Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 25

Presented By:

Surbhi Pathak
B.TECH 3rd year
Electrical Engg.
Roll No. 14905420098
COAL

FOSSIL FUEL OIL

NATURAL GAS

SOLAR PV / THERMAL

RENEWABLES HYDRO

WIND

BIO - MASS

OTHER NUCLEAR
“ A fuel cell is a device that converts the chemical energy
from a fuel into electricity through a chemical reaction with
oxygen or another oxidizing agent. ”

Fuel
Energy
Fuel cell

3
 Fuel cell consists of electrodes, electrolyte &
catalyst to facilitate the electrochemical redox
reaction.
 The basic arrangement in a fuel cell can be
represented as follows:

Fuel Electrode Electrolyte Electrode Oxidant


• Anode
– Negative post of the fuel cell.
– Materials which have high electron conductivity & zero proton
conductivity .

• Cathode
– Positive post of the fuel cell.
– Have high electron conductivity & zero proton conductivity.
• Electrolyte
– Proton exchange membrane.
– Specially treated material, only conducts positively charged ions.
– Membrane blocks electrons.
• Catalyst
– Special material that facilitates reaction of oxygen and hydrogen
– Usually platinum powder very thinly coated onto carbon paper or
cloth.
 Pressurized hydrogen gas (H2) enters cell on anode side.
 Gas is forced through catalyst by pressure.
◦ When H2 molecule comes contacts platinum catalyst, it splits
into two H+ ions and two electrons (e-).
 Electrons are conducted through the anode
◦ Make their way through the external circuit (doing useful work
such as turning a motor) and return to the cathode side of the
fuel cell.
 On the cathode side, oxygen gas (O2) is forced through
the catalyst
◦ Forms two oxygen atoms, each with a strong negative charge.
◦ Negative charge attracts the two H+ ions through the
membrane,
◦ Combine with an oxygen atom and two electrons from the
external circuit to form a water molecule (H2O).
7
8
At
anode • 2H2 → 4H + + 4e-

At
Cathod • O2 + 4H+ + 4e- → 2H2O
e
Overall
Reactio • 2H2 + O2 → 2H2O
n
 Large number of these cells are stacked together in
series to make a battery called as fuel cell battery or
fuel battery.
Fuel Cells Application in India
Commercial establishments

Shops in Malls and Underground bazaars


1 to 3 kW systems / around 1,00,000
Small Business Establishments
5-10 kW systems / 50,000
Entertainment Industry
25-50 kW systems / 500 to 1,000
Hotels, restaurants & Resorts
100-200 kW systems / up to 500 units
Hospitals
200-500 kW systems / up to 200 units
Residential Complexes
50-200 kW systems / 30,000 to 50,000
220-kW hybrid system with a Solid Oxide SOFC stack
Fuel Cell (SOFC) generator and a down-
stream micro-turbine
1. High efficiency of energy conversion
(approaching 70%) from chemical energy to
electrical energy.
2. Low noise pollution & low thermal pollution.
3. Fuel cell power can reduce expensive
transmission lines & minimize transmission loses
for a disturbed system.
4. Saves fossil fuels.
5. Fuel cells are less polluting. Mostly the
byproducts are water & waste heat, which are
environmentally acceptable .
6. Hydrogen-Oxygen fuel cells produce drinking
water of potable quality.
7. Low maintenance cost.
8. Fuel cells automotive batteries can render
electric vehicles, efficient & refillable.
 High initial cost.
 Life times of the cells are not accurately
known.
 Large weight and volume of gas fuel storage
system.
 High cost of pure hydrogen.
 Pure hydrogen is difficult to handle.
 Hydrogen often created using “dirty” energy (e.g.,
coal)
Fuel cells have many advantages over conventional power
generating equipment: high efficiency, low emissions, flexibility,
high reliability, low maintenance, and multi-fuel capability.
Because of their efficiency and environmental advantages, fuel
cell technologies are viewed as an attractive 21st century solution
to energy problems.
24
25