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IDENTIFYING

AND ANALYZING CLAIMS


Critical Reading

A. EXPLICIT
• Information that is CLEARLY STATED
• Obvious and apparent, DIRECTLY stated
• Written in the text
B. IMPLICIT
• Ideas that are SUGGESTED
• NOT EXPRESS CLEARLY; only suggested, INDIRECTLY stated
Claims

 Central argument or thesis statement of the text.


 Writer’s point or position regarding the chosen topic.
 A statement that the author wants the reader to accept by providing details, explanations, and
other types of evidence.
 A sentence that summarizes the most important thing that the writer wants to say.

Characteristics of good claims


• A claim should be argumentative and debatable.
• A claim should be specific and focused.
• A claim should be interesting and engaging.
• A claim should be logical.

TYPES OF CLAIMS

CLAIM OF FACT

• State a quantifiable assertion or measurable topic.


• Asserts something has existed, exists, will exist
• Rely on reliable sources or systematic procedures to be validated.
• Usually answer the “What” question.

CLAIM OF POLICY

• Depends on an existing policy, rule, or law.


• Specific actions should be chosen as solution to a particular problem.
• Uses the word “should”, “ought”, or “must”.
• Usually answer the “How” question.

CLAIM OF VALUE

• Based on moral, philosophical or aesthetic.


• Argues weather something good or bad or something similar.
• Makes judgments based on certain standards.
Context of Text Development
Context
 It is defined as social, cultural, political, historical, and other related circumstances that
surround the text
 Form the terms from which it can be better understood and evaluated
 Knowledge of the text’s context helps in appreciating the text’s message more deeply.

Intertextuality
 Modeling of a text’s meaning by another text.
 Connection between language, images, characters, themes, or subjects depending on their
similarities in language, genre or discourse.
 This is seen when an author borrows and transforms a prior text, or when you read one text and
you reference another.

Hypertext
 Text chunks that lead the reader down different pathways.
 It is a non-linear way of showing information.
 It connects topics on screen to related information, graphics, videos, music ̶ information is not
simply related to text.
 This information is usually accessed by clicking.
 The reader can jump to more information about a topic, which in turn have more links. This
opens up the reader to a wider horizon of information or to a new direction.

CRITICAL READING AS REASONING

CHARACTERISTICS OF A CRITICAL READER


 Analytical
 Observant
 Inquisitive
 Persistent
 Objective

Identifying Assertions
 Assertions are declarative sentences that claim something is true about something else.

FOUR TYPES OF ASSERTIONS.


We can classify assertion based on the degree of certainty they can be judged as true or false.
 Fact is a statement that can be proven objectively by direct experience, testimonies of
witnesses, verified observations, or the results of research.
 Convention is a way in which something is done, similar to traditions and norms
 Opinion is not necessarily based on facts, but is difficult to objectively verify because of
the uncertainty of producing satisfactory proofs of soundness.
 Preference is based on personal choice; therefore, they are subjective and cannot be
objectively proven.
FORMULATING COUNTERCLAIMS
 What are the major points on which you and the author can disagree?
 What is their strongest argument? What did they say to defend their position?
 What are the merits of their view?
 What are the weaknesses or shortcomings in their argument?
 Are there any hidden assumptions?
 Which lines from the text best support the counterclaim you have formulated?

DETERMINING TEXTUAL EVIDENCE


Evidence is defined as the details given by the author to support his/her claim.
Evidence include the following:
 Facts and statistics (objectively validated information on your subject);
 Opinion from experts (leading authorities on a topic, such as researchers or academics); and
 Personal anecdotes (relevant and objectively considered)

Characteristics of a good evidence:


 unified;
 relevant to the central point;
 specific and concrete;
 accurate; and
 representative or typical.

FORMULATING EVALUATIVE STATEMENTS

What is EVALUATIVE STATEMENT?


▪ It is a way of giving a better explanation to show the strength and the weaknesses of something
through writing.
▪ It presents a value judgment based on a set of criteria.
▪ It is used in giving a sound judgment – a judgment that can be backed up or supported by valid
reasons or proofs.
▪ It is the writer’s way of explaining why a strength is a strength and a weakness a weakness
based on the evidences gathered.

HOW TO FORMULATE AN EVALUATIVE STATEMENT?


▪ Evaluative statements about a text are formulated after having read the text carefully and
critically, grasping the essence of the text and checking for possible fallacies in the argument.
▪ The formulation of the evaluative statements is done in the same way you do any other writing
except that the statement is about your judgment of the text’s content and property.

TWO POSSIBLE WAYS IN COMPOSING AN EVALUATIVE STATEMENT


 Formulating assertions about the content and the properties of a text read.
 Formulating a meaningful counterclaim in response to a claim made in the text read.

ASSERTIONS
 When someone makes a statement investing his strong belief in it. As if it is true though it may
not be, he is making an assertion.
COUNTERCLAIMS
 When someone makes an opposing argument or statement to a claim. He is making a
counterclaim.

Formulating Assertions about the Content and the Properties of a Text Read
 In this step, you have to examine which ideas are facts or opinions, make inferences or
conclusions, and assess the overall quality of the text.

Formulating Assertions about the Content and the Properties of a Text Read
 In this step, you have to examine which ideas are facts or opinions, make inferences or
conclusions, and assess the overall quality of the text.

A hedge is a word or phrase that minimizes negative impact of a criticism. Hedge is used to give a
courteous volume in your writing.
Hedges could come in different forms such as:
 Modals – may, could, would, etc.
 Frequency adverbs – usually, generally, commonly
 Probability adverbs – probably, possibly, presumably

What is EVALUATIVE ESSAY?


▪ Evaluative essays are a way of judging someone or something as good or bad.
▪ Writing an evaluative essay involves the writer to fully examine both sides and define a
debatable judgment. Students must fully search the subject and then offer views and
confirmation to back the judgment.

DETERMINING TEXTUAL EVIDENCE

What is TEXTUAL EVIDENCE?


 Textual evidence is evidence from a text (fiction or nonfiction) that you can use to illustrate your
ideas and to support your arguments.

All textual evidence should:


 Support a specific point
 Be cited with a page number at the end of the sentence.
 Be followed by a “connection” that explains the relationship of the evidence to your main point.

Three Types of Textual Evidence


 Summarizing
 Paraphrasing
 Quoting

QUOTING
• support your argument using the exact words from the original text.
• most convincing evidence of the three types as they add credibility to the point you are trying to
make.
• anything from a word to several sentences taken word-for-word from the original source and
enclosed in quotation marks
NOTE: When you use a quotation as evidence, you should integrate it into your own writing using a
“signal phrase.”

PARAPHRASING
• a rephrasing in your own voice and sentence structure of one portion of the original source and
is about the same length as the original sentence or sentences you are paraphrasing.
• focuses concisely on a single main idea.
NOTE: Even though a paraphrase is in your words, it is not your idea. Remember to cite your source
when you paraphrase.

SUMMARIZING
 shorter than the original source and gives the text’s central idea in your own words.
 taking the essence of the writer’s idea and stating it more briefly, with less detail and
explanation.
NOTE: When you are writing a summary, you need to be very careful not to use the original writer’s
words without putting those words in quotation marks. You also need to be sure that when you
summarize, you are fairly representing the original writer’s main idea.

How to choose which method of incorporating evidence to use?

QUOTATION
• you are relying on the reputation of the writer of the original source to give authority or
credibility to your paper.
• the original wording is so remarkable that paraphrasing would diminish it.

PARAPHRASE
• you need to provide a supporting fact or detail but the original writer’s exact words are not
important.
• you need to use just one specific idea from a source and the rest of the source is not as
important.

SUMMARIZE
• You need to give an overview of a source to orient your reader.
• You want to provide background that leads up to the point of your paper.

Finding Explicit Textual Evidence and Making Inferences

EXPLICIT
• Explicit = Direct
• Textual = From the Text
• Evidence = support for your answer, opinion or idea.

INFERENCE
• a conclusion made based on both information/evidence and reasoning.

EXPLICIT TEXTUAL EVIDENCE


• clearly stated so there is no room for confusion or questions.
• Word for word information that the author tells you directly
Writing for College and Employment Applications
What is a Resume?

 A resume is a document that contains a brief account of a person’s education, skills, work
experience and other qualifications.
 It is usually sent along with job applications and sometimes with school applications as well.

Why should you write a Resume?

 It will help you to become more organized and prepare for opportunities in employment and
education.
 It will help you determine the areas you need to improve.
 Help you remember and record experiences that may be useful for future endeavors.

Formatting Your Resume

 The most typical format of a resume is the chronological resume. It is called as such because it
describes your work experience role by role, beginning with the most recent job.
 It is the most popular because your education and work history are immediately revealed.
 How you arrange the format and information of your resume should be strategic, revealing the
most important and impressive qualifications first and de-emphasizing any weaknesses.

Categories that normally appear in a chronological resume:

Heading
 This includes your identifying information, such as full name, address, home phone number,
cellphone number, and email address.
Objective
 This informs the reader the specific purpose of your resume.
Education
 The list of schools that you have attended. You may include your class rank.
Honors and Awards
 This lists any academic and extracurricular recognition you may have received. It gives the
reader a short description of the awards and tells the reader when you won it.
School Activities
 This enumerates your experiences in school including clubs, class projects, sports, etc. You ought
to be descriptive in this section to give the reader a grasp of your experience. You can include
the year you were involved, duties or specific contributions.
Work Experience
 This reveals any relevant work experience you may have had (paid or voluntary). Include your
job title, the name of the organization, the dates of your employment, and your specific duties
and accomplishments.
 Show tasks that reveal your technical, communication, leadership, and interpersonal skills. You
may also include experience outside school such as community involvement. List the most
recent employment first and from there, work backward.
Enrichment Activities
 This details any other projects, skills, programs, relevant hobbies, or experiences that
strengthen your application. Make sure to provide a short description of each and the month
and year that it occurred. These shows that you are a well-rounded person.
Polishing your Resume

Revising
 This step involves validating all the information you place in your resume, especially the data
concerning your education and employment.
Updating
 Be sure to continuously update your resume as you change jobs, take further studies,
participate in activities, and upgrade your skill set.
Proofreading
 Reread your resume several times to make sure that you do not have any errors in content,
mechanics, grammar and spelling, organization, and formatting appearance.

Writing your Cover Letter


 It is also known as job application letter.
 This is a letter that accompanies your resume and highlights the strengths that you have listed.
 These are the parts of a cover letter: Introduction, Body, Conclusion

Introduction
 This part opens the letter and specifies the position that you are applying for.
 Here are some tips in writing an attention-grabbing introduction, along with examples:
 Name the source of your information specifically.
 State the job title and explain how your qualifications match its requirements.
Body
 This part emphasizes your strongest points and shows how you meet the employer’s needs. It is
also essential to highlight the benefits that the organization can get from accepting you.

Conclusion
 This part of the letter is where you request for an interview. Remember to sound enthusiastic
and appreciative, and do not forget to include your contact information.