 2.13 Vane pump 27
Figure 2.14 Piston pump 27
Figure 2.15 Fixed bent (axial piston) pump 28
Figure 2.16 Radial piston pump 31
Figure 2.17 Piston pump 32
Figure 2.18 Orbit type compressor 33
Figure 2.19 Linear actuator 36
Figure 2.20 Rotary actuator 36
Figure 2.21 Relief valve 38
Figure 2.22 Reducing valve 38
Figure 2.23 Pressure switch 38
Figure 2.24 Check valve 39
Figure 2.25 Directional control valve 40
Figure 2.26 Restrictor valve 40
Figure 2.27 Central bypass valve 41
Figure 2.28 Oil filter 43
Figure 3.1 The whole machine 50
Figure 3.2 Housing 51
Figure 3.3 Pneumatic Jack 51
Figure 3.4 Piston rod 52
Figure 3.5 Cylinder 52
Figure 3.6 Flange 52
Figure 3.7 Pneumatic unit 53
Figure 3.8 Tank 53
Figure 3.9 Compressor 54
Figure 3.10 Pump 54
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Figure 3.11 Relief valve 54
Figure 3.12 Directional control Valve 55
Figure 3.13 Pressure switch 55
Figure 3.14 Pressure gauge 55
Figure 3.15 Indicator 56
Figure 3.16 Hose 56
Figure 3.17 Safety button 57
Figure 3.18 Photo electric switch 57
Figure 3.19 frame 58
Figure 3.20 base 58
Figure 3.21 Compressing plate 58
Figure 3.22 The lower door 59
Figure 3.23 Frame worksheet 65
Figure 3.24 Base worksheet 66
Figure 3.25 frame worksheet 67
Figure 3.26 The cylinder worksheet 68
Figure 3.27 The piston worksheet 69
Figure 3.28 The compressing plate worksheet 70
Figure 3.29 The guides worksheet 71
Figure 3.30 The tank worksheet 72
Figure 4.1 Frame 73
Figure 4.2 Cross section of steel bars 74
Figure 4.3 Frame in manufacturing phase 75
Figure 4.4 frame 76
Figure 4.5 base 77
Figure 4.6 Tank 77
Figure 4.7 Compressor and pump assembled to the tank cover 78
Figure 4.8 The valves connected to the connector 78
Figure 4.9 The valves are being mounted on the tank cover 79
Figure 4.10 Control unit 81
Figure 4.11 The control circuit of the trash compactor bin 82

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Chapter I

Introduction

Waste(s) is a pejorative term for unwanted materials. The term can be described as

subjective and inaccurate because waste to one person is not waste to another Waste

collection is a part of the process of waste management. It is the transfer of solid

waste from the point of use and disposal to the point of treatment or landfill. But here in

Egypt it’s normally thrown in streets and beside the building because in most of the

cities there are not enough bins or they are all full so people just leave their garbage

right beside them and go one by one until the garbage fills the side walk and people

starts to walk in the roads, and after a little while the garbage starts to spread to roads.

Our trash compactor can be really useful to avoid that problem since it can carry many

times more than the normal bins with equivalent size .therefore using such trashes is

required to help in reducing the garbage view in streets and help saving our country

from becoming a big landfill of garbage.

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Problem Definition

The garbage problem seems like a problem that can't be solved. Over the past years a lot

of governments tried to solve the problem but they couldn't; perhaps they didn't have

the strong will of solving this issue. They even hired foreign companies to help them,

but their only concern was collecting money not garbage. And the problem elevated

until we reached a critical situation where garbage is everywhere, even in the high

standard districts. The scene now is that we have mountains of garbage, and the

problem is deteriorating [1]. Strangely these mountains of garbage turned to be meals

for the poor people who dive through the garbage in a hunt for food; of course they

don't care about the consequences what they are doing but their only concern is to find

food to cover their daily needs. In Greater Cairo, this situation is very critical because of

the high population density, and the increased amount of garbage produced as well as

the deficiency in the collection process, means of transportation and the recycling

systems. Cairo produces about 14,000 tons of solid waste daily, according to statistics

from the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency. More than 60 percent of that is

removed from residents’ doorsteps early in the morning, while people are sleeping. The

garbage collectors, who number between 80,000 and 150,000, take this waste back to

their neighborhoods — mainly Manshiyet Nasser and at the foot of the Moqattam hills

— and then proceed to manage and dispose of the waste efficiently by hand, recycling

about 80 percent. However, despite employing them in this job decades ago, the

government does not officially recognize them, and they continue to live hand to mouth,

day by day, in extreme poverty, with little to no access to health and social services.

The garbage scene is becoming more and more visible as trash is thrown everywhere in

streets, because no laws are being enforced in the post-revolution period. Cairo's waste

management problem began to increase by population growth while the government

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still using the old system of removing garbage without any development. A swine flu

panic prompted the mass slaughter of the pigs that recycled Cairo's organic garbage; the

city's metal trash bins were easy prey for thieves, especially during the global scrap

metal boom [2]. There is no one to hold back the diggers –who rummage through the

bags of plastic, glass and cardboard and leave the organic stuff to rot in the streets. Also

the government doesn't put any laws to protect the environment or even the streets;

there are no penalties on people not following the rules or ethics of the environment.

Another problem is that the garbage bins are not covering all the people needs by all

means. The garbage bins are not well distributed all over the cities and governorates,

some people can't find any nearby garbage bins, but the bigger problem is that the

garbage bins are always full and having garbage poured all over it and covering the area

surrounded by it. Which causes a lot of health problems and also ruins the image of the

country. And the government claims that the residents do not throw the garbage in the

garbage bins, and residents accuse the garbage companies that they don't do their jobs

correctly. Moreover the government recruits a lot of garbage men for cleaning the

streets and they don't do anything but begging, so they are another further obligation on

the country which could be allocated in a better place.There are a lot of health hazards

that are associated with the pollution caused by the garbage acclimation in the streets.

Garbage build up causes the development of infections and diseases if not treated

quickly lead to death. The main diseases caused by garbage are Gastrointestinal,

stomach pain, vomiting and diarrhea, cholera, skin diseases and respiratory allergies.

These diseases are frequent in people who are in places where there is very close

accumulation of garbage. Also if you are in contact with animals that are so near a

dumpster we have to be careful not to take hygienic measures become contaminated

with diseases. The problem does not concern volumes of garbage only, but also it

3
includes collection, transportation and sorting huge costs and time. The amount of

garbage generated 55,000 ton per day. These developments increased waste dispersion

in the streets, rates of pollution and the image of the country is deteriorating in addition

to congestion of the traffic caused by the accumulation of garbage [3]. Finally, people

are paying a lot to have their garbage removed, but they are not receiving any service,

and they deserve to have their money allocated in the right places.

Proposed Solution

As for the problem of garbage and since the population in our country keeps on

increasing year by year, the garbage keeps accumulating and the volumes of garbage

increased. This accumulation doesn't happen only in landfills but also in the streets

everywhere we go. This problem should be dealt with to help solve the problem or at

least stop it from growing as the population increases. One of the solutions to this

problem is to try decreasing the volume of garbage, this could be done by compacting

the garbage. and luckily a reasonable volume of garbage can be compressed as most of

the its components has good compressibility.

We thought about designing a machine that can compress the garbage as a whole. This

machine can be used in a lot of places and applications. The machine could be used in

hospitals, hotels, and stores to decrease the volume of garbage produced so this will

decrease their costs. This machine will be user friendly as anyone could deal with it, it

can be used in residential areas or compounds. The machine will operate once the

garbage enters and will be safe for use. Also the machine will be portable and can move

so that it can be used at its maximum utilization, so it would be applicable if an

organization wants to a few units of this machine and move it between areas of use this.

Moreover there will be handling equipment to handle the compressed garbage if they

want to move them from one place to another. Finally this proposed solution would

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help to solve the problem of garbage acclimation and will decrease the costs of garbage

disposal. Also it will be safe for use and user friendly so any one could deal with it.

Relevance of Study

Actually that was the main reason of the trash compactor, but it turned out to have more

advantages such as saving space in the streets because one of these trashes can replace

many of the normal ones. And it will help give the spirit and motivation to begin

solving the problem of garbage as it will introduce to people the culture of separating

garbage which is going to be useful to us as a country in the future. As not only the

people will be motivated when they see the positive effect of the idea, but also the

government too. Trash compactors are probably the most underrated equipment for

businesses, so not everyone understands why they should use one. Here are the greatest

benefits of using trash compactors in conjunction with a complete waste disposal

system. Compacting your trash helps save space, and this translates into money saved

on hauling costs. By compacting your loose trash into a smaller volume, you can

dispose of anywhere from 50%-90% more trash per pickup, lowering the number of

waste hauling visits. This is a tremendous opportunity to reduce a necessary business

expense. Loose trash is a sanitation problem, releasing unpleasant odors and inviting

unwanted pests. This can be especially problematic for owners of restaurants, malls,

hotels, and apartment complexes. Trash compactors also keep your trash securely

confined, which is much cleaner, neater, and safer than trash bins that can overflow

with garbage. When the volume of the garbage decreases, it would be handled easier as

it will have a compact size. This will save a lot of time and effort, which are very

important to consider in our daily life. This could decrease the number of workers in the

handling process, and the handling time will decrease a lot. Moreover it's better from

the ergonomic point of view as the volume would decrease causing the worker to handle

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the trash bags with more ease. Also if the trash compacting idea was generalized among

the country level, it will help collecting the garbage from lower and medium standard

areas where the streets are narrow. And in the actual situation the garbage collectors

have to handle the bags manually or with means of transportation because the huge

garbage trucks can't enter these areas. and apparently these areas produce large amount

of garbage daily which needs to be dealt with in a effective and hygienic manner . And

due to the compaction the garbage bins will be filled with higher volumes thus the need

to empty the garbage bins will decrease and the rate of picks will decrease so it will

save a lot of fuel since the garbage collection truck will pass by to pick the garbage less

times, moreover these truck will decrease the distance travelled in a given period of

time so these trucks will be in a better situation and will need maintenance over a wider

range of time. also the need of buying new trucks will decrease as trucks will last longer

and the available trucks will do the job with less numbered fleet Today's companies are

expected to be green, and a comprehensive waste disposal system helps your business

recycle more while saving space in landfills. Most recyclables are usually empty

containers like plastic bottles and cardboard boxes. Saving these items for recycling

takes up space, but by compacting them, recycling goals that make more of an impact

are attainable. Commercial trash compactors are used by a wide range of businesses

from property developers to shopping centers and restaurants. Smaller versions have

even become popular for many homeowners. They are easy to use and help improve

business operations while saving money. Learn more about garbage disposal systems,

the different options available, and how they can benefit your business.

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Chapter II

Literature Review

Historical Background

Historically, the garbage collectors were farmers from Assiut in Upper Egypt who

migrated to Cairo in the 1940s to escape poor harvests. The Wahiya, people of Egypt's

Western Desert, had asked the garbage collectors to join forces with them in Cairo's

garbage-collection trade, in which they have successfully carved a niche out for

themselves since the early twentieth century.

Accordingly, the garbage collectors established informal settlements on the suburbs of

the capital, where they continued their tradition of breeding pigs while forming a

collaborative relationship with the Wahiya. The garbage collectors collected and sorted

the waste, while the Wahiya became middlemen between the garbage collectors and

Cairo residents. This partnership proved to be so profitable for the garbage collectors

that many more migrants from Upper Egypt relocated to Cairo to take part in the trade.

Today, the garbage collectors are spread among seven settlements in Greater Cairo,

with a predominantly Coptic-Christian population of some 70,000. According to

experts, Cairo's chronic garbage crisis stems from three specific policy-related issues,

the first two being the advent of multinational companies in 2003 to manage municipal

waste and the getting rid of Egypt's pigs in 2009 with the apparent aim of uncertain the

spread of the so-called 'swine flu. These two issues – coupled with the garbage

collectors' unhappiness about their continued illegitimate status – have led to the current

nauseating scene on many of Cairo's streets, which are infected with hazardous garbage

piles in numerous districts. In 2003, the garbage collectors’ livelihood came under

threat when the government awarded annual contracts worth some $50 million to three

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multinational garbage collecting companies .The three companies included two Spanish

firms, FCC and Urbaser, along with Italian company AMA. A domestic company, the

Egyptian Company for Garbage Collection (ECGC), was also given a contract. In spite

of their expensive contracts, the international firms are expected to recycle only 20 per

cent of waste collected, while the remaining 80 per cent is deposited in landfills – a

poor figure compared to the garbage collectors, who manage to recycle nearly all

garbage they collect. The multinational firms use a different system than do the garbage

collectors, collecting rubbish from garbage bins that they have set up in various central

Cairo collection points. Many Cairo residents have, however, voiced their discontent

with this system, claiming there were an insufficient number of bins and these were

often inconveniently located. Conversely, the garbage collectors' traditional system

involves transporting garbage directly from Cairo residents to their quarters in 'garbage

city,' or Cairo's Moqattam. In garbage city, where around 30,000 inhabitants live and

work among towering stacks of foul-smelling rubbish, the garbage is sorted and either

resold or recycled. A waste collection vehicle is more generally known as garbage truck

and dustbin lorry. These trucks are used for picking up waste and then moving it to

landfills or other places where waste materials are managed and treated. You can have

their view mostly in Urban areas. Most of the time Garbage cart is mistaken as dump

truck. To move solid waste mankind is using wagons and other such means from

centuries. Therefore, for this purpose trucks were invented. 1920s were the years during

which first every open topped truck was seen and utilized for hauling purposes.

However, soon picture changed and covered trucks strike the scene. The open tops

failed because of they tend to drop waste and spread odors. Covered trucks had strike

the scene in Europe for the first this and then to North America [4].

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The difficulty the waste collectors were confronting was lifting the garbage bin to the

shoulder height to pour the content in to the truck container. So the very first technique

was introduced in late 20s. This technique was to build rounded compartments with

colossal corkscrews that were meant to pick up the load and bringing that load to the

reat of the truck. However, in 1929 Hopper developed a more competent model. This

system had wires to bring the waste bin to the truck. Moving forward with dates, in

1937 a system named as Dempster-dumpster was developed by George Dempster in

which the wheeled container for waste were mechanically poured in to the waste

collecting vehicle. His invention was named as Dumpster, which lead to the addition of

word Dumpster in the language. In year 1938 Garwood Load Packer transfigured the

waste management industry with the inclusion of compactors or compressors to the

truck. With advent in 1955 Dempster Dumpmaster introduced the front loader for first

time. They were not much common until 1970s but with them being common the

smaller dumpsters were also introduced that today are recognized as wheelie bins.

There was a more dramatic change in the industry. The “sweep and slide” system was

also introduced in the market out of so many models of compactors. Later in 1960s to

1970s the compactors named as continuous compactors were much popular but then

German shark designed a rotating drum which seems much like a cement mixer. This

drum was meant to compact and grind the waste. Then SEMAT-Rey from France had

also introduced rotating rake system to have the waste compacted and break large items

in to smaller pieces. This decline high use of fuel in trucks.

In 1970s grapple trucks were introduced for the first time for the purpose of municipal

waste collection. In year 1997 Lee Rathbun commenced the lightening Rear steer

System to world. This is the unique model.

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Literature Survey

A survey had to be done in order to know the difference between the

different components and mechanisms to be able to reach the best situation.

A survey was done each part and nearly every critical decision made.

Proposed Mechanisms

A survey was conducted on the different proposed mechanisms, to be able to evaluate

the most suitable mechanism that would help achieve the desired outcome with the least

compromises. The following part shows the different mechanisms proposed.

A. Pneumatic System

Pneumatics is a section of technology that deals with the study and application of

pressurized gas to produce mechanical motion.

Pneumatic systems that are used extensively in industry and factories are commonly

plumbed with compressed air or compressed inert gases. This is because a centrally

located and electrically powered compressor, that powers cylinders and other pneumatic

devices through solenoid valves, can often provide motive power in a cheaper, safer,

more flexible, and more reliable way than a large number of electric compressors and

actuators.

Some advantages of the pneumatic mechanism are that infinite availability of the source

Air is the most important thing in the pneumatic system, and as we all know, air is

available in the world around us in unlimited quantities at all times and places. Also air

is a substance that is easily passed or move from one place to another through a small

pipe, the long and winding. Temperature is flexible moreover air can be used flexibly at

various temperatures are required, through equipment designed for specific

circumstances, even in quite extreme conditions; the air was still able to work. And

safe, the air can be loaded more safely than it is not flammable and does not short

10
circuit occurs or explode, so protection against both of these things pretty easily, unlike

the electrical system that could lead to fires and it’s also clean The air around us are

tend to clean without chemicals that are harmful, and also, it can be minimized or

cleaned with some processes, so it is safe to use pneumatic systems to the

pharmaceutical industry, food and beverages and textiles. But it also has some

limitations, for example it requires installation of air-producing equipment. Compressed

air should be well prepared to meet the requirements. Meet certain criteria, such as dry,

clean, and contain the necessary lubricant for pneumatic equipment. Therefore require

installation of pneumatic systems is relatively expensive equipment, such as

compressors, air filter, lube tube, dryer, and regulators.

One of the properties of pressurized air is like to always occupy the empty space and the

air pressure is maintained in hard work. Therefore we need a seal so that air does not

leak. Seal leakage can cause energy loss. Pneumatic equipment should be equipped with

airtight equipment that compressed air leaks in the system can be minimized. Pneumatic

using open system, meaning that the air that has been used will be thrown out of the

system, the air comes out pretty loud and noisy so will cause noise, especially on the

exhaust tract. The fix is to put a silencer on each dump line.

A patent was found about pneumatic trash compaction as shown in fig. 2.1, trash

compactors are known which reduce bulk trash and garbage to a relatively compact

mass. Such devices facilitate transportation, storage and disposal of what would

normally be a relatively large volume of trash and garbage. In the most common type of

compactor an electric compressor is used which serves to depress a heavy-duty ram in

a compaction chamber designed to receive uncompacted trash. Such systems have the

disadvantage that they are relatively bulky and require permanent installation near a

convenient source of electric power. Is therefore an object of my present invention to

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provide an improved trash compactor not dependent on an external power supply

[5].Another object of the invention is to provide a trash compactor which is highly

mobile and which can be readily adapted for use in various facilities such as snack bars,

dining cars, airplanes, ships or the like in which guests are served with disposable

dishes and cutlery. A trash compactor according to my invention, whose housing

defines a compaction chamber having access means for the introduction of

uncompacted trash, is provided with one or more inflatable bladders normally

occupying a minor part of that chamber, the bladder or bladders being expandable

against an accumulation of uncompacted trash in the chamber with the aid of valve-

controlled fluid-pressure means preferably comprising a container of gas (e.g. air) under

pressure. The bladder or bladders may be supported from above, on the fixed ceiling of

the chamber, and may be fastened to a pressure plate which is thus movably suspended

from the ceiling. The plate is advantageously connected through flexible link means,

such as one or more cables or cords, to fluidic retraction means located above the

ceiling within the housing, preferably a pair of antiparallel horizontal cylinders whose

piston rods carry respective rollers engaged by the cord or cords. A control valve, or

combination of valves, serves to connect the gas container alternately to the bladder or

bladders and to the retraction cylinder or cylinders so as to keep the pressure plate either

depressed or elevated. It is also advantageous to equip the conduit system with flow-

limiting means in series with the retraction cylinder or cylinders for the purpose of

preferentially discharging the container into the bladder or bladders, thereby insuring

that the final operation carried out with the last residue of high-pressure gas in

invariably a compaction stroke.

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Fig. 2.1 Pneumatic patent

B. Mechanical Compaction Mechanisms

Crank Mechanism associated to an electric compressor. A crank mechanism is one that

creates a linear motion while attached to a rotating shaft. The linear motion is created by

a rotational crank through a circular motion. The linear motion can be transferred to a

circular motion and vice versa. In crank mechanisms the diameter represents the stroke

so if a 1 meter stroke is needed; a very large disk is required. In addition, calculations

are complicated compared to the simple efficient pneumatic system. Compressors are hard to

be controlled and to operate clock wise and anti-clock wise

Fig. 2.2 Crank mechanism

Manual Compaction mechanism is the first mechanism that was used to amplify human

force to lift or compress things, But that’s an old technique that has some limitations,

like it needs an operator’s attention to compress garbage, making it hard to make a user

friendly machine. In addition it needs long time to do the linear motion downwards or

upwards. Also if a compressor replaced the hand part the moving parts prone to wear.

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Fig. 2.3 Manual compaction unit

Another patent about manual compaction was found about a universal compactor The

present invention relates to an inexpensive, easy to use, free-standing manual trash

compactor that operates on any flat surface and can be used with almost any trash

container. A hand or foot control can be easily manipulated for compacting the trash in

the container. The compacting mechanism can be made so that is safe, efficient,

promotes recycling and is easily adjustable so that the amount of force or the size of the

unit can be changed for different operators or different trash containers. The compactor

of the present invention is safe and will not cause serious injury when used [6].

The unit can be used with no container to compact materials like cardboard. The present

invention can have wheels and can be optionally operated with a foot lever. The

manually operated trash compactor of the present invention promotes safety when

disposing of trash by precluding the need to compress trash inside a receptacle by

putting ones hand or foot inside a trash can for the purpose of creating more space. The

device promotes recycling. The unit is free standing, and a trash can stay parked in the

unit until full to the maximum. Then another trash can be rolled into the space. The

trash can's lid can be swung open while the trash can is still in place. Particular

embodiments of the invention can be free standing, while other embodiments can be

bolted, or otherwise attached, to on exterior wall. The function is the same in each case,

the handle is pulled down to compress the contents. The present invention is a first of

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kind that functions with no need for attaching the unit to a trash can. The trash can is

simply wheeled into place and then wheeled out again when compressed.

Fig. 2.4 Manual compaction patent

Some patents about mechanical compaction were found which used a drive mechanism

for compaction The present invention relates generally to trash compactors and, more

specifically, to a portable trash compactor that may be operated by a plurality of power

sources and is easily transportable for use in various settings. The portable trash

compactor includes an outer housing and an inner housing. The outer housing includes a

recess for receiving trash there through. The trash is further received by a bin positioned

within the inner housing. Upon the level of trash in the bin reaching a predetermined

level, a compressor is activated and causes a drive member to be driven into the bin for

compacting the trash contained therein. The trash is easily removable from the trash bin

and the compactor is then ready to receive additional trash for compacting [7]. The

portable trash compactor includes an outer housing and an inner housing. The inner

housing fits within the outer housing and the outer housing is slid able along the track

extending along the height of the inner housing in order to provide access to the

compartment of the inner housing. The lifting handle including the lock release button

is positioned on the outer housing. Upon depressing the lock release button, the outer

housing is released from the inner housing thereby allowing the user to use the lifting

handle to selectively slide the outer housing along the height of the inner housing.

Positioned within the compartment of the inner housing is a refuse bin. The refuse bin is

15
substantially the same size as the compartment if the inner housing. The reusable refuse

bag is positioned within the refuse bin for receiving refuse. The refuse in the refuse bin

is ready to be compacted. A compacting mechanism is position on an inner side of the

outer housing at an end opposite the inner housing. The compacting mechanism

includes a compressor connected to a drive mechanism. The compressor selectively

controls the operation of the drive mechanism. A ram is connected to an end of the

drive mechanism. Upon activation of the compressor, the drive mechanism is caused to

extend in a direction towards the refuse within the refuse bag positioned within the

refuse bin. Upon extending the drive mechanism the ram exerts pressure on the refuse

and caused the refuse to be compacted. A pressure sensor detects the amount of

pressure exerted on the refuse and, upon a predetermined amount of pressure being

exerted thereon, the sensor signals the compressor to cause the drive member to retract

in a direction opposite the refuse. Thereafter, a user can selectively press the lock

release button on the handle and slide the outer housing along the track of the inner

housing and remove the compacted refuse from the refuse bin.

Fig. 2.5 Mechanical compaction patent 1

Another patent about garbage truck chamber compaction was found, A compaction

mechanism uses cables to move a compaction plate within a compaction chamber of a

garbage truck. Cable guide pulleys are positioned adjacent a first end and a second end

16
of the compaction chamber. Each cable has a first end and a second end, both of which

are secured to the compaction plate. Winch-like drive assembly is used to concurrently

move the cables to pull the compaction plate. This compaction mechanism is better able

to withstand uneven resistance on the compaction plate without twisting [8].

A compaction mechanism for a garbage truck, comprising: a cylindrical compaction

chamber having a peripheral defining wall, A first end and a second end; cable guide

means being positioned adjacent each of the first end and the second end of the

compaction chamber; a free floating compaction plate disposed transversely across the

compaction chamber, the compaction plate having a peripheral edge which is spaced

from the peripheral defining wall; at least two cables extending between the cable guide

means at first end and the cable guide means at the second end of the compaction

chamber, each of the at least two cables having a first end and a second end both

secured to the compaction plate, the at least two cables being secured in a symmetrical

pattern whereby each cable provides an equal pulling force upon the compaction plate;

drive means for concurrently moving the at least two cables to pull the compaction plate

toward one of the first end and the second end of the compaction chamber; and a one

piece peripheral wiper seal completely covering the peripheral edge of the compaction

plate in sealing engagement with the peripheral defining wall of the compaction

chamber, such that the wiper seal maintains a barrier to passage of the garbage upon

movement of the compaction plate.

Fig. 2.6 Mechanical compaction patent 2

17
Another patent about air craft garbage compaction which uses mechanical mechanism

was found A trolley suitable for aircraft or use in all space constraint situations

comprising a waste compactor comprising a metal horizontal plate driven by an electric

compressor reducer that, by a mechanical reducer, drives two telescopic screws

responsible for pushing the horizontal plate onto the waste, compacting it [9].

This invention relates to a waste compactor. More specifically, it relates to a waste

compactor for compacting trash produced on civil aviation aircrafts during flights and a

trolley for housing said waste compactor. The waste compactor can handle items such

as plastic or paper plates and cups, plastic cutlery, aluminum drink cans, aluminum

food containers, Tetrapak-type cartons, paper napkins, etc. The waste compactor

comprises an electric compressor that generates a rotary motion which is transferred

to the reduction gears and converted to extend the telescopic screws , causing the

metal plate to move down or up through vertical translation motion. It is a main object

of this invention to provide a waste compactor that is operated by an

electromechanical system, has compact dimensions, and requires a reasonably low

electrical input. It is another object of this invention to provide a cart, the so-called

“trolley”, that comprises said waste compactor and meets the specific requirements for

use in environments with space and weight constraints and, in particular, for aviation

applications. The trolley in accordance with the present disclosure has the additional

advantage of facilitating handling, movement, and removal of the waste containers

deformed by the compacted waste after compaction.

18
Fig. 2.7 Mechanical compaction patent 3

C. Pneumatic system

The basic idea behind any pneumatic system is very simple: Force that is applied at

one point is transmitted to another point using an incompressible fluid. The fluid is

almost always an oil of some sort. The force is almost always multiplied in the

process. The neat thing about pneumatic systems is that it is very easy to add force

multiplication (or division) to the system Pneumatic multiplication.

The pneumatic system has some advantages like Advantages. As it uses

'incompressible' fluid which results in a greater, more efficient & consistent work or

power output. This is due to the fact that pneumatic fluid molecules are able to resist

compression under heavy load hence minimal energy loss is experienced and work

applied is directly transferred to the actuating surfaces. As opposed to pneumatic

system which uses air, a leakage in a pneumatic system is easier to spot during ground

maintenance operations. Pneumatic fluid operates very well in a very hot working

environment, it is able to sustain its airworthiness viscosity, density & fluid

temperature even if it subjected under extreme heat. This is especially important on

aircraft structures that are abundant of hot working conditions during flight operations.

Pneumatic systems allow users to accurately wield large amounts of power with little

input force. They also provide constant force, according to the National Fluid Power

Association. In addition, pneumatic systems are safe in chemical plants and mines

19
because they do not cause

20
sparks. Being able to circulate the pump in and out of the well is the most obvious and

significant feature of pneumatic pumps. It is especially attractive on offshore

platforms, remote locations, and populated and agricultural areas. But it also has some

limitations Disadvantages: Pneumatic fluid is highly corrosive to most of the aircraft

materials. Due to the heavy loads experienced in a typical pneumatic system, structural

integrity is a must which also means higher structural weight for the aircraft in

addition to the weight of its pneumatic lines, pumps, reservoirs, filters, &

etc. Pneumatic system is susceptible to contaminations & foreign object damage

(FOD). Mishandling and constant exposure to pneumatic fluid and its gas fumes

without proper equipment and precautions is a health risk. If disposed improperly, a

pneumatic fluid is an environmental risk. Pneumatic systems contain highly

pressurized fluid. This can cause burns, bruises or the accidental injection of fluid into

the body, according to Colorado State University. Pneumatic systems must be

periodically checked for leaks and lubricated, and filters must be changed regularly.

Removing solids from the power fluid is very important for positive-displacement

pumps. Solids in the power fluid also affect surface-plunger pumps. Jet pumps, on the

other hand, are very tolerant of poor power-fluid quality.

From the proposed mechanism the most suitable one is the pneumatic mechanism, as it

is the best fitting system to the trash compactor. As it produces large enough power to

compress the garbage with small input, and with a high ratio of power to weight, which

gives a chance to have a lighter machine. also the high torque to mass and high force to

inertia ratio, which result in high acceleration capability and a rapid response of the

pneumatic compressors. The ability to apply a simple protection against overloading is

one of the major advantages of the pneumatic system which gave it a competitive

edge against the other systems, as it is a huge safety consideration in compacting

garbage, as there
21
may be an incompressible item within the garbage that could cause some serious

damage to the machine if not dealt with correctly. This also applies to the safe guarding

against explosion using the valves and sensors that sense the increase in pressure inside

the system and then relives the extra pressure, to prevent explosion.

One of the important benefits of using the pneumatic system is the ease of spotting

leakage, in contrary to pneumatic system which is much harder to spot the leakage in.

Also the pneumatic system has lower noise, which is very helpful, as this machine is

targeted to work in public places as well as private places and corporations. The

pneumatic system gives an option of choosing the appropriate pressure required to

compress different types of garbage, as the pressure sensors regulate the pressure

according to the reaction force exerted from the garbage. Also this applies for the

prevention of explosion using the same approach as mentioned above.

Some patents about pneumatic compaction were found, the first was Garbage cans

and trash receptacles are important items at any location where there are people, to

avoid the people having to carry trash with them or worse, simply littering. Many

public areas such as outdoor recreation facilities provide trash cans at many locations,

and most visitors are quite receptive to using such trash cans, provided that they are

convenient and accessible. However, trash cans often quickly fill up and require

periodic emptying by maintenance personnel. Larger trash cans provide more capacity,

but they still fill up and result in larger bulky unwieldy loads when they’re

emptied [10]. For any size, trash cans that are remote are more difficult to empty,

and require that personnel spend time and equipment traveling, emptying and hauling

from the remote locations. Also, in urban locations and other high traffic areas,

sanitation personnel must spend significant amounts of time and cost to remove trash

and recyclables often several times daily and urban areas often have space constraints

on trash-bin size. This


22
invention provides a low cost device and method for compacting trash and recyclables

using stored photovoltaic energy. The device is formed to efficiently collect solar

energy, efficiently store said energy and as needed, use the stored energy to compact

trash or recyclables. The solar collector typically is a photovoltaic (PV) apparatus which

is connected to a storage device, such as a battery, capacitor or fuel cell. Mechanical

means of energy storage may include springs, pneumatic and pneumatic pressure. The

apparatus uses stored energy to intermittently compact trash or recyclables. In another

embodiment, the device supplies AC electricity to an AC-powered compaction

mechanism by changing DC power from the PV array into AC electricity by means of

an inverter. In a separat embodiment, the device supplies pressurized pneumatic fluid to

a compaction ram that is actuated by pneumatic pressure.

In an illustrative embodiment, the electronics of the receptacle are enclosed in two

compartments adjacent to the compaction area. This compartment is not accessible from

the outside, to prevent tampering and/or user injury. Another feature to prevent user or

operator injury is a battery disengage, which will prevent compaction-ram movement

when either compartment door is open and will provide access to electronics or the

compaction chamber.

Fig. 2.8 Pneumatic compression patent 1

23
Another patent was found about pneumatic with manual handle A trash compactor

includes a base member, an elongated stationary support member connected thereto, a

mechanism for selectively compressing trash, and a pneumatic mechanism for

operable controlling the compressing mechanism. The compressing mechanism

includes a plurality of elongated telescopic tubes slide able engage able with each

other wherein one of the plurality of tubes has a hollow interior and includes a helical

spring member housed there, The helical spring member has opposed end portions

secured to the support member and the plate member respectively so that the plurality

of telescopic tubes are caused to return to a retracted position after being moved

downwardly to an extended position. The pneumatic mechanism includes a sump and

a flexible conduit in fluid communication therewith, a manually operable pump

connected upstream of the sump for causing fluid to travel at a selected rate from the

sump towards the compressing mechanism and a valve connected to the pump for

controlling the flow of fluid through the conduit. The trash compactor is durable, safe,

and easy to use. It provides a user with a quick and simple method of compacting

trash, thereby saving time and space. The trash compactor eliminates the necessity of

stacking garbage bags in a garage or outside a residence where they are susceptible to

animals and become an eyesore to neighbors. It also reduces the amount of space

required for landfills, saving valuable resources [11].

24
Fig. 2.9 Pneumatic compression patent 2

Pneumatic System Survey

Hydrostatic pumps and compressors

There is a wide range of available hydrostatic pumps and compressors from the market and

the purpose of this chapter is to describe the operating principles and features of the

most commonly used types. The formulae that are used for determining the

performance of pumps and compressors are presented and some of the major parameters that

can be used as a basis for comparison are outlined as a background for the selection

process. However, because of the wide variety of the types of units that are available it

is impossible to generalize on the selection process in any given application [12].

25
Chapter III

Design of Trash Compactor Bin

3. 1 System Components Description

The system components are described and drawn in the next part, each component

has its details and sub components, and also its importance to the system.

1. Housing 4. Pneumatic Unit 7. compressor 10. Guide


2. Accessory Base 5. Cylinder 8. Flange 11. Control Unit
3. Accessory Frame 6. Flange 9. Compressing Plate

3.1.1 Housing

The housing is the frame of the machine it’s divided into 2 sections upper section

and lower section as shown in figure 3.2

A. Lower section

It is the place where the garbage is compressed, it houses also the accessory .

The bottom of the lower section has a certain type of guide in order to guide the

accessory to be centered to the piston head.

50
B. Upper section

It houses the Piston, oil reservoir, compressor and pump.


Fig. 3.2 Housing The upper section (The

pneumatic section)

The pneumatic section consists of the following.

Pneumatic jack is the piston cylinder device; this device has oil upper and lower inlets

and outlets. It is used to transform the Pressure into a linear motion; this linear motion is

going to be used to compact garbage

Fig. 3.3 Pneumatic


Sensors

• Parallax Ultrasonic Sensor

• IR Sensor
Parallax Ultrasonic Sensor

• Part a) Sensor is sending a ultrasonic pulse but object is


outside of operating distance

• Part b) Sensor facing object at a angle. Pulse is reflected


at another angle

• Part c) Sensor is facing object on level plane but object


is too small. Will not reflect transmitted signal

Parallax Ultrasonic Sensor


PING Ultrasonic Sensor

Detector Type Ultrasonic

Dimensions 16 x 46 x 22(mm)

Peaking Operating distance 2(cm)-3 (m)

Supply Current 30 mA

Voltage 5V

IR Sensor
Banner SM2A312LV IR Sensor

Detector Type Retro-reflective


Detector type Phototransistor

Dimensions 66 x 12.2 x 30.7 (mm)


Dimensions 10.2 x 5.8 x 7(mm)

50mm – 2m
Peak operating distance Peak operating distance 2.5 mm

Output current Minimum of 5 mA Output current 1 mA

Voltage 24- 240 V AC Emitter Wavelength 950 nm

Voltage 5V
Air Compressor

DeWalt

Horsepower (HP) 1.6 HP

Tank Capacity (Gallons) 4.5 gal

Tank Type Portable

Voltage 120 V

Amps (Amps) 15.0 A

Max Pressure 200 PSI

Price Free
Double Acting Cylinder

• Double Action Stroke Pneumatic Cylinder

• Max Pressure: 6.0 Mpa

• Diameter: 40mm (Approx.)

• Thread Rod Diameter: 12mm (Approx.)

• Size: 40 x 40 x 600cm

• Price 3500

Air Solenoid
Type: 2 Position 5 way

Voltage: 12V DC

Power 2.5W

Current .208 Amps

Valve Fittings: 1/8" BSPT


(British standard pipe
tapered)

Total Needed 3

Price $ 11.39 (each)


Micro Controller

ARDUNO UNO

Operating Voltage 5V

Input Voltage (recommended) 7-12 V


Input Voltage (limits) 6-20 V

Digital I/O Pins 14

Analog Input Pins 6

DC Current per I/O 40 mA

DC Current for 3.3V Pin 50 mA

Flash Memory 32 KB

Clock Speed 16
WORK PLAN

DEC DEC JAN JAN FEB FEB F MAR MAR


E CH CH
B

1) Definition
2)Research paper
3) List of required
equipment
4) Part Design
5) Part drawing
6) Part fabrication

20
7) Assembly
Photo galery
62
63
64
The cylinder is a part of the pneumatic jack that houses the piston. This cylinder has

upper inlets and outlets that provide pressurized oil that moves the piston downwards.

On the other hand the lower inlets and outlets provide pressurized oil that moves the

piston upwards.

The piston rod is constructed from to parts the first one is the long rod that is used to be

outside of the cylinder to be in contact with the compressed garbage, and the second

part is the piston thick part, this part that obstruct the motion of oil in the cylinder so

the oil apply pressure on this thick part that makes the whole thing move downwards

Fig. 3.4 Piston rod Fig. 3.5 Cylinder


The flange It is the part that connects the cylinder to the frame; in addition it’s also the

part that connects the piston rod to the compressing plate

Fig 3.6 Flange

65
The pneumatic unit

The pneumatic unit is the compression unit that is composed of a tank that houses a

pump in it, on the tank there are other units mounted such as the compressor, valves; this unit

is connected to the pneumatic jack through pneumatic hoses.

Fig. 3.7 Pneumatic unit

Tank (Reservoir) - acts as a storehouse for the fluid and a heat dissipater. The reservoir

must be 3 times the volume of oil in piston to compensate the excess of heat. Also there

are some components are mounted on it rather than the pump-compressor and the valves, the

indicator, temperature gauge, filter and pouring cap

Fig. 3.8 Tank

The compressor Converts electric energy to a rotary mechanical energy

66
Fig. 3.9 Compressor

Pneumatic valves: control pressure, direction and flow rate of the pneumatic fluid [10].

Pressure switch is a form of switch that closes an electrical contact when a

certain set pressure has been reached on its input. The switch may be designed

to make contact either on pressure rise or on pressure fall.

Fig. 3.13 Pressure switch

Pressure gauge: It measures the fluid’s pressure in the hoses.

Fig. 3.14 Pressure gauge

67
Fig. 3.16 Hose

68
The lower section

The lower section contains the accessory which is assembled by two parts

The accessory frame, The is not a one part because if it was, the garbage

might stick to the base.

The base: The base has two important things a place for a material handling tool

that is used to lift up the and get it out of the housing, in addition to the

guide that is used to center the to the piston’s head movement.


Fig. 3.19 frame Fig. 3.20 base

Compressing plate: It is designed to be assembled to a flange, in addition to the

clearance considered to avoid the friction with the accessory as shown in fig 3.21
Fig. 3.21 Compressing plate

69
The lower door is designed to have an opening so that the user could be able to throw

the garbage, in some cases the door opening should have another door for safety issues,

and however this depends on the bin’s location as shown in fig 3.22

3.2 Design Calculation

Experiment

There were some experiments that were needed to be able to identify a lot of aspects of

the project. Therefore two experiments were conducted to help us reach the goals easier.

The first experiment made was concerning the force needed to compress the garbage.

This is the most important aspect of the compression mechanism design, as it will

determine a lot of things and a lot will rely on its conclusion. The first step of the

experiment was getting a similar in shape to the one that will be used in the machine

with an area of 0.16m 2. The next thing done was collecting garbage from the

street, so we went to the nearest garbage bin and we got garbage from it that would fill

the volume of the . Then we used dead weight to apply force in order to compress

70
the garbage, this force was 250 kg. This resulted in 15625 Pa and this resulted in a

compression of 50%. So relatively the compressing pressure that is going to be used is

four times the one applied in the experiment and it is 62500 Pa, so using the same

concept the machine will compress as if it uses 1500 kg of weight but on a 0.24 m2 area.

Equations

F = P × APict × ɳvol (eqn 3.1)

A = n D2 . (eqn 3.2)
4

From eqns.1 and 2 we got eqn.3

4×F
D=J (eqn 3.3)
n×P×Vɳ

Le = K*L (eqn 3.4)

Slenderness ratio calculations


4×Le
h= (eqn 3.5)
d

E
hg = nJ 0.8×S (eqn 3.6)
y

Safe load calculations

n2×E×I
F= (eqn 3.7)
SF×LK2

nD4
I= (eqn 3.8)
64

Stroke speed calculations


L
V= (eqn 3.9)
t
Q
V= (eqn 3.10)
Æ

P1A1 = P2A2 (eqn 3.11)


p2×Q
PK = (eqn 3.12)
ɳɳ

60
Pneumatic Calculation

P = 50 bar

ɳvol = 0.85

Required force F = 15205.5 N

By substituting in equation 3.3

4∗9810
Dp =
n∗5000000∗0.85
= 6.7 cm, the closest standard value = 6.8 cm

DR = 3.6 cm.

ɸ = 1.49

σ = 415 MPa.

E= 200 GPa

L = 140 cm

By substituting in equation 3.4

Le = 140*0.7 = 98 cm

By substituting in equation 3.5


4∗98
λ= = 108.9
3.6

By substituting in equation 3.6

λg= nƒ(200 ∗ 1000)/(0.8 ∗ 415) =77.1051

SF = 3

By substituting in equation 3.8

I = n∗(36)^4 = 82447.9576 mm4


64

By substituting in equation 3.7

n2∗200000∗82448
F= = 56485.4 N
3∗9802

Since the applied force is less than the safe load, therefore there is no buckling

and the design will take the effective stroke as the required stroke.

61
LS = Le = 98 cm.

0.98
V1= = 5.88 m/min.
0.167

Returning to equation 3.2


n∗0.067^2
AP= = 0.0036 m2
4

By substituting in equation 3.10

Q1 = 0.0036*5.88 = 0.021 m3/min.

By substituting in eqn.[10] using the annulus area we get V2.

0.021
V2= = 10 m/min.
0.0021

By substituting in equation 3.11

(50000000∗21)/10000
P2 = = MPa
0.00358

By substituting in equation 3.12


0.013∗4548929
PH= =1210.5882 W = 1.6 HP
0.85∗60

By substituting with Q1 and V1 in equation (3.10) we get Apipe.

0.00035∗(100)2
Apipe = = 0.88 cm2
4

By returning to equation 3.2

Dpipe = ƒ(4 ∗ 0.88)/n = 1.06 cm

Frame Calculations:

Equations
F
F\ = (eqn 3.13)
no of beams
F
w= (eqn 3.14)
S

ѡl² (eqn 3.15)


Mmax=
8

62
1
I= [304-(30-2t)4] (eqn 3.16)
12

Mmaxc
σ= (eqn 3.17)
I

Su
σ≤ (eqn 3.18)
n

by substituting eqn. 17 in eqn. 18

Mmaxc Su
≤ (eqn 3.19)
I n
Calculations

F=1550 kg, Force= 15205.5 N

By substituting in equation 3.13

F\ =3801.4 N/beam

l=0.4m

By substituting in equation 3.14

w=9503.4 N/m

W=9503.4 N/m

t
30 mm

Mmax

By substituting in equation 3.15


9503.4∗0.4
Mmax= =190.1 Nm
8

Sut for steel=400 MPa n=3

By substituting in equation 3.19


400 190.1∗10000∗15

3 I

63
By factorization
190.1∗10000∗15∗12∗3
304-(30-2t)4 ≥
400

solving the equation for t;

t≥1.363mm

therefore t=1.5mm

Since bottom of the frame passes the compression under the presence of 4

beams thus the accessory must contain at least 4 beams as its co-centric with

the bottom of the frame.

64
67
68
69
70
71
72
CHAPTER IV

MANUFACTURING OF THE TRASH COMPACTOR BIN

In this chapter the manufacturing phase will be discussed, every part in the project will

be discussed separately.

4.1 Structure manufacturing

A. The Frame

Starting with frame as it was the first thing to be manufactured after knowing the

desired space of the other parts like the pneumatic section and the control.

Fig. 4.1 Frame

The Frame was manufactured from a squared cross section bars that has outer

dimension of 30mm and it is hollow-ed by a square cross section leaving a thickness

1.5mm. These bars are made of steel that has ultimate tensile stress of 400MPa and

yield tensile stress 250MPa.

73
30
mm

30mm
Fig. 4.2 Cross section of steel bars

The frame design had a factor of safety 3 from the ultimate tensile to ensure safety.

These bars were cut into different heights and welded to each other reaching the outer

frame shape. The dimensions are expressed in the following table.

Bill of Materials

Table 4.1 Frame Bill of materials

Part Name Quantity Material Dimensions


Height Length *Width Thickness
Beam A 4 mild steel 1900 mm 30mm*30mm 1.5 mm
Beam B 8 mild steel 440 mm 30mm*30mm 1.5 mm
Beam C 4 mild steel 750 mm 30mm*30mm 1.5 mm
Beam D 2 mild steel 700 mm 30mm*30mm 1.5 mm
Beam E 2 mild steel 1070 mm 30mm*30mm 1.5 mm
Beam F 8 mild steel 100 mm 30mm*30mm 1.5 mm
Corner A 1 mild steel 750 mm 40mm*40mm 2 mm
Corner B 2 mild steel 500 mm 40mm*40mm 2 mm
Plate 1 mild steel - 750mm*500mm 10 mm

Beam A was the first part to be cut, this part has quantity of 4, every two beams were

welded from the top and bottom to beam B forming 2 separate frames, and then after

that the two frames are welded to beam C forming the outer shape of the frame. Like the

figure below

74
Fig. 4.3 Frame in manufacturing phase

Then four additional beams of beam B is then welded to the bottom making the bottom

of the frame, then to widen the base to add stability for the transportation, every two of

beam F were welded to each side of the bottom of the frame at its ends, then both beam

D and E are welded beams F providing large base similar to that in figure 4.1. And then

two of corner B are added to the short side at height 1030mm from the base and corner

A is welded to the large side at the same height where the plate is welded to it. Then

some of U shaped bars are welded to the plate and beam that strengthen the frame

avoiding what is call “bending of rectangular plate” which is difficult to be calculated.

The frame at last was covered with aluminum sheets that give it its fine finish and good

looking.

B. The Accessory

The Accessory was manufactured from the same material of the frame, however

it’s divided into two parts; a base and a frame, the base is manufactured from the same

beams that built the frame but with different heights.

75
 The Frame

The frame was manufactured from a 2 mm thick sheets that formed the frame

then additional corners where welded to the frame that strengthen the frame to

withstand the forces of the compression and this is shown in the figure below.

Fig. 4.4 frame

 The Base

The table below shows the parts that the base was manufactured with.

Bill of Material

Table 4.2 Base Bill of Material


Part Name Quantity Material Dimensions
Height Length *Width Thickness
Beam A 2 mild steel 666mm 30mmx30mm 1.5mm
Beam B 9 mild steel 364mm 30mmx30mm 1.5mm
Beam C 2 mild steel 350mm 30mmx30mm 1.5mm
Beam D 4 mild steel 85mm 30mmx30mm 1.5mm
Beam E 4 mild steel 145mm 30mmx30mm 1.5mm
Corner A 2 mild steel 666mm 25mmx25mm 2mm
Corner B 2 mild steel 364mm 25mmx25mm 2mm
Plate 1 mild steel - 662mmx420mm 4mm

Two of Beam A where welded to two of beam B making what is likely to be described

as a photo frame then three of beam B were welded to that frame, then four of beam D

were welded at 158mm from the ends, then two of beam C were welded to the ends to

be parallel to beam A. Furthermore 2 of beam B are then welded to the two beams C,

76
four of beam E were
welded to beam A’s Beam B
end and finally 2 of
beam B were welded
to

the other ends of


Beam E. after this
process the output
was a structured steel
frame and

then a plate is
welded to four
corners and then
those four corners
were welded to the

structural frame.
The pneumatic section is composed of the pneumatic jack, tank, compressor, pump, valves, and

the filter

The pneumatic jack it was purchased according to the design; it was a used one and the

seals were changed to ensure that no leakage will occur.

The tank was manufactured by a pneumatic expert because it bears high pressure and

there shouldn’t be any miss welding or any leakage.

Fig.4.6 Tank

77
The compressor, pump, valves and filter

They were purchased from the market according to the desired pump specifications and

then the other parts were chosen so as to satisfy the pump compressor

specifications. All the parts were assembled to the tank cover; the compressor, pump,

valves and the pressure gauge; the compressor and the pump were assembled firstly to

the tank cover; while the valves were assembled all to a connector and then the whole

valves unit were assembled to the tank cover, all these are shown in the following

figures.

78
Compressor specifications

Table 4.3 CIMA compressor(Italy) specification


4 POLI / POLES Volt 230/50 Hz (1500 rpm)
Frame Nominal Power RPM Torque 230 V Cosφ Eff. η Nm2 Weight
Size Nm A % Kg
KW HP
90L 1.5 2 1330 10.57 9.6 0.98 65 0.299 15.2

Directional control valve specification:

Table 4.7 Kompass pressure switch


MAX. PRESSURE
OPERATING ADJ. MOUNTING WEIGHT
MODEL
PRESSURE RANGE TYPE (kg)
(kgf/cm2) (kgf/cm2)
THREAD TYPE
60:5-60
1:1/4" PT
125:10-125
APSC 200 2:1/4" NPT 0.6
275:25-275
3:1/4" SAE
400:300-400
4:1/4"BSP

Compressing plate

The compressing plate was manufactured from a plate that was cut to the desired

dimension, then the 4 holes were drilled, then the guides are welded and finally the

fillets chamfers were cut.

Control system assembly

The control system was designed to meet our specifications; each component was used

to provide a certain feature. A technician was hired to insure that the control system is

designed and functioning as desired. Then the next phase was concerned with the

79
purchasing of the components. And an on filed market survey was conducted to

increase our knowledge about these components. The next phase was proceeding in

buying the required components. The circuit was designed to meet two important

requirements, the first is to operate the machine using a manual or automatic circuit, and

the second is to insure safety of the user and the machine itself. And the next part was

begging in the assembly process using help from the technician specialist, and then

testing the machine to ensure that it is working according to the specifications required.

Fig.4.10 Control unit of the trash compactor bin

80
The testing phase is a critical one, as the machine is already assembled and it's time to

test the components solely and the machine as a whole. The first thing done was tying

the pneumatic system manually to be sure that it works according to the design made.

This was done manually by means of the directional control valve, by trying to move

the piston up and down using the buttons to ensure that it is working with the required

manner. And also the pressure control and relief valves were tested to be sure that the

safety measures designed in the project is working and performing as required, this was

done by putting a mixture of garbage and compressing it, while monitoring the pressure
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indicator to ensure that the pressure switch stops the piston's motion at 50 bras. The

result that the pressure switch stopped the motion at 50 bars. Meanwhile another test

was carried on which was the test of the frame to be sure that it would bare the stresses

induced on it and this was ensured during all the tests made. The second part was

testing the machine using the automatic system, and this is the part where the control

system plays a very important role. The result of this tests showed that the control

system needed some revising and in fact some modifications were made in order to

reach a better situation. Then after these modifications were made the machine was

tested on the automatic mode once again and it worked as required, and this implies that

when you put a bag of garbage it cuts the optical beam and gives a signal for the control

system to operate the pneumatic compaction. This is when it was clear that the

machine is now working as designed. The machine was then tested using its full

capacity to observe how it would perform under different types of material and

volumes compressed, and an experiment was preformed thusly.

Experiment

The experiment was concerned with testing the machine itself, so we needed to

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calculate the compression ratio of the machine. That's why experiments were conducted

in order to reach the correct compression ratio of garbage. As a result these experiments

were conducted by adding garbage bags. At the beginning we put a plastic bag to cover

the accessory to contain all the garbage plastic bags to follow. We added 5 bags each

one separately and measured each one's volume using a meter and then we measured

the volume after compression of all the bags combined and we measured each garbage

bag's weight using a weight scale. The first bag was added and then allowed the

machine to compress it, then we added the second and third bag as their volume was

small so we combined them in one step, afterwards the fourth and fifth bags were

disposed into the machine. Finally the covering plastic bag was closed and got out of

the machine and we measured the volume and weighed it. The compaction ratio was

calculated by dividing the initial volume of the garbage bags combined and dividing it

by the volume of the final garbage bag after compactions. After that the the experiment

resulted in a compressing ratio of 3.5 to 1 of the initial volume of garbage compacted,

and experiment result is available in table 4.8.

Table 4.8 Experiment


Bag L (cm) W (cm) H (cm) Weight (Kg) Volume(m3)
1 55 43 75 10.5 0.177375
2 43 43 73 0.134977
10
3 43 31 33 0.043989
4 63 48 53 14 0.160272
5 56 51 31 7.5 0.088536
Total 42 0.605149
Average weight 8.4 -
Average volume - 0.121
Average density 69.4 kg/m3
Final volume after
65 45 58 0.16965
compression
Density after
247.6 kg/m3
Compression
Compression ratio 3.567044

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Chapter VI: Conclusion

The trash compactor bin is a machine that is used to compact garbage, which is the

main reason for this project. There are a lot of benefits from compacting the garbage,

and these benefits depend on the compression capability of this compactor. Apparently,

when the compressing ratio of the garbage increase, the benefits will increase. And this

compression ratio is one of the most defying aspects of this project, thus one of the most

important. This compression ratio was needed to be measured, that's why experiments

were conducted in order to reach the correct compression ratio. As a result these

experiments were conducted and they resulted a compressing ratio of 3.5 to 1 of the

initial volume of garbage compacted. As a result there are going to be a lot of benefits

based on this ratio, as it will increase savings in transportation costs branches of fuel

cost, labor cost, cost of whole trucks, and the cost of maintenance. All these savings

give an indication that the trash compactor bin has reached its goals. Not only does the

trash compactor bin achieve savings in transportation costs but also it helps in keeping

the streets clean as it prevents overfilling of garbage bins, which will hopefully make

the country look much more attractive and help improve the overall image of the nation.

Also one of the most important results of the trash compactor bin is that it works

without human interference which will allow the normal people and citizens to deal

with it in an easy manner without any complications, also the safety of the user was held

paramount, as the safety is one of the most important things to consider when using a

machine in public, especially one with this huge power and compaction capability. Also

one of the important features achieved in this compactor is that it's portable which

means that it can be used in more than one place if one can't afford to have a trash

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compactor in a lot of streets or premises. Also it is a relatively light machine compared

to the other trash compactors available, bearing in mind that this machine has a very

high power to weight and force to mass ratio as it compresses with a force five times its

weight.

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