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II .Project Proponent: Shiela Mae R.Bayeta

III .Project Duration: 4 months

IV. Project Location: Purok 20 Mauswagun Brgy. Pagatpatan, Butuan City

V. Total Project Expenses: Php. 517,448.53.53

VI. Project Description:

The proposed project which shall be raised is ’’MUD CRAB WITH MILKFISH
PRODUCTION (POLYCULTURE) shall consist of 15,000 juveniles, and 7,500 pieces fry with the
pond measurement about 1 hectare, duration targeted about 250 g of crab each and 250 g of
milkfish each when harvested and marketed.

VII. Rationale:

Mud crab known as alimango in the local dialect is probably one of the most edible
and widely sought species that inhabit the estuarine area of tidal rivers and creeks in the Asian
and Indo-Pacific region. Mud crabs are classified under genus Scylla and is reported to three
species; Scylaa serrata, S.oceanica, S.tranquebarica and a variety of S.Serrata var
paramamosain. S.serrata being considered to be the most widely caught species in the
swamps of the Philippines. The crab species Scylla serrata is the biggest and most important
member of the family of edible crabs in the Philippines. Typically, males guard mature females,
cradling them prior to their moult . The male carries the female underneath him using three
pairs of walking legs. The male can successfully mate and transfer spermatophores (packets of
sperm) into the female’s spermathecum once she has molted and is soft shelled. During
copulation, which may last 7–18 hours, the male turns the female upside down. The female
stays in the protection of the male until her shell is fully hardened, which may be several days.
The subsequent development of the ovary can be seen by depressing and pushing forwards the
first abdominal segment next to the carapace on female crabs. Ovaries change color as they
mature, progressing from transparent through to yellow and finally dark orange, although a
more accurate description of the maturation process can be obtained through microscopic
Commercial crab farming business is gaining popularity day by day in many coastal
areas around the world. So far culture is largely traditional. Farming mud crab has a high
demand in the local market and even in export. .Mud crab or alimango, is considered a delicacy
and has become a popular in many seafood restaurants. It is sought for its very tasty aligue or
ripe eggs in the ovary. It is large, have a good taste especially when cooked with ginataan.
Milkfsih on the other hand subsists on natural food. (Lab-lap, plankton, lumut).

Other economic importance of mud crabs are also they are easy to transport, gives
profitable yield easy to take care of. It has also socio economic importance like cheap labor,
market accessibility of construction material and production inputs as well as the peace and
order situation in the locality should be considered. Mud crabs have huge demand and high
value in the local and national market. With the availability of mud crab juveniles from the wild
throughout the year and the recent development in the hatchery technique thereof, there is a
strong indication that production of mud crab along with the milkfish in commercial farming
quantities could be more lucrative.

VIII .Objectives:

 To be knowledgeable enough about the strategies of farming mud crab and milkfish.
 To determine the market demand and possible yield of this proposal.
 To earn money for living and help others and give them work.
 To assess if my mud crab and milkfish production is feasible and sustainable in the long
IX Fishpond Layout
X. Methodology

A. Fishpond Construction Procedures:

Compartment for mud crab should range in size from ¼ to 1hectare in order to be
manageable. Preferably, they should be rectangular in shape and positioned in series with a
supply drain canal. Each compartment should be provided with about 12 earthen mounds
(5m) installed strategic areas of the pond. This mound s serves as breathing spot where mud
crabs could climb during times of low oxygen tension. Sawed bamboos or used PVC pipes (50cm
long with 15cm diameter opening both ends) may be added to serve as hides/shelter to avoid
mortality due to fighting and cannibalism. Used tires, stacked and tied up in layers and wooden
or bamboo platform are utilized as substitute for earthen mounds. These should be installed in
the middle of the pond high enough so that the peaks remain above water even when
maximum depth of 60 to 80 is reached. (Fig1)

To prevent the crabs from escaping, the area should be fenced in by nylon net (1-2cm
mesh size) extending about 30cm above the waterline. The nets should be supported vertically
with bamboo post horizontally with bamboo splits and imbedded about 50-30 cm along the
base of the dike.(Fig 2)Plastic strip sheet of about 50 cm wide should be installed along the top
edge of the net fence to prevent mud crabs from climbing over the top.

B. Stocking Procedures:

Newly arrived mud crab juveniles in mono size or mixed sized group are normally
contained in palm basket (bayong) or bamboo wicket basket (bukag).About 300-500 juveniles
untied or tied pincers. Fronds of pagatpat are provided inside the basket to cool and to
minimize fighting among crabs. Stocking may be done early in the morning or late in the
afternoon preferably in night when temperature is cool.

C. Cultural Practices

C.1. Site Selection- A typical brackish water pond designed for the culture of milkfish or
shrimp can be used for farming of mud crab. Enclosed areas of newly or partially developed
fishponds provided with water control structures could also serve the purpose to some extent..
This will somehow reduce initial expenditure required during the course establishment
involving extensive renovation of pond bottom. Soil type must be sandy clay or loam with rich
organic matter base and preferably alkaline.
C.2. Source of Juveniles-Mud crab juveniles’ 10 to 40 g or 5 to 20 cm carapace breadth
are available throughout the year with the peak during the month of May to September. They
are caught in sizable quantities together with marketable size crabs in marshlands and
estuarine areas. Depending in size, quantity, sex and species, cab seeds are available to the
farmer through the advance notice made to the collectors. This will give ample time for
collection, handling storage, and transport. Mud crab for farming about 5 to 10 pieces to a kilo
maybe available also in local markets at relatively, lower price. In ponds this will take only a few
culture days to grow to much bigger and or marketable size.

C.3. Pond Preparation-Since by nature the species is a scavenger, growing mud crabs aloe
do not require meticulous pond preparation involving the propagation of natural food. Along
with the milkfish however, the plankton or deep water natural food is advisable. The plankton
method has several advantages like; 1.lead time in preparing the pond is short, hereby
minimizing the production cost, 2 plankton grows over wide range of salinity and 3. carrying
capacity is greater because of more water volumes.

C.4. Stocking of Juveniles- In stocking, newly arrived mud crabs juveniles in mono size
or mixed size group are normally contained in bakag measuring 40 cm high and 50 cm diameter
mouth opening. About 300-500 juveniles are placed in each basket. During stocking tied pincers
are feed and crabs are released directly into strategic areas of the pond at density of 5,000 to
10,000 juveniles per hectare in combinations with 2000 to 2500 milkfish fingerlings (10 to 15g).

C.5. Care of Pond and Stocks-After stocking, it is essential to maintain good water
favorable both to mud crabs and milkfish. They were observed to grow faster at water
temperature between 23-32 degree centigrade and salinity of not more than 40 ppt. When
mud crabs start to crawl of top of the earthen mounds or cling to the bamboo fence it is an
indication that water condition is not favorable. It is advisable therefore to change atleast 1/3
of pond water change is needed during spring tide. An irrigation pump maybe necessary in case
water change is needed during neap tide. Dikes, gates and net fence should be regularly
inspected for possible leakages and dilapidation.

C. 6. Feeds and Feeding and Fertilization-When fed with finely chopped trash fish or
frozen. Animal entrails or hides maybe given to augment the protein source other than those
derived from trash fish. Trash fish maybe chopped, dried and stored. However soaking dries
trash fish in water before feeding id advisable to prevent from floating feeds to go
unnecessarily on sizes or corners of the dike if scattered in the pond. Feeding is done by
broadcasting. Likewise to maintain good growth of plankton for milkfish, it is recommended
that one bag of 16-20-0 be applied in a platform, subsequently every 15 days .If plankton
visibility is less than 15cm meaning there is excessively abundant, stop fertilization and replace
about 1/3 of pond. Re apply fertilizer if water becomes clear. Filamentous-green algae or lumut
when readily available in relative quantity, may be given as feeds to crabs.

C.7. Harvest- Total harvest/Total drainage

This is way of including mud crabs and milkfish to swim against the current by the
so called ‘’pasulang’’ method. The pond is partially drained 50% during low tide and at high tide
new seawater is admitted thereby causing the stock to swim against the current towards the
catching pond. Together with milkfish, bigger size and fatter crabs with females having
maturing eggs or aligue are caught. While swimming against the current and concentrating
along the gate, the crabs are caught with scoop nets and the pincers are then securely tied
using strips of coconut sheath (suwak) plastic straw. The remaining crabs, milkfish and other
saleable species left in the pond are collected by total drainage. Normally, this lasts a day or
two. For mud crabs there are 630 kgs harvested per hectare and 600 kgs for milkfish.

D. Natural feeds /Artificial feeds:

Crabs do not need manufactured feeds. There are natural feeds – chopped trash
fish, animal hide, and snails. You can feed your crabs with low cost trash fish, lumut or animal
innards or entrails.

For milkfish are as follows:

 Fry mash
 Starter mash
 Grower
 Finisher mash

E. Methods of Harvesting

Total harvest/total drainage -The pond is partially drained 50% during low tide and
at high tide new seawater is admitted thereby causing the stock to swim against the current
towards the catching pond. Together with milkfish, bigger size and fatter crabs with females
having maturing eggs or aligue are caught. While swimming against the current and
concentrating along the gate, the crabs are caught with scoop nets and the pincers are then
securely tied using strips of coconut sheath (suwak) plastic straw.
XI Assumption:

1. Stocking fingerlings and juveniles: 15,000 pcs and 7500 pcs fry

2. Current price of fingerlings: Php 3.00 each for fingerlings and Php 6.00 each for

3. Growing period/ Number Of days: 4 months

4. Estimated average on individual weight in grams after harvest: 250 grams for crabs and
250 grams for milkfish

5. Total number of kilograms harvested: For mud crabs there are 630 kgs and 600 kgs for

6. Current stock price per kilo in the market: Php 250.00 for crabs

Php 120.00 for milkfish

7.Mortality Rate: 10%

XII Budgetary Expenses

A. Costs (P)

A. Fixed Cost Php

 License /Taxes/Fees  6,000.00
 Land Rental/Lease  5,000.00
 Total Fixed Cost  11,000.00
B. Variable Cost
 Fingerlings Php 3.00 each x 7,500 pieces  22,500.00
Php 6.00 each x 15,000 pieces  90,000.00

 Feeds
 For crabs
 Trash fish or entrails  2500.00
(25/kilo x 100 kilos )
 For milkfish
 Fry mash ( 6 sacks x  3,000.00
500.00 /sack)
 Starter mash (7 sacks
x 800.00/sack)  5,600.00
 Grower (8 sacks x
950.00/sack)  7,600.00
 Finisher( 8 sacks x
1050.00/sack)  8,400.00

 Hired Labor ( 15 days x200 /day x 5 persons)  15,000.00

 Caretaker (120 days x 200/day x 2 persons)  48,000.00
 Organic Fertilizer  52,500.00
 Dried chicken manure (70
sacks x750.00/ sack)
 Inorganic Fertilizer
 Lime powder (40 sacks x  36,000.00
 T seed powder (20 sacks x  20,000.00

 Fuel/Transportation  3,000.00
 Materials for pond construction
 Nails #3 (48.00 x 4 kilos)  192.00
 Nails #4 (50.00 x 3 kilos)  150.00
 Bamboo poles ( 50 pieces x  3,500.00
70.00 each)
 Polyethylene/nylon netting  32,000.00
(400m x80.00/m)
 Plastic (1 roll )  1,070.00

 Interest on Loans  108,936.53

 Total Variable cost  506,448.53
 Over all budgetary Expenses  517,448.53

B. Cost and Return Php

1.Sales  1,046,250.00
 Crabs: 3,375kgsx 250= Php 843,750.00
 Milkfish:1,687.5kgsx 100= Php 202,500.00
2. Total of All Budgetary Expenses  517,448.53
3.Net Profit  528,801.47

C. Percent return on Investment

ROI= 558,801.47
x 100 = 102.19% ROI

I. Title:” TILAPIA PRODUCTION” (Fish Pond Culture)

II .Project Proponent: Basa, Hanilyn L.
III .Project Duration: 120 days
IV. Project Location: Purok 1 Osmena, Bayugan City
V. Total Project Expenses: Php;55,965.00

VI. Project Description:

The proposed project which shall be raised is “TILAPIA PRODUCTION” shall consist
2,500 fingerlings with the pond/cage measurement about 2500sq. meters duration targeted to 120
days about 300g when harvested and marketed.

VII. Rationale:

Tilapia is the common name used for a variety of cichlid fishes of the genera
(Oreochromis niloticus). Tilapia inhabit a variety of fresh and less commonly brackish water
habitats from shallow and ponds through to rivers, lakes, and estuaries. Most tilapias are
omnivorous with a preference for soft aquatic vegetation and detritus. Tilapia are economically
important food fish for Filipinos. Also, among the easiest and most profitable fish to farm.
Tilapia are hardy and tolerant to a wide range of environmental factors making them easy to
culture. If you have a hectare of land, a portion of it can be converted to a fishpond where you
can raise.
The economic importance of tilapia are extremely encouraging the very good source of
protein, vitamins, and minerals needed by the body. It can be a good substitute for marine fishes
whose prices are getting higher. In the Philippines tilapia is important food fish and has
acceptance in the local market.
Top recipes for tilapia are;
 Fried Tilapia.
 Grilled Tilapia
 Seasoning sweet Tilapia
 Ginataang Tilapia
 Sweet and sour Tilapia
Tilapia is one of the most demand favorite fish cultured in the world, and production is
growing very strongly. Some problem with its farming led to long years of silence, from which
tilapia come back as the fish of the decade, or the fish of the millennium. Market size preference
varies depending on the place. In many barangays in Region 2, small fish (less than 100 g) are
highly saleable. In commercial fishpond operations that require middlemen in marketing, large
fish commands a higher price than small ones.
VIII .Objectives:
1. To determine the economics of tilapia production in freshwater pond.
2. To identify and describe the existing culture including, source of fish stock and
use of production.
3. To help the farmers to enhance the process of tilapia production.

IX .Fishpond/Layout
X. Methodology;

a. A typical earthen fish pond should be 2500sq. meter . The main physical factors to
consider are the land area, water supply and the soil water retention capacity.
• Depends on the type of soil present and the intended culture practices
. • The water source must be able to keep the pond full throughout the culture period
• Relatively shallow ponds are productive, but the shallow end should be at least 0.5 m
deep to avoid invasion by weeds.

b. During harvest, fingerlings for restocking can be moved to a small holding pond while the
pond is harvested, drained, and dried. Another option for restocking is to capture fingerlings
from another pond.

c. Cultural and Management practices

Site Selection
Selecting an appropriate site is important before starting to build ponds. Consideration
needs to be given to water supply, soil type, topography, and location.

 Water. A reliable water source during the growing season of the fish is needed. Water can
come from springs, runoff, rivers, or ground water
 Soil. Containing greater than 10-15% clay is desirable for retaining water in ponds and
preventing seepage. Avoid sandy soils because these allow high rates of seepage.
 Climate. Tilapia thrive in warm water of 25-30 °C usually found in areas of low
elevation in tropical areas. Fish growth and reproduction will be slower at cooler
temperatures. Ponds should be located in full sunlight to receive maximum solar heating
and plankton growth.
 Topography. Gently sloping topography is ideal for fish ponds because it is easier to
construct drainable ponds. Ponds can be built in flat areas or hilly areas but construction
can be more difficult. Avoid low areas where ponds cannot be drained or are susceptible
to flooding or damage during heavy rains.
 Location. The optimal location for a pond is near the owner’s house so it is easier to
manage and to protect from theft and predators.

Pond Preparation

The size of the pond should be determined by the number of fish you want to raise. A
good guide is 2-3 mature fish per sq. meter of water surface. The depth of the pond should be
one meter with water not less than three-fourths meter deep. Manage the water so that it will not
flow continuously through the pond.
To insure that no fish will escape, fine-meshed bamboo or fence should screen ponds that have
waterways connecting them to canals or outside water. Both the inside and outside end of each
waterways should be screened. Use big bamboos for inlets and outlets for small ponds.
Pond Fertilization

Applying fertilizer in ponds to supply the nutrients needed for plant growth is a
fundamental part of fishpond management. Fish production per unit area can be increased as
much as five-fold by proper application of fertilizer.
Organic Fertilizer. The nutrients and organic matter content of manure increase the water
holding capacity of the soil, decrease the rate of evaporation and increase enzymatic activity, all
of which increase fertility and yield.
Inorganic Fertilizer. The common fertilizers used in fishponds are agricultural lime and amphos

Securing fish fingerlings

Obtain you first supply of young tilapia from any reliable fish pond. If fingerlings are
unavailable you need about 20-30 pairs of good breeders to start reproducing in your tilapias
pond of 10x20 feet. If fingerlings are available you will need to plan on about 5 to 6 fingerlings
per sq. meter of water surface area.

Stocking the pond

Before stocking the pond with tilapia, be sure to drain in thoroughly and remove the
weeds and unwanted fish that may be represent. Stock the pond either early in the morning or
late in the afternoon when the water temperature is low in to avoid weakening of the fish.

Care and Maintenance

– Feed daily during morning and afternoon at one portion of the pond.
– Maintain the natural fish-food by adding more fertilizer. Place chicken droppings in sacks and
suspend in the water at every corner of the pond. Put 2.5 kg of chicken manure per bag.
– Maintain a water level depth of 1-1.5 meters. Gradually remove excess fingerlings after the
third month of stocking.
– Plant “kangkong” and “gabi” at one portion to provide shade for the fish during hot weather
and to serve as growing media for natural fish food.
– Prevent seepages and leakages by patching them with muds. Clear the pond dikes of weeds.
– Check the gates occasionally to prevent entry of other fish species and avoid loss of stock.
– Find ways to keep the mudfish (”haluan”) out of your tilapia pond. The mudfish is a ferocious
predator of tilapia fingerlings and ever larger fish.
– Plant more trees within the sources of water to maintain the flow.

Tilapia can be harvest in 120 days, with weight of 300 grams of fishes with the total number
of 593.75 kgs.

d. Natural or Artificial

 Lablab production which may be grown for fish in the pond.

 “Tahop or Rice bran”

Artificial Food

 Fry mash

 Starter floater

 Grower floater

 Finisher floater

e. Methods of harvesting

Total harvesting – ponds are totally drained and fish are confined in the catch basin where
the fish are caught by seine nets.

Do not feed the fish 24 hours before harvesting or transporting

XI Assumptions

1.Stocking fingerlings and fry; 2,500 pcs.

2.Curent price of fingerlings; Php; 3.00 each

3.Growing period ,Number Of days; 120 days

4.Estimated average on individual weight in grams after harvest;300g

5.Total number of kilograms harvested;598.75 kls.

6.Current stock price per kilo in the market; 120 per kilo
7.Mortality 5%

XII Budgetary Expenses

A. Costs (P)

A. Fixed Cost Php;

 License /Taxes/Fees  6,000.00
 Land Rental/Lease  4,000.00
 Total Fixed Cost  10,000 .00
B. Variable Cost
 Fry/Fingerlings  7,500.00

 Feeds(artificial/supplementary)
 Fry mash (2bags x 410.00)  820.00
 Starter floater (6bags x  4,020.00
 Grower floater (8bags x  5,440.00
 Finisher floater (4bags x  2,740.00
 Hired Laborers;(270 per MD x 5days)  5,400.00
 Caretaker;(2400 per M x 4months)  9,000.00
 Organic Fertilizer
 Dried chicken manure(22bags  1,540.00
x 70.00)
 Inorganic Fertilizer
 Agricultural lime(5bags x  1,050.00
 Amophos 16-20-0-125(1sack x  1,017.00
 Fuel Transportation  2,000.00
 Materials for pond construction
 Tie wire #16 (3kls. X 50.00)  150.00
 Multi netting twine(210/12  400.00
10spool x 40.00)
 Poly rope#10 (1roll x 398.00)  398.00
 DD net (1bundle x 3,890.00)  3,890.00
 Interest on Loans 10%  1,865.00
 Total Variable cost  45,965.00
 Over all budgetary Expenses  55,965.00
B.Cost and Return Php;

1.Sales (593.75 x 120)  71,250.00

2.Less;(overall total)  55,965.00
3.Net Profit (a-b=c) Php; 15,285.00

C.Percent Return on Investment

ROI= 15,285.00
55,965.00 x 100 = 27.31 % ROI