© All Rights Reserved

2 vues

© All Rights Reserved

- Design Slab,beam,girder,column & Footings of a 90ft X 60ft
- PRACTICE PROBLEMS 1 IN STEEL DESIGN
- Design of Continuous Beam and Slab Footing using BS 8110-1:1997
- Example on Design of Timber Structure part2
- chapter 6 Beam Stresses
- Design of Tallapudi Bus Shelter
- Equivalent Frame Method
- Abstract
- Frame
- Instructional Guide in CE 513
- Deck Slab
- Composite 1
- Chapter 23
- RC17_Column01
- 0958 S-VI
- Introduction to Machine Design_EDITED
- Std_Tutor
- New Text Document
- The Effect of Differential Settlement of Supports on a Large Steel Framed Boiler Supporting Structure
- Lateral Load Resisting Systems

Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 102

The trend of getting structures analyzed scientifically for structural safety and economic

reasons is getting more and more popular nowadays. The desire to learn about such an

analysis and design has motivated us for this project, entitled “Detailed Structural

Analysis and Design of Five and a half Storey Residential Building.

We are highly indebted to the help and advice of our dedicated teachers and our helpful

friends collaborating with in the preparation of the project report. Our advisor Asst. Prof.

Ajay Khadka, Department of Civil Engineering, Nepal Engineering College, deserves our

special acknowledgement for his valuable guidance, care, expertise and devotion of time

in bringing out this report in this format in complete and concise volume. We benefited a

lot in a great deal from his logical thoughts, experience and incisive comments

We also sincerely thank all the friends directly and indirectly supporting us in bringing

out this report to its completion..

Finally, we want to express our heartily thanks to all those who directly or indirectly

provided us their cooperation in the completion of this project.

PREFACE

This project work is a mandatory part of B.E Civil final semester curriculum. Our project

group has chosen to do analysis and design of Reinforced Concrete framed building under

the guidance of our dedicated teacher Asst. Prof. Ajay Khadka.

Among the two category of building structure, via, load bearing and framed structures,

here, in the project work the building frame structure is practiced. Building frame is a

three dimensional structure as space consist of rigidly interconnected beams, slabs and

columns. It produces greater number of the redundancy thus reduces the moments and

facilitates the even distribution of the load.

The degree of sophistication to which structural analysis is carried out depends on the

importance of structure and available resource.

A highly redundant space structure is splited into different 3D frames and is then

analyzed by using the help of STAAD Pro software. Though the vivid use of computer

software has lessened the burden of repeated calculations on analysis, it is clear that for

understanding the process physically and realizing the structural behavior, manual step by

step procedure is necessary. However, due to time constrain and to be familiar with

computer software, the structural analysis part is performed using computer software

“STAAD Pro.” and design work is performed manually with reference to different codes

of practice.

Though every care has been taken to make the report free from errors, yet we shall be

obliged, if errors present shall be brought to our notice. We will warmly welcome

constructive criticism

List of Abbreviations

Symbols Description

Ac : Areaof concrete

Ag : Gross sectional area

Ast : Areaof tensile steel

Asc : Area of compression steel

Asv : Area of vertical stirrups

b : width of beam or shorter dimensions of column

bf : Effective width of flange in a T-beam

bw : breadth of web in T-beam

D : effective depth of beam or slab

emin : minimum eccentricity

fck : characteristic compressive strength of concrete

fsc : compressive stress in steel corresponding to strain of 0.002

fst : tensile stress in steel

fy : characteristic yield strength of steel

Ld : development length of bar

L : length of column or span of beam

Lo : anchorage length of bar

lo : distance between points of zero moments

Leff : effective length of beam or column or slab

Mu : factored design moment

Mlim : limiting moment of resistance

Mux : factored design moment along x-x axis

Muy : factored design moment along y-y axis

Muxl : maximum uniaxial moment capacity of the section with axial

load, bending about x – x axis

Muyl : maximum uniaxial moment capacity of the section with axial

load, bending about y –y axis

Mi : moment of inertia of the section

M : modular ratio

P : Axial load

Pu : factored design axial load

p : percentage of reinforcement

pc : percentage of compression reinforcement

pt : percentage of tension reinforcement

Sv : spacing of vertical stirrups

V : shear force

Vu : factored shear force

Xu : depth of neutral axis at the limit state of collapse

Xumax : maximum depth of neutral axis

Z : lever arm

abc : permissible stress in concrete in bending compression

sc : permissible stress in steel in compression

st : permissible stress in steel in tension

v : nominal shear stress in concrete with shear reinforcement

bd : design bond stress

cmax : maximum shear stress in concrete with shear reinforcement

: Diameter of tor steel bar

Ast, req : required area of tensile steel

Asc, req : required area of compressive steel

Ast, pro : provided area of tensile steel

Asc, pro : provided area of compressive steel

Sv, sp16 : spacing of vertical stirrups from ductility consideration

Sv, DUC : spacing of vertical stirrups from ductility consideration

Sv, prov : provided spacing of vertical stirrups

: unit weight of soil at site

p : safe bearing capacity of soil at site

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND

The basics needs of human existences are food, clothing‟s and shelter. From times

immemorial man has been making efforts in improving their standard of living.

Development of economically and socially appropriate and environmentally comfortable

shelter has been priority of the people in attempt to enhancing their quality of life.

Appropriate shelter has been identified important element to lead productive and

dignified life.

Kathmandu being the capital city of Nepal is one of the densely populated cities. As it is

rapidly developing, construction of residential house is becoming costly and unaffordable

by large section of population and especially those belonging to lower economic strata.

The increase in the cost of development of a house in the city core is due essentially to

high cost of housing plots and higher labor cost. Contrary to urban areas, the development

of residential housing in the peri urban areas is largely spontaneous and has been

proceeding without much consideration of human comfort and environmental sanitation.

In the developing countries like Nepal, present situation of water scarcity, energy crisis

and challenges in waste management have becoming worse day by day and are being the

headache for people especially in the capital city Kathmandu. Growing environmental

issues have affected the construction process of residential building. So residential

building might be the better choice if constructed on peri-urban areas of Kathmandu. This

building is designed for the general case of Kathmandu valley which lies on earthquake

zone V. It indicates higher value of earthquake. Hence the effect of earthquake is pre-

dominant than the wind load. So, the building is analyzed for earthquake as lateral load.

The seismic coefficient design method as stipulated an IS 1893:2002 (Part 1) is applied to

analyze the building for earthquake. Special reinforced concrete moment resisting frame

is considered as the main in structural system of the building.

This project report has been prepared in complete conformity with various stipulations in

Indian Standards, Code of Practice for Plain and Reinforced Concrete IS 456-2000,

Design Aids for Reinforced Concrete to IS 456-2000(SP-16), Criteria Earthquake

Resistant Design Structures IS 1893-2000, Handbook on Concrete Reinforcement and

Detailing SP-34. Use of these codes have emphasized on providing sufficient safety,

economy, strength and ductility besides satisfactory serviceability requirements of

cracking and deflection in concrete structures. These codes are based on principles of

Limit State of Design. The earthquake resistant residential building possessing its own

characteristics such as rain water harvesting located in the peri-urban areas is the main

output expected in undertaking this project work.

Load calculation.

Preliminary design.

• Slab

• Beam

1

• Column

Modeling in STAAD

Detail design:

• Slab, Column, Beam, Staircase, Foundation.

• Rain water Harvesting

Design methods:

Limit state design.

1.2 OBJECTIVE

Concerning with the building project, every client of a designer will obviously hope the

safe and economic proposal from him. So the aim of the project is to design the safe and

economical residential building especially focusing on the peri-urban areas of Kathmandu

valley.

resistant residential building. The specific objectives of the project are as stated here

under.

To develop plan of five storied building in which ground floor is subscribed for

mini mart & remaining floors for residential purpose.

To analyze the static and dynamic loads on proposed building using STAADPRO.

To perform structural analysis and design the components of the proposed

building.

To design the residential building in peri-urban areas to minimize the rising over

crowded situation in Kathmandu city.

To develop the self-confidence to attain the similar project in the near future as

professional and to give the client full satisfaction.

The proposed project has been chosen as a final year project in partial fulfillment of the

academic requirement of the degree of Bachelor of Engineering (B.E.) in Civil and Rural

Engineering. This project is focused on design of residential building keeping in mind the

growing overcrowded issues in Kathmandu city and need for developing economical

housing. This design is therefore expected to lower the dependence on the utility services

and prove to be economical over a long run.

The project is expected to enhance our knowledge and analytical skills relating to design

of residential buildings and especially the design of residential facilities in the peri-urban

areas. Upon completion of the project, this is expected to enhance our capacity to

undertake similar project independently.

2

1.4 DESCRIPTION OF THE PROPOSED PROJECT

Name of the Project : Commercial Building with Rental Housing

Location : Mulpani

Structure system : RCC framed structure

No. of storey : 4 & a half storied

Type of Slab : Two way Slab

Type of beam : Rectangular (400*300mm)

Type of column : Square (400*400mm)

Type of foundation : Raft Foundation

Type of staircase : Open well Staircase

Method of analysis : STAAD PRO

Design concept : Limit State Design

Concrete grade : M20

Reinforcement grade : Fe415

Dead load : As per materials usage in building

Live load : As per usage and as specified relevant code

Seismic load : As per usage and as specified relevant code

Topography : Plain terrain

Floor to Floor height : 2..74m

Plinth Area : 125.32m2

Occupancy of the building: Ground floor used as mini mart & other

floors are residential.

The grid plan given in the adjoining page has got the following features:

One room of dimension: 4.19m2.92m

One room of dimension: 3.35m*3.20m

Two rooms of dimension: 3.048m3.20m

One room of dimension: 3.048m*4.31m

Two Bathroom of size: 1.70m2.21m

Six verandah of size: 1.18m4.878m

The space for the purpose of staircase and for the storing purpose spaced with the

area of size 2.8963m3.048m in each floor.

The project we selected is a part of academic course of B.E /Civil & Rural Fifth Year,

First semester designed on how to acquaint the students with complete project work from

the initial stage of analysis and design to the final working. It will provide us confidence

on how to accomplish the structural design work of a building in its entirety by strictly

adhering to the theoretical knowledge gained during academic year of B.E.

3

It will improve our analytical technique to some extent that the design may become

reality, by repeated systematic analysis until the design constraints are satisfied, we will

not be benefited until our theoretical knowledge be correlated to the design works. By

designing the structure we can develop judgment, perception, imagination and creativity,

in short the ability to handle the works.

Project work is carried out for structural analysis, design and reinforcement

detailing of RCC framed structures

to economy in both size and use of materials as well as labor cost.

Besides, this project work that we have tried to perform does not deal with all the criteria

of the requirements of the building construction. So there are some of the criteria within

which the scope of the project work is limited which are as below:

This project work is limited to the structural analysis and the design only.

Design and layout of the building services like pipeline, electrical appliances,

sanitary and sewage system are not covered.

The project is not concerned with the existing soil condition of the locality.The

bearing capacity of the soil is assumed.

The environmental, social and economic condition of that locality is not taken into

consideration.

The project work is related only with the practical application of the studied

courses in the field.

4

CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 GENERAL

Structurally a building may consist of a load bearing walls and floors. The floor slab may

be supported on beams which in turn may be supported on walls or columns. But, for a

multistoried structure a building frame is made either in steel or a reinforcement concrete.

This frame is designed for all the vertical and horizontal loads transmitted through the

frame. The openings between the columns where necessary will be filled with thin brick

walls. A frame of this type will consist of columns and beams built monolithically

forming a network. This provides rigidity to the connection members by this arrangement

the bending moments for the members of the structures are reduced. Earthquake loads and

other horizontal loads due to winds etc. are evenly distributed to the whole structures.

This makes the structure not only safe but economical.

The tentative size of structural elements are determined through the preliminary design so

that after analysis the pre assumed dimensions might not deviate considerably, thus

making the final design both safe and economical.

Depending upon the character of occupancy or the type of use, buildings have been

classified as:

These building include any building in which sleeping accommodation provide for

normal residential purposes, with or without cooking and dining facilities. It includes

single or multi-family dwellings, apartment houses, lodgings or rooming houses,

restaurants, hostels, dormitories and residential hostels.

These include any building used for school, college or day-care purposes involving

assembly for instruction, education or recreation and which is not covered by assembly

buildings.

These buildings are used for different purposes, such as medical or other treatment or care

of persons suffering from physical or mental illness, diseases or infirmity, care of infants,

convalescents or aged persons and for penal detention in which the liberty of the inmates

is restricted. Institutional buildings ordinarily provide sleeping accommodation for the

occupants.

5

These are the buildings where groups of people meet or gather for amusement, recreation,

social, religious, assembly halls, city halls, marriage halls, exhibition halls, museums,

places of work ship etc.

These buildings are used for transaction of business, for keeping of accounts and records

and for similar purposes, offices, banks, professional establishments, courts houses,

libraries. The principal function of these buildings is transaction of public business and

keeping of books and records.

These buildings are used as shops, stores, market, for display and sale of merchandise

either wholesale or retail, office, shops, and storage service facilities incidental to the sale

of merchandise and located in the same building.

These are buildings where products or materials of all kinds and properties are

fabrication, assembled, manufactured or processed, as assembly plant, laboratories, dry

cleaning plants, power plants, pumping stations, smoke houses, laundries etc.

These buildings are used primarily for the storage or sheltering of goods, wares or

merchandise vehicles and animals, as warehouses, cold storage, garages, trucks.

These buildings are used for the storage, handling, manufacture or processing of highly

combustible or explosive materials or products which are liable to burn with extreme

rapidly and/or which may produce poisonous elements for storage handling, acids or

other liquids or chemicals producing flames, fumes and explosive, poisonous, irritant or

corrosive gases processing of any material producing explosive mixtures of dust which

result in the division of matter into fine particles subjected to spontaneous ignition.

A building can be broadly divided in two parts viz. (i) sub-structure and (ii) Super-

structure. The portion of the building below the surrounding ground is known as sub-

structure and the portion above the ground is termed as super-structure. The components

of the building can be broadly summarized as under:

i. Foundations

ii. Plinth

iii. Walls

iv. Columns

6

v. Beams

vi. Slabs

vii. Doors, windows and ventilations

viii. Staircase

ix. Roof

x. Building finishes

xi. Building services

CHAPTER 3

METHODOLOGY

The project provided to us is completed performing each section works mentioned in the

contents before .The following stages are involved in the analysis and design of four

storied building.

Load calculation is done using the IS 875(Part I) -1987 as reference. The exact value of

unit weights of the materials from the code is used in the calculation. The thickness of

materials is taken as per design requirements.

The tentative size of structural elements are determined through the preliminary design so

that after analysis the pre assumed dimensions might not deviated considerably , thus

making the final design both safe and economical . Tentative size of various elements has

been determined as follows:

3.2.1 Slab

For slab, preliminary design is done according to deflection criteria span /effective depth

= 26*modification factor.( IS456-2000 Art 23.2.1)

3.2.2 Beam

Thumb rule of 1‟-0”=0‟-1” (d=L/12 to L/15) basis is adopted to consider the preliminary

design of the beam section.

b/D=1/2

3.2.3 Column

Preliminary design of column is done consideration and interior column. For the load

acting in the column, live load is decreased according to IS 875-1978.

Cross-section of the columns are adopted considering the economy. Square column

section is adopted in this building project as per the internal aesthetic requirements.

3.2.4 Staircase

7

Stairs is designed as per drawing. Column for stairs boxes is not included in the grid

system but they are assumed to be simply tied with main frame with beam.

Loading pattern from slab to beam is obtained by drawing 450 offset lines from each

corners then obtained trapezoidal as well as the triangular loading and is converted into

the equivalent UDL as described in the respective sections .The loading from cantilever

slab part is converted to UDL acting in beam by dividing the total load by beam. Load

from all cantilever part is converted to UDL acting in beam by dividing total load (wall

UDL*total wall length) by length of the beam. Self-weight of the projected beam part is

assumed as point load in nearby column.

3.4 ANALYSIS

There are three types of loads for which the provided proposed project is designed:

Dead load consists of the load from each element of building i.e. weight of column, beam,

slab, and wall. Dimensions of column, beam, slab are taken from preliminary design and

corresponding density from code. For wall load thickness of wall is taken from plan.

Live load is taken from relevant code. In case of different live load in one panel of slab,

highest value of load is taken for the panel.

For seismic load whole mass lump of building is calculated from which base shear is

obtained according to code.

For analysis, different software are available during these days. Concerning to our project

we are using “STAAD PRO” for analysis.

3.6 DATA

3.6.1 Architectural Drawings

The architectural drawing is prepared by our group members.

The project work is only for the purpose of learning. So since the soil testing is high

costing technology, we could not afford this test. For the fulfillment of this we take an

average value of the bearing capacity considering the overall/general value for it applied

in the Kathmandu valley. So the bearing capacity is assumed 120.0 KN/m2

The load data is taken from the standard code of practices.

8

3.7 DESIGN METHOD

Design methods available (or in use) are:

Ultimate load method

Limit state method

It uses the concept of probability and based on the application of method of statistics to

the variation that occurs in practice in the loads acting on the structures or in the strength

of material.

The structures may reach a condition at which it becomes unfit for use for one of many

reasons e.g. collapse, excessive deflection, cracking, etc and each of this condition is

referred to a limit state condition. The aim of limit state design is to achieve an acceptable

probability that a structure will not become unserviceable in its life time for the use for

which it has been intended i. e it will not reach a limit state. It means structures should be

able to withstand safely all loads that are liable to act on it throughout its life and it would

satisfy the limitations of deflection and cracking. We adopt limit state method for design.

9

CHAPTER 4

PRELIMINARY DESIGN

Preliminary design is carried out to estimate approximate size of the structural members

before analysis of structure. Grid diagram is the basic factor for analysis in both

Approximate and Exact method and is presented below.

=0.2% (assumed)

10

From Art 23.2.1,(IS 456-2000)

We know, (Span/d) =αβγδλ

Where, α=26

β=1,

δ=1

λ =1

fs=N/mm2

γ=1.45

Fs = 0.58*fy*area of x section of steel required

area of x section of steel provided

=0.58*415*1

240.7 N/mm2

Now from graph of modification factor of tension reinforcement

γ =1.64

For,shortest span =2.8963 =2896.3mm

span =26*1.64 =42.640

d

Effective depth,d = span(2896)

(26*1.64)

= 67.92mm

Provide 10mmΦ bar and 15mm clear cover

Overall depth (D) =67.92+10/2+15

= 87.92mm

Adopt (D) =120 mm

The approximate size of the structural elements were determined through preliminary

design so that after analysis the preassumed dimension might not deviated considered

,thus making the find design for safe and economic purpose.Approximate size of various

element have been determined as follow:

Input data;

Grade of concrete (fck)=M20 (20N/mm2)

Gradeof steel (Fy)=Fe 415 (415N/mm2)

11

Depth of beam(d)=L/10 to L/15

1. Along alphabetical grid(longest span=4.87m

Adopt length(Lc/c)=5m

(Leff)=5 m

d =L/14

=5000/14

=357.14

Adopt (d)=365mm

Diameter of bar (mm)=20mm

D=d + Clear cover + Ǿ/2 = 400mm

2. Along Numerical grid (Longest span = 4.87)

Adopt length (Lc/c) = 5m

Leff = 5m

Take L/d = 14

d = L/14 = 357.14 mm

Adopt (d) = 365 mm

Diameter of bar (mm) = 20mm

Clear cover (mm) = 25mm

D=d + Clear Cover +Ǿ/2 = 400mm

Width of beam:

Take 1/2 to 2/3 of d

1. Along alphabetical grid (longest span = 4.87)

D = 400mm

Take b/D = 1/2

b =0.5*D = 0.5*400 = 200mm

adopt (b) =300mm

4. Same as above [as symmetric]

b = 300mm

D = 400mm

Hence,

12

Adopt Numerical grid,

Adopt B*D = 300*400mm

Size of tie beam along X axis =350mm * 350mm

Size of tie beam along Y axis = 350mm * 350mm

4.3.1 DEAD LOAD (DL)

IS 875 (Part 1)-1987, (Second Revision)

Remark

Thick- Unit

S.N. Material Unit Page/

ness Weight

S.N.

24.8 to

sand and gravel or crushed natural KN/m3 8-22

26.5

stone with 5 percent steel

IS 875 (Part 2)-1987, (Reaffirmed 1992)(Second Revision)

Remark

S.N. Description UDL Unit

Page/ S.N.

13

6. Roof access not provided 0.75 KN/m2 8/11

1. Water tank (8000 liters) 80 kN/(3.04*2.89)=9.10

2. 25 mm thick screeding (1:4) 20.40*25/1000=0.51

3. 140 mm thick rcc slab 25*140/1000=3.5

4. 12.5mm thick cement plaster 20.40*12.5/1000=0.255

Total Dead Load = 13.365 KN/M2

1. 25 mm thick screeding (1:4) 20.40*25/1000=0.51

2. 140 mm thick rcc slab 25*140/1000=3.5

3. 12.5mm thick cement plaster 20.40*12.5/1000=0.255

Total Dead Load = 4.265 KN/M2

Live load (access provided) = 1.5 KN/ M2

1. 110 mm thick partition wall 1.910*110/1000=2.101

2. 25 mm thick screeding (1:4) 20.40*25/1000=0.51

3. 140 mm thick rcc slab 25*140/1000=3.5

4. 12.5mm thick cement plaster 20.40*12.5/1000=0.255

5. 25mm thick marble 26.7*25/1000=0.668

Total Dead Load = 6.876 KN/M2

Live load = 2 KN/M2

1. 110mm thick partition wall 1.910*110/1000=2.101

2. 25 mm thick screeding (1:4) 20.40*25/1000=0.51

3. 140 mm thick rcc slab 25*140/1000=3.5

14

4. 25mm thick marble 26.7*25/1000= 0.668

5. 12.5mm thick cement plaster 20.40*12.5/1000=0.255

Total Dead Load = 6.932 KN/M2

Live load = 2 KN/M2

1. 3 mm thick cement punning 20.4*3/1000=0.061

2. 25 mm thick screeding (1:4) 20.40*25/1000=0.51

3. 140 mm thick rcc slab 25*140/1000=3.5

4. 12.5mm thick cement plaster 20.40*12.5/1000=0.255

Live load =0.75 KN/ M2

1. 3 mm thick cement punning 20.4*3/1000=0.061

2. 25 mm thick screeding (1:4) 20.40*25/1000=0.51

3. 140 mm thick rcc slab 25*140/1000=3.5

4. 12.5mm thick cement plaster 20.40*12.5/1000=0.255

5. 110 mm parapet wall 18.85*110/1000=2.07

Total Dead Load = 6.427 KN/M2

Live load = 1.5 KN/ M2

Overall depth = 140mm

(a) Dead Load = 13.365 kN/m2

15

(b) Live Load = 1.5 KN/m2

Overall depth = 140mm

(b) Live Load = 1.5 KN/m2

Overall depth = 140mm

(a) Dead Load = 6.876 kN/m2

Overall depth = 140mm

(a) Dead Load = 6.932 kN/m2

(b) Live Load =2 KN/m2

Overall depth = 140mm

(a) Dead Load = 4.326 kN/m2

(a) Dead Load = 6.427 kN/m2

(b) Live Load = 1.5 KN/m2

16

4.5 PRELIMINARY DESIGN OF CRITICAL COLUMN

Column size = 0.4m * 0.4m

Size of beam along x direction =0.3*0.4

Size of beam along y direction = 0.3*0.4

Floor to floor height = 2.74 m

Foundation depth = 2 m (assumed)

Thickness of cement plaster = 0.0125m

Height of column = (2.74-0.14)*5 + 2 + 0.457

=15.457m

COLUMN

(A) Loading due to beam

17

(a) Self-load of beam

Along (B-B):-

(3.96-0.4)*(0.4-0.14)*0.3*25 = 6.942 KN

Along (3-3):-

(3.89-0.4)*(0.4-0.14)*0.3*25 = 6.805 KN

(b) Using 12.5 mm plaster

Along (B-B):-

((3.96-0.4)*0.0125*((0.4-0.14)*2+ 0.3))*20.4

=0.744 KN

Along (3-3):-

((3.89-0.4)*0.0125*(0.4-0.14)*2+ 0.3))*20.4

=0.729 KN

Hence total load

= (6.942+6.805+0.744+0.729)

=15.22 KN

(B) Loading due to wall

=15.4044 * 1 =15.4044KN.

(b) Using 12.5 mm plaster in both sides

Along (B-B):-

(((3.96-0.4)*0.0125*(2.74-0.4)*2)*20.4) =4.248 KN

Along (3-3):-

(((3.89-0.4)*0.0125*(2.74-0.4)*2)*20.4) =4.165KN

Hence total load of floor = 15.4044+4.248+4.165 = 233.817 KN

(C) Loading due to slab

Area * thickness *25

=15.4044*0.14*25=53.915 KN

Floor finishing = area *1

=15.4044*1 = 15.4044 KN

18

4.5.2 Load Calculation

finishin load

g

Staircas - - - - - - 3.96*3.89*1.5

e cover =23.1066

4 =13.86

3rd floor 15.22 23.817 53.915 15.404 2.60*25=65 173.356 3.96*3.89*2*0.8

4 =24.64

2nd floor 15.22 23.817 53.915 15.404 2.60*25=65 173.356 3.96*3.89*2*0.9

4 =27.72

1st floor 15.22 23.817 53.915 15.404 2.60*25=65 173.356 3.96*3.89*2*1

4 =30.80

floor =61.425

Total live load=120.1266 KN

Hence grand total load = 866.3786 KN

Load factor = 1.5

Factored load = 1.5*866.3786 = 1299.567 KN

Increasing by 30% for EQ consideration,

= 1.3*1299.567

= 1689.43827 KN

Assuming % of steel (0.8% - 4 %)

Now from Sp 16 chart 25 using M20 concrete and Fe 415

Pu/Ag =13 N/mm²

Ag = 1689.43827 * 1000/13

= 129956.79 mm2

For square column

One side of column = 360.49 mm

Hence, adopt size of column 400mm * 400mm

19

CHAPTER 5 LATERAL ANALYSIS

Seismic weight is the total dead load plus appropriate amount of specified imposed load.

While computing the seismic load weight of each floor, the weight of columns and walls

in any story shall be equally distributed to the floors above and below the storey. The

seismic weight of the whole building is the sum of the seismic weights of all the floors. It

has been calculated according to IS: 1893(Part I) – 2002.

IS: 1893(Part I) – 2002 states that for the calculation of the design seismic forces

of the structure the imposed load on roof need not be considered.

(a) Along X-X direction

Size of beam = 300*400

Slab thickness = 140mm

Self-weight of beam = (0.4-0.14)*0.3*25

=1.95KN/M

(b) Along Y-Y direction

= 1.95 KN/M

For 1m span tie beam

= (0.4*0.3) * 25

= 3 KN/M

Size of column = 0.4 *0.4

Let us take unit length of column 1m

Dead load on column = 0.4*0.4*25 = 4 KN/M

(a) Partition wall (110mm thick)

Along X-X

Height = (2.74-0.4) = 2.34 m

Dead load of wall = 0.11*2.34*18.85 = 4.851 KN/M

Using 12.5 mm plaster on both sides,

= 2*2.34*0.0125*20.4

= 1.1934 KN/M

Total dead load = (4.815+ 1.193) = 6.04 KN/M

Assuming 30 % openings,

=6.04*0.7 = 4.23 KN/M

(b) Parapet walls (110 mm thick & 600mm height)

Dead load of brick wall = 0.11 *0.6*18.85

= 1.244 KN/M

12.5mm thick 2 side plaster = 0.0125*20.40*2*0.6

=0.30KN/M

20

12.5 mm thick plaster at coping = (0.23*0.0125+0.075*0.0125*2)+(0.06*0.0125*2)*20.4

= 0.127KN/M

(c) Main outside brick wall (230mm thick)

(i) Along X-X direction = 2.74-0.4 = 2.34m

Dead load of wall = 2.34*0.23*18.85 = 10.14 KN/M

Using 12.5mm plaster on both sides of wall

= 0.0125*20.4*2*2.34 = 1.1934KN/M

Total dead load = (10.14+1.1934)KN/M=11.3334KN/m

Assuming 30 % openings

Then total dead load =0.7* 11.3334 = 7.93338 KN/M

(ii) Along Y-Y direction

Dead load of wall = 2.34*0.23*18.85 = 10.145KN/M

Using 12.5mm plaster on both sides of wall

= 0.0125*20.4*2*2.34 = 1.1934KN/M

Total dead load = (10.145+1.1934)KN/M=11.3334KN/M

Assuming 30 % openings

Then total dead load =0.7* 11.3334 = 7.93338 KN/M

The earthquake force shall be calculated for the full dead load plus the percentage of imposed

Load as given below.

% of imposed

SN Imposed Uniformly Distributed Floor loads (KN/m2) load

1 Up to and including 3.0 25

2 Above 3.0 50

21

For calculating the design seismic force of the structure, the imposed load on the roof need not

To be considered.

Load due Area of DL+LL load of

Floor

to (m2) Sla (KN) slab

b DL LL DL LL (KN)

13.3.6 1.5

8.8299 1 118.011 13.244 131.255

Cover slab 5 0

Above Projection 1.5 147.174

1.3236 1 4.326 5.7258 0.992 6.7178

staircase slab(x) 0 8

Projection

1.8123 1 4.326 1.5 7.843 1.359 9.202

slab(y)

Slab S1 8.8299 3 4.265 1.5 112.97 39.734 152.704

Slab S2 14.128 2 4.265 1.5 120.513 42.384 162.894

Slab S3 14.87 2 4.265 1.5 126.854 44.614 171.468

Roof 23.794 746.581

1 4.265 1.5 101.485

floor Slab S4 8 35.69 137.175 3

Projection 13.186

1 4.326 1.5 57.044

slab(X) 4 9.889 66.933

Projection 10.915

1 4.326 1.5 47.22 8.186 55.4065

Slab(Y) 4

Slab S1 8.8299 3 6.876 2 182.14 52.979 235.122

14.428 250.803

2 6.876 2 194.291 56.512

Slab S2 2 8

14.871 204.513 59.486

2 6.876 2 263.999

Slab S3 5 5 2

Slab S4 23.794 1 6.932 2 164.946 47.589 212.536

1st,2nd, Verandah

6.568 1 6.427 1.5 42.21 9.852 52.062 1111.25

3rd & (X)

06

4th floor Verandah

2.7102 1 6.427 1.5 17.418 4.0653 29.4833

(Y)

Projection

6.6184 1 4.326 1.5 28.6311 4.9638 33.5949

Slab(X)

Projection

8.2052 1 4.326 1.5 35.495 6.1583 41.648

slab(Y)

22

5.3.2 LUMPED LOAD OF BEAM

Self-weight = 1.95KN/M

beam beam beam floor (KN)

30.9122

3.048(Y) 2 5.944 11.888

8 5.944 47.552

3.0487(Y) 168.830

4 9.5121 38.0484

4.878(X)

floors (1st,

nd rd

2 &3 ) 3.0487(Y) 8 5.944 47.552

168.8304

4.878(X) 4 9.5121 38.0484

23

5.3.3 LUMPED LOAD OF COLUMN

Above the slab Below the slab

1 Stair cover 0 - 41.6

2 Roof cover 41.6 124.8 166.4

3 3rd cover 124.8 124.8 249.6

4 2nd cover 124.8 124.8 249.6

5 1st cover 124.8 124.8 249.6

6 Ground floor 124.8 29.248 154.048

a) On above staircase wall: no parapet wall

b) Roof floor

i. parapet wall

Along short wall (Y-Y direction) = [(3.0487*30 +(4.878*2)*1.67= 31.5665KN

Total =62.3694KN

ii. Wall (230 mm thick)

Along long wall (X-X direction)= [(2.8963-0.4)*2*7.93338]= 39.6 KN

Along short wall (Y-Y direction) = [(3.0487-0.4)*2*7.93338=42.0 KN

Total = 81.6 KN

c) Intermediate floor

i) Outside wall (230 mm thick)

Along X-X direction = [(2.8963*3-0.4*3)+(4.878*2-0.4*2)]*7.93338+10.067

= 247.4567 KN

Along Y-Y direction = [(3.0487*4-0.4*4)+(4.878*2-0.4*2)]*7.93338= 155.1039KN

Along X-X direction = [(2.8963-0.4)*4+(4.878-0.4)*2+2.2865+1.70223]*4.23

= 96.9936 KN

Along Y-Y direction = [(3.0487-0.4)*2+(3.1087*2)+(4.8780-0.4)+1.5243 = 74.0973 KN

Along X-X direction= 6.2245*1.67=10.395 KN

24

Along Y-Y direction= 3.633*1.67= 6.067 KN

Therefore, Grand total =590.09 KN

d) Ground floor

Outside wall (230 mm)

Along Y-Y direction = [(11.0264-4*0.4)*2]*7.93338= 154.4042 KN

e)Inside wall

Along X-X(0.11m) =[(2.8963-0.4)+ 3.766]*4.23=26.49

Along X-X(0.23m) =[0.366+0.366+2.8963-0.4]*7.93338=25.61

Along Y-Y = [(3.0487 + 0.4)*2*4.568=29.176 KN

(i) Staircase inclined slab

= 0.31 *1.06* 0.15 * 16 * 25

= 19.716 KN

= ½ * 0.17 * 0.26* 1.06* 25 * 16

= 10.8 KN

(iii) For landing

= 2*1.06*1.06*0.15*25

= 8.427 KN

= 3.048* 0.7077 * 0.15 *25

= 5.8043 KN

Therefore, total lump mass = 19.716+9.37+8.427+5.8043

= 43.3173 KN

According to IS 1893 (Part I): 2002 Cl. No. 6.4.2 the design horizontal seismic coefficient

Ah for a structure shall be determined by the following expression:

25

Z I Sa

Ah

2R g

Where,

Z = Zone factor given by IS 1893 (Part I): 2002 Table 2, Here for Zone V,

Z = 0.36

I = Importance Factor, I = 1.5 (being similar to community building)

R = Response reduction factor given by IS 1893 (Part I): 2002 Table 7,

R = 5.0

Sa/g = Average response acceleration coefficient which depends on

Fundamental natural period of vibration (T a).

According to IS 1893 (Part I): 2002 Cl. No. 7.4.2

0.09 h

Ta

d

Where,

h = height of building in m, h = 14.157 m

d = Base dimension of the building at the plinth level in m

along the considered direction of the lateral force.

Along X-axis;

d = 10.67m

0.09 x 14.157

Ta x 0.39 sec

10.67

Now,

0.36 x 1 x 2.5

Ah x 0.09

2 x5

Along Y-axis;

d = 10.97 m

0.09 x 14.157

Ta y 0.384 sec

10.97

26

Now,

0.36 x 1x 2.5

Ah y 0.09

2 x5

According to IS 1893 (Part I) : 2002 Cl. No. 7.5.3 the total design lateral force or

design seismic base shear (VB) along any principle direction is given by

VB = Ah x W

The total design base shear along X- direction;

(VB)X = 0.09*9059.2498

= 815.332 KN

(VB)Y = 0.09*9053.2498

= 815.332 KN

According to IS 1893 (Part I): 2002 Cl. No. 7.7.1 the design base shear (VB)

computed above shall be distributed along the height of the building as per the following

expression:

Wi h i2

Qi VB n

Wj h 2j

j1

Where,

Qi = Design lateral force at floor i

Wi = Seismic weight of floor i

hi = Height of floor I measured from base

n = No. of storeys in the building

27

5.4.1 CALCULATION OF LATERAL FORCES AND SHEAR AT STOREY

(VB)X = 815.2498 KN

(VB)Y = 815.2498 KN

Wi*hi2 Qi Cumulative

SN STOREY

hi (m) Wi (KN) (KNm2) (KN) Qi (KN)

Staircase

1 cover 14.157 242.07 48515.9668 76.14 76.14

2 Roof Floor 11.417 1554.27 202595.8134 317.982 394.122

3 3rd Floor 8.677 2221.2317 167237.2655 262.4861 656.6081

4 2nd Floor 5.937 2221.2317 78293.9061 122.8856 779.4937

5 1st Floor 3.197 2221.2317 22702.78 35.63299 815.1266

6 Tie Beam 0.457 599.214 125.1452 0.196 815.332

Total Wi = 9059.2498 KN

Total (Wi*hi2) =519470 KN

SN FLOOR

FORCE (KN) DIRECTION DIRECTION

1 Staircase cover 76.14 38.07 55.093

2 Roof Floor 317.982 79.4955 79.4955

3 3rd Floor 262.4861 65.621 65.621

4 2nd Floor 122.8856 30.7214 30.7214

5 1st Floor 33.63299 8.9082 8.9082

6 Tie Beam 0.196 0.049 0.049

28

29

5.5 LOAD COMBINATION

Different load cases and load combination cases are considered to obtain most critical

element stresses in the structure in the course of analysis.

There are together four load cases considered for the structural analysis and are

mentioned as below:

i.) Dead Load (D.L.)

ii.) Live Load (L.L)

iii.) Earthquake load in X-direction (EQx)

iv.) Earthquake load in Y-direction (EQy)

Following Load Combination are adopted as per IS 1893 (Part I): 2002 Cl. No. 6.3.1.2

i.) 1.5 (D.L + L.L)

ii.) 1.5 (D.L + EQx)

iii.) 1.5 (D.L - EQx)

iv.) 1.5 (D.L + EQz)

v.) 1.5 (D.L - EQz)

vi.) 1.2 (D.L + L.L + EQx)

vii.) 1.2 (D.L + L.L - EQx)

viii.) 1.2 (D.L + L.L + EQz)

ix.) 1.2 (D.L + L.L - EQz)

x.) 0.9 D.L + 1.5 E.Qx

xi.) 0.9 D.L -1.5 EQx

xii.) 0.9 D.L + 1.5 EQz

xiii.) 0.9 D.L -1.5 EQz

30

CHAPTER 6

STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

STAAD Pro is comprehensive structural engineering software that addresses all aspects

of structural engineering including model development, verification, analysis, design and

review of results. It includes advanced dynamic analysis and push over analysis for wind

load and earthquake load. Design in STAAD supports more than 10 codes. INDIAN

standard codes (Concrete and Steel) are also supported; Limit state method is used for the

design.

The design of earthquake resistant structure should aim at providing appropriate dynamic

and structural characteristics so that acceptable response level results under the design

earthquake. The aim of design is the achievement of an acceptable probability that

structures being designed will perform satisfactorily during their intended life. With an

appropriate degree of safety, they should sustain all the loads and deformations of normal

construction and use and have adequate durability and adequate resistance to the effects

of misuse and fire.

For the purpose of seismic analysis of our building we used the structural analysis

program STAAD PRO 2007. It helps in creating the real model and analyzes all the

forces acting on it. This type of modeling is very useful in the lateral dynamic analysis of

building. The base shear and earthquake lateral forces are calculated as per code IS

1893(part-I) 2002 and are applied at each master joint located on every storey of the

building.

The sample input and output are shown in annex.

6.3METHODOLOGY OF ANALYSIS

Creating model

Assigning material properties

Assigning section properties

Creating different load cases

Creating load combination

Analysis (pre analysis and post analysis)

Design of column and beam

31

Fig: Isometric View

32

CHAPTER 7

STRUCTURAL DESIGN

In the method if design based on limit state concept, the structure shall be designed to

withstand safely all loads liable to act on it throughout its life; it shall also satisfy the

serviceability requirements, such as limitations on deflection and cracking. The

acceptable limit for the safety and serviceability requirements before failure occurs is

called a „limit state‟. The aim of design is to achieve acceptable probabilistic that the

structure will not become unfit for the use for which it is intended, that is, that it will not

reach a limit state.

i) Plane sections normal to the axis of the member remain plane after bending.

ii) The maximum strain in concrete at the outermost compression fiber is 0.0035.

iii) The relationship between the compressive stress distribution in concrete and the

strain in concrete may be assumed to be rectangle, trapezoidal, parabola or any

other shape which results in prediction of strength in substantial agreement with

the result of test. For design purposes, the compressive strength of concrete in

the structure shall be assumed to be 0.67 times the characteristic strength. The

partial safety factor γm = 1.5 shall be applied in addition to this.

iv) The tensile strength of concrete is ignored.

v) The design stresses in reinforcement are derived from representative stress-

strain curve for the type of steel used. For the design purposes the partial safety

factor γm = 1.15 shall be applied.

vi) The maximum strain in the tension reinforcement in the section at failure shall

fy

not be less than: 0.002

1.15E s

Es = modulus of elasticity of steel

In addition to the assumptions given above from i) to v), the following shall be assumed:

i.) The maximum compressive strain in concrete in axial compression is taken

as 0.002.

33

ii.) The maximum compressive strain at highly compressed extreme fiber in concrete

subjected to axial compressive and bending and when there is no tension

on the section shall be 0.0035 minus 0.75 times the strain at the least

compressed extreme fiber.

The limiting values of the depth of neutral axis for different grades of steel based

on the assumptions are as follows:

Fy xu,max/d

250 0.53

415 0.48

500 0.46

7.2 SLAB

Slabs are the most widely used structural elements forming floors and roofs of building

for supporting load normal to its surface. Slab may be simply supported or continuous

over one or more supports and is classified according to the manner of support as: one-

way slab spanning in one direction, two-way slab spanning in directions, circular slabs

and grid floor slabs resting directly on columns with no beams and grid floor and ribbed

slab. The beams supporting the slabs are considered stiff with direction relatively very

small as compared to that of slabs. Slabs supported directly on columns without beam are

known as flat slabs.

Slabs are designed using the same theory of bending and shear as are used for beams. The

following methods of analysis are available:

a) Elastic analysis-idealization into strips or beams.

b) Semi empirical coefficients as given in the code, and

c) Yield line theory.

Slabs are analyzed and designed as having a unit width that is one meter wide strips.

Compression reinforcement is used only in exceptional cases in the slab. Shear stresses

are usually very low and shear reinforcement is never provided in slabs. It is preferred to

increase the depth of a slab and hence reduce the shear stress rather than provide shear

reinforcement. Temperature reinforcement is invariably provided at the right angles to the

longitudinal reinforcement in a slab.

One way slabs are supported continuously on the two opposite sides so that the loads are

carried along one direction only. The direction in which the load is carried in one way

slab is called the span. One way slabs are usually made to span in shorter direction since

the corresponding bending moment and shear forces are the least. One way slab are those

in which the length is more than twice the breadth. One way slab may be simply

34

supported can be analyzed in a manner similar to that of continuous beam. The clear

cover, minimum spacing of the reinforcement and minimum amount of reinforcement are

provided as per IS 456: 2000 CL: 26.3-26.5. Similarly curtailments of bars are provided

as per 456: 2000 CL: 26.2.3. Shear stress in slabs are generally not critical under normal

loads but should be checked in accordance with requirements set out in IS 456:2000

CL40.2. the development length is checked at same critical points as for the beams. The

check for deflection is a very important consideration in slab design. The strip of slab

may check against span to effective depth ratio as discussed in IS456:200 CL23.2.1

When slabs are supported on four sides, two ways spanning action occurs. Such slabs

may be simply supported or continuous or any other types. The deflection and bending

moments in a two way slabs are considerably reduced as compared to those in one way

slab. In a square slab, two way actions is equal in each direction. In long narrow slabs,

when the length is greater than twice the breadth, the way action effectively reduces to

one way action In the direction of short span although the end beam do carry some slab

loads.

A two-way slab is considered to consist of a series of inter connected beams of unit width

in either direction which transfers the loads to the respective supports. The vertical

deflection of the center point, common to both beams will be same. Elastic analysis of

two way slabs may be based on these assumptions. The exact analysis of stress in such

slabs is quiet complex. These are generally designed using approximate theories, which

are known to yield satisfactory results on experimental data.

The most popular method of analysis of two way slab is „yield line theory‟. In this theory,

the strength of slab is assumed to be governed by flexure alone. The effects of shear and

deflection are to be considered separately. It is assumed that mechanism is formed in the

slab at failure. The reinforcing steel is assumed to have fully yielded along the yield line

or cracks at failure. A simplified design can be carried out in accordance with IS

456:2000 CL 24.4 or by using Annex D.

A two slab, which is simply supported at its edges, tends to lift off if supports near the

corner when loaded. Such slab is only truly simply supported slab. The values of bending

moments used for design of such slabs can be obtained as follows:

Mx = αxwlx2

My = αywlx2

Where,

Mx, My = Maximum moments at mid span on strip of unit width

Lx = Length of the shorter side

αx, αy = Moment Coefficients can be obtained from IS 456:2000 table 27.

35

A slab may have its few or all edges restrained. The degree of restraints may vary

depending whether it is continuous over its supports or cast monolithically with its

supporting beams. A hogging or negative moment will develop in the top face of

the slab at the supported sides. In these slabs the corners are prevented from lifting

and provision is made for torsion. The maximum moments Mx and My at mid

span on strips of unit width for spans lx, ly are given by:

Mx= βxwlx2

My = βyw lx2

Where,

βx ,βy= moment coefficients can be obtained from table 26 of IS 456:2000 for

different arrangements of slabs.

SLAB PANEL DESCRIPTION

S1 Two Adjacent Edges Discontinuous

S2 One Long Edge Discontinuous

S3 One Long Edge Discontinuous

S4 Interior panels

S5 (roof cover slab) One Short Edge Discontinuous

The maximum bending moment per unit width in a slab are given by the following

equations:

Mx = xw lx2

My = yw lx2

36

Bending co-efficient for rectangular panels supported on four sides with provision

for torsion at corners.

Cases lx ly Remark

considered (KN/m2) KN-m KN-m

S1

14.814

Positive moments at mid span 2.6963 2.848 4.56 3.76

S2

14.814

Positive moments at mid span 2.6963 4.678 6.03 3.01

S3

14.814

Positive moments at mid span 2.848 4.678 6.6 4.36

S4

13.4

Positive moments at mid span 4.678 4.678 7.28 7.28

6 Roof slab S5

37

Negative moments at continuous edge 2.848 4.678 4.98 3.26

17.61

Positive moments at mid span 2.848 4.678 4.11 2.47

Design of Slab

Slab S1

(Two adjacent edges discontinuous)

(2.8963*3.048)

Clear shorter span = 2.8963-0.3=2.5963m

Effective span (lx) = 2.8963-0.3/2-0.3/2+0.1/2+0.1/2=2.6963m

Effective span(ly) =3.048-0.3/2-0.3/2+0.1/2+0.1/2=2.848m

As per IS-456:2000 ANNEX D, the maximum bending moment per unit width in slab are

given by the following equations:

Mx=αxωlx2

My=αyωlx2

rectangular panels supported on four sides

panel and Load, ω

moment

considered

1. Negative 0.05 0.047

moment at 5.384 5.061

continuous 2.6963 2.848 1.05 14.814

edge

2. Positive 0.0377 0.035 4.56 3.76

moment at 2.6963 2.848

mid span

5.384*106 =0.138*20*1000*d2

or, d =44.125mm

Overall depth = 120mm

At support,

BM = 0.87*415*Ast{d-415Ast/(20*1000)}

5.384*106 = 0.87*415*Ast{100-415Ast/(20*1000)}

Ast = 154mm2

Hence provide 8mm υ bar @ 200mm c/c having area 251 mm2> 144mm2 (OK)

38

At the mid span,

BM = 0.87*415*Ast{d-415Ast/(20*1000)} 1

4.56*106 = 0.87*415*Ast{85-415Ast/(20*1000)}

Ast = 166mm2

Hence provide 8mm υ bar @ 200 mm c/c having area 251 mm2

d‟ = d-υ/2- υ/2

=100- 4-4

= 92mm

At support,

BM = 0.87*415*Ast{d‟-415Ast/(20*1000)}

5.061*106 = 0.87*415*Ast{92-415Ast/(20*1000)}

Ast = 158mm2

BM = 0.87*415*Ast{d‟-415Ast/(20*1000)}

3.76*106 = 0.87*415*Ast{92-415Ast/(20*1000)}

Ast =118mm2

Hence provide 8mm υ bar @ 200mm c/c having area 251mm2

Ast = 0.12% of the total X-section area

= 0.12*100*1000/100

= 120mm2 < actual reinforcement provided Hence Ok

< 3*100 or 300mm

< 360 or 300mm

Check for shear

Maximum shear force at face of support (Vu)=ωlx/2

= 14.814*2.6813/2

= 17.86 KN

Nominal shear stress,

τv = Vu/bd

= (17.86*103)/(1000*100)

= 0.223 N/mm2

Percentage of steel = 100Ast/bd‟

= 100*(251/2)/(1000*92)

= 0.136%

39

τc= 0.28 N/mm2

τc‟ = k τc

= 1.3*0.28

= 0.364 N/ mm2 >τc>τv Hence, ok.

L/d= αβγδλ

α = 26

β =1

δ =1

λ =1

fs = 0.58fyAst required/Astprovided

= 0.58*415*166/251

= 174N/mm2

100Ast/bd = 0.24%

γ= 2

d = Lx /αβγδλ

= (2.6813*1000)/26*1*2*1*1

=55.69mm Hence, ok.

M1 = 0.87*415*Ast(82-415Ast/(20*1000)

= 0.87*415*125.5(82-(415*125.5)/(20*1000)

= 4.05KN-m

According to IS- 456:2000 clause 26.2.1.1

For M20 concrete, bond stress τbd = 1.2*1.6 (60% is increased for deformed bar)

= 1.92 N/mm2

Now,

Ld ≤ 1.3*(M1/Vu)+Lo

(fs*υ)/4*τbd ≤ 1.3*(M1/Vu)+Lo

(0.87*415* υ)/4*1.92 ≤ 1.3*(4.05*106/17.86*103)+16* υ

υ ≤ 9.50 >8mm Hence ok.

Torsional Reinforcement

According to IS: 456-2000 ANNEX D(1.8 & 1.9 )

Torsional reinforcement area = 0.75*Astmaxm at midspan

40

= 0.75*251

= 188.25 mm2

Provide 8mm- υ bars – 5nos.

Ast provided = 251mm2 at one direction as torsional reinforcement.

Slab S2

(One long edge discontinuous)

2.8963*4.878

Clear shorter span = 2.8963-0.3=2.6963

Effective span (lx) = 2.8963-0.3+0.1=2.6963m

Effective span(ly) =4.878-0.3+0.1=4.678m

As per IS-456:2000 ANNEX D, the maximum bending moment per unit width in slab are

given by the following equations:

Mx=αxωlx2

My=αyωlx2

rectangular panels supported on four sides

panel and Load, ω

moment

considered

1. Negative 0.07412 0.037 7.606 3.98

moment at

continuous 2.6963 4.678 1. 78 14.814

edge

2. Positive 0.056 0.028 6.03 3.01

moment at 2.6963 4.678

mid span

7.606*106 =0.138*20*1000*d2

or, d = 52.49 mm

Overall depth = 120mm

At support,

BM = 0.87fy*415*Ast{d-415Ast/(20*1000)}

7.606*106 = 0.87fy*415*Ast{100-415Ast/(20*1000)}

Ast = 220.84 mm2

Hence provide 8mm υ bar @ 150mm c/c having area 335 mm2> 144mm2 (OK)

41

At the mid span,

BM = 0.87fy*415*Ast{d-415Ast/(20*1000)}

6.03*106 = 0.87fy*415*Ast{100-415Ast/(20*1000)}

Ast = 173.24mm2

Hence provide 8mm υ bar @ 150 mm c/c having area 335 mm2 > 144mm2 (OK)

Calculation of steel along longer span

d‟ = d-υ/2- υ/2

= 100- 4-4

= 92mm

At support,

BM = 0.87fy*415*Ast{d‟-415Ast/(20*1000)}

3.98*106 = 0.87fy*415*Ast{92-415Ast/(20*1000)}

Ast = 123.22mm2

Hence provide 8mm υ bar @ 160mm c/c having area 314 mm2> 144mm2 (OK)

BM = 0.87fy*415*Ast{d‟-415Ast/(20*1000)}

3.01*106 = 0.87fy*415*Ast{92-415Ast/(20*1000)}

Ast =92.54mm2

Hence provide 8mm υ bar @ 160 mm c/c having area 314mm2> 144mm2 (OK)

Ast = 0.12% of the total X-section area

= 0.12*120*1000/100

= 144mm2 < actual reinforcement provided Hence ok.

< 3*120 or 300mm

< 360 or 300mm

Check for shear

Maximum shear force at face of support (Vu)=ωlx/2

= 14.814*2.6963/2

= 19.97 KN

Nominal shear stress,

τv = Vu/bd

= (19.97*103)/(1000*100)

= 0.20 N/mm2

Percentage of steel = 100Ast/bd‟

= 100*157/(1000*92)

= 0.17%

2

τc = 0.28 N/mm

τc‟= k τc

42

= 1.3*0.28

= 0.364 N/ mm2 >τc>τv Hence ok.

L/d= αβγδλ

α = 26

β =1

δ =1

λ =1

fs = 0.58fyAst required/Astprovided

= 0.58*415*151/335

= 185 N/mm2

100Ast/bd = 0.335%

γ= 2

d = Lx /αβγδλ

= (2.696*1000)/26*1*2*1*1

=57.61 mm <100 mm (effective depth) Hence ok.

M1 = 0.87*415*Ast(92-415Ast/(20*1000)

= 0.87*415*157(92-(415*157)/ (20*1000)

= 5.03 KN-m

According to IS- 456:2000 clause 26.2.1.1

For M20 concrete, bond stress τbd = 1.2*1.6 (60% is increased for deformed bar)

= 1.92 N/mm2

Now,

Ld ≤ 1.3*(M1/Vu)+Lo

(fs*υ)/4*τbd ≤ 1.3*(M1/Vu)+Lo

(0.87*415* υ)/4*1.92 ≤ 1.3*(6.16*106/26.76*103)+16* υ

Φ≤ 10.56>8mm Hence ok.

Torsional Reinforcement

According to IS: 456-2000 ANNEX D(1.8 & 1.9 )

Torsional reinforcement area = 0.75*Astmaxm at midspan

= 0.75*335

= 251.25 mm2

43

Provide 8mm- υ bars – 6 nos.

Ast provided = 301 mm2 at one direction as torsional reinforcement.

Slab S3

(One long edge discontinuous)

3.048*4.878

Clear shorter span = 3.048-0.3=2.748

Effective span (lx) = 3.048-0.3+0.1=2.848m

Effective span(ly) =4.878-0.3+0.1=4.678m

As per IS-456:2000 ANNEX D, the maximum bending moment per unit width in slab are

given by the following equations:

Mx=αxωlx2

My=αyωlx2

rectangular panels supported on four sides

panel and Load, ω

moment

considered

1. Negative 8.65 4.445

moment at

continuous 2.848 4.678 1.625 0.072 0.037

edge 14.814

2. Positive 6.6 3.36

moment at 2.848 4.678 0.055 0.028

mid span

8.65*106 =0.138*20*1000*d2

or, d = 55.98 mm

Overall depth = 120mm

At support,

BM = 0.87fy*415*Ast{d-415Ast/(20*1000)}

8.65*106 = 0.87fy*415*Ast{100-415Ast/(20*1000)}

Ast = 252.84 mm2

Hence provide 8mm υ bar @ 150mm c/c having area 335 mm2> 144mm2 (OK)

44

BM = 0.87fy*415*Ast{d-415Ast/(20*1000)}

6.6*106 = 0.87fy*415*Ast{100-415Ast/(20*1000)}

Ast = 190.31mm2

Hence provide 8mm υ bar @ 150 mm c/c having area 335 mm2 > 144mm2 (OK)

d‟ = d-υ/2- υ/2

= 100-4-4

= 92mm

At support,

BM = 0.87fy*415*Ast{d‟-415Ast/(20*1000)}

4.445 *106 = 0.87fy*415*Ast{92-415Ast/(20*1000)}

Ast = 138.12mm2

Hence provide 8mm υ bar @ 150mm c/c having area 314 mm2> 144mm2 (OK)

BM = 0.87fy*415*Ast{d‟-415Ast/(20*1000)}

3.36*106 = 0.87fy*415*Ast{92-415Ast/(20*1000)}

Ast =118.3 mm2

Hence provide 8mm υ bar @ 150 mm c/c having area 314mm2> 144mm2 (OK)

Ast = 0.12% of the total X-section area

= 0.12*120*1000/100

= 144mm2 < actual reinforcement provided Hence ok.

< 3*120 or 300mm

< 360 or 300mm

Check for shear

Maximum shear force at face of support (Vu)= ωlx/2

= 14.814*2.848/2

= 21.095 KN

Nominal shear stress,

τv = Vu/bd

= (21.095*103)/ (1000*100)

= 0.21 N/mm2

Percentage of steel = 100Ast/bd‟

= 100*157/ (1000*92)

= 0.17%

2

τc = 0.28 N/mm

45

τc‟ = k τc

= 1.3*0.28

= 0.364 N/ mm2 >τc>τv Hence ok

L/d= αβγδλ

α = 26

β =1

δ =1

λ =1

fs = 0.58fyAst required/Astprovided

= 0.58*415*190/335

= 156.5 N/mm2

100Ast/bd= 0.28%

γ= 2

d = Lx /αβγδλ

= (2.848*1000)/26*1*2*1*1

=54.76 mm <120 mm (effective depth) Hence ok.

M1 = 0.87*415*Ast(92-415Ast/(20*1000)

= 0.87*415*157(112-(415*157)/(20*1000)

= 5.03 KN-m

According to IS- 456:2000 clause 26.2.1.1

For M20 concrete, bond stress τbd = 1.2*1.6 (60% is increased for deformed bar)

= 1.92 N/mm2

Now,

Ld ≤ 1.3*(M1/Vu)+Lo

(fs*υ)/4*τbd ≤ 1.3*(M1/Vu)+Lo

(0.87*415* υ)/4*1.92 ≤ 1.3*(5.03*106/21.095*103)+16* υ

υ ≤ 9.60>8mm Hence

Ok.

Torsional Reinforcement

According to IS: 456-2000 ANNEX D(1.8 & 1.9 )

Torsional reinforcement area = 0.75*Astmaxm at midspan

46

= 0.75*335

= 251.25 mm2

Provide 8mm- υ bars – 6 nos.

Ast provided = 301 mm2 at one direction as torsional reinforcement.

Slab S4

(Interior panel)

4.878*4.878

Clear shorter span = 4.878-0.3=4.578

Effective span (lx) = 4.878-0.3+0.1=4.678m

Effective span(ly) =4.878-0.3+0.1=4.678m

As per IS-456:2000 ANNEX D, the maximum bending moment per unit width in slab are

given by the following equations:

Mx=αxωlx2

My=αyωlx2

rectangular panels supported on four sides

panel and Load, ω

moment

considered

1. Negative 0.032 0.032 14.814 9.708 9.708

moment at

continuous 4.678 4.678 1

edge

2. Positive 0.024 0.024 7.28 7.28

moment at 4.678 4.678

mid span

9.708*106 =0.138*20*1000*d2

or, d = 59.3 mm

Overall depth = 120mm

At support,

BM = 0.87fy*415*Ast{d-415Ast/(20*1000)}

9.708*106 = 0.87fy*415*Ast{100-415Ast/(20*1000)}

Ast = 285.83 mm2

Hence provide 8mm υ bar @ 150mm c/c having area 335 mm2> 144mm2 (OK)

47

At the mid span,

BM = 0.87fy*415*Ast{d-415Ast/(20*1000)}

7.28*106 = 0.87fy*415*Ast{100-415Ast/(20*1000)}

Ast = 210.85mm2

Hence provide 8mm υ bar @ 150 mm c/c having area 335 mm2 > 144mm2 (OK)

d‟ = d-υ/2- υ/2

= 100-4-4

= 92mm

At support,

BM = 0.87fy*415*Ast{d‟-415Ast/(20*1000)}

9.708*106 = 0.87fy*415*Ast{92-415Ast/(20*1000)}

Ast = 314.58mm2

Hence provide 8mm υ bar @ 160mm c/c having area 314 mm2> 144mm2 (OK)

BM = 0.87fy*415*Ast{d‟-415Ast/(20*1000)}

7.28*106 = 0.87fy*415*Ast{92-415Ast/(20*1000)}

Ast =231.22 mm2

Hence provide 8mm υ bar @ 150 mm c/c having area 335mm2> 144mm2 (OK)

Ast = 0.12% of the total X-section area

= 0.12*120*1000/100

= 144mm2 < actual reinforcement provided Hence Ok

< 3*120 or 300mm

< 360 or 300mm

Check for shear

Maximum shear force at face of support (Vu) = ωlx/2

= 14.814*4.678/2

= 34.64 KN

Nominal shear stress,

τv = Vu/bd

= (34.64*103)/(1000*100)

= 0.34 N/mm2

Percentage of steel = 100Ast/bd‟

= 100*157/(1000*92)

= 0.18%

48

τc = 0.28 N/mm2

τc‟ = k τc

= 1.3*0.28

= 0.364 N/ mm2 >τc>τv Hence ok

L/d= αβγδλ

α = 26

β =1

δ =1

λ =1

fs = 0.58fyAst required/Astprovided

= 0.58*415*210.85/335

= 178.49 N/mm2

100Ast/bd = 0.28%

γ= 1.95

d = Lx /αβγδλ

= (4.678 *1000)/26*1*1.95*1*1

=92.26 mm <120 mm (effective depth)

Hence ok

M1 = 0.87*415*Ast(92-415Ast/(20*1000)

= 0.87*415*157(92-(415*157)/(20*1000)

= 5.85 KN-m

According to IS- 456:2000 clause 26.2.1.1

For M20 concrete, bond stress τbd = 1.2*1.6 (60% is increased for deformed bar)

= 1.92 N/mm2

Now,

Ld ≤ 1.3*(M1/Vu)+Lo

(fs*υ)/4*τbd ≤ 1.3*(M1/Vu)+Lo

(0.87*415* υ)/4*1.92 ≤ 1.3*(5.85*106/34.64*103)+16* υ

υ ≤ 8.35>8mm Hence

Ok.

49

Torsional Reinforcement

According to IS: 456-2000 ANNEX D(1.8 & 1.9 )

Torsional reinforcement area = 0.75*Astmaxm at midspan

= 0.75*335

= 251.25 mm2

Provide 8mm- υ bars – 6 nos.

Ast provided = 301 mm2 at one direction as torsional reinforcement.

(four edge discontinuous)

3.048 * 2.8963

Clear shorter span = 2.8963-0.3=2.5963

Effective span (lx) = 2.8963-0.3+0.1=2.6963m

Effective span(ly) =3.048-0.3+0.1=2.848m

As per IS-456:2000 ANNEX D, the maximum bending moment per unit width in slab are

given by the following equations:

Mx=αxωlx2

My=αyωlx2

rectangular panels supported on four sides

panel and Load, ω

moment

considered

1 Positive

moment at 2.6963 2.848 1.05 0.06 0.056 17.61 7.71 7.2

mid span

7.71*106 =0.138*20*1000*d2

or, d = 52.85 mm

Overall depth = 120mm

At the mid span,

BM = 0.87fy*415*Ast{d-415Ast/(20*1000)}

7.71*106 = 0.87fy*415*Ast{100-415Ast/(20*1000)}

Ast = 223.95mm2

Hence provide 8mm υ bar @ 150 mm c/c having area 335 mm2 > 144mm2 (OK)

50

Calculation of steel along longer span

d‟ = d-υ/2- υ/2

= 100-4-4

= 92mm

BM = 0.87fy*415*Ast{d‟-415Ast/(20*1000)}

6

7.2*10 = 0.87fy*415*Ast{92-415Ast/(20*1000)}

Ast =228.53 mm2

Hence provide 8mm υ bar @ 160 mm c/c having area 314mm2> 144mm2 (OK)

Ast = 0.12% of the total X-section area

= 0.12*120*1000/100

= 144mm2 < actual reinforcement provided Hence Ok

< 3*120 or 300mm

< 360 or 300mm

Check for shear

Maximum shear force at face of support (Vu) = ωlx/2

= 17.61*2.6963/2

= 23.74 KN

Nominal shear stress,

τv = Vu/bd

= (23.74*103)/(1000*100)

= 0.237 N/mm2

Percentage of steel = 100Ast/bd‟

= 100*157/(1000*92)

= 0.17%

τc = 0.28 N/mm2

τc‟ = k τc

= 1.3*0.28

= 0.364 N/ mm2 >τc>τv Hence ok

L/d= αβγδλ

51

α = 26

β =1

δ =1

λ =1

fs = 0.58fyAst required/Astprovided

= 0.58*415*223.95/335

= 170.9 N/mm2

100Ast/bd = 0.335%

γ= 1.82

d = Lx /αβγδλ

= (2.6963*1000)/26*1*1.82*1*1

=56.98 mm <100 mm (effective depth) Hence ok

M1 = 0.87*415*Ast(112-415Ast/(20*1000)

= 0.87*415*157(92-(415*157)/ (20*1000)

= 5.03 KN-m

According to IS- 456:2000 clause 26.2.1.1

For M20 concrete, bond stress τbd = 1.2*1.6 (60% is increased for deformed bar)

= 1.92 N/mm2

Now,

Ld ≤ 1.3*(M1/Vu)+Lo

(fs*υ)/4*τbd ≤ 1.3*(M1/Vu)+Lo

(0.87*415* υ)/4*1.92 ≤ 1.3*(5.03*106/23.74*103)+16* υ

υ ≤ 8.88>8mm Hence

Ok.

Torsional Reinforcement

According to IS: 456-2000 ANNEX D(1.8 & 1.9 )

Torsional reinforcement area = 0.75*Astmaxm at midspan

= 0.75*335

= 251.25 mm2

Provide 8mm- υ bars – 6 nos.

Ast provided = 301 mm2 at one direction as torsional reinforcement.

(One long edge discontinuous)

4.878* 3.048

Clear shorter span = 3.048-0.3=2.748

52

Effective span (lx) = 3.048-0.3/2-0.3/2+0.1/2+0.1/2=2.848m

Effective span(ly) =4.878-0.3/2-0.3/2+0.1/2+0.1/2=4.678m

As per IS-456:2000 ANNEX D, the maximum bending moment per unit width in slab are

given by the following equations:

Mx=αxωlx2

My=αyωlx2

rectangular panels supported on four sides

panel and Load, ω

moment

considered

1. Negative 0.037 10.89 4.98 3.26

moment at 4.678 0.07

continuous 2.848 1.64

edge

2. Positive 4.678 0.055 0.028 4.11 2.47

moment at 2.848

mid span

4.98*106 =0.138*20*1000*d2

or, d = 42.47mm

Overall depth = 120mm

At the mid span,

BM = 0.87fy*415*Ast {d-415Ast/(20*1000)}

4.98*106 = 0.87fy*415*Ast {100-415Ast/(20*1000)}

Ast = 155mm2

Hence provide 8mm υ bar @ 150 mm c/c having area 335 mm2 > 144mm2 (OK)

BM = 0.87fy*415*Ast {d-415Ast/(20*1000)}

4.11*106 = 0.87fy*415*Ast {100-415Ast/(20*1000)}

Ast = 136.28mm2

Hence provide 8mm υ bar @ 150 mm c/c having area 335 mm2 > 144mm2 (OK)

53

d‟ = d-υ/2- υ/2

= 100-4-4

= 92mm

At support,

BM = 0.87fy*415*Ast {d‟-415Ast/(20*1000)}

3.26*106 = 0.87fy*415*Ast {92-415Ast/(20*1000)}

Ast = 100mm2

Hence provide 8mm υ bar @ 160mm c/c having area 314 mm2> 144mm2 (OK)

BM = 0.87fy*415*Ast {d‟-415Ast/(20*1000)}

2.47*106 = 0.87fy*415*Ast {110-415Ast/(20*1000)}

Ast =95 mm2

Hence provide 8mm υ bar @ 160 mm c/c having area 314mm2> 144mm2 (OK)

Ast = 0.12% of the total X-section area

= 0.12*120*1000/100

= 144mm2 < actual reinforcement provided Hence Ok

< 3*120 or 300mm

< 360 or 300mm

Check for shear

Maximum shear force at face of support (Vu) = ωlx/2

= 10.89*2.848/2

= 15.5KN

Nominal shear stress,

τv = Vu/bd

= (15.5*103)/(1000*100)

= 0.168 N/mm2

Percentage of steel = 100Ast/bd‟

= 100*157/ (1000*92)

= 0.17%

τc = 0.28 N/mm2

τc‟ = k τc

= 1.3*0.28

= 0.364 N/ mm2 >τc>τv Hence ok

L/d= αβγδλ

54

α = 26 δ =1

β =1 λ =1

For modification factor

fs =0.58fyAst required/Astprovided

=0.58*415*300/335

=123.32 N/mm2

100Ast/bd= 0.28%

γ=2

d = Lx /αβγδλ

= (2.848*1000)/26*1*2*1*1

=54.76 mm <120 mm (effectivedepth) Hence ok.

M1 = 0.87*415*Ast(112-415Ast/(20*1000)

= 0.87*415*157(112-(415*157)/ (20*1000)

= 5.0316 KN-m

According to IS- 456:2000 clause 26.2.1.1

For M20 concrete, bond stress τbd = 1.2*1.6 (60% is increased for deformed bar)

= 1.92 N/mm2

Now,

Ld ≤ 1.3*(M1/Vu) +Lo

(fs*υ)/4*τbd ≤ 1.3*(M1/Vu) +Lo

(0.87*415* υ)/4*1.92 ≤ 1.3*(5.0316*106/15.5*103) +16* υ

υ ≤ 13.91>8mm Hence ok.

Torsional Reinforcement

According to IS: 456-2000 ANNEX D (1.8 &1.9)

Torsional reinforcement area = 0.75*Astmaxm at midspan

= 0.75*335

= 251.25 mm2

Provide 8mm- υ bars – 6 nos.

Ast provided = 301 mm2 at one direction as torsional reinforcement.

55

7.4DESIGN OF BEAM

Design of moment for design is taken as maximum value of B.M. obtained from analysis

using software STAAD.

For design purpose, maximum moment of support or mid span moment is taken in

consideration for a bay for a single floor or more than one floor according to quantity of

variation. The mid-span of beam is designed as flanged beam and end section are

designed as rectangular section.

DESIGN CONSTANT:

Concrete =M20

Steel Grade =Fe 415

Beam size = 400*300 mm

56

Effective cover of tensile reinforcement (d‟) = 35 mm

Beam No. 75

Mz(kip-in)

1482 1420 1500

1500

1000 1000

500 500

37 38

500 1 2 2.89 500

1000 1000

1500 -1255 -1133 1500

Fy(kip)

28.6

30 30

18.7

20 20

10 10

37 38

10 5 9.48 10

20 20

-19.1

30 30

-29.3

57

END SECTION

Design value:

i) Mu:167.466KN-m

ii) Vu:130.35 KN

iii) Clear cover:25 mm

iv) Assumed diameter of bar:25 mm

=0.36*20*300*(0.48*362.5)(362.5-0.42*0.48*362.5)

Therefore,the section must be designed as doubly reinforced section.

Calculation of reinforcement

Area of tension steel corresponds to Mu,lim

Mu,lim = 0.87*fy*Ast,1*(d-0.42*xm)

The remaining moment has to be resisted by a couple consisting compression steel and

corresponding to the tensile steel.

𝑑 ′ /d = 37.5/362.5

=0.1

The corresponding stress in compression steel can be obtained from SP-16 (table: F),page

no,13.

Therefore,

fsc =353 N/mm2

Now,

Mu-Mu-lim= (fsc-fcc)*Asc*(d-𝑑 ′ )

(167.466-108.775)*106= (353-0.446*20) Asc (362.5-37.5)

Or, Asc=524.84mm2

For equilibrium, the corresponding tension steel

58

Mu-Mu-lim=0.87fy*Ast2*(d-𝑑 ′ )

Or,58.691*106=0.87*415* Ast2*(362.5-37.5)

Or, Ast2=500.17 mm2

Provide 4-25 mm diameter rods.

As per IS: 456-2000, clause 26.5.1.1

For minimum reinforcement

𝐴0

= 0.85/fy

𝐵∗𝑑

0.85∗300 ∗362 .5

Or, A0= =222.74<Ast (ok)

415

Ast,max = 0.04*b*D

=0.04*300*400

= 4800 mm2 (ok)

Curtailment of Bars

Simplified rule for curtailment of bars in continuous beam according to Art. 3.12.10.2 of

BS 8110 – 1985 is adopted. These rule applied to continuous beam of nearly equal spans

which are designed for predominantly uniformly distributed load. First 40% of steel bars

at support is curtailed at 0.25l from the center of the support and 70% of steel at mid span

is curtailed at 0.15l.

Ld= 47 Φ

1.3 M1

And Ld= +Lo

V

f y Ast

Where, M1 = 0.87fyAst d

f ck b

415 ∗1963

= 0.874151963(362.5- 20∗300 )

= 160.68 KN-m

V =130.35KN

Lo = 8 + 100 = 825 +100 = 300mm

1.3 160.68 10 3

47 300

130.35

59

40.47mm OK.

Maximum shear occur at the face of the support.

Vu = 130.35 KN

Vu 130.35 10 3

Nominal shear stress, τv = = =1.19 N/mm 2

bd 300 362.5

A 100 1963 100

% of tension steel = st = = 1.8%

bd 300 362.5

From IS: 456-2000, Table -19

Shear strength for M20 concrete, τc =0.758 N/mm 2 <τ v

From IS: 456-2000, Table -20

τc max = 2.8 N/mm 2

τc max>τ v >τc

Hence shear reinforcement must be designed for shear value (τv-τc) bd

Provide 2-legged stirrup of 8mm bar having area 100 mm 2 .

The shear that has to be contributed by the vertical stirrup

Vus=(τv-τc)*b*d=(1.19-0.758)*300*362.5=46.98KN

Now, spacing of vertical stirrup

0.87 f y Asv d

Sv =

Vus

0.87 415 100.53 * 362.5

= =248.957 mm.

46.98 *1000

Sv < 300 mm

< 0.75d = 0.75362.5 =271.875mm

>=100 mm

Check for stability:

Maximum spacing for vertical stirrups at support

Sv,max=0.25*d=0.25*362.5=90.63 mm C/C

Therefore, provide 2-legged 8mm vertical stirrup @ 100 mm C/C up to 2d (i.e.

2362.5) from vertical face of the support

Design Value:

Mu = 7.5 KN/m

Clear cover = 25 mm

Assumed diameter of bar = 25 mm

60

Now, the effective depth = 400-25-25/2 =362.5mm

D =120 mm

b =300 mm

Effective width of the flange

L = 0.7*l = 0.7*2896 =2027.2 mm

2027.2

bf= 300 6 100 = 1237.86 mm

6

Let the neutral axis lies in the flange of the beam

Ultimate moment of resistance,

Mu,lim = 0.36*fck*b*xm*(d - 0.42*xm)

=0.36*20*300*0.48*362.5*(362.5-0.42*0.48*362.5)

= 108.775 KN-m >Mu

Calculation of reinforcement

𝑓𝑦 ∗𝐴𝑠𝑡

Mu = 0.87*fy*Ast(d- 𝑓𝑐𝑘 ∗𝑏 )

415 ∗𝐴𝑠𝑡

7.5*106 =0.87*415*Ast*(362.5 – 20∗300 )

Provide 2– 12 mm Φ in tension having area 226 mm²

Check for minimum reinforcement

As per IS: 456-2000, Clause 26.5.1.1

Ao(b*d) =0.85/fy

Thus,Ao =222.74 <Ast OK

Ast, max = 0.04*b*D = 0.04*300*400 =4800 mm² >Ast (ok)

61

Check for ductility:

Sv,max=0.5*362.5=181.25mm

Therefore provide 2-legged 8 mm diameter vertical stirrups @195mm c-c

Check for deflection:

l/d =

where,

=26

=1(for L<10)

Now,

Fs=0.58*fy*(required steel cross section area/provided steel cross section area)

=0.58*415*(57.944/226)

=61.71 N/mm2

%p=100*Ast provided/(b*d)

=100*226/(300*362.5)

=0.207

=41.6

(L/d)actual =2896/362.5 =7.98 (OK)

62

DESIGN CONSTANT:

Concrete =M20

Steel Grade =Fe 415

Beam size = 400*300 mm

63

Beam No. 76 Fig: bending moment diagram (beam 76)

Mz(kip-in)

1500 1390 1390 1500

1000 1000

500 500

5.34

38 39

500 5 10 15 16 500

1000 -508 -524 -507 1000

1500 1500

Fy(kip)

30 24 30

20 20

10 10

38 39

10 5 10 15 16 10

20 20

30 -24 30

END SECTION

Design value:

i) Mu:160.46KN-m

ii) Vu:106.776 KN

iii) Clear cover:25 mm

iv) Assumed diameter of bar:25 mm

Ultimate moment of resistance,

=0.36*20*300*(0.48*362.5)(362.5-0.42*0.48*362.5)

64

=108.775 KN-M < Mu

Therefore,the section must be designed as doubly reinforced section.

Calculation of reinforcement

Area of tension steel corresponds to Mu,lim

Mu,lim = 0.87*fy*Ast,1*(d-0.42*xm)

The remaining moment has to be resisted by a couple consisting compression steel and

corresponding to the tensile steel.

𝑑 ′ /d = 37.5/362.5

=0.1

The corresponding stress in compression steel can be obtained from SP-16 (table: F),page

no,13.

Therefore,

fsc =353 N/mm2

Now,

Mu-Mu-lim= (fsc-fcc)*Asc*(d-𝑑 ′ )

(160.46-108.775)*106= (353-0.446*20) Asc (362.5-37.5)

Or, Asc=462.19mm2

Mu-Mu,lim=0.87fy*Ast2*(d-𝑑 ′ )

Or,51.685*106=0.87*415* Ast2*(362.5-37.5)

Or, Ast2=440.467 mm2

Provide 4-25 mm diameter rods.

As per IS: 456-2000, clause 26.5.1.1

For minimum reinforcement

𝐴0

= 0.85/fy

𝐵∗𝑑

65

0.85∗300 ∗362 .5

Or, A0= =222.74<Ast (ok)

415

Ast,max = 0.04*b*D

=0.04*300*400

Curtailment of Bars

Simplified rule for curtailment of bars in continuous beam according to Art. 3.12.10.2 of

BS 8110 – 1985 is adopted. These rule applied to continuous beam of nearly equal spans

which are designed for predominantly uniformly distributed load. First 40% of steel bars

at support is curtailed at 0.25l from the center of the support and 70% of steel at mid span

is curtailed at 0.15l.

Ld= 47 Φ

1.3 M1

And Ld= +Lo

V

f Ast

Where, M1 = 0.87fyAst d y

f ck b

415 ∗1963

= 0.874151963(362.5- 20∗300 )

= 160.68 KN-m

V =106.776KN

Lo = 8 + 100 = 825 +100 = 300mm

1.3 160.68 10 3

47 300

106.776

48mm OK.

Maximum shear occur at the face of the support.

Vu = 106.776 KN

Vu 106.776 10 3

Nominal shear stress, τv = = =0.98 N/mm 2

bd 300 362.5

Ast 100 1963 100

% of tension steel = = = 1.8%

bd 300 362.5

From IS: 456-2000, Table -19

Shear strength for M20 concrete, τc =0.758 N/mm 2 <τ v

From IS: 456-2000, Table -20

τc max = 2.8 N/mm 2

τc max>τ v >τc

66

Hence shear reinforcement must be designed for shear value (τv-τc) bd

Provide 2-legged stirrup of 8mm bar having area 100 mm 2 .

The shear that has to be contributed by the vertical stirrup

Vus=(τv-τc)*b*d=(0.98-0.758)*300*362.5=24.142KN

Now, spacing of vertical stirrup

0.87 f y Asv d

Sv =

Vus

0.87 415 100.53 * 362.5

= =545mm.

24.142 *1000

Sv < 300 mm

< 0.75d = 0.75362.5 =271.875mm

>=100 mm

Spaccing of the stirrups shouldn‟t be greater than 0.75d i.e.271.875.hence, spacing is

adopted as 250mm among the stirrups.

Check for stability:

Maximum spacing for vertical stirrups at support

Sv,max=0.25*d=0.25*362.5=90.63 mm C/C

Therefore, provide 2-legged 8mm vertical stirrup @ 100 mm C/C up to 2d (i.e.

2362.5) from vertical face of the support

Design Value:

Mu =59.212KN/m

Clear cover = 25 mm

Assumed diameter of bar = 25 mm

Now, the effective depth = 400-25-25/2 =362.5mm

D =120 mm

b =300 mm

Effective width of the flange

As per IS: 456-2000, clause 23.1.2

L = 0.7*l = 0.7*4878 =3414.6 mm

67

3414.6

bf= 300 6 100 = 1469.1 mm

6

Let the neutral axis lies in the flange of the beam

Ultimate moment of resistance,

Mu,lim = 0.36*fck*b*xm*(d - 0.42*xm)

=0.36*20*300*0.48*362.5*(362.5-0.42*0.48*362.5)

= 108.775 KN-m >Mu

Calculation of reinforcement

𝑓𝑦 ∗𝐴𝑠𝑡

Mu = 0.87*fy*Ast(d- 𝑓𝑐𝑘 ∗𝑏 )

415 ∗𝐴𝑠𝑡

59.212*106 =0.87*415*Ast*(362.5 – 20∗300 )

Check for minimum reinforcement

As per IS: 456-2000, Clause 26.5.1.1

Ao(b*d) =0.85/fy

Thus,Ao =222.74 <Ast OK

Ast, max = 0.04*b*D = 0.04*300*400 =4800 mm² >Ast (ok)

Sv,max=0.5*362.5=181.25mm

Therefore provide 2-legged 8 mm diameter vertical stirrups @195mm c-c

l/d =

where,

=26

=1(for L<10)

68

Now,

Fs=0.58*fy*(required steel cross section area/provided steel cross section area)

=0.58*415*(500.14/603)

=200 N/mm2

%p=100*Ast provided/(b*d)

=100*603/(300*362.5)

=0.554

=32.24

(L/d)actual =4878/362.5 =13.456 (OK)

69

DESIGN CONSTANT:

Concrete =M20

Steel Grade =Fe 415

Beam size = 400*300 mm

Effective cover of tensile reinforcement (d‟) = 35 mm

70

Beam No.77 Fig: bending moment diagram (beam 77)

Mz(kip-in)

1475

1500 1417 1500

1000 1000

500 500

39 40

500 5 9.51 500

1000 1000

1500 -1127 -1248 1500

Fy(kip)

29.1

30 30

18.9

20 20

10 10

39 40

10 5 9.51 10

20 20

-18.5

30 30

-28.5

END SECTION

Design value:

i) Mu:166.675KN-m

ii) Vu:129.465 KN

71

iii) Clear cover:25 mm

iv) Assumed diameter of bar:25 mm

Ultimate moment of resistance,

=0.36*20*300*(0.48*362.5)(362.5-0.42*0.48*362.5)

=108.775 KN-M < Mu

Therefore,the section must be designed as doubly reinforced section.

Calculation of reinforcement

Area of tension steel corresponds to Mu,lim

Mu,lim = 0.87*fy*Ast,1*(d-0.42*xm)

The remaining moment has to be resisted by a couple consisting compression steel and

corresponding to the tensile steel.

𝑑 ′ /d = 37.5/362.5

=0.1

The corresponding stress in compression steel can be obtained from SP-16 (table: F),page

no,13.

Therefore,

fsc =353 N/mm2

Now,

Mu-Mu,lim= (fsc-fcc)*Asc*(d-𝑑 ′ )

Or, Asc=517.768mm2

Mu-Mu,lim=0.87fy*Ast 2*(d-𝑑 ′ )

Or,57.9*106=0.87*415* Ast2*(362.5-37.5)

Or, Ast2=493.43 mm2

72

Total tension steel (Ast) =Ast1+ Ast2=1040.95+493.43=1534.38mm2

Provide 4-25 mm diameter rods.

As per IS: 456-2000, clause 26.5.1.1

𝐴0

= 0.85/fy

𝐵∗𝑑

0.85∗300 ∗362 .5

Or, A0= =222.74<Ast (ok)

415

Ast,max = 0.04*b*D

=0.04*300*400

= 4800 mm2 (ok)

Curtailment of Bars

Simplified rule for curtailment of bars in continuous beam according to Art. 3.12.10.2 of

BS 8110 – 1985 is adopted. These rule applied to continuous beam of nearly equal spans

which are designed for predominantly uniformly distributed load. First 40% of steel bars

at support is curtailed at 0.25l from the center of the support and 70% of steel at mid span

is curtailed at 0.15l.

Ld= 47 Φ

1.3 M1

And Ld= +Lo

V

f y Ast

Where, M1 = 0.87fyAst d

f ck b

415 ∗1963

= 0.874151963(362.5- 20∗300 )

= 160.68KN-m

V =129.465KN

Lo = 8 + 100 = 825 +100 = 300mm

1.3 160.68 10 3

47 300

129.465

40.71mm OK.

Maximum shear occur at the face of the support.

73

Vu = 129.465 KN

Vu 129.465 10 3

Nominal shear stress, τv = = =1.19 N/mm 2

bd 300 362.5

Ast 100 1963 100

% of tension steel = = = 1.8%

bd 300 362.5

From IS: 456-2000, Table -19

Shear strength for M20 concrete, τc =0.758 N/mm 2 <τ v

From IS: 456-2000, Table -20

τc max = 2.8 N/mm 2

τc max>τ v >τc

Hence shear reinforcement must be designed for shear value (τv-τc) bd

Provide 2-legged stirrup of 8mm bar having area 100 mm 2 .

The shear that has to be contributed by the vertical stirrup

Vus=(τv-τc)*b*d=(1.19-0.758)*300*362.5=46.98KN

Now, spacing of vertical stirrup

0.87 f y Asv d

Sv =

Vus

0.87 415 100.53 * 362.5

= =227.44 mm.

46.98 *1000

Sv < 300 mm

< 0.75d = 0.75362.5 =271.875mm

>=100 mm

Check for stability:

Maximum spacing for vertical stirrups at support

Sv,max=0.25*d=0.25*362.5=90.63 mm C/C

Therefore, provide 2-legged 8mm vertical stirrup @ 100 mm C/C up to 2d (i.e.

2362.5) from vertical face of the support

Design Value:

Mu = 7.5 KN/m

Clear cover = 25 mm

Assumed diameter of bar = 25 mm

Now, the effective depth = 400-25-25/2 =362.5mm

D =120 mm

b =300 mm

74

Effective width of the flange

As per IS: 456-2000, clause 23.1.2

2027.2

bf= 300 6 100 = 1237.86 mm

6

Let the neutral axis lies in the flange of the beam

Ultimate moment of resistance,

Mu,lim = 0.36*fck*b*xm*(d - 0.42*xm)

=0.36*20*300*0.48*362.5*(362.5-0.42*0.48*362.5)

= 108.775 KN-m >Mu

Calculation of reinforcement

𝑓𝑦 ∗𝐴𝑠𝑡

Mu = 0.87*fy*Ast(d- 𝑓𝑐𝑘 ∗𝑏 )

415 ∗𝐴𝑠𝑡

7.5*106 =0.87*415*Ast*(362.5 – 20∗300 )

Provide 2– 12 mm Φ in tension having area 226 mm²

As per IS: 456-2000, Clause 26.5.1.1

Ao(b*d) =0.85/fy

Thus,Ao =222.74 <Ast OK

Ast, max = 0.04*b*D = 0.04*300*400 =4800 mm² >Ast (ok)

Sv,max=0.5*362.5=181.25mm

Therefore provide 2-legged 8 mm diameter vertical stirrups @195mm c-c

75

Check for deflection:

l/d =

where,

=26

=1(for L<10)

Now,

Fs=0.58*fy*(required steel cross section area/provided steel cross section area)

=0.58*415*(57.944/226)

=61.71 N/mm2

%p=100*Ast provided/(b*d)

=100*226/(300*362.5)

=0.207

=41.6

(L/d) actual =2896/362.5 =7.98 (OK)

76

77

7.5 DESIGN OF RAFT FOUNDATION

If the loads transmitted by the columns in a structure are so heavy or the allowable soil

bearing pressure so small that individual footing would cover more than about one half of

the area, it may be better to provide a continuous footing under all the columns and walls.

Such a footing is called a raft foundation. The raft is divided into series of continuous

strips centered on the appropriate column rows in the both directions as shown in figure

below.The shear and bending moment diagrams may be drawn using continuous beam

analysis or coefficients for each strip. The depth is selected to satisfy shear requirements.

The steel requirements will vary from strip. This method generally gives a conservative

design since the interaction of adjacent strips is neglected.

Design of Raft Foundation

Load area = 11749.66/120 = 97.91 m2

Total plinth area = 125.32m2

Footing area > 50 % of plinth area provide raft foundation.

Safe bearing capacity of soil, = 120 KN/m2

Total vertical column load, P = 11749.66KN

Eccentricity along X direction about grid 1-1

={2.8963(688.577+1075.388+1110.059+725.082)+7.774(726.918+1111.13+1110.735+7

26.064) +10.67(417.84+722.969+722.98+417.488)}/11749.66

= 4.8 m

Therefore, ex= 10.67/2 – 4.8 = 0.535 m

Eccentricity along Y direction about grid D-D

={3.048(684.582+1075.388+1111.13+722.969)

+7.927(722.972+1110.059+1110.735+722.98)+10.9757(416.89+725.082+726.064+417.4

88)}/11749.66

= 5.54 m

Therefore, ey=5.54- 5.487= 0.052 m

Ix = 11.47 *11.77573/12 =1560.78 m4

Iy= 11.7757 * 11.473/12 = 1480.79 m4

Area (A) = 11.47*11.7757 = 135.067 m2

Mx= P * ey = 11749.66*0.052 = 610.98 KN-M

P/A=11749.66/135.067=87

Soil pressure at different points is as follows

76

P MY MX

σ= x y

A IY IX

Corner A4,

σ A-4 = 87+(6286.068/1480.79)*5.735+(610.98/1560.78)*5.887 = 113.64< 120 KN/M2

OK.

Corner D4,0.

.σ. .D.-.4. .=. 87+4.245*5.735-0.39*5.887= 87+24.345-2.295=109.05 KN/M2

Corner A1,

σ A-1 =87-24.345+2.295 = 64.95 KN/M2

Corner D1,

Grid B4,

σ B-4 = 87+24.345+0.951= 112.296 KN/M2

Grid B1,

σB-1 = 87-24.345+0.951= 63.606 KN/M2

Grid C4,

σc-4 = 87+24.345-0.951 = 110.394 KN/M2

Grid C1,

σc-1= 87-24.345-0.951 = 61.704 KN/M2

In X – direction, the raft is divided into 4 strips, i.e. 3 equivalent beams:

i) Beam A-A soil pressure, σ = 113.64 KN/m2

ii) Beam B-B soil pressure, σ = 0.5*( 113.64+112.296)

= 112.818 KN/m2

iii) Beam C-C soil pressure, σ = 0.5(110.394+112.296)

= 111.345 KN/m2

iv) Beam D-D soil pressure, σ = 0.5*(110.394+109.05)

= 109.722 KN/m2

-m /For X – direction, the bending moment is obtained by using a coefficient of 1/10 and

L as Centre of column distance,

w L2

+M = -M =

10

113.64∗4.878 2

For strip A-A, maximum bending moment = = 270.405 KN-m /m

10

112.818∗4.878 2

For strip B-B, maximum bending moment = = 268.449 KNm

10

77

111.345∗4.878 2

For strip C-C, maximum bending moment = = 264.944 KN-m /m

10

109.722∗4.878 2

For strip D-D, maximum bending moment = =261.082KN-m /m

10

In Y direction,

Grid A3,

σA-3 = 87+(4.245)*(5.735-0.4-2.8963)+(0.39)*5.8878

= 99.64 KN/M2

Grid A2,

σA-2 = 87-4.245*2.4387+0.39*5.8878

= 78.946 KN/M2

In Y – direction, soil pressure

(i) Beam 4-4, σ = 113.64 KN/m2

(ii) Beam3-3,σ = 0.5*(113.64+99. 64)

= 106.64 KN/m2

(iii) Beam 2-2, σ = 0.5*(99.64+78.946)

= 89.293 KN/m2

(iv) Beam 1-1, σ = 0.5*(78.946+64.95)

= 71.948 KN/m2

For Y – direction, the bending moment is obtained by using a coefficient of 1/10 and L as

centre of column distance,

w L2

+M = -M =

10

113.64∗4.878 2

For strip 4-4, maximum bending moment = = 270.405 KN-m /m

10

106.64∗4.878 2

For strip 3-3, maximum bending moment = =253.748 KN-m /m.

10

89.293∗4.878 2

For strip 2-2, maximum bending moment = = 212.471 KN-m /m

10

71.948∗4.878 2

For strip 1-1, maximum bending moment = = 171.199 KN-m /m

10

78

The depth of the raft will be governed by two way shear at one of the exterior columns. In

case location of critical shear is not obvious, it may be necessary to check all possible

locations.

Shear strength of concrete,′c = c =0.25 𝑓𝑐𝑘 = 0.25 20 = 1.11 N/mm2

1.5∗369.981∗1000

v = Vu/ (b0d) =

𝑑+1200 𝑑

1.5∗369.981∗1000

Therefore, 1.11 =

d+1200 d

79

On solving we get, d = 327.34 mm.

1.5∗725.082∗1000

Therefore, 1.11 =

2d+1600 d

On solving we get, d = 406.176 mm

So, adopt effective depth, d = 500 mm and overall depth, D = 500 +50 + 10/2

=555 mm

Reinforcement calculation:

Reinforcement along long direction A-A

80

Maximum bending moment in long direction is given by A-A

𝑓𝑦 ∗𝐴𝑠𝑡

BM = 0.87 fyAst (d - )

𝑓𝑐𝑘𝑏

415∗𝐴𝑠𝑡

270.405 * 106 = 0.87 * 415 * Ast(500 - )

20∗1000

2

Therefore, we get Ast =1604.75 mm /m

Minimum reinforcement = 0.12 % of b D

= 0.12/100 * 555 * 1000

= 666 mm2 /m

< 1604.75 mm2 /m (okay)

Minimum steel will govern in the remaining shaft

So, provided 16 mm dia bar @ 120 mm c/c

Ast,provided = 1675 mm2

In both direction at top and bottom.

Reinforcement along short direction 4-4

Maximum bending moment in short direction

𝑓𝑦 ∗𝐴𝑠𝑡

BM = 0.87 fyAst (d - )

𝑓𝑐𝑘𝑏

415∗𝐴𝑠𝑡

270.405 * 106 = 0.87 * 415 * Ast(500 - )

20∗1000

2

Therefore, we get Ast =1604.75 mm /m

So, provided 16 mm dia bar @ 120 mm c/c

Ast,provided = 1675 mm2

In both directions at top and bottom.

Required development length for tension Ld

Ld= (0.87*fy*𝜑)/4𝜏bd

=(0.87*415*16)/4*1.2*1.6

= 752.187 mm

The available vertical length L1 for anchorage is

L1 = (555-8-50-16-8) = 473. < 905.11 mm OK.

81

7.6 Column

3 PAGES

82

7.7DESIGN OF STAIRCASE

Staircase is an inclined structural system for the movement from one level to another.

Since it is stepped, it is called staircase. A staircase behaves like an ordinary slab. It may

span either in the direction of the steps or in the direction of going. Structurally staircase

may be classified largely into two categories, depending on the predominant direction in

which the slab staircase component of the stair undergoes flexure- stair slab spanning

transversely and stair slab spanning longitudinally.

determination of reinforcement and its detailing to satisfy both the serviceability and

strength requirements. The design of staircase is made for serviceability requirements of

deflection and cracks. The serviceability requirement of deflection is controlled by the

effective span to effective depth ratio. The design of reinforcement is made to satisfy the

strength requirements for moments and shear. The design for moment is made for

maximum moments either by working stress method or by the limit state method. The

area of steel is expressed as diameter and spacing of bars. It is provided along the span of

staircase and necessary curtailment is made wherever it is not required as in the case of

edge supported slab.

Generally the shear reinforcement is not required in the staircase as the shear strength of

concrete is much greater than the nominal shear stress. The shear strength of concrete in

staircase is determined as in the case of edge supported slabs.

The detailing of reinforcement in staircase shall be similar to that of the edge supported

slab except at the junction of landing and flight of staircase where it should ensure that

the reinforcement bars in tension tending to straighten out do not cause cracking in

concrete.

General rules

Between consecutive floors there should be equal rise for every parallel steps.

Similarly there should be equal going.

There should be at least 2m headroom measured vertically above any steps.

The sum of going of a single step plus the twice the rise should be between

550mm and 700mm

The rise of steps should not be more than about 200mm and the going not less

than 240mm

The slope of the staircase should be not more than 38 degrees.

Width of staircase depends upon the usage. The width required in residential

building differs from other public building.

84

7.7.1DESIGN OF STAIRCASE

Size of staircase

Total floor to floor height=2.74m

2R+T=600

R=170mm

No. of riser=2.74/0.17=16no.s

No. of tread = 16-1=15no.s

Along Y-Y axis,

3.048+0.4=3.448m

3.448-0.3-0.3=2.848m

2.848-1.3-1.060=0.488m

Beam c/c distance

0.3/2+1.060+1.3+0.488+0.3/2 = 3.148m

Leff= 3.148m

Deff=Leff/35 = 3148/35 = 110.514m

Overall depth of waist slab (D) =99.94+20= 119.20mm

Let us take D=150mm

a.Dead load

Step Section =1/2*0.26*0.17

=0.0221m2

=0.04659m2

Now total X-section area of slab only=0.0221+0.04659

=0.0686m2

Density of concrete=25KN/m3

85

Load on RCC slab=25*0.0686

=1.717KN/m3

Step finishing

Density of screeding=20.4KN/m3

Density of marble =26.7KN/m3

Marble 20mm thick= (0.26+0.17)*0.02*26.7

=0.22962KN/m3

Total dead load of step=2.24512KN/m

Now dead load per m2 on plan=2.24512/0.26=8.635KN/m2

b) Live load

Live load per m2 on plan =5KN/m2

Total load = Dead load + live load=8.635+5=13.635KN/m2

Factored load =1.5*13.635=20.4525 KN/m2

Taking 1.06m width of slab, total load=1.06*20.4525 = 21.67965 KN/m

B) Landing

a. Dead load

Waist slab (W)=0.15*25=3.75KN/m2

Marble finishing 20mm thick=0.020*26.7=0.534KN/m2

Thick plastering 12.5mm=0.0125*20.4KN/m2=0.2448KN/m2

Screeding 25mm thick=0.025*20.4=0.51 KN/m2

b. live load=5KN/m2

Total load=5+5.038 =10.038 KN/m2

Factored load=1.5*10.038 = 15.057 KN/m2

86

Taking 1.06m width of slab=15.057*1.06=15.96 KN/m

Ra+Rb=15.96*0.5013+21.679*1.3+15.96*1.095

Ra+Rb= 53.6562 KN/m2 …………………..(1)

21.679 KN/m

15.96 KN/m 15.96 KN/m

Moment at A

15.96*0.5013*(0.5013/2) +21.679*1.3*(1.3/2+0.5013)+15.96*1.095 ((1.095/2)

+1.3+0.5013)

=Rb*(0.5013+1.3+1.095)

Ra= 53.599-26.06 = 27.539KN

If the point of zero SF at a distance „x‟ from A

27.539=15.96*0.5013+21.679*(x-0.5013)

X= 1.4m

Maximum bending moment occurs at a distance „x‟ from A(i.e.1.4 m from the support A)

Mx=Ra*1.4-15.96*0.5013(0.5013/2+1.4-0.5013)+21.679 (1.4-0.5013/2)2

=27.539*1.4-15.96*0.5013(0.5013/2+1.4-0.5013)+21.679 (1.4-0.5013/2)2

= 58 KN-m

Minimum depth can be calculated considering absolute maximum bending moment

We know,

87

Effective depth (d) = BMmaximum/0.138*b*fck

(d)= 58*106/0.138*20*1060

=140

D= 140 + 20 + 10/2 `

Adopt D=165mm

Available effective depth (d) =165-20-10/2

= 140mm

So, D=165mm

And d=140mm

We know,`

Mu=0.87*fy*Ast(d-(fy*Ast)/(fck*b))

58*106=0.87*415*Ast*(140-(415*Ast)/ (20*1060))

Ast=1435.63 mm2

Provide 1 nos-10mm 𝜑 bar as temperature reinforcement in each riser

So, Ast minimum=0.12*1060*165/100

= 209.88 mm2

Ast provided=228 mm2

=0.185 N / mm2

Percent of tension steel= (100*Ast) / bd

= (100*1470)/ (1060*140) =0.99

88

From clause 40.2 .1 IS 456: 2000 table 19

Interpolating

Tc = 0.617 N/mm2

K=1.25

=0.77N/mm2>𝜏v(ok)

Deflection

𝑙

d=𝛼∗𝛽 ∗𝛾𝑥 ∗𝛿∗𝜆

Now, for modification factor „γ‟ for tension reinforcement

fs = 0.58*fy*(Area of x-section of steel required) /(Area

of x-section of steel provided)

=0.58*415 *1435.63/1470

= 235.07 N/mm2

Therefore, γ = 1.18

Therefore, d =99.34 mm ≤ 140 mm (ok)

Check for development length

=47*12=564mm

=600mm

Ld=0.87*fy*𝜑/4𝜏bd

For M20,𝜏bd=1.2N/mm2

Ld=0.87*415*12/4*1.2*1.6

=564.14mm=600mm

Moment of resistance

M1=0.87*fy*Ast*(d-(fy*Ast)/(fck*b))

=0.87*415*1470*(140-(415*1470)/ (20*1060))

= 59.03*106

89

Hence, Ld< 1.3M1/v + LO

0.87∗415 ∗𝜙 59.03∗10 6

=1.3 *27.539∗10 3 + 16 *𝜙

4∗1.2∗1.6

Therefore, 𝜙=89.85 mm

Since bar diameter provided is 12mm ok.

Along x-x axis,

Leff = 1.134/2+0.78+1.134/2 = 1.914m

Ra+Rb=15.96*0.567+21.679*0.78+15.96*0.567

Ra+Rb= 35 KN/m2 …………………..(1)

21.679 KN/m

15.96 KN/m 15.96 KN/m

Moment at A

15.96*0.567*(0.567/2) +21.679*0.78*(0.78/2+0.567)+

=Rb*(1.914)

Rb= 17.50 KN

Ra= 35-17.50=17.50 KN

If the point of zero SF at a distance „x‟ from A

17.5=15.96*0.567+21.679*(x-0.567)

X= 0.956 m

Maximum bending moment occurs at a distance „x‟ from A

Mx=Ra*0.956-15.96*0.567(0.567/2+0.956-0.567)+21.679 (0.956-0.567/2)2

=17.5*0.956-15.96*0.567(0.567/2+0.956-0.567)+21.679 (0.956-0.567/2)2

90

= 20.449 KN-m

Minimum depth can be calculated considering absolute maximum bending moment

We know,

(d)= 20.449*106/0.138*20*1060

=83.60 mm

D= 83.60 + 20 + 10/2

Adopt D=110mm

Available effective depth (d) =110-20-10/2

= 85mm

So, D= 110mm

And d= 85mm

We know,

Mu=0.87*fy*Ast(d-(fy*Ast)/(fck*b))

20.449*106=0.87*415*Ast*(85-(415*Ast)/ (20*1060))

Ast=821.89 mm2

Provide 1 nos-10mm 𝜑 bar as temperature reinforcement in each riser

In waist slab,(provide minimum) 0.12%of bD

= 139.92 mm2

Hence for the staircase design take the data along y-y axis for design.

91

CHAPTER 8

CONCLUSION

FIVE STOREY RESIDENTIAL BUILDING” was carried out by the group of four

students. The analysis of the building was done using appropriate method of analysis. The

design of elements was done using limit state design philosophy which is economic, safe

and reliable. The detailing of structure was done as per IS and IS seismic codes. The

Software used in this project is STAAD Prov8i.

Project has indeed widened our perspective and acquainted us on how to perceive and

counteract the worst possible difficulties regarding the analysis and design of five storied

structures. This project work has mainly focused towards the structural analysis and

design only. Nevertheless, the attempts have been made in the architectural planning and

for the presentation of the analysis and design results in the tabular form with necessary

drawing and details. The principle and methodology applied while analyzing and

designing the five storey frame structure in this project is universally valid for any type of

the framed structures of five storied in peri – urban areas of Kathmandu valley. A

constant painstaking study and devotion to the work by the project group couple with the

valuable guidance of the advisor made it possible in bringing up the project work to this

level.

The purpose of the project, through purely academic oriented, we had made every effort

to make it feasible for the real construction of the site.

Finally, we will consider our project report as successful if it process to be useful to the

junior students or other designers. We hope that project work will prove much useful to

us in our career.

92

BIBLIOGRAPHY AND REFERENCES

1. Jain, A.K, "Reinforced concrete (Limit State Design) ", Nemchand and Bros, 5th

Edition 1990

2. Ramamrutham, S., “Design of Reinforced Concrete Structure”, DhanpatRai Publishing

Company, 11th Edition 1989

3. Varghese, P, C. "Limit State design of reinforced concrete", Princeton Hall of India

1996

4. Sinha, S. N., "Reinforced Concrete design", Tata McGraw - Hill, 2nd Edition 1996

5. Reddy, C S, “Basic Structural Analysis”, Tata McGraw – Hill, 3rd Edition 2011

6. I. S 875 (part - I) 1987, Code of practice for design loads (other than Earthquake) for

building and structures, dead loads

7. I.S 875 (part 2nd) 1987, code of practice for design loads (other than Earthquake) for

the building and structures, Dead loads.

8. I.S 1893- 1975 Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of structures.

Engineering.

10. Design Aids for RCC to I.S 456-1978, SP 16:1980

11. I.S. 456-2000 Indian Standard plain and RC code of practice (fourth revision)

APPENDICES

Contents

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ Error! Bookmark not defined.

1.1 BACKGROUND ................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.

1.2 OBJECTIVE.......................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.

1.3 RATIONALE OF THE PROPOSED PROJECT .... Error! Bookmark not defined.

1.4 DESCRIPTION OF THE PROPOSED PROJECT . Error! Bookmark not defined.

1.5 BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE PLAN ................ Error! Bookmark not defined.

1.6 SCOPE OF THE PROJECT................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.

CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ..................... Error! Bookmark not defined.

2.1 GENERAL ............................................................ Error! Bookmark not defined.

2.2 TYPES OF BUILDING ......................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.

2.3 COMPONENTS OF BUILDING ........................... Error! Bookmark not defined.

CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY ............................... Error! Bookmark not defined.

3.1 LOAD CALCULATION ....................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.

3.2 PRELIMINARY DESIGN ..................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.

3.3 LOADING PATTERNS ........................................ Error! Bookmark not defined.

3.4 ANALYSIS ........................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.

3.5 METHODS AND TOOLS FOR ANALYSIS ........ Error! Bookmark not defined.

3.6 DATA ................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.

3.7 DESIGN METHOD............................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.

CHAPTER 4 PRELIMINARY DESIGN .................... Error! Bookmark not defined.

4.1 PRELIMINARY DESIGN OF SLAB .................... Error! Bookmark not defined.

4.2. PRELIMINARY DESIGN OF BEAM .................. Error! Bookmark not defined.

4.3 LOAD DESCRIPTION ......................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.

4.3.1 Dead load (DL) ............................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.

4.3.2 Live Load (LL) ............................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.

4.4 VERTICAL LOAD CALCULATION ................... Error! Bookmark not defined.

4.4.1. Load calculation for roof slab above staircase Error! Bookmark not defined.

4.4.2. Load calculation for roof slab terrace ............. Error! Bookmark not defined.

4.4.3. Load calculation for intermediate slab (1, 2, 3 & 4)Error! Bookmark not

defined.

4.4.4. Load calculation for slab S3 ........................... Error! Bookmark not defined.

4.4.5. Load calculation for projection slab................ Error! Bookmark not defined.

4.4.6. Load calculation for verandah slab ................. Error! Bookmark not defined.

4.5 PRELIMINARY DESIGN OF CRITICAL COLUMNError! Bookmark not

defined.

4.5.1 Dead load calculation ...................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.

4.5.2 Load Calculation ............................................. Error! Bookmark not defined.

CHAPTER 5 LATERAL ANALYSIS ........................ Error! Bookmark not defined.

5.1 INTRODUCTION TO LATERAL LOAD ............. Error! Bookmark not defined.

5.2 CALCULATION OF SELF-WEIGHT OF ELEMENTSError! Bookmark not

defined.

5.2.1 Self-weight of beam ........................................ Error! Bookmark not defined.

5.2.2 Self-weight of tie beam ................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.

5.2.3 Self-weight of column ..................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.

5.2.4 Self-weight of brick wall ................................. Error! Bookmark not defined.

5.3 LUMP MASS CALCULATION ............................ Error! Bookmark not defined.

5.3.1 Lumped load of slab ........................................ Error! Bookmark not defined.

5.3.2 Lumped load of beam ................................................................................... 23

5.3.3 Lumped load of column ................................................................................ 24

5.3.4 Lumped load of wall ..................................................................................... 24

5.3.5 Lump load of staircase .................................................................................. 25

5.4 DETERMINATION OF BASE SHEAR .............................................................. 25

5.4.1 Calculation of lateral forces and shear at storey ............................................. 28

5.4.2 Calculation of nodal mass applied force ........................................................ 28

5.5 LOAD COMBINATION ..................................................................................... 30

CHAPTER 6 STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS .............................................................. 31

6.1 SALIENT FEATURE OF STAAD PRO .............................................................. 31

6.2 INPUT AND OUTPUT ....................................................................................... 31

6.3 METHODOLOGY OF ANALYSIS .................................................................... 31

CHAPTER 7 STRUCTURAL DESIGN ................................................................... 33

7.1 LIMIT STATE METHOD ................................................................................... 33

7.2 SLAB .................................................................................................................. 34

7.3 DESIGN OF SLAB (1st, 2nd, 3rd& 4th floor slab) .................................................. 36

7.4 DESIGN OF BEAM ............................................................................................ 56

7.5 DESIGN OF RAFT FOUNDATION ................................................................... 76

7.6 Column.................................................................................................................... 82

7.7 DESIGN OF STAIRCASE .................................................................................. 84

CHAPTER 8 CONCLUSION .................................................................................. 92

BIBLIOGRAPHY AND REFERENCES

APPENDICES

- Design Slab,beam,girder,column & Footings of a 90ft X 60ftTransféré parSabah Qureshi
- PRACTICE PROBLEMS 1 IN STEEL DESIGNTransféré parJejo Duqz
- Design of Continuous Beam and Slab Footing using BS 8110-1:1997Transféré parUbani Obinna Ranks
- Example on Design of Timber Structure part2Transféré parNur Syazana
- chapter 6 Beam StressesTransféré parzaid
- Design of Tallapudi Bus ShelterTransféré parD.V.Srinivasa Rao
- Equivalent Frame MethodTransféré parMarlo Aristorenas
- AbstractTransféré parSyed Azeem
- FrameTransféré parnatasha
- Instructional Guide in CE 513Transféré parHarold Taylor
- Deck SlabTransféré parFarid Tata
- Composite 1Transféré parNermin Özgür
- Chapter 23Transféré parRoth Chanraksmey
- RC17_Column01Transféré parAnju Kl
- 0958 S-VITransféré parantoni999
- Introduction to Machine Design_EDITEDTransféré parVenkatesh Gangadhar
- Std_TutorTransféré parA. D. Prasad
- New Text DocumentTransféré parUday Udmale
- The Effect of Differential Settlement of Supports on a Large Steel Framed Boiler Supporting StructureTransféré parAbel Dem
- Lateral Load Resisting SystemsTransféré parMathumai
- What is Mean by Coupling Beam _ _ Unsolved-EngineeringTransféré parআকাশআহসান
- RCD VAREITYTransféré parRizpah
- ddm by MIaTransféré parMohammed
- SJ_Jan._2018_V._115_No._01Transféré parনীল জোছনা
- 07 Ductile Detailing RC BuildingsTransféré parManju Birje
- Q1 - BASICTransféré parMac Ky
- final 06-08-017.1 - CopyTransféré parABDIRAHMAN
- Analysis and Design of Four Storied RC BTransféré parSunil Nepal
- LA Clark BS5400.pdfTransféré parTan Ching
- Design of Steel and Structure McqsTransféré parKailash Chaudhary

- Annex D.docTransféré parRajib Maharjan
- Truss Bottom DeflectionTransféré parRajib Maharjan
- Sittruss topstrengthTransféré parRajib Maharjan
- Deck deflTransféré parRajib Maharjan
- Top Chord DeflectionTransféré parRajib Maharjan
- ColTransféré parRajib Maharjan
- Truss MemebersTransféré parRajib Maharjan
- PlinthTransféré parRajib Maharjan
- GF Beam DeflectionTransféré parRajib Maharjan
- Deck StrengthTransféré parRajib Maharjan
- Pukar ReportTransféré parRajib Maharjan
- Abdul Halim MohamiTransféré parRajib Maharjan
- Estimate_of_Materialand_Labor.xlsTransféré parCristi Han
- DEp reportTransféré parRajib Maharjan
- Stairs.docxTransféré parRajib Maharjan
- NBC208-Sanitary and Plumbing Requirements.pdfTransféré parAsif Mostafa Anik
- Water Usage CalculatorTransféré parNelson Vargas
- Seismic- Response Spectrum MethodTransféré parRajib Maharjan
- shyam 1-1.PDFTransféré parRajib Maharjan
- Soil Mechanics Das,2002Transféré parElyes Mohamed
- Estimate Cost StructuresTransféré parRajib Maharjan
- DrawingsTransféré parRajib Maharjan
- Hydrological DataTransféré parRajib Maharjan
- Benefit Eco AnalysisTransféré parRajib Maharjan

- Design Criteria MechanicalTransféré parNoushad P Hamsa
- Afstuderen - Tussencolloquium presentatieTransféré parDaniel Tulp
- Butler Building SystemsTransféré pararthurinn
- stud_2013_web_rv.pdfTransféré parYeethong Goh
- 2541638_2251_TDS_blakite_ENGTransféré pardidapopescu
- Precast Concrete Cores in High-rise BuildingsTransféré parmaci8989
- WindsorTransféré parVladimir Đorđević
- List of British StandardsTransféré parIzzadAfif1990
- Design of Purlins Revised-2005Transféré parRamachandra Sahu
- Kemper Arena Roof CollapseTransféré parKanchana Randall
- Boon Lay ViewTransféré parThera Qong
- Steel Design - Tradeoff on Structural SystemTransféré parEmmanuel Lazo
- NSAI-CertTransféré parmdbeukel
- Steel Project (2015)Transféré parsasa
- Man HoursTransféré parRemembr Emilz
- 125084172-Case-Study-2.pdfTransféré parAjay Kumar
- INNOVATIONS IN FORMWORKTransféré parHardikchheda
- Chapter 5 Insulation Materials and TechniquesTransféré parMD Rodi Bidin
- Weather BarriersTransféré parm0172
- Low Cost Construction Technology for Cold Climate: Case Study Ladakh RegionTransféré parsapna_ghai
- 9143943200798.pdfTransféré parAnonymous a2J3o9
- pdfresizer com 2016-07-14 21-39Transféré parapi-323997841
- Controlling Cracks at Basement Envelopes - By Mamdouh HamoudaTransféré parmoamen
- Designing and Operating an Ecolodge in the Lao Pdr EnglishTransféré parGeorge Waheed
- General NotesTransféré parNicole Guillermo
- BoQ-1Transféré parshajbaby
- Paramount-buildingTransféré parTeof Valdez
- Xpower2ProductData.pdfTransféré parJapeth Masong
- Series 210-5 Specification SheetTransféré parWatts
- Deepwater Pipeline Design Rigid & FlexibleTransféré parPaul Ong

## Bien plus que des documents.

Découvrez tout ce que Scribd a à offrir, dont les livres et les livres audio des principaux éditeurs.

Annulez à tout moment.