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I declare that this term paper is my individual work. I have

not copied it from any other student’s work or from any other source except where due
acknowledgement is made explicitly in the text, nor any part been written for me by another person.

Student’ signature: - ADITYA CHAODHARY




SECTION NO. : - 1901.


DATE OF SUBMOSSION: - 10/12/ 2009.

Evaluators’ comments:

Marks obtained: - out of:-


First of all I would like to take this

opportunity to express my gratitude towards all those
people who have helped me in the successful
completion of this term paper, directly or indirectly. I
would also like to express my sincere gratitude
towards “MR. DEVDHAR SHETTY” (my term paper
guide) for her guidance and help which she willingly
provided at every step of my term paper.
Next, I would like to express my sincere ineptness to
Wikipedia.org, and Google for providing us with all
necessary information for completion of this term
Finally, I would like to thank all my family and
friends for their encouragement, support and good

Stress is the way that you feel when pressure is placed on you. A little bit of
pressure can be productive, give you motivation, and help you to perform better at something.
However, too much pressure or prolonged pressure can lead to stress, which is unhealthy for the mind
and body. Everyone reacts differently to stress, and some people may have a higher threshold than
others. Too much stress often leads to physical, mental and emotional problems. In the UK, anxiety
and depression are the most common mental health problems, and the majority of cases are caused by
stress. Research by mental health charities also suggests that a quarter of the population will have a
mental health problem at some point in their lives.

Understanding and Dealing with Stress

Stress is a common problem that affects almost all of us at some point in our lives.
Learning to identify when you are under stress, what is stressing you, and different ways of coping
with stress can greatly improve both your mental and physical well being.

This course provides you with some basic information on stress and some simple
recommendations for dealing with stress. It is not intended to take the place of advice from a physician
or counsellor, but it can be the first step in deciding how to manage your stress and increase your well

The index below lists the different sections of this course. To take the course and learn
more about stress management, click on the link at the bottom of this page titled "Begin: Class I: What
is Stress?" As you continue, each section of the course will link to the next section at the bottom of the

If you have any questions about this course, about stress management in general, or
about other services offered by the Mountain State Canters for Independent Living, contact the centre
nearest you.

What Is Stress
Stress is your body's way of responding to any kind of demand. It can be caused by
both good and bad experiences. When people feel stressed by something going on around them, their
bodies react by releasing chemicals into the blood. These chemicals give people more energy and
strength, which can be a good thing if their stress is caused by physical danger. But this can also be a
bad thing, if their stress is in response to something emotional and there is no outlet for this extra
energy and strength. This class will discuss different causes of stress, how stress affects you, the
difference between 'good' or 'positive' stress and 'bad' or 'negative' stress, and some common facts
about how stress affects people today.
What Causes Stress?
Many different things can cause stress -- from physical (such as fear of something
dangerous) to emotional (such as worry over your family or job.) Identifying what may be causing you
stress is often the first step in learning how to better deal with your stress. Some of the most common
sources of stress are:

Survival Stress - You may have heard the phrase "fight or flight" before. This is a common response
to danger in all people and animals. When you are afraid that someone or something may physically
hurt you, your body naturally responds with a burst of energy so that you will be better able to survive
the dangerous situation (fight) or escape it all together (flight). This is survival stress.

Internal Stress - Have you ever caught yourself worrying about things you can do nothing about or
worrying for no reason at all? This is internal stress and it is one of the most important kinds of stress
to understand and manage. Internal stress is when people make themselves stressed. This often
happens when we worry about things we can't control or put ourselves in situations we know will
cause us stress. Some people become addicted to the kind of hurried, tense, lifestyle that results from
being under stress. They even look for stressful situations and feel stress about things that aren't

Environmental Stress - This is a response to things around you that cause stress, such as noise,
crowding, and pressure from work or family. Identifying these environmental stresses and learning to
avoid them or deal with them will help lower your stress level.

Fatigue and Overwork - This kind of stress builds up over a long time and can take a hard toll on
your body. It can be caused by working too much or too hard at your job(s), school, or home. It can
also be caused by not knowing how to manage your time well or how to take time out for rest and
relaxation. This can be one of the hardest kinds of stress to avoid because many people feel this is out
of their control. Later in this course we will show you that you DO have options and offer some useful
tips for dealing with fatigue.

How Does Stress affect us?

Stress can affect both your body and your mind. People under large amounts of stress
can become tired, sick, and unable to concentrate or think clearly. Sometimes, they even suffer mental
Physical and Mental Signs of Stress
You've heard before that recognizing when you are under stress is the first step in learning how to deal
with your stress, but what does that mean? Sometimes we are so used to living with stress, we don't
know how to identify it.

Whether you are experiencing immediate or short-term stress or have been experiencing stress for a
long time or long-term stress, your body and mind may be showing the effects. Here are some
'warning signs' that stress is affecting your body and mind.

Physical and Mental Signs of Short-term Stress

Often occurring in quick 'bursts' in reaction to something in your environment, short-term stress can
affect your body in many ways. Some examples include:

• Making your heartbeat and breath faster

• Making you sweat more

• Leaving you with cold hands, feet, or skin

• Making you feel sick to your stomach or giving you 'butterflies'

• Tightening your muscles or making you feel tense

• Leaving your mouth dry

• Making you have to go to the bathroom frequently

• Increasing muscle spasms, headaches, fatigue, and shortness of breath

While this burst of energy may help you in physical situations where your body needs to react quickly,
it can have bad effects on your mind and performance if there is no outlet or reason for your stress.
These effects may include:

• Interfering with your judgment and causing you to make bad decisions

• Making you see difficult situations as threatening

• Reducing your enjoyment and making you feel bad

• Making it difficult for you to concentrate or to deal with distraction

• Leaving you anxious, frustrated or mad

• Making you feel rejected, unable to laugh, afraid of free time, unable to work, and not willing
to discuss your problems with others

Physical and Mental Signs of Long-term Stress

Long-term stress or stress that is occurring over long periods of time can have an even
greater effect on your body and mind. Long-term stress can affect your body by:

• Changing your appetite (making you eat either less or more)

• Changing your sleep habits (either causing you to sleep too much or not letting you sleep

• Encouraging 'nervous' behaviour such as twitching, fiddling, talking too much, nail biting,
teeth grinding, pacing, and other repetitive habits

• Causing you to catch colds or the flu more often and causing other illnesses such as asthma,
headaches, stomach problems, skin problems, and other aches and pains

• Affecting your sex life and performance

• Making you feel constantly tired and worn out

Long-term stress can also have serious effects on your mental health and behaviour. If
you are under stress for long periods of time, you may find that you have difficulty thinking clearly,
dealing with problems, or even handling day-to-day situations as simple as shaving, picking up clothes
or arriving somewhere on time. Some mental signs of long-term stress include:

• Worrying and feeling anxious (which can sometimes lead to anxiety disorder and panic

• Feeling out of control, overwhelmed, confused, and/or unable to make decisions

• Experiencing mood changes such as depression, frustration, anger, helplessness, irritability,

defensiveness, irrationality, overreaction, or impatience and restlessness

• Increasing dependence on food, cigarettes, alcohol, or drugs

• Neglecting important things in life such as work, school, and even personal appearance

• Developing irrational fears of things such as physical illnesses, natural disasters like
thunderstorms and earthquakes, and even being terrified of ordinary situations like heights or
small spaces

While occasionally experiencing one or two of the above symptoms may not be cause
for concern (everyone has a few nervous habits and difficulties in their lives!), having a number of
these symptoms may mean you are under more stress than you think. But realizing you are under
stress is the first step in learning to deal with stress. We recommend you take our stress test then read
on to learn more about dealing with stress.

Yes, I'm stressed -- "Help!"

You've recognized you're stressed, but what can you do? There are a number of long-term strategies
you can take that include changing your lifestyle, removing yourself from stressful situations, and
accepting the times when you will be under stress, but for immediate stress relief -- STOP.

Feel a little better?

One of the most immediate and easiest ways to deal with stress is responding to your body's physical
symptoms. Sometimes this can be as easy as stopping what you're doing and taking a few deep,
relaxing breaths. Sound too easy? We’ll try it.

• Are the kids or family getting on your nerves?

Go into another room, or even the bathroom or closet if you need to get away! Shut the door.
Experience the quiet. Take a few deep breaths. Feel the tension go out of your head, neck and
shoulders. Try not to feel too silly for hanging out in the coat closet.

• Had another bad day with your boss or another office worker?

Shut the door to your office if you have one and take a few minutes for yourself. No door? Stroll down
the hall, rinse your face in cool water in the bathroom, or head outside for a few lungfulls of fresh air.
Just getting away for a few minutes can be calming and help you relax.

• Spent too long studying over the books or trying to finish that report for work?

Push back from your desk. Roll your head and shoulders. Rub your hands together quickly to warm
them and place them over your weary eyes, or just close your eyes and let your face and neck relax.
Breathe in and out deeply. Remember the time your boss / co-worker / teacher / you sat on the jelly

There -- you've already lowered your stress and your blood pressure in just a few seconds. Because our
first reaction to stress is physical (our body releases chemicals, our heartbeat and breath become faster,
and muscles get tense as we prepare for 'fight or flight'), your first line of defence against stress is
convincing your body to relax again.

Responding to the immediate physical effects of stress can help lessen the long-
term and mental effects of stress. Developing a healthier lifestyle and building activities into your
schedule that help you relax can also help your body, and mind, bounce back from stress. Here are
some other 'quick fixes' and long-term tips for helping you deal with the physical effects of stress.
Workplace Politics and its affect of Organizational


Politics will always be a part of organizations so long as people are

involved. Organizations that are overrun with politics, however, will sooner or later take their place
among the also-rans. Political decisions encourage hypocrisy, secrecy, deal making, rumours, power
brokers, self-interests, image building, self-promotion, and cliques -- not a receipt for effective

Understanding Office Politics

Workplace politics is not new, particularly in countries like India and tragedy is that
most of the time "HR Department" is a centre of such activities. Anyone who has ever had any job,
anywhere, knows that the dynamics among those who are part of the work environment play an
important part in how a business is run. Apparently office politics is an increasing problem according
to a study by Accountemps. "Eighteen percent of an administrator's time -- more than nine weeks out
of every year -- is spent resolving conflicts among employees" ("Surviving Office Politics." Talent
Scout. April 16, 199.

Besides causing problems for the individuals who work together, the end result can be
far more devastating. Employees and managers who must concentrate on the political aspects of work
may have less time to pay attention their jobs. This translates into financial loss, which may in turn
translate into job loss.

Office politics is something most people recognize when they see it in action, but find
difficult to define. "Office Politics: Do You Play or Pass" defines it as "...the use and misuse of power
in the workplace" (Alesko, Michael. "Office Politics: Do You Play or Pass," Today's Careers).
Avoiding Office Politics
Yesterday, as I was interacting with one of the senior guy in one of the
well known company in Bangalore, as per his suggestions, if you cannot avoid work-place politics, we
a part of it. Well, that was really shocking. My point is very clear:

If you don't know the problem; you are INNOCENT. If you know the problem, but
don't know the solution; you are IGNORANT If you know the problem, you know the solution, but
you don't want to use or implement; you are a CULPRIT. Like every problem, there is a solution to
workplace politics as well, provided you want to be fair in your dealings. To reduce the impact of
politics in your organization, consider the following:

Stress Performance. Rewards must be earned --not granted in return for favours’. Base
promotions, assignments and pay increases on performance. This implies that you must develop a
reliable basis for measuring performance.

Accept recommendations based upon their merits -- not on whether you personally
like persons making the recommendations. Reject recommendations because they are unsound -- not
because persons making the recommendations have a history of fighting your proposals. Communicate
everything. Secrets keep organizations sick. Open communication about promotions, new plans,
changes, and bad news -- anything that affects the workplace -- makes it hard for rumor and innuendo
to thrive.

Managers who fully explain their decisions help immunize their culture against deal
making and favouritism."It is sometimes tempting," said a manager, "to make a deal with the devil. To
tell you the truth, I've thought about buying off the leader of the opposition by offering her a good

Of course the long-run result of a deal with the devil is the loss of your soul.
Another leader reported, "I knew he was not the best qualified, but I can depend on him to support me
and to do what I ask him to do."Such political decisions by the leaders crush teamwork and
commitment to the overall good.

A short list for reducing politics is:

• Measure performance.

• Pay off on performance.

• Publicize performance data.

• Reveal the reasons for decisions.

• Openly consider all good ideas.

• Shun deal making.

• Do not enter into secret deals.

• Avoid all political behaviour.

Why work politics are inevitable:

Some people have more power than others, either through hierarchy
or some other basis of influence for many people, gaining promotion is important, and this can create
competition between individuals, or misalignment between the team's objectives and those of
individuals within it

Most people care passionately about decisions at work and this encourages political
behaviour as they seek to get their way Decisions at work are impacted by both work-related goals and
personal factors, so there is further scope for goal conflict People and teams within organizations often
have to compete for limited resources; this can lead to a kind of "tribal conflict" where teams compete
to satisfy their needs and objectives, even when this is against the greater good


i. Resources and coping with stressful events

Gil Luria, Amram Torjman. Journal of Organizational Behaviour. Chichester: Aug 2009.
Vol. 3.


This longitudinal, quasi-field experiment tested whether perceived stress and increase in
perceived stress are related to the resources of the individual, namely, personality (core self
evaluation scale (CSES)), physical fitness, social support (acceptance and/or rejection by
peers), and cognitive abilities. Perceived stress scale (PSS) was administered at two points in
time to participants in a two-day selection process for a military unit, whose stressful
environment formed the manipulation in this study. Baseline PSS was obtained from soldiers
before the selection activity, when threatened with resource loss. PSS was next administered
during the selection activity, when individuals had to cope with actual loss of resources and
difficulty in regaining them. As expected, participants perceived more stress during the
selection activity. Participants with higher CSES, higher cognitive abilities and higher levels
of social support perceived lower stress levels prior to the activity. The increase in stress level
was lower for participants with better fitness levels, but greater for participants rejected by
their peers. Exploratory analysis of resource overlap was conducted and revealed a
contribution of few key resources to coping, even in the presence of other resources.
ii. Psychological capital: A positive resource for
combating employee stress and turnover
James B Avey, Fred Luthans, Susan M Jensen. Human Resource Management. Hoboken:
Sep/Oct 2009. Vol. 48,


Workplace stress is a growing concern for human resource managers. Although considerable
scholarly and practical attention has been devoted to stress management over the years, the
time has come for new perspectives and research. Drawing from the emerging field of
positive organizational behaviour, this study offers research findings with implications for
combating occupational stress. Specifically, data from a large sample of working adults across
a variety of industries suggest that psychological capital (the positive resources of efficacy,
hope, optimism, and resilience) may be key to better understanding the variation in perceived
symptoms of stress, as well as intentions to quit and job search behaviours. The article
concludes with practical strategies aimed at leveraging and developing employees'
psychological capital to help them better cope with workplace stress.

iii. Resources and coping with stressful events

Gil Luria, Amram Torjman. Journal of Organizational Behaviour. Chichester: Aug 2009. V
Resources and coping with stressful events


This longitudinal, quasi-field experiment tested whether perceived stress and increase in
perceived stress are related to the resources of the individual, namely, personality (core self
evaluation scale (CSES)), physical fitness, social support (acceptance and/or rejection by
peers), and cognitive abilities. Perceived stress scale (PSS) was administered at two points in
time to participants in a two-day selection process for a military unit, whose stressful
environment formed the manipulation in this study. Baseline PSS was obtained from soldiers
before the selection activity, when threatened with resource loss. PSS was next administered
during the selection activity, when individuals had to cope with actual loss of resources and
difficulty in regaining them. As expected, participants perceived more stress during the
selection activity. Participants with higher CSES, higher cognitive abilities and higher levels
of social support perceived lower stress levels prior to the activity. The increase in stress level
was lower for participants with better fitness levels, but greater for participants rejected by
their peers. Exploratory analysis of resource overlap was conducted and revealed a
contribution of few key resources to coping, even in the presence of other resources.

iv. Do Social Stressors Impact Everyone Equally? An

Examination of the Moderating Impact of Core Self-
Kenneth J Harris, Paul Harvey, K Michele Kacmar. Journal of Business and Psychology. New
York: Jun 2009. Vol. 24, Iss. 2; pg. 153, 12 pgs


The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between social stressors and the
outcomes of job satisfaction, altruism, and turnover intentions. Additionally, this study
examined the moderating impact of individuals' core self-evaluations on these relationships.
Data were obtained from a branch of the state government in the southeast. Responses were
received from 144 employees. Supervisors provided responses as well, and the matched dyads
where both supervisor and subordinate responses were received numbered 133. We found that
social stressors were negatively related to job satisfaction and altruism and positively related
to turnover intentions. Results also indicated that higher core self-evaluations buffered the
negative influence of social stressors on job satisfaction and turnover intention, but not
altruism. Our results reinforce the notion that social stressors exhibit significant negative
associations with desired job consequences. Another managerial implication relates to
managers when filling vacant positions. When completing this task, managers need to
honestly and accurately assess the social stressors present in their organization. When social
stressors are high, managers should seek to hire individuals who possess higher core self-
evaluations. This study employed a different theoretical perspective, conservation of
resources theory, and extended the nomological network related to social stressors.
Additionally, this study showed the important moderating impact that core self-evaluations
can have on other relationships, whereas the large majority of previous studies have examined
core self-evaluations as a main effect predictor of important organizational outcomes.
v. Psychosocial work conditions and work stress in an
innovating addiction treatment centre. Consequences
for the EFQM Excellence Model
Udo Nabitz, Paul Jansen, Sandra van der Voet, Wim van den Brink. Total Quality
Management & Business Excellence. Abingdon: 2009. Vol. 20, Iss. 3; pg. 267


In the Job Demand Control Model (JDCM) and the EFQM Excellence Model, psychosocial
work conditions are regarded as critical factors for the functioning of the personnel and the
organisation. In order to gain insight into the role of work conditions for the development of
work strain and well-being, an empirical study was conducted in an innovating addiction
treatment centre in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. The Work Stress Monitor on Mental Health
(WSMMH) was used as a measure of the JDCM. A cohort of 209 employees of an addiction
treatment centre, in which a far-reaching innovation programme was carried out, participated
in this study. With the exception of physical demands, job demands, were high, whereas job
controls and the organisational supports were low. Seven out of the 18 work condition scales
significantly predicted work strain and well-being. Age and educational level were positive
related to well-being. Compared with other health care sectors, work in this addiction
treatment centre can be characterised as high-demand low-control and thus as a high strain
job. Seven important predictors for this undesirable situation were identified. These predictors
can be translated into criteria for the EFQM Excellence Model and can be used to enhance the
overall quality of addiction treatment services

vi. State or trait: effects of state optimism on job-related

Donald H Kluemper, Laura M Little, Timothy DeGroot. Journal of Organizational Behavior.
Chichester: Feb 2009. Vol. 30, Iss. 2; pg. 209


State optimism was hypothesized to be significantly related to six organizationally relevant

outcomes above and beyond the effect of trait optimism. Moreover, state optimism was
hypothesized to have effects on these six outcomes beyond the effects of positive and
negative effect. Conversely, trait optimism was expected to be unrelated to the six outcome
variables when controlling for state optimism as well as when controlling for affect. These
hypotheses were tested with two samples. First, 772 undergraduate students were assessed to
determine the impact of state versus trait optimism on task performance in the form of course
grade. From this sample, the 261 students working at least 20 hours per week were similarly
assessed with regard to work related distress, burnout, affective commitment, and job
satisfaction. Then, a field sample of 106 employees assessed distress, burnout, affective
commitment, job satisfaction, and supervisor rated task and contextual job performance.
Results indicate state optimism (but not trait optimism) is a potentially powerful indicator of
important organizational outcomes, even after controlling for the effects of positive and
negative effect. Implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed

vii. Perceived organizational support's role in stressor-

strain relationships
Hettie A. Richardson, Jixia Yang, Robert J. Vandenberg, David M. DeJoy, Mark G. Wilson.
Journal of Managerial Psychology. Bradford: 2008. Vol. 23, Iss. 7; pg. 789


The purpose of this study is to examine when perceived organizational support (POS) may be
more likely to play a mediator versus moderator role in stressor and strain relationships by
considering POS relative to challenge and hindrance stressors, cognitive/emotional and
physical strains. This cross-sectional survey research was conducted in two samples (n=720,
829) of employees working for a large retail organization in the USA. Hypotheses were tested
using structural equation modeling. As hypothesized, results indicate POS mediates
relationships between hindrance stressors and cognitive/emotional strains, but does not
mediate relationships between challenge stressors and physical strains. POS does not
moderate any of the relationships examined. This paper is one of few studies to examine
challenge and hindrance stressors and to examine POS relative to physical strains.

viii. The Interaction of Work Stressors and Organizational

Sanctions on Cyberloafing*
Christine A Henle, Anita L Blanchard. Journal of Managerial Issues. Pittsburg: Fall 2008.
Vol. 20, Iss. 3; pg. 383, 19 pgs

We propose that employees use cyberloafing, non-work-related use of employers' email and
Internet systems during work, as a means to cope with certain workplace stressors. However,
employees will be more likely to use cyberloafing as a coping mechanism if they perceive that
organizational sanctions for doing so are unlikely. We surveyed 162 employees and found, as
predicted, that they were more likely to cyberloaf in response to role ambiguity and role
conflict, but less likely as a result of role overload. Further, employees were more likely to
use cyberloafing to cope with role ambiguity or role conflict when they perceived minimal
sanctions. Implications for organizational practice and future research are discussed.

ix. The stress-testing trident

Dvaid Rowe. Risk. London: Mar 2007. Vol. 20, Iss. 3; pg. 71


Stress testing in organizational risk management is complicated by this human tendency to

swing from complacency to obsession and back again. The usual reaction of many to any
given stress test is to dismiss the exercise as useless because that could never happen. On the
other hand, whole organizations can be paralyzed by fear in the aftermath of a specific
disastrous event.

x. Pressures exerted on managers by their superior and

peer managers; Australian-Singaporean comparisons
Jeffrey Braithwaite, Mary T. Westbrook, Nadine A. Mallock. Journal of Managerial
Psychology. Bradford: 2007. Vol. 22, Iss. 3; pg. 227


The purpose of this paper is to investigate how, and the degree to which, superior and peer
managers exerted pressure on middle managers' work cross-culturally. Australian (n =251)
and Singaporean (n =340) health managers, respectively of Anglo and Confucian-Asian
cultures, rated the pressures exerted on them by managers, superior and peer (managers at the
same level), regarding nine work pursuits, and described the nature of this pressure.
Singaporeans reported greater pressure from superiors regarding people, customer, process
and quality management. Australians and Singaporeans experienced similar pressure from
superiors concerning financial, organisational, data, planning and external relations
management. Singaporeans reported more pressure from peers in all work domains. In
Singapore superior and peer managers applied pressure to similar activities but areas targeted
by Australian peer and superior managers were not significantly related. Singaporean
superiors were more likely to apply pressure through deadlines and appraisals. Convenience
samples from one occupational sector may limit the generalisability of the results. Knowledge
of the degree and sources of stress encountered by middle managers in an Anglo and a
Confucian-Asian culture may enhance organisational communication both within and
between these cultures. Although it is a crucial issue, pressures exerted on managers by
superior and particularly peer managers regarding specific managerial work pursuits has
received little attention, particularly from a cross-cultural perspective.

xi. Indirect leadership under severe stress: a qualitative

inquiry into the 2004 Kosovo riots
Gerry Larsson, Thorvald Haerem, Misa Sjöberg, Aida Alvinius, Björn Bakken. International
Journal of Organizational Analysis. Bowling Green: 2007. Vol. 15, Iss. 1; pg. 23, 12 pgs


The purpose of this research is to develop a theoretical understanding of indirect leadership in

a severely stressful peacekeeping context, focusing on the perspective of subordinates.
Peacekeeping missions in recent decades have led to increased exposure to acute danger.
Retrospective in-depth interviews were carried out with 17 Norwegian officers and soldiers,
who were involved in the handling of a violent riot in Kosovo during a peacekeeping mission.
The interviews were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. A model emerged with three
categories: Situational Characteristics, Organizational Characteristics, and the Commander's
Intent. A related core category was labeled Subordinates' Appraisal or Sensemaking. During
the climax of the riot, a strict following of the ordinary chain of command was impractical.
Local initiatives at lower organizational levels were needed, but these, in turn, required
competence and a trustful organizational environment.

xii. Humanizing work: surviving in the culture of

John Renesch. Foresight : the Journal of Futures Studies, Strategic Thinking and Policy.
Bradford: 2006. Vol. 8, Iss. 6; pg. 26


Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the trends toward work being more
suitable for machines than people, which promotes more addictive lifecycles. This paper
suggests ways people can reverse this trend to cut them off from their humanity and create
ways of working that are more natural, uplifting, life-affirming and healthier for people.
Design/methodology/approach - The approach is to cite evidence of growing dysfunction,
including facts and studies that support the trends; to explain how this has occurred; to
describe how systems behave and misbehave; and to call for transformation. Findings - This
paper finds that people are suffering more stress, experiencing a reduced quality of life,
getting sick more often and are less happy. And most of them don't realize why they are less
happy because they seem to have so much (material wealth) to be grateful for. The findings
include a way to reverse these trends and return to a life more suitable to human beings.
Practical implications - The practical implications are that people will start working in ways
that are consistent with these new values and consciousness, finding newfound excitement
and enthusiasm for their work, and reawakening their passions for living and working. This
will produce happier people, more effective organizations and a healthier society.
Originality/value - The value of this paper is to provide a "wake-up call" to those who find
themselves entranced by convention and numbed by pressures from the systems they live and
work in, so they start thinking less obsessively, working less mechanically and demanding
more people-friendly work and ways of living.

xiii. Relationships Among Burnout, Job Involvement, and

Organizational Citizenship Behavior
Su-fen Chiu, Miao-Ching Tsai. The Journal of Psychology. Provincetown: Nov 2006. Vol.
140, Iss. 6; pg. 517, 14 pgs


R. Cropanzano, D. E. Rupp, and Z. S. Byrne (2003) found that emotional exhaustion (i.e., 1
dimension of burnout) negatively affects organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). The
authors extended this research by investigating relationships among 3 dimensions of burnout
(emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and diminished personal accomplishment) and
OCB. They also affirmed the mediating effect of job involvement on these relationships. Data
were collected from 296 paired samples of service employees and their supervisors from 12
hotels and restaurants in Taiwan. Findings demonstrated that emotional exhaustion and
diminished personal accomplishment were related negatively to OCB, whereas
depersonalization had no independent effect on OCB. Job involvement mediated the
relationships among emotional exhaustion, diminished personal accomplishment, and OCB.

xiv. Management Are Aliens! RUMORS AND STRESS

Prashant Bordia, Elizabeth Jones, Cindy Gallois, Victor J Callan, Nicholas DiFonzo. Group &
Organization Management. Thousand Oaks: Oct 2006. Vol. 31, Iss. 5; pg. 601, 21 pgs


Rumors collected from a large public hospital undergoing change were content analyzed, and
a typology comprising the following five broad types of change-related rumors was
developed: rumors about changes to job and working conditions, nature of organizational
change, poor change management, consequences of the change for organizational
performance, and gossip-rumors. Rumors were also classified as positive or negative on the
basis of their content. As predicted, negative rumors were more prevalent than positive
rumors. Finally, employees reporting negative rumors also reported more change-related
stress as compared to those who reported positive rumors and those who did not report any
rumors. The authors propose that rumors be treated as verbal symbols and expressions of
employee concerns during organizational change.

xv. Cooperation and stress; Exploring the differential

impact of job satisfaction, communication and culture
Rachid Zeffane, Dominic McLaughlin. Management Research News. Patrington: 2006. Vol.
29, Iss. 10; pg. 618

The purpose of the case study was to examine the varying impact of job-level and
organization-level characteristics on team-level cooperation and feelings of stress. In
attempting to highlight the relevance of sub-cultures, it compares these relationships across
two departments in an Information and Communication Technology (ICT) company operating
in Australia. The paper uses survey data from a medium size company in the ICT industry
operating in Australia. There were 397 respondents to the survey. Statistical analyses show
that job satisfaction and positive communication with managers are strong predictors of
feelings of stress and perceived cooperation. Further scrutiny of the data at sub-unit levels,
clearly suggests that the cultural variant is a strong mediator of these relationships. The paper
adds to the evidence that the social and organizational aspects of the workplace are potential
explanatory variables in finding lasting cures for workplace stress.

xvi. From margins to mainstream: What do we know

about work integration for persons with brain injury,
mental illness and intellectual disability?
Bonnie Kirsh, Mary Stergiou-Kita, Rebecca Gewurtz, Deirdre Dawson, et al. Work. Shannon:
2009. Vol. 32, Iss. 4; pg. 391


Employment is a right of citizenship and a social determinant of health, but employment rates
remain low for persons with disabilities. The purpose of this paper is to examine the
principles and practices guiding work integration within the fields of intellectual disability
(ID), brain injury, and mental illness and to identify best practices to support transitions to
employment across these three groups. This integrative review drew upon an occupational
perspective to analyze the current literature. Findings reveal that the need and benefits of
working are recognized across disability groups but that philosophical perspectives guiding
work integration differ. In the area of mental illness, recovery is seen as a process within
which work plays an important role, in ID work is viewed as a planned outcome that is part of
the developmental process, and in the field of brain injury, outcomes of employability and
employment are emphasized. A common theme across the three disability groups is that in
order to facilitate work integration, the person, the job and the work environment are
important factors in need of examination. Evidence pointing to the effectiveness of the
supported employment model is increasing across these three populations. A framework for
guiding the development of further research and for promoting changes to support work
integration is presented.
xvii. Work as a Human Activity
Terrence Fernsler. Nonprofit World. Madison: Mar/Apr 2009. Vol. 27, Iss. 2; pg. 28, 1 pgs


Employment is often viewed as a purely economic relationship. But for

most employees, work is a human activity. We commonly identify with it ("What do you
do?"). We spend more time at work than most, if not all, other activities, even sleep.

Achieving economic prosperity, human dignity, and appreciation for human rights
requires that we balance efficiency with equity (fair treatment) and voice (employee input).
The question is how to govern the workplace to achieve this vital balance. In most
workplaces, employment is an economic transaction, with employees and employers
considered equals in the labour market. In reality, we know they're not equals, because
property rights are still favoured over labour rights, and because employers typically have far
greater resources.

Unions and government regulations are supposed to equalize the power between
workers and management. Indeed, classical labour relations studies rely on unions to provide
equity and voice in the workplace. Unions in the United States concentrate on making
organizations efficient while providing equity, but their focus has narrowed to obtaining
decent working conditions and a fair share of the profits. That's perhaps why few nonprofits
have unions - profits aren't a motivator in non-profit organizations, and equity is often
achieved through other means. Unions tend to be inflexible in a rapidly changing
environment. Sometimes they actually remove employee decision making. Today, according
to John W. Budd, unions represent only about 10% of workers, shifting the focus of many
workplaces toward efficiency at the expense of not only voice but equity as well.

Budd examines various systems of employee relations, and how each fares with
efficiency, equity, and voice. He indicates the appropriate system toward which an
organization might shift if there's a need for greater efficiency, equity, or voice.

These three essentials - efficiency, equity, and voice - are often in conflict. But if
we believe in democracy, adding equity and voice to the human activity of work is important.
Doing so is supported by major philosophies and religions, as Budd demonstrates. Balancing
equity and voice with efficiency is what most nonprofits work for; indeed, it is the purpose of

As the need for greater equity and voice becomes increasingly recognized, our
organizations can be role models for adding a human face to employment. Employee
satisfaction and participation have always been important in the non-profit sector, and fairness
and participation have long been viewed as vital parts of our workplaces. This is an area
where we'll be looked to as leaders, so it's important that we understand how to balance
efficiency, equity, and voice in our workplaces and this book shows us how.
xviii. Workaholism
Bonnie A Osif. Library Administration & Management. Chicago: Summer 2008. Vol. 22, Iss.
3; pg. 155, 6 pgs


Osif discusses some of the many resources pertaining to workaholism, which has a real and
important implications in all of people's lives. Among others, Spence and Robbins define a
workaholic as "a person who exhibits three properties: In comparison to others, the
workaholic is highly work involved, feels compelled or driven to work because of inner
pressures, and is low in enjoyment of work." Work enthusiasts, on the other hand, score high
on work involvement and work enjoyment, and low on feeling driven to work. Enthusiastic
workaholics score high on all three components.

xix. Creativity and workplace attractiveness in professional

Abigail Marks, Tony Huzzard. Journal of HRCA: Human Resource Costing & Accounting.
Bradford: 2008. Vol. 12, Iss. 3; pg. 225


The purpose of this paper is to investigate the notion of attractive workplaces in the specific
context of creative professional employment. Based on observations and interview data at
knowledge-based firms in the UK, the paper looks at the extent to which employees are
"rewarded" with the offer of creative work and the degree to which this offer really involves
greater benefits for employees in terms of professional prestige and the confirmation of their
identities as professional workers in the creative industries. The paper finds that creative
needs remain important components of the attractive workplace, but increasingly also of
importance are the extrinsic rewards of an acceptable work-life balance as the age profile of
the technology worker changes and technology stagnates. This research focused on one group
of workers within one specific country. Whilst it was found that work in the software sector is
becoming less creative, this may not be the case across all contexts. There is clearly a
problem, of developing young technology specialists within Scotland. In order to maintain the
"Smart, Successful Scotland" propounded by the Scottish Government, drastic steps need to
be taken to educate the IT workers and indeed, entrepreneurs of the future. This paper is new
as there has been little recent research undertaken examining the IT sector in Scotland. More
generally, there is a scarcity of work focusing on workplace attractiveness for IT specialists.

xx. Organizational politics and employee attendance

Gilmore, David C, Ferris, Gerald R, Dulebohn, James H, Harrell-Cook, Gloria. Group & Organization
Management. Thousand Oaks: Dec 1996. Vol. 21, Iss. 4; pg. 481, 14 pgs


Organizational politics has been conceptualized as a source of stress and conflict in the work
environment, with the potential for dysfunctional outcomes at both the individual and organizational
level. One possible consequence of politics is the exercise by employees of withdrawal behaviors,
particularly absenteeism. Further, the likelihood of negative outcomes may be substantially enhanced
by the lack of understanding. A study investigated the extent to which such understanding, measured
as tenure working for supervisor, moderated the perceptions of politics-employee attendance
relationship. Moderated regression results (after controlling for quality of supervisor-subordinate
relationship) provided support for the hypothesis, demonstrating that under conditions of lower tenure
working for supervisor, increases in perceptions of politics were associated with lower attendance,
whereas no relationship was found between politics and attendance under conditions of higher tenure
working for supervisor. Implications of the results are discussed.

xxi. Perceptions of politics: Does measuring different foci matter?

John M Maslyn, Donald B Fedor. Journal of Applied Psychology. Washington: Aug 1998. Vol. 83,
Iss. 4; pg. 645


Whether organizational members make a distinction between work-group and organizational politics is
investigated. Additionally, whether the two foci make independent contributions to explain outcomes to
which political behavior has been previously associated is explored. The results indicate that it can be
important to distinguish political activity at different levels in the organization. The confirmatory factor
analysis supported the measurement of politics at the organizational and work-group levels, and the
regression results indicated that they are related to different outcomes. Employees did not perceive
the same mean level of politics for the group and the organization, adding support to the notion that
employees experience separate political environments at work and do draw distinctions between
them. It is suggested that there may be unique foci-related relationships.
xxii. Risks of war: Preventing battles on the home front
Michael Prine. Business Insurance. Chicago: Mar 31, 2003. Vol. 37, Iss. 13; pg. 1, 2 pgs


Even though the war in Iraq is thousands of miles away, it can create issues in workplaces in the US.
Workforces frequently encompass a wide range of political and moral opinions and, at a time of
heightened concern, employers should be sensitive to a host of issues, including the need to maintain
a non-threatening workplace environment and worker productivity, employment specialists say.
Employment attorneys agree that, currently, the main employment practices concern is the expression
of anti-Arab or anti-Muslim sentiments in the workplace. Although some employers can legally forbid
all political speech, such action is not necessarily wise, lawyers caution. Taking action against an
employee that is involved in either a pro- or anti-war protest should be avoided, attorneys say.

xxiii. Politics & Economics: Philadelphia Sales Job; Retaining

Graduates Has Been a Tall Order
Dean Treftz. Wall Street Journal. (Eastern edition). New York, N.Y.: Apr 2, 2007. pg. A.7


First, along with area schools, Campus Philly works to boost applications and total enrollment, which
now exceeds 350,000 students. Next, it tries to build up students' fondness for the area, starting each
fall with a festival for students. Last September's included a motocross rally, rapper Fat Joe and pop-
punk band Saves the Day. It also reaches out with a booklet of coupons and event listings, several
career and internship fairs, and a Web site, www.campusphilly.org, featuring articles by students and
lists of activities from sporting events to concerts. "A student might see [a link to a career fair] when
they're looking for their party," Campus Philly Director Jon Herrmann says.

Finally, Campus Philly looks to seal the deal with internships, giving students a taste of what life could
be like after graduation. "It's kind of a 'try it before you buy it' strategy," Mr. Thornburgh says.

Others retain a view of Philadelphia as a gritty place with a less- than-vibrant culture. Detroit native
Eldra Walker, in her second year of a masters program in historical preservation at the University of
Pennsylvania, says she will focus her job hunt on Washington, D.C., where she previously worked.
"Even if it wasn't as well-paying a job, I'd still take it in D.C., because I just like it more," Ms. Walke
says. "There would just have to be more things to do, a wider variety of cultural attractions" to win her

i. Embodied Political Performativity in Excitable Speech:

Butler's Psychoanalytic Revision of Historicism
Molly Anne Rothenberg. Theory, Culture & Society. London: Jul 1, 2006. Vol. 23, Iss. 4; pg. 71

The critical commentary on Judith Butler's Excitable Speech: A Politics of the Performative focuses
primarily on her use of speech-act theory for political purposes. Admitting the limitations of
Austin's work, she introduces an extended supplement to her linguistically based performative theory
in Excitable Speech: a discussion of embodied subjectivity presented in ways never before instanced
in her work. That is, in this text, she continues to use speech-act theory articulated with Derridean
iterability (her usual practice) to ground performativity, while presenting a version of embodiment
newly derived from psychoanalysis to establish the political efficacy of the subject. Although this shift
has gone unremarked in the literature, Butler herself treats this psychoanalytic dimension as animating
the entire argument. This article reviews her logic and the place that psychoanalysis holds in her
theory to establish the viability of the embodied political performative and its utility for historicism

In this difficult economy, you may find it harder than ever to cope
with challenges on the job. Both the stress we take with us when we go to work and the stress
that awaits us on the job are on the rise – and employers, managers, and workers all feel the
added pressure. While some stress is a normal part of life, excessive stress interferes with
your productivity and reduces your physical and emotional health, so it’s important to find
ways to keep it under control. Fortunately, there is a lot that you can do to manage and reduce
stress at work. For workers everywhere, the troubled economy may feel like an emotional
roller coaster. "Layoffs" and "budget cuts" have become bywords in the workplace, and the
result is increased fear, uncertainty, and higher levels of stress. Since job and workplace stress
grow in times of economic crisis, it’s important to learn new and better ways of coping with
the pressure. The ability to manage stress in the workplace can make the difference between
success or failure on the job. Your emotions are contagious, and stress has an impact on the
quality of your interactions with others. The better you are at managing your own stress, the
more you'll positively affect those around you and the less other people's stress will negatively
affect you. When stress on the job is interfering with your ability to work, care for yourself, or
manage your personal life, it’s time to take action. Start by paying attention to your physical
and emotional health. When your own needs are taken care of, you’re stronger and more
resilient to stress. The better you feel, the better equipped you’ll be to manage work stress
without becoming overwhelmed.

Taking care of yourself doesn’t require a total lifestyle overhaul. Even

small things can lift your mood, increase your energy, and make you feel like you’re back in
the driver’s seat. Take things one step at a time, and as you make more positive lifestyle
choices, you’ll soon notice a noticeable difference in your stress level, both at home at work.

A reader asks about the pervasive problem of office politics. I'll begin my
answer with some introductory remarks. Then I will share her e-mail so you get a sense of her
overall situation. After that I will respond point by point. I have numbered the paragraphs in
her e-mail so I can refer to their number, instead of repeating what she wrote. Finally, I will
end with some concluding remarks.

I thank our reader for raising the important issue of office politics. The
office environment is like a family environment. Coworkers, like family members, may
experience rivalry, frustration, a struggle for recognition, and a desire to become leader of the
pack. In the struggle to assert oneself, harsh words and devious deeds may take place. Yes,
the struggle may be painful, but in your heart, how can you blame family members or
coworkers for lashing out at you? After all, their criticism says less about you than it does
about them. They act spitefully not because they are vicious at heart, but because they are
scared, insecure, and feel under attack. When we awaken to this fact, it becomes easier to
accept others and realize that we've got to learn how to get along if we wish to succeed in
life.Enough of an intro, let's move on to our reader's e-mail.

"I read about manipulative people and how we should not let them take
advantage of us, and I read 'Nasty People' and how we should look at them (1).

"What if a colleague pretends to be busy. She told our boss that I am not
working as hard as I should, and that I come to work late. She destroyed the opinion that my
boss had of me, which was excellent. And she spends half of the day on the phone or working
on her second job, which nobody knows about (2).

"What do you do when she decides to do only the work she thinks is
important? And she even has the nerve to ask me to do trivial things. What do you do in such
a case? Do you let her be or do you talk to somebody (3)?

"How do I erase the feelings of unfairness that destroy my peace of mind, undermine my
status at work (4) and rob me of the benefits I should have (5)?

"This problem has been going on for four years now and it's a source of
great stress and sadness for me. I often wanted to go to the boss and open his eyes but I don't
want to nail anybody, and I would look like the one at fault. When I get compliments from
people I work with or people that I help, she becomes unbearable. And I'm five years older
than her with much more experience, and a higher I.Q. and E.Q. (6)

"Something else, I love people and my nature is to help them. That's why when I read articles
and books about personal development, I want to share the word with all the people I know

Here are my comments to our reader. 1) Who do you suppose will be more
successful in life, Mr. X who is reading "How to Get along with Others" or Mr. Y who is
reading "How to Protect Yourself from Manipulative People"? Can you see how Mr. X is
thinking about WE while Mr. Y is thinking about ME? Can you see how Mr. X is working
from the assumption that all people are decent and worthy of friendship while Mr. Y believes
others are out to get him and cannot be trusted? Are you surprised that Mr. X has many
friends and feels in control of his life while Mr. Y is under stress, unhappy, and feels like a

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