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Ques1: Discuss and compare between deduction, reasoning and problem

solving approaches.

Ans: An approach to proof theory that attempts to provide a formal model of logical reasoning
as it "naturally" occurs. Deduction, on the other hand, starts from general observations rather
than specific ones. It is also called the "top-down" approach, and is the opposite of inductive
reasoning. For example: We know that all men are mortal. We also know that John is a man.
Therefore, by deductive reasoning, we can say that John is mortal.

Any process of drawing a conclusion from a set of premises may be called a process of
reasoning. If the conclusion concerns what to do, the process is called practical reasoning,
otherwise pure or theoretical reasoning. Partly, it has to be remembered that reasoning is a
dynamic process, and that what to a logician looks like a static contradiction may be the sensible
replacement of one set of assumptions with others as the process develops. Furthermore, as we
reason we make use of an indefinite lore or common-sense set of presumptions about what is
likely or not

Problem solving is a mental process and is part of the larger problem process that includes
problem finding and problem shaping. Considered the most complex of all intellectual functions,
problem solving has been defined as higher-order cognitive process that requires the modulation
and control of more routine or fundamental skills. Problem solving occurs when an organism or
an artificial intelligence system needs to move from a given state to a desired goal state.

Ques2: The Turing test has often been incorrectly interpreted as being a test
of whether or not a person could distinguish between responses from a
computer and responses from a person. Make 10 questions through which we
can differentiate a system and a Human. Answer all those questions according
to system and a Human.

Ans In artificial intelligence, a test proposed (1950) by the English mathematician Alan M.
Turing to determine whether a computer can “think.”

In this test a computer, a human individual are tested for their sense of intelligence. There is
a person who judges both the entities by the answer given to the questions asked.

Some of the basic questions may be

i) What is your name?
Human: my name is abc
Computer : find your computer name
ii) Why do we study?
Human:to get knowledge
Computer:why isn,t sleep available?
iii) Is sjfaohuofjfnwoufof a word?
Human : no.
Computer : no grammatical answers.
iv) Who invented artificial intelligence?
Human : Some scientists.
Computer: based on internet database.
v) Wher do you live?
Human:I live in delhi
Computer:import live video from dv camera
vi) Where is bombay?
Human : in maharashtra
Computer: location unknown
vii) When did time begin?
Human : don’t have a clue.
Computer : chck your spelling
viii) Can computers think?
Human : no
Computer: view your computers information
ix)when do you sleep?
Human:I sleep at late night
Computer : why isn’t sleep available
x)Do ghosts exist?
Human: may be
Computer : enter input for ghosts

Ques3: Discuss state space representation for the following problem

a. Suppose we have a tower which has five disks of different sizes on

it, with largest at the bottom and smallest on the top. We have two
more towers. How will these disks be placed on third disk in the same
order in which they were on the first? Do take care that only one disk
can be moved at a time.

Ans: In this case we suppose have three empty stands and we have to successfully transfer the
contents from one stand to third stand. Let they be named A,B,C
Let the disks be named 5,4,3,2,1 in order from up to down, meaning that the largest disk numbers
1 and smallest one numbers 5. Then the moves will be as under:
1) Place all the disks in order 5,4,3,2,1 on stand A
2) Place disk 5 on C
3) Place disk 4 on B
4) Place disk 5 above 4 on B
5) Place disk 3 on C
6) Place disk 5 on A above 1,2
7) Place disk 4 on C
8) Place disk 5 on C above 4
9) Place disk 2 on B
10) Place disk 5 above 2 on B
11) Place disk 4 above 1 on A
12) Place disk 5 on A
13) Place disk 3 on above of 2 in B
14) Place disk 5 on C
15) Place disk 4 on B
16) Place disk 5 on B
17) Place disk 1 on C
18) Place disk 5 on A
19) Place disk 4 on above of 1 on C
20) Place disk 5 on above of 4 on C
21) Place disk 3 on A
22) Place disk 5 on above of 2 on B
23) Place disk 4 on above of 3 on A
24) Place disk 5 on B
25) Place disk 2 on above of 1 on C
26) Place disk 5 on C
27) Place disk 4 on B
28) Place disk 5 on above of 4 on B
29) Place disk 3 on top of 2 on C
30) Place disk 5 on A
31) Place disk 4 on top of 3 on C
32) Place disk 5 on top of 4 on C

Hence this completes the move of the five disks from one stand to another.

b. Four persons are standing on one end of the river from which two
are children and one is mother and another one is father. Both of
children having wait of 40kg and mother is of 60kg and father is of
80kg.where a boat is available in which maximum 100kg weight can
cross the river. How will they arrange to cross the river?
Ans: goal state-to cross the river such that wt in the boat is not more than 100 kgs.
Wt of each child=40 kg
Wt of mother=60 kg
Wt of father=80kg

Solution steps:
• Mother and child goes,mother get down and child returns with the boat.
• Then the two child goes,one gets down.and one returns back with the boat.
• The father gets into the boat alone and goes living the child on the another side
• Father gets down and mother gets into the boat and moves to the other side,takes the
child in the boat and returns


Ques4: Provide the definition of the word “heuristic”. In what ways can
heuristic be useful in search? Name three ways in which you use heuristic in
your everyday life

Ans: Heuristic is an adjective for experience-based techniques that help in problem solving,
learning and discovery. . In more precise terms, heuristics stand for strategies using readily
accessible, though loosely applicable, information to control problem solving in human beings
and machines.
The predominant state-space planning methods in artificial intelligence are collectively known as
heuristic search.

A heuristic is a method that

• might not always find the best solution

• but is guaranteed to find a good solution in reasonable time.

• By sacrificing completeness it increases efficiency.

• Useful in solving tough problems which
o could not be solved any other way.
o solutions take an infinite time or very long time to compute.

The classic example of heuristic search methods is the travelling salesman problem.

Ques5: Given a 5-litre jug filled with water and an empty 2-litre jug, how can
one obtain precisely 1-litre in the 2-litre jug? Water may either be discarded
or poured from one jug to another; however, no more than the initial 5 liters
is available.
Ans: as per the given condition we have two jugs , a 5 litre and a 2 litre jug. We follow the
following steps to arrive at the goal state that is having 1 litre in the 2 litre jug.
Let 5 litre jug= jug 1
2 litre jug = jug 2
i) transfer water from jug 1 to jug 2.
ii) Discard water from jug 2.
iii) trasnfer water from jug 1 to jug 2 .
iv) Discard water in jug 2.
v) transfer the reamining 1 litre water from jug 1 to jug 2
vi) The remaining 1 litre remains in the 2 litre jug.

Jug 1 jug 2

5 0
3 2
3 0
1 2
1 0
0 1

Ques6: Given the following graph:

3 4


a. Find the path from node 1 to node 7 using depth first search.
In depth first search the required path is 1,2,3,5,7
b. Find the path from node 1 to node 7 using breadth first search.
In breadth first all nodes of kth level are first listed followed by those at the k+1th level. So
the required path 1,2,3,4,5,6,7