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MQ2 & MQ3

MQ-2 Smoke Sensor

 The MQ-2 Gas Sensor module detects gas leakage in

home and industry.
 The MQ series of gas sensors use a small heater
inside with an electrochemical sensor.
 They are sensitive to a range of gasses and are used
indoors at room temperature.
 The output is an analog signal and can be read with
an analog input of the Arduino
MQ-2 Smoke Sensor

 The MQ-2 smoke sensor is sensitive to smoke and to the

following flammable gases:
 Butane
 Propane
 Methane
 Alcohol
 Hydrogen
 The resistance of the sensor is different depending on the
type of the gas.
 The smoke sensor has a built-in potentiometer that
allows you to adjust the sensor sensitivity according to
how accurate you want to detect gas.
MQ-2 Smoke Sensor

 Features
1. Wide detecting scope
2. High sensitivity and fast response
3. Long life and stable
4. Simple drive circuit
 Due to its fast response time and high sensitivity,
measurements can be taken as soon as possible.
 The sensor sensitivity can be adjusted by using the

 Domestic gas leakage detector

 Industrial Combustible gas detector
 Portable gas detector
MQ-2 Smoke Sensor
How does it Work?

 The MQ2 has an electrochemical sensor, which changes its

resistance for different concentrations of varied gasses.
 The sensor is connected in series with a variable resistor to
form a voltage divider circuit and the variable resistor is used
to change sensitivity.
 When one of the above gaseous elements comes in contact
with the sensor after heating, the sensor’s resistance change.
 The change in the resistance changes the voltage across the
sensor, and this voltage can be read by a microcontroller.
 The voltage value can be used to find the resistance of the
sensor by knowing the reference voltage and the other
resistor’s resistance.
 The sensor has different sensitivity for different types of
gasses. The sensitivity characteristic curve is shown below for
the different type of gasses.
1. Ro is the resistance of the sensor in clean air
2. Rs is the resistance of sensor when exposed to gasses
How does it Work?

 The voltage that the sensor outputs changes

accordingly to the smoke/gas level that exists in the
 The sensor outputs a voltage that is proportional to
the concentration of smoke/gas.
 In other words, the relationship between voltage and
gas concentration is the following:
 The greater the gas concentration , the greater the
output voltage
 The lower the gas concentration , the lower the
output voltage
Procedure to Calculate the Concentration
of a Particular Type of Gas
 To find the concentration of gas, two values has to be measured
using a microcontroller with ADC such as Arduino,
 1. Ro – The resistance of the sensor when measured in clean air,
2. Rs – The resistance of the sensor when it is exposed to any of the
mentioned gasses
 To find Ro, connect the sensor to one of the Analog pins of Arduino,
note 100 values, and select the median value.
 This will reduce if any dynamic errors present in the values. The
sensor is connected in the series with a variable resistor
(Potentiometer on the sensor board).
 So, to find the resistance of the sensor (Ro or Rs), the resistance of
the variable resistor (R1) is required.
 In most of the MQ2 sensor modules, any one end of the
potentiometer and the middle pin of potentiometer will be
connected between Sig or Vout Pin and Ground.
 Find the resistance of R1 using a multimeter and note it down.
Procedure to Calculate the Concentration
of a Particular Type of Gas
 The voltage across the sensor Vs (Vs is Vo in Clean Air) is calculated by using the
following formula:
 Vs=VRef – ADC_Value * (VRefH-VRefL)/(2R)
VRefH is the higher Reference voltage of the ADC, in Arduino, it is usually 5V or
VRefL is the lower reference voltage of the ADC, in Arduino, it is usually 0V
R is the resolution of the ADC, in most of the Arduino boards, it is 10 Bits
 Once the voltage across the sensor and value of R1 is known, the resistance of the
sensor can be calculated by using the formula
 Ro=R1 Vo/ (VRef-Vo)
Where Vo is the voltage across the sensor in clean Air
 Similarly, the Resistance of the sensor when exposed to gas can be calculated by
repeating the above steps and using the formula
 Rs=R1 Vs / (VRef-Vs)
Where Vs is the voltage across the sensor in the Air contaminated with LPG
 Note:The value of R1 is only for finding the value of Rs and Ro. For finding the
concentration of gas, R1 is not required as the concentration is dependent on the
Rs/Ro ratio. R1 is not required for finding just the ratio.
Procedure to Calculate the Concentration of a
Particular Type of Gas

 Finding the Concentration of a Gas

The concentration of a gas can be calculated by measuring the
sensor’s Ro and Rs values and using the following formula
 Concentration = Xo (Y/ Yo) Φ
Where Φ is the slope, which can be found using the Sensitivity
Characteristic curve and the following formula
Φ = Log (Y2/Y1) / Log(X2/X1)
Where (X2, Y2) and (X1, Y1) are any two points on a section (lines
between indicated points on the curve) of the curve. Since the curve
has different slopes at different concentrations the (X2, Y2) and (X1,
Y1) values should be taken from the corresponding sections
 The Xo and Yo values are Initial Concentration and Rs/Ro ratio on a
section of the curve (lines between marked points), these values are
the starting points of each section (each line between marked points
has different slopes)
Y is the Rs/Ro Ratio for the current concentration of the gas
MQ-3 Alcohol Sensor

 The alcohol sensor we will use is the MQ-3 sensor.

This is a sensor that is not only sensitive to alcohol,
particularly ethanol, which is the type of alcohol
which is found in wine, beer, and liquor.
 This type of sensor circuit can be used as a
breathalyzer to check a person's blood alcohol level.
 Just as we exhale carbon dioxide when we breathe
out, we also will breathe out some alcohol if we have
alcohol in our blood.
 Any alcometer device can measure this alcohol

 The more ethanol in your blood, the more there is in

the air on exhalation.
 This alcohol content gives a good indication for if a
person is drunk and how drunk they are.
 The amount of alcohol exhaled into the air is
proportional to the amount of alcohol which will be
found in a person's blood.
 Alcometers use a built-in formula to estimate blood
alcohol content from exhaled air alcohol content.

 For different countries, the level of alcohol in the blood

that defines a person as over the limit for driving varies.
 The range ranges from 0.01 to 0.10.
 Most countries have a limit of about 0.05.
 For example, Greece, Greenalnd, and Iceland all have
limits of 0.05.
 Canada has a higher limit set at 0.08. In the United
States, it is also 0.08.
 In India, the permissible blood alcohol content (BAC) is
set at 0.03% per 100ml blood. That works out to 30mg of
alcohol per 100 ml of blood.

 Features
 It has good sensitivity to alcohol in wide range, and
has advantages such as long lifespan, low cost and
simple drive circuit &etc.
 Main Applications
 It is widely used in domestic alcohol gas alarm,
industrial alcohol gas alarm and portable alcohol