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Introduction - Concepts of Control Systems- Open Loop and closed loop control systems and their differences-
Different examples of control systems- Classification of control systems, Feed-Back Characteristics, Effects of
feedback. Mathematical models – Differential equations, Impulse Response and transfer functions -
Translational and Rotational mechanical systems

System: Any group (or) combination of Output (Controlled variable): It is the actual
elements taken together as whole unit to achieve response obtained from a control system, which must
certain objective is called a system. be maintained at a prescribed value.
Each system may have a large number of sub Feedback element: It is the unit which
systems. provides the means for feeding back the output
Ex-1: This universe is itself a system quantity in order to compare it with the reference
consisting of large system like stars, solar family, input.
planets etc.. Actuating Signal (Error signal): It is the
Ex-2: Human body as a system has digestive difference between the reference input signal and
system, respiratory system etc.. feedback signal.
Ex-3: A lamp, made up of glass, filament is Disturbances: Disturbance is a signal which
a physical system. tends to adversely affect the value of the output of a
Control system: A Control system is an system.
arrangement of different physical elements If such a disturbance is generated within the
connected in such a manner so as to regulate, direct system itself, it is called an ‘Internal disturbance’.
or command itself or some other system. The disturbance generated outside the system acting
Ex: If a lamp is switched ‘ON’ or ‘OFF’ as an extra input to the system in addition to its
using a switch, the entire system can be called a normal input, affecting the output adversely is called
control system. an ‘external disturbance’.


Control systems can be classified as follows:
1.Natural Control systems: The biological
systems, systems inside human being are of natural
i.e., control system is an interconnection of type.
the physical components to provide a desired Ex: The perspiration system inside the human being.
function, involving some kind of controlling action 2. Man made Control systems: The various
in it. systems, we are using in our day to day life are
Plant: It is the process / body/ machine of designed and manufactured by human beings.
which a particular quantity or condition is to be Ex: Vehicles, Switches, Electric devices etc..
controlled. 3. Combinational Control systems: These
Control element (Controller): It is the are the combination of natural and man made
component required to generate the appropriate control systems.
control signal applied to the plant. Ex: Driver driving a vehicle.
Command Input(controlling variable): It is 4. Time varying and Time Invarient
the excitation applied to a control system from an Systems:
external source. It is also a motivating input signal to Time Varying control systems are those in
the system, which is independent of the output of the which parameters of the system are varying with
system. time. It is not dependent on whether input and output
Reference input: It is the actual signal input are functions of time or not.
to the control sytem. Ex: Space vehicles, rockets
Time In-varient control systems are those in Ex: Microprocessor or computer based
which parameters of the system are independent of systems use discrete time signals. Because these
time and are constants. signals are
Ex: Different electrical networks consisting  less sensitive to noise
of the elements as resistances, inductances and  Time sharing of one equipment with
capacitances. other channels is possible
5. Linear and Non-linear Control systems:  Advantageous from point of view of size,
In non-linear systems, the output does not have speed, memory, flexibility etc..
linear relationship with input. It does not satisfy the
Principle of Superposition and Principle of 7. Deterministic and Stochastic Control
homogeneity. systems:
Ex: V-I characteristics of a PN diode A control system is said to be deterministic
when its response to input as well as behavior to
external disturbances is predictable and repeatable.
If such response is unpredictable, system is
said to be stochastic in nature.
8. Lumped parameter and Distributed
parameter control systems:
In linear systems, the output has linear Control system that can be described by
relationship with the input. It satisfies the Principle ordinary differential equations is called lumped
of superposition and Principle of homogeneity. parameter control system. Lumped parameters are
Ex: Resistors, Amplifier.. physically seperable.
Ex: Electrical networks with R-L-C
Control system that can be described by
partial differential equations is called Distributed
parameter control system. Distributed parameters
cannot be physically separated.
6. Continuous and Discrete Control Ex: Transmission line parameters.
systems: 9. Single Input Single Output (SISO) and
In a continuous time control system, all the Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) Systems:
system variables are functions of a continuous time A system having only one input and one
variable ‘t’. output is called SISO system.
Ex: The speed control of a DC motor using Ex: Position control system
field control method. A system having multiple inputs and multiple
outputs is called MIMO systems.
Ex: Automatic Aircraft landing system.
10. Open loop and Closed loop control
An open loop control system is one in which
the output quantity has no effect on the input
In Discrete time systems, the system quantity, that means, the output is not fed back to the
variables are the functions of discrete instants of input for correction, i.e. a system in which there is no
time. They are not continuously dependent on the feed back is called an open-loop control system.
time. Ex: electric switch, washing machine etc..
A closed loop control system is one in which
the output has an effect on the input. The output is
fed back, compared with the reference input and the
difference between them is used to control and bring
the output of the system to a desired level.
Ex: Liquid level control system
(i) Open Loop Control Systems:
Definition: An open loop control system is one in
which the output quantity has no effect on the input
quantity, that means, the output is not fed back to
the input for correction, i.e. a system in which there
is no feed back is called an open-loop control system
General block Diagram:

Reference input r(t) is applied to the

controller which generates the actuating signal u(t),
required to control the process which is to be
controlled. Process is giving out the necessary
desired controlled output c(t).
1. Open loop systems are simple and
2. The open loop systems are easier to
3. Generally, the open loop control systems are
4. These systems are easy from maintenance
point of view.