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3.

Well Bore Geometry


If it is established that the sticking is due to well bore geometry or mechanical causes then continue to
circulate the hole. If sticking occurred while moving up then apply torque and jar down. If sticking
occurred while moving down then DO NOT APPLY TORQUE and jar up. Jarring operations
conventionally start with a relatively light loading at first building up to maximum loading after
approximately one hour (assuming the string is still stuck).

When jarring down or cocking the jars to fire up, reduce the pump pressure. This results in a more
effective down blow. When jarring up pump pressure aids the blow so full circulation is recommended.

Jarring may be necessary for a long period of time before the string is freed or an alternative decision
is made. If the problem is in a Carbonate then consider spotting acid. If it is in Salt then consider
pumping fresh water.

Once free continue circulating at full rate, working and rotating the string and ream/backream the
section thoroughly.

If more information is available then more specific actions can be taken in order to try and remedy the
situation.

If severe dog legs exist in the hole, it may be that Key Seating is occurring caused by the pipe rotating
against the same point of the bore hole wall and wearing a groove or key seat into the wall at that
point. As such when the string is pulled out of the hole the tool joints or any other larger OD items will
get jammed in the key seat. Getting stuck like this only occurs while pulling out of hole, as such in
order to get free, apply torque and jar down.

After coring or running a new bit after the previous bit was graded to be undergauge, resistance may
be encountered during the trip in hole as the new in gauge tools encounter the undergauge hole. If the
run in hole proceeds too quickly without reaming etc. the new bit can jam in the undergauge hole. If
this happens, maintain full circulation and jar up. Do apply torque and do not jar down.

If the formations drilled are of various types and hardness’s and closely interbedded then ledges may
form. Similarly different rock types may cause the bit to kick off in another direction and create a sharp
angle or dogleg in the well bore (drilling into caves can also cause this). These can be considered to
be obstacles to smooth trips in and out of hole. In order to get free when stuck under these conditions
follow the steps outlined above.

Junk falling down the hole from the drill floor can get jammed against the drill string and result in the
pipe becoming stuck. If this is the case then freeing procedures are as per the steps outlined above,
depending upon the string movement direction at the time of sticking.

If while tripping in or out of the hole (more likely to occur when running in) the string gets stuck while
in the casing then there is a good possibility that the casing has collapsed. This could be due to a
larger pressure build up behind the casing than the casings collapse pressure, or the casings collapse
pressure has been reduced through wear reducing the casings wall thickness or by corrosion. In this
case attempts should be made to jar out of the hole.

After drilling casing shoes and exposing them, it is possible for blocks of cement from around the shoe
to fall down the well bore an jam themselves against the drill string. If this occurs then follow the steps
outlined above. An alternative problem resulting from cement occurs when the string is accidentally
run into cement that has not set. The surge pressure caused by running in hole and or the increased
pressure due to breaking circulation can cause the cement to flash set. If this occurs then bleed of any
trapped pressure in the stand pipe (assuming circulation is not possible) and jar up with the maximum
trip load immediately. Do not slowly build up the load as time is of the essence when dealing with
cement that may still be setting.

2001, Datalog Technology


2000, Pipe Freeing Sheet, Randy Smith Training Schools
1997, Drillers Stuck Pipe Handbook, Colin Bowes & Ray Procter