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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The trend of getting structures analyzed scientifically for structural safety and economic
reasons is getting more and more popular nowadays. The desire to learn about such an
analysis and design has motivated us for this project, entitled “Detailed Structural
Analysis and Design of Five and a half Storey Residential Building.

We are highly indebted to the help and advice of our dedicated teachers and our helpful
friends collaborating with in the preparation of the project report. Our advisor Asst. Prof.
Ajay Khadka, Department of Civil Engineering, Nepal Engineering College, deserves our
special acknowledgement for his valuable guidance, care, expertise and devotion of time
in bringing out this report in this format in complete and concise volume. We benefited a
lot in a great deal from his logical thoughts, experience and incisive comments
We also sincerely thank all the friends directly and indirectly supporting us in bringing
out this report to its completion..
Finally, we want to express our heartily thanks to all those who directly or indirectly
provided us their cooperation in the completion of this project.
PREFACE

This project work is a mandatory part of B.E Civil final semester curriculum. Our project
group has chosen to do analysis and design of Reinforced Concrete framed building under
the guidance of our dedicated teacher Asst. Prof. Ajay Khadka.
Among the two category of building structure, via, load bearing and framed structures,
here, in the project work the building frame structure is practiced. Building frame is a
three dimensional structure as space consist of rigidly interconnected beams, slabs and
columns. It produces greater number of the redundancy thus reduces the moments and
facilitates the even distribution of the load.
The degree of sophistication to which structural analysis is carried out depends on the
importance of structure and available resource.
A highly redundant space structure is splited into different 3D frames and is then
analyzed by using the help of STAAD Pro software. Though the vivid use of computer
software has lessened the burden of repeated calculations on analysis, it is clear that for
understanding the process physically and realizing the structural behavior, manual step by
step procedure is necessary. However, due to time constrain and to be familiar with
computer software, the structural analysis part is performed using computer software
“STAAD Pro.” and design work is performed manually with reference to different codes
of practice.

Though every care has been taken to make the report free from errors, yet we shall be
obliged, if errors present shall be brought to our notice. We will warmly welcome
constructive criticism
List of Abbreviations

Symbols Description
Ac : Areaof concrete
Ag : Gross sectional area
Ast : Areaof tensile steel
Asc : Area of compression steel
Asv : Area of vertical stirrups
b : width of beam or shorter dimensions of column
bf : Effective width of flange in a T-beam
bw : breadth of web in T-beam
D : effective depth of beam or slab
emin : minimum eccentricity
fck : characteristic compressive strength of concrete
fsc : compressive stress in steel corresponding to strain of 0.002
fst : tensile stress in steel
fy : characteristic yield strength of steel
Ld : development length of bar
L : length of column or span of beam
Lo : anchorage length of bar
lo : distance between points of zero moments
Leff : effective length of beam or column or slab
Mu : factored design moment
Mlim : limiting moment of resistance
Mux : factored design moment along x-x axis
Muy : factored design moment along y-y axis
Muxl : maximum uniaxial moment capacity of the section with axial
load, bending about x – x axis
Muyl : maximum uniaxial moment capacity of the section with axial
load, bending about y –y axis
Mi : moment of inertia of the section
M : modular ratio
P : Axial load
Pu : factored design axial load
p : percentage of reinforcement
pc : percentage of compression reinforcement
pt : percentage of tension reinforcement
Sv : spacing of vertical stirrups
V : shear force
Vu : factored shear force
Xu : depth of neutral axis at the limit state of collapse
Xumax : maximum depth of neutral axis
Z : lever arm
abc : permissible stress in concrete in bending compression
sc : permissible stress in steel in compression
st : permissible stress in steel in tension
v : nominal shear stress in concrete with shear reinforcement
bd : design bond stress
cmax : maximum shear stress in concrete with shear reinforcement
 : Diameter of tor steel bar
Ast, req : required area of tensile steel
Asc, req : required area of compressive steel
Ast, pro : provided area of tensile steel
Asc, pro : provided area of compressive steel
Sv, sp16 : spacing of vertical stirrups from ductility consideration
Sv, DUC : spacing of vertical stirrups from ductility consideration
Sv, prov : provided spacing of vertical stirrups
 : unit weight of soil at site
p : safe bearing capacity of soil at site
CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND
The basics needs of human existences are food, clothing‟s and shelter. From times
immemorial man has been making efforts in improving their standard of living.
Development of economically and socially appropriate and environmentally comfortable
shelter has been priority of the people in attempt to enhancing their quality of life.
Appropriate shelter has been identified important element to lead productive and
dignified life.
Kathmandu being the capital city of Nepal is one of the densely populated cities. As it is
rapidly developing, construction of residential house is becoming costly and unaffordable
by large section of population and especially those belonging to lower economic strata.
The increase in the cost of development of a house in the city core is due essentially to
high cost of housing plots and higher labor cost. Contrary to urban areas, the development
of residential housing in the peri urban areas is largely spontaneous and has been
proceeding without much consideration of human comfort and environmental sanitation.
In the developing countries like Nepal, present situation of water scarcity, energy crisis
and challenges in waste management have becoming worse day by day and are being the
headache for people especially in the capital city Kathmandu. Growing environmental
issues have affected the construction process of residential building. So residential
building might be the better choice if constructed on peri-urban areas of Kathmandu. This
building is designed for the general case of Kathmandu valley which lies on earthquake
zone V. It indicates higher value of earthquake. Hence the effect of earthquake is pre-
dominant than the wind load. So, the building is analyzed for earthquake as lateral load.
The seismic coefficient design method as stipulated an IS 1893:2002 (Part 1) is applied to
analyze the building for earthquake. Special reinforced concrete moment resisting frame
is considered as the main in structural system of the building.
This project report has been prepared in complete conformity with various stipulations in
Indian Standards, Code of Practice for Plain and Reinforced Concrete IS 456-2000,
Design Aids for Reinforced Concrete to IS 456-2000(SP-16), Criteria Earthquake
Resistant Design Structures IS 1893-2000, Handbook on Concrete Reinforcement and
Detailing SP-34. Use of these codes have emphasized on providing sufficient safety,
economy, strength and ductility besides satisfactory serviceability requirements of
cracking and deflection in concrete structures. These codes are based on principles of
Limit State of Design. The earthquake resistant residential building possessing its own
characteristics such as rain water harvesting located in the peri-urban areas is the main
output expected in undertaking this project work.

The project methodology briefly involves:-


 Load calculation.
 Preliminary design.
• Slab
• Beam

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• Column
 Modeling in STAAD
 Detail design:
• Slab, Column, Beam, Staircase, Foundation.
• Rain water Harvesting
 Design methods:
 Limit state design.

1.2 OBJECTIVE

Concerning with the building project, every client of a designer will obviously hope the
safe and economic proposal from him. So the aim of the project is to design the safe and
economical residential building especially focusing on the peri-urban areas of Kathmandu
valley.

The overall objective of this project is to propose appropriate design of an earthquake


resistant residential building. The specific objectives of the project are as stated here
under.

 To develop plan of five storied building in which ground floor is subscribed for
mini mart & remaining floors for residential purpose.
 To analyze the static and dynamic loads on proposed building using STAADPRO.
 To perform structural analysis and design the components of the proposed
building.
 To design the residential building in peri-urban areas to minimize the rising over
crowded situation in Kathmandu city.
 To develop the self-confidence to attain the similar project in the near future as
professional and to give the client full satisfaction.

1.3 RATIONALE OF THE PROPOSED PROJECT


The proposed project has been chosen as a final year project in partial fulfillment of the
academic requirement of the degree of Bachelor of Engineering (B.E.) in Civil and Rural
Engineering. This project is focused on design of residential building keeping in mind the
growing overcrowded issues in Kathmandu city and need for developing economical
housing. This design is therefore expected to lower the dependence on the utility services
and prove to be economical over a long run.
The project is expected to enhance our knowledge and analytical skills relating to design
of residential buildings and especially the design of residential facilities in the peri-urban
areas. Upon completion of the project, this is expected to enhance our capacity to
undertake similar project independently.

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1.4 DESCRIPTION OF THE PROPOSED PROJECT
 Name of the Project : Commercial Building with Rental Housing
 Location : Mulpani
 Structure system : RCC framed structure
 No. of storey : 4 & a half storied
 Type of Slab : Two way Slab
 Type of beam : Rectangular (400*300mm)
 Type of column : Square (400*400mm)
 Type of foundation : Raft Foundation
 Type of staircase : Open well Staircase
 Method of analysis : STAAD PRO
 Design concept : Limit State Design
 Concrete grade : M20
 Reinforcement grade : Fe415
 Dead load : As per materials usage in building
 Live load : As per usage and as specified relevant code
 Seismic load : As per usage and as specified relevant code
 Topography : Plain terrain
 Floor to Floor height : 2..74m
 Plinth Area : 125.32m2
 Occupancy of the building: Ground floor used as mini mart & other
floors are residential.

1.5 BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE PLAN


The grid plan given in the adjoining page has got the following features:

Each floor having

 The different rooms having different dimensions are listed below:


 One room of dimension: 4.19m2.92m
 One room of dimension: 3.35m*3.20m
 Two rooms of dimension: 3.048m3.20m
 One room of dimension: 3.048m*4.31m
 Two Bathroom of size: 1.70m2.21m
 Six verandah of size: 1.18m4.878m
 The space for the purpose of staircase and for the storing purpose spaced with the
area of size 2.8963m3.048m in each floor.

1.6 SCOPE OF THE PROJECT


The project we selected is a part of academic course of B.E /Civil & Rural Fifth Year,
First semester designed on how to acquaint the students with complete project work from
the initial stage of analysis and design to the final working. It will provide us confidence
on how to accomplish the structural design work of a building in its entirety by strictly
adhering to the theoretical knowledge gained during academic year of B.E.

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It will improve our analytical technique to some extent that the design may become
reality, by repeated systematic analysis until the design constraints are satisfied, we will
not be benefited until our theoretical knowledge be correlated to the design works. By
designing the structure we can develop judgment, perception, imagination and creativity,
in short the ability to handle the works.

 Desk study and job formulation

 Identification of different members of the building and computation of loads.

 Project work is carried out for structural analysis, design and reinforcement
detailing of RCC framed structures

 Detailed design of each components or structural member with due consideration


to economy in both size and use of materials as well as labor cost.

 Detailing of the reinforcement of different elements of the system.

Besides, this project work that we have tried to perform does not deal with all the criteria
of the requirements of the building construction. So there are some of the criteria within
which the scope of the project work is limited which are as below:

 This project work is limited to the structural analysis and the design only.

 Design and layout of the building services like pipeline, electrical appliances,
sanitary and sewage system are not covered.

 The project is not concerned with the existing soil condition of the locality.The
bearing capacity of the soil is assumed.

 The environmental, social and economic condition of that locality is not taken into
consideration.

 The project work is related only with the practical application of the studied
courses in the field.

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CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 GENERAL
Structurally a building may consist of a load bearing walls and floors. The floor slab may
be supported on beams which in turn may be supported on walls or columns. But, for a
multistoried structure a building frame is made either in steel or a reinforcement concrete.
This frame is designed for all the vertical and horizontal loads transmitted through the
frame. The openings between the columns where necessary will be filled with thin brick
walls. A frame of this type will consist of columns and beams built monolithically
forming a network. This provides rigidity to the connection members by this arrangement
the bending moments for the members of the structures are reduced. Earthquake loads and
other horizontal loads due to winds etc. are evenly distributed to the whole structures.
This makes the structure not only safe but economical.
The tentative size of structural elements are determined through the preliminary design so
that after analysis the pre assumed dimensions might not deviate considerably, thus
making the final design both safe and economical.

2.2 TYPES OF BUILDING


Depending upon the character of occupancy or the type of use, buildings have been
classified as:

2.2.1 Residential Buildings


These building include any building in which sleeping accommodation provide for
normal residential purposes, with or without cooking and dining facilities. It includes
single or multi-family dwellings, apartment houses, lodgings or rooming houses,
restaurants, hostels, dormitories and residential hostels.

2.2.2 Educational Buildings


These include any building used for school, college or day-care purposes involving
assembly for instruction, education or recreation and which is not covered by assembly
buildings.

2.2.3 Institutional Buildings


These buildings are used for different purposes, such as medical or other treatment or care
of persons suffering from physical or mental illness, diseases or infirmity, care of infants,
convalescents or aged persons and for penal detention in which the liberty of the inmates
is restricted. Institutional buildings ordinarily provide sleeping accommodation for the
occupants.

2.2.4 Assembly Buildings

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These are the buildings where groups of people meet or gather for amusement, recreation,
social, religious, assembly halls, city halls, marriage halls, exhibition halls, museums,
places of work ship etc.

2.2.5 Business Buildings


These buildings are used for transaction of business, for keeping of accounts and records
and for similar purposes, offices, banks, professional establishments, courts houses,
libraries. The principal function of these buildings is transaction of public business and
keeping of books and records.

2.2.6 Mercantile Buildings


These buildings are used as shops, stores, market, for display and sale of merchandise
either wholesale or retail, office, shops, and storage service facilities incidental to the sale
of merchandise and located in the same building.

2.2.7 Industrial Buildings


These are buildings where products or materials of all kinds and properties are
fabrication, assembled, manufactured or processed, as assembly plant, laboratories, dry
cleaning plants, power plants, pumping stations, smoke houses, laundries etc.

2.2.8 Storage Buildings


These buildings are used primarily for the storage or sheltering of goods, wares or
merchandise vehicles and animals, as warehouses, cold storage, garages, trucks.

2.2.9 Hazardous Buildings


These buildings are used for the storage, handling, manufacture or processing of highly
combustible or explosive materials or products which are liable to burn with extreme
rapidly and/or which may produce poisonous elements for storage handling, acids or
other liquids or chemicals producing flames, fumes and explosive, poisonous, irritant or
corrosive gases processing of any material producing explosive mixtures of dust which
result in the division of matter into fine particles subjected to spontaneous ignition.

2.3 COMPONENTS OF BUILDING


A building can be broadly divided in two parts viz. (i) sub-structure and (ii) Super-
structure. The portion of the building below the surrounding ground is known as sub-
structure and the portion above the ground is termed as super-structure. The components
of the building can be broadly summarized as under:
i. Foundations
ii. Plinth
iii. Walls
iv. Columns

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v. Beams
vi. Slabs
vii. Doors, windows and ventilations
viii. Staircase
ix. Roof
x. Building finishes
xi. Building services

CHAPTER 3

METHODOLOGY

The project provided to us is completed performing each section works mentioned in the
contents before .The following stages are involved in the analysis and design of four
storied building.

3.1 LOAD CALCULATION


Load calculation is done using the IS 875(Part I) -1987 as reference. The exact value of
unit weights of the materials from the code is used in the calculation. The thickness of
materials is taken as per design requirements.

3.2 PRELIMINARY DESIGN


The tentative size of structural elements are determined through the preliminary design so
that after analysis the pre assumed dimensions might not deviated considerably , thus
making the final design both safe and economical . Tentative size of various elements has
been determined as follows:

3.2.1 Slab
For slab, preliminary design is done according to deflection criteria span /effective depth
= 26*modification factor.( IS456-2000 Art 23.2.1)

3.2.2 Beam
Thumb rule of 1‟-0”=0‟-1” (d=L/12 to L/15) basis is adopted to consider the preliminary
design of the beam section.
b/D=1/2

3.2.3 Column
Preliminary design of column is done consideration and interior column. For the load
acting in the column, live load is decreased according to IS 875-1978.
Cross-section of the columns are adopted considering the economy. Square column
section is adopted in this building project as per the internal aesthetic requirements.

3.2.4 Staircase

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Stairs is designed as per drawing. Column for stairs boxes is not included in the grid
system but they are assumed to be simply tied with main frame with beam.

3.3 LOADING PATTERNS


Loading pattern from slab to beam is obtained by drawing 450 offset lines from each
corners then obtained trapezoidal as well as the triangular loading and is converted into
the equivalent UDL as described in the respective sections .The loading from cantilever
slab part is converted to UDL acting in beam by dividing the total load by beam. Load
from all cantilever part is converted to UDL acting in beam by dividing total load (wall
UDL*total wall length) by length of the beam. Self-weight of the projected beam part is
assumed as point load in nearby column.

3.4 ANALYSIS
There are three types of loads for which the provided proposed project is designed:

3.4.1 Dead Load


Dead load consists of the load from each element of building i.e. weight of column, beam,
slab, and wall. Dimensions of column, beam, slab are taken from preliminary design and
corresponding density from code. For wall load thickness of wall is taken from plan.

3.4.2 Live Load


Live load is taken from relevant code. In case of different live load in one panel of slab,
highest value of load is taken for the panel.

3.4.3 Seismic Load


For seismic load whole mass lump of building is calculated from which base shear is
obtained according to code.

3.5 METHODS AND TOOLS FOR ANALYSIS


For analysis, different software are available during these days. Concerning to our project
we are using “STAAD PRO” for analysis.

3.6 DATA
3.6.1 Architectural Drawings
The architectural drawing is prepared by our group members.

3.6.2 Geo-technical Data


The project work is only for the purpose of learning. So since the soil testing is high
costing technology, we could not afford this test. For the fulfillment of this we take an
average value of the bearing capacity considering the overall/general value for it applied
in the Kathmandu valley. So the bearing capacity is assumed 120.0 KN/m2

3.6.3 Load Data


The load data is taken from the standard code of practices.

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3.7 DESIGN METHOD
Design methods available (or in use) are:

Working stress method


Ultimate load method
Limit state method

3.7.1 Limit State Method


It uses the concept of probability and based on the application of method of statistics to
the variation that occurs in practice in the loads acting on the structures or in the strength
of material.
The structures may reach a condition at which it becomes unfit for use for one of many
reasons e.g. collapse, excessive deflection, cracking, etc and each of this condition is
referred to a limit state condition. The aim of limit state design is to achieve an acceptable
probability that a structure will not become unserviceable in its life time for the use for
which it has been intended i. e it will not reach a limit state. It means structures should be
able to withstand safely all loads that are liable to act on it throughout its life and it would
satisfy the limitations of deflection and cracking. We adopt limit state method for design.

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CHAPTER 4

PRELIMINARY DESIGN

Preliminary design is carried out to estimate approximate size of the structural members
before analysis of structure. Grid diagram is the basic factor for analysis in both
Approximate and Exact method and is presented below.

4.1 PRELIMINARY DESIGN OF SLAB

Let % of steel=0.1% to 0.4%


=0.2% (assumed)

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From Art 23.2.1,(IS 456-2000)
We know, (Span/d) =αβγδλ
Where, α=26
β=1,
δ=1
λ =1
fs=N/mm2
γ=1.45

Now fot th modification factor γ for tension reinforcement


Fs = 0.58*fy*area of x section of steel required
area of x section of steel provided
=0.58*415*1
240.7 N/mm2
Now from graph of modification factor of tension reinforcement
γ =1.64
For,shortest span =2.8963 =2896.3mm
span =26*1.64 =42.640
d
Effective depth,d = span(2896)
(26*1.64)
= 67.92mm
Provide 10mmΦ bar and 15mm clear cover
Overall depth (D) =67.92+10/2+15
= 87.92mm
Adopt (D) =120 mm

4.2. PRELIMINARY DESIGN OF BEAM


The approximate size of the structural elements were determined through preliminary
design so that after analysis the preassumed dimension might not deviated considered
,thus making the find design for safe and economic purpose.Approximate size of various
element have been determined as follow:
Input data;
Grade of concrete (fck)=M20 (20N/mm2)
Gradeof steel (Fy)=Fe 415 (415N/mm2)

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Depth of beam(d)=L/10 to L/15
1. Along alphabetical grid(longest span=4.87m
Adopt length(Lc/c)=5m
(Leff)=5 m

Taking value of L/d=14


d =L/14
=5000/14
=357.14
Adopt (d)=365mm
Diameter of bar (mm)=20mm

Clear cover (mm)=25mm


D=d + Clear cover + Ǿ/2 = 400mm
2. Along Numerical grid (Longest span = 4.87)
Adopt length (Lc/c) = 5m
Leff = 5m
Take L/d = 14
d = L/14 = 357.14 mm
Adopt (d) = 365 mm
Diameter of bar (mm) = 20mm
Clear cover (mm) = 25mm
D=d + Clear Cover +Ǿ/2 = 400mm

Width of beam:
Take 1/2 to 2/3 of d
1. Along alphabetical grid (longest span = 4.87)
D = 400mm
Take b/D = 1/2
b =0.5*D = 0.5*400 = 200mm
adopt (b) =300mm

3. Along Alphabetical grid (longest span =4.87)


4. Same as above [as symmetric]
b = 300mm
D = 400mm
Hence,

Along Alphabetical grid ,

Adopt, B*D = 300*400mm

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Adopt Numerical grid,
Adopt B*D = 300*400mm

Preliminary design of Tie beam


Size of tie beam along X axis =350mm * 350mm
Size of tie beam along Y axis = 350mm * 350mm

4.3 LOAD DESCRIPTION0


4.3.1 DEAD LOAD (DL)
IS 875 (Part 1)-1987, (Second Revision)

Remark
Thick- Unit
S.N. Material Unit Page/
ness Weight
S.N.

1. Cement Concrete, Reinforced with


24.8 to
sand and gravel or crushed natural KN/m3 8-22
26.5
stone with 5 percent steel

2. Screeding /cement plaster (1:4) KN/m3 20.40 8-25

3. Cement mortar (1:4) KN/m3 20.40 8-24

4. Marble KN/m3 26.70 25-47

5. Terrazzo flooring 10mm KN/m2 0.24 26-51

6. Common burnt clay bricks masonry KN/m3 18.85 6-13

7. 100mm partition wall 100mm KN/m3 1.910 31-9

4.3.2 LIVE LOAD (LL)


IS 875 (Part 2)-1987, (Reaffirmed 1992)(Second Revision)

Remark
S.N. Description UDL Unit
Page/ S.N.

1. Room without separate storage 4.0 KN/m2 9/v(b)

2. Cafeterias & dining rooms 3.0 KN/m2 10/v(g)

3. Corridors, passage and staircases 4.0 KN/m2 10/v(j)

4. Toilets and bath rooms 2.0 KN/m2 10/v(k)

5. Roof with access provided 1.5 KN/m2 8/11

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6. Roof access not provided 0.75 KN/m2 8/11

4.4 VERTICAL LOAD CALCULATION

4.4.1. LOAD CALCULATION FOR ROOF SLAB ABOVE STAIRCASE

S.N Dead Load Unit load(KN/m²)


1. Water tank (8000 liters) 80 kN/(3.04*2.89)=9.10
2. 25 mm thick screeding (1:4) 20.40*25/1000=0.51
3. 140 mm thick rcc slab 25*140/1000=3.5
4. 12.5mm thick cement plaster 20.40*12.5/1000=0.255
Total Dead Load = 13.365 KN/M2

Live load (access provided) = 1.5 KN/ M2

4.4.2. LOAD CALCULATION FOR ROOF SLAB TERRACE

S.N Dead Load Unit load


1. 25 mm thick screeding (1:4) 20.40*25/1000=0.51
2. 140 mm thick rcc slab 25*140/1000=3.5
3. 12.5mm thick cement plaster 20.40*12.5/1000=0.255
Total Dead Load = 4.265 KN/M2
Live load (access provided) = 1.5 KN/ M2

4.4.3. LOAD CALCULATION FOR INTERMEDIATE SLAB (1, 2 & 3)

S.N Dead Load Unit load


1. 110 mm thick partition wall 1.910*110/1000=2.101
2. 25 mm thick screeding (1:4) 20.40*25/1000=0.51
3. 140 mm thick rcc slab 25*140/1000=3.5
4. 12.5mm thick cement plaster 20.40*12.5/1000=0.255
5. 25mm thick marble 26.7*25/1000=0.668
Total Dead Load = 6.876 KN/M2
Live load = 2 KN/M2

4.4.4. LOAD CALCULATION FOR SLAB S4

S.N Dead Load Unit load


1. 110mm thick partition wall 1.910*110/1000=2.101
2. 25 mm thick screeding (1:4) 20.40*25/1000=0.51
3. 140 mm thick rcc slab 25*140/1000=3.5

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4. 25mm thick marble 26.7*25/1000= 0.668
5. 12.5mm thick cement plaster 20.40*12.5/1000=0.255
Total Dead Load = 6.932 KN/M2
Live load = 2 KN/M2

4.4.5. LOAD CALCULATION FOR PROJECTION SLAB

S.N Dead Load Unit load


1. 3 mm thick cement punning 20.4*3/1000=0.061
2. 25 mm thick screeding (1:4) 20.40*25/1000=0.51
3. 140 mm thick rcc slab 25*140/1000=3.5
4. 12.5mm thick cement plaster 20.40*12.5/1000=0.255

Total Dead Load = 4.326 KN/M2


Live load =0.75 KN/ M2

4.4.6. LOAD CALCULATION FOR VERANDAH SLAB

S.N Dead Load Unit load


1. 3 mm thick cement punning 20.4*3/1000=0.061
2. 25 mm thick screeding (1:4) 20.40*25/1000=0.51
3. 140 mm thick rcc slab 25*140/1000=3.5
4. 12.5mm thick cement plaster 20.40*12.5/1000=0.255
5. 110 mm parapet wall 18.85*110/1000=2.07
Total Dead Load = 6.427 KN/M2
Live load = 1.5 KN/ M2

Unit load of different slab for different floors

(1) For roof slab above staircase


Overall depth = 140mm
(a) Dead Load = 13.365 kN/m2

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(b) Live Load = 1.5 KN/m2

(2) For roof floor slab


Overall depth = 140mm

(a) Dead Load = 4.265 kN/m2


(b) Live Load = 1.5 KN/m2

(3) For intermediate floor slab


Overall depth = 140mm
(a) Dead Load = 6.876 kN/m2

(b) Live Load 2 KN/m2

(4) For slab S3


Overall depth = 140mm
(a) Dead Load = 6.932 kN/m2
(b) Live Load =2 KN/m2

(5) For projection slab


Overall depth = 140mm

(6 )Roof slab above staircase


(a) Dead Load = 4.326 kN/m2

(b) Live Load =0.75 KN/m2

(7) Roof slab


(a) Dead Load = 6.427 kN/m2
(b) Live Load = 1.5 KN/m2

16
4.5 PRELIMINARY DESIGN OF CRITICAL COLUMN

Column B3 as a critical column


Column size = 0.4m * 0.4m
Size of beam along x direction =0.3*0.4
Size of beam along y direction = 0.3*0.4
Floor to floor height = 2.74 m

Ground floor height = 3.048 m


Foundation depth = 2 m (assumed)
Thickness of cement plaster = 0.0125m
Height of column = (2.74-0.14)*5 + 2 + 0.457
=15.457m

4.5.1 DEAD LOAD CALCULATION

CALCULATION OF SELF WEIGHT OF ELEMENTS TO DESIGN CRITICAL


COLUMN
(A) Loading due to beam

17
(a) Self-load of beam
Along (B-B):-
(3.96-0.4)*(0.4-0.14)*0.3*25 = 6.942 KN
Along (3-3):-

(3.89-0.4)*(0.4-0.14)*0.3*25 = 6.805 KN
(b) Using 12.5 mm plaster
Along (B-B):-
((3.96-0.4)*0.0125*((0.4-0.14)*2+ 0.3))*20.4
=0.744 KN
Along (3-3):-

((3.89-0.4)*0.0125*(0.4-0.14)*2+ 0.3))*20.4
=0.729 KN
Hence total load
= (6.942+6.805+0.744+0.729)
=15.22 KN
(B) Loading due to wall

Loading due to partition wall= area * 1 KN/m2


=15.4044 * 1 =15.4044KN.
(b) Using 12.5 mm plaster in both sides
Along (B-B):-
(((3.96-0.4)*0.0125*(2.74-0.4)*2)*20.4) =4.248 KN
Along (3-3):-

(((3.89-0.4)*0.0125*(2.74-0.4)*2)*20.4) =4.165KN
Hence total load of floor = 15.4044+4.248+4.165 = 233.817 KN
(C) Loading due to slab
Area * thickness *25
=15.4044*0.14*25=53.915 KN
Floor finishing = area *1
=15.4044*1 = 15.4044 KN

18
4.5.2 Load Calculation

floor Beam Wall Slab Floor Column Dead Live load


finishin load
g

Staircas - - - - - - 3.96*3.89*1.5
e cover =23.1066

Terrace 15.22 - 53.915 15.404 2.60*25=65 149.539 3.96*3.89*1.5*0.6


4 =13.86
3rd floor 15.22 23.817 53.915 15.404 2.60*25=65 173.356 3.96*3.89*2*0.8
4 =24.64
2nd floor 15.22 23.817 53.915 15.404 2.60*25=65 173.356 3.96*3.89*2*0.9
4 =27.72
1st floor 15.22 23.817 53.915 15.404 2.60*25=65 173.356 3.96*3.89*2*1
4 =30.80

Ground 15.22 - - - 2.457*25 76.645 -


floor =61.425

Total dead load=746.252 KN


Total live load=120.1266 KN
Hence grand total load = 866.3786 KN
Load factor = 1.5
Factored load = 1.5*866.3786 = 1299.567 KN
Increasing by 30% for EQ consideration,

= 1.3*1299.567
= 1689.43827 KN
Assuming % of steel (0.8% - 4 %)
Now from Sp 16 chart 25 using M20 concrete and Fe 415
Pu/Ag =13 N/mm²
Ag = 1689.43827 * 1000/13

= 129956.79 mm2
For square column
One side of column = 360.49 mm
Hence, adopt size of column 400mm * 400mm

19
CHAPTER 5 LATERAL ANALYSIS

5.1 INTRODUCTION TO LATERAL LOAD


Seismic weight is the total dead load plus appropriate amount of specified imposed load.
While computing the seismic load weight of each floor, the weight of columns and walls
in any story shall be equally distributed to the floors above and below the storey. The
seismic weight of the whole building is the sum of the seismic weights of all the floors. It
has been calculated according to IS: 1893(Part I) – 2002.
IS: 1893(Part I) – 2002 states that for the calculation of the design seismic forces
of the structure the imposed load on roof need not be considered.

5.2 CALCULATION OF SELF-WEIGHT OF ELEMENTS

5.2.1 SELF-WEIGHT OF BEAM


(a) Along X-X direction
Size of beam = 300*400
Slab thickness = 140mm
Self-weight of beam = (0.4-0.14)*0.3*25
=1.95KN/M
(b) Along Y-Y direction
= 1.95 KN/M

5.2.2 SELF-WEIGHT OF TIE BEAM


For 1m span tie beam
= (0.4*0.3) * 25
= 3 KN/M

5.2.3 SELF-WEIGHT OF COLUMN


Size of column = 0.4 *0.4
Let us take unit length of column 1m
Dead load on column = 0.4*0.4*25 = 4 KN/M

5.2.4 SELF-WEIGHT OF BRICK WALL


(a) Partition wall (110mm thick)
Along X-X
Height = (2.74-0.4) = 2.34 m
Dead load of wall = 0.11*2.34*18.85 = 4.851 KN/M
Using 12.5 mm plaster on both sides,
= 2*2.34*0.0125*20.4
= 1.1934 KN/M
Total dead load = (4.815+ 1.193) = 6.04 KN/M
Assuming 30 % openings,
=6.04*0.7 = 4.23 KN/M
(b) Parapet walls (110 mm thick & 600mm height)
Dead load of brick wall = 0.11 *0.6*18.85
= 1.244 KN/M
12.5mm thick 2 side plaster = 0.0125*20.40*2*0.6
=0.30KN/M

20
12.5 mm thick plaster at coping = (0.23*0.0125+0.075*0.0125*2)+(0.06*0.0125*2)*20.4
= 0.127KN/M

Total load = 1.244+0.3+0.1275 = 1.6715 KN/M


(c) Main outside brick wall (230mm thick)
(i) Along X-X direction = 2.74-0.4 = 2.34m
Dead load of wall = 2.34*0.23*18.85 = 10.14 KN/M
Using 12.5mm plaster on both sides of wall
= 0.0125*20.4*2*2.34 = 1.1934KN/M
Total dead load = (10.14+1.1934)KN/M=11.3334KN/m
Assuming 30 % openings
Then total dead load =0.7* 11.3334 = 7.93338 KN/M
(ii) Along Y-Y direction
Dead load of wall = 2.34*0.23*18.85 = 10.145KN/M
Using 12.5mm plaster on both sides of wall
= 0.0125*20.4*2*2.34 = 1.1934KN/M
Total dead load = (10.145+1.1934)KN/M=11.3334KN/M
Assuming 30 % openings
Then total dead load =0.7* 11.3334 = 7.93338 KN/M

5.3 LUMP MASS CALCULATION

5.3.1 LUMPED LOAD OF SLAB

As per Art. IS 1893-1984, Clause 4.1


The earthquake force shall be calculated for the full dead load plus the percentage of imposed
Load as given below.

% of imposed
SN Imposed Uniformly Distributed Floor loads (KN/m2) load
1 Up to and including 3.0 25
2 Above 3.0 50

21
For calculating the design seismic force of the structure, the imposed load on the roof need not
To be considered.

No U.L.(KN/m2) Load in KN Total


Load due Area of DL+LL load of
Floor
to (m2) Sla (KN) slab
b DL LL DL LL (KN)
13.3.6 1.5
8.8299 1 118.011 13.244 131.255
Cover slab 5 0
Above Projection 1.5 147.174
1.3236 1 4.326 5.7258 0.992 6.7178
staircase slab(x) 0 8
Projection
1.8123 1 4.326 1.5 7.843 1.359 9.202
slab(y)
Slab S1 8.8299 3 4.265 1.5 112.97 39.734 152.704
Slab S2 14.128 2 4.265 1.5 120.513 42.384 162.894
Slab S3 14.87 2 4.265 1.5 126.854 44.614 171.468
Roof 23.794 746.581
1 4.265 1.5 101.485
floor Slab S4 8 35.69 137.175 3
Projection 13.186
1 4.326 1.5 57.044
slab(X) 4 9.889 66.933
Projection 10.915
1 4.326 1.5 47.22 8.186 55.4065
Slab(Y) 4
Slab S1 8.8299 3 6.876 2 182.14 52.979 235.122
14.428 250.803
2 6.876 2 194.291 56.512
Slab S2 2 8
14.871 204.513 59.486
2 6.876 2 263.999
Slab S3 5 5 2
Slab S4 23.794 1 6.932 2 164.946 47.589 212.536
1st,2nd, Verandah
6.568 1 6.427 1.5 42.21 9.852 52.062 1111.25
3rd & (X)
06
4th floor Verandah
2.7102 1 6.427 1.5 17.418 4.0653 29.4833
(Y)
Projection
6.6184 1 4.326 1.5 28.6311 4.9638 33.5949
Slab(X)
Projection
8.2052 1 4.326 1.5 35.495 6.1583 41.648
slab(Y)

22
5.3.2 LUMPED LOAD OF BEAM
Self-weight = 1.95KN/M

Self-weight of tie beam = 3KN/M

S.N floor Span of No.of Load of Total load Total load in a


beam beam beam floor (KN)

1. staircase 4.878(X) 2 9.5121 19.0242


30.9122
3.048(Y) 2 5.944 11.888

2. Roof floor 2.8963(X) 8 5.6477 45.1816

8 5.944 47.552
3.0487(Y) 168.830
4 9.5121 38.0484
4.878(X)

4.878(Y) 4 9.5121 38.0484

3. Intermediate- 2.8963(X) 8 5.6477 45.1816


floors (1st,
nd rd
2 &3 ) 3.0487(Y) 8 5.944 47.552
168.8304
4.878(X) 4 9.5121 38.0484

4.878(Y) 4 9.5121 38.0484

4. Tie beam 2.8963(X) 8 8.688 69.5112

3.0487(Y) 8 9.1461 73.1688 259.3752

4.878(X) 4 14.634 58.536

4.878(Y) 4 14.634 58.536

23
5.3.3 LUMPED LOAD OF COLUMN

S.N Floor Weight of column Total load (KN)


Above the slab Below the slab
1 Stair cover 0 - 41.6
2 Roof cover 41.6 124.8 166.4
3 3rd cover 124.8 124.8 249.6
4 2nd cover 124.8 124.8 249.6
5 1st cover 124.8 124.8 249.6
6 Ground floor 124.8 29.248 154.048

5.3.4 LUMPED LOAD OF WALL


a) On above staircase wall: no parapet wall
b) Roof floor
i. parapet wall

Along long wall (X-X direction) =[ (2.8963*3)+(4.878*2)]*1.67 = 30.8029KN


Along short wall (Y-Y direction) = [(3.0487*30 +(4.878*2)*1.67= 31.5665KN
Total =62.3694KN
ii. Wall (230 mm thick)
Along long wall (X-X direction)= [(2.8963-0.4)*2*7.93338]= 39.6 KN
Along short wall (Y-Y direction) = [(3.0487-0.4)*2*7.93338=42.0 KN

Total = 81.6 KN
c) Intermediate floor
i) Outside wall (230 mm thick)
Along X-X direction = [(2.8963*3-0.4*3)+(4.878*2-0.4*2)]*7.93338+10.067
= 247.4567 KN
Along Y-Y direction = [(3.0487*4-0.4*4)+(4.878*2-0.4*2)]*7.93338= 155.1039KN

ii) Inside wall (partition wall 0.11m)


Along X-X direction = [(2.8963-0.4)*4+(4.878-0.4)*2+2.2865+1.70223]*4.23
= 96.9936 KN
Along Y-Y direction = [(3.0487-0.4)*2+(3.1087*2)+(4.8780-0.4)+1.5243 = 74.0973 KN

iii) Verandah (parapet wall)


Along X-X direction= 6.2245*1.67=10.395 KN

24
Along Y-Y direction= 3.633*1.67= 6.067 KN
Therefore, Grand total =590.09 KN
d) Ground floor
Outside wall (230 mm)

Along X-X direction = [(11.0264-4*0.4)*2]*7.93338= 149.566KN


Along Y-Y direction = [(11.0264-4*0.4)*2]*7.93338= 154.4042 KN
e)Inside wall
Along X-X(0.11m) =[(2.8963-0.4)+ 3.766]*4.23=26.49
Along X-X(0.23m) =[0.366+0.366+2.8963-0.4]*7.93338=25.61
Along Y-Y = [(3.0487 + 0.4)*2*4.568=29.176 KN

5.3.5 LUMP LOAD OF STAIRCASE


(i) Staircase inclined slab
= 0.31 *1.06* 0.15 * 16 * 25
= 19.716 KN

(ii) For steps


= ½ * 0.17 * 0.26* 1.06* 25 * 16
= 10.8 KN
(iii) For landing
= 2*1.06*1.06*0.15*25
= 8.427 KN

(iv)For the slab between step to column


= 3.048* 0.7077 * 0.15 *25
= 5.8043 KN
Therefore, total lump mass = 19.716+9.37+8.427+5.8043
= 43.3173 KN

5.4 DETERMINATION OF BASE SHEAR


According to IS 1893 (Part I): 2002 Cl. No. 6.4.2 the design horizontal seismic coefficient
Ah for a structure shall be determined by the following expression:

25
Z I Sa
Ah 
2R g
Where,
Z = Zone factor given by IS 1893 (Part I): 2002 Table 2, Here for Zone V,
Z = 0.36
I = Importance Factor, I = 1.5 (being similar to community building)
R = Response reduction factor given by IS 1893 (Part I): 2002 Table 7,
R = 5.0
Sa/g = Average response acceleration coefficient which depends on
Fundamental natural period of vibration (T a).
According to IS 1893 (Part I): 2002 Cl. No. 7.4.2

0.09 h
Ta 
d
Where,
h = height of building in m, h = 14.157 m
d = Base dimension of the building at the plinth level in m
along the considered direction of the lateral force.

Along X-axis;
d = 10.67m

0.09 x 14.157
Ta x   0.39 sec
10.67

For Ta = 0.39 sec and medium type of soil; Sa/g = 2.5

Now,
0.36 x 1 x 2.5
Ah x   0.09
2 x5

Along Y-axis;
d = 10.97 m

0.09 x 14.157
Ta y   0.384 sec
10.97

26
Now,
0.36 x 1x 2.5
Ah y   0.09
2 x5

According to IS 1893 (Part I) : 2002 Cl. No. 7.5.3 the total design lateral force or
design seismic base shear (VB) along any principle direction is given by

VB = Ah x W

Where, W = Seismic weight of the building = 9059.2498 KN


The total design base shear along X- direction;

(VB)X = 0.09*9059.2498
= 815.332 KN

The total design base shear along Y- direction;


(VB)Y = 0.09*9053.2498
= 815.332 KN

According to IS 1893 (Part I): 2002 Cl. No. 7.7.1 the design base shear (VB)
computed above shall be distributed along the height of the building as per the following
expression:
Wi h i2
Qi  VB n
 Wj h 2j
j1

Where,
Qi = Design lateral force at floor i
Wi = Seismic weight of floor i
hi = Height of floor I measured from base
n = No. of storeys in the building

27
5.4.1 CALCULATION OF LATERAL FORCES AND SHEAR AT STOREY

(VB)X = 815.2498 KN
(VB)Y = 815.2498 KN
Wi*hi2 Qi Cumulative
SN STOREY
hi (m) Wi (KN) (KNm2) (KN) Qi (KN)
Staircase
1 cover 14.157 242.07 48515.9668 76.14 76.14
2 Roof Floor 11.417 1554.27 202595.8134 317.982 394.122
3 3rd Floor 8.677 2221.2317 167237.2655 262.4861 656.6081
4 2nd Floor 5.937 2221.2317 78293.9061 122.8856 779.4937
5 1st Floor 3.197 2221.2317 22702.78 35.63299 815.1266
6 Tie Beam 0.457 599.214 125.1452 0.196 815.332

Total Wi = 9059.2498 KN
Total (Wi*hi2) =519470 KN

5.4.2 CALCULATION OF NODAL MASS APPLIED FORCE

LATERAL ALONG X- ALONG Y-


SN FLOOR
FORCE (KN) DIRECTION DIRECTION
1 Staircase cover 76.14 38.07 55.093
2 Roof Floor 317.982 79.4955 79.4955
3 3rd Floor 262.4861 65.621 65.621
4 2nd Floor 122.8856 30.7214 30.7214
5 1st Floor 33.63299 8.9082 8.9082
6 Tie Beam 0.196 0.049 0.049

28
29
5.5 LOAD COMBINATION

Different load cases and load combination cases are considered to obtain most critical
element stresses in the structure in the course of analysis.
There are together four load cases considered for the structural analysis and are
mentioned as below:
i.) Dead Load (D.L.)
ii.) Live Load (L.L)
iii.) Earthquake load in X-direction (EQx)
iv.) Earthquake load in Y-direction (EQy)

Following Load Combination are adopted as per IS 1893 (Part I): 2002 Cl. No. 6.3.1.2
i.) 1.5 (D.L + L.L)
ii.) 1.5 (D.L + EQx)
iii.) 1.5 (D.L - EQx)
iv.) 1.5 (D.L + EQz)
v.) 1.5 (D.L - EQz)
vi.) 1.2 (D.L + L.L + EQx)
vii.) 1.2 (D.L + L.L - EQx)
viii.) 1.2 (D.L + L.L + EQz)
ix.) 1.2 (D.L + L.L - EQz)
x.) 0.9 D.L + 1.5 E.Qx
xi.) 0.9 D.L -1.5 EQx
xii.) 0.9 D.L + 1.5 EQz
xiii.) 0.9 D.L -1.5 EQz

30
CHAPTER 6

STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

6.1 SALIENT FEATURE OF STAAD PRO


STAAD Pro is comprehensive structural engineering software that addresses all aspects
of structural engineering including model development, verification, analysis, design and
review of results. It includes advanced dynamic analysis and push over analysis for wind
load and earthquake load. Design in STAAD supports more than 10 codes. INDIAN
standard codes (Concrete and Steel) are also supported; Limit state method is used for the
design.

6.2INPUT AND OUTPUT


The design of earthquake resistant structure should aim at providing appropriate dynamic
and structural characteristics so that acceptable response level results under the design
earthquake. The aim of design is the achievement of an acceptable probability that
structures being designed will perform satisfactorily during their intended life. With an
appropriate degree of safety, they should sustain all the loads and deformations of normal
construction and use and have adequate durability and adequate resistance to the effects
of misuse and fire.
For the purpose of seismic analysis of our building we used the structural analysis
program STAAD PRO 2007. It helps in creating the real model and analyzes all the
forces acting on it. This type of modeling is very useful in the lateral dynamic analysis of
building. The base shear and earthquake lateral forces are calculated as per code IS
1893(part-I) 2002 and are applied at each master joint located on every storey of the
building.
The sample input and output are shown in annex.

6.3METHODOLOGY OF ANALYSIS
 Creating model
 Assigning material properties
 Assigning section properties
 Creating different load cases
 Creating load combination
 Analysis (pre analysis and post analysis)
 Design of column and beam

31
Fig: Isometric View

Fig: Plan view

32
CHAPTER 7

STRUCTURAL DESIGN

7.1 LIMIT STATE METHOD


In the method if design based on limit state concept, the structure shall be designed to
withstand safely all loads liable to act on it throughout its life; it shall also satisfy the
serviceability requirements, such as limitations on deflection and cracking. The
acceptable limit for the safety and serviceability requirements before failure occurs is
called a „limit state‟. The aim of design is to achieve acceptable probabilistic that the
structure will not become unfit for the use for which it is intended, that is, that it will not
reach a limit state.

Assumptions for flexural member


i) Plane sections normal to the axis of the member remain plane after bending.
ii) The maximum strain in concrete at the outermost compression fiber is 0.0035.
iii) The relationship between the compressive stress distribution in concrete and the
strain in concrete may be assumed to be rectangle, trapezoidal, parabola or any
other shape which results in prediction of strength in substantial agreement with
the result of test. For design purposes, the compressive strength of concrete in
the structure shall be assumed to be 0.67 times the characteristic strength. The
partial safety factor γm = 1.5 shall be applied in addition to this.
iv) The tensile strength of concrete is ignored.
v) The design stresses in reinforcement are derived from representative stress-
strain curve for the type of steel used. For the design purposes the partial safety
factor γm = 1.15 shall be applied.
vi) The maximum strain in the tension reinforcement in the section at failure shall
fy
not be less than:  0.002
1.15E s

Where, fy= characteristic strength of steel


Es = modulus of elasticity of steel

Assumption for compression members


In addition to the assumptions given above from i) to v), the following shall be assumed:
i.) The maximum compressive strain in concrete in axial compression is taken
as 0.002.

33
ii.) The maximum compressive strain at highly compressed extreme fiber in concrete
subjected to axial compressive and bending and when there is no tension
on the section shall be 0.0035 minus 0.75 times the strain at the least
compressed extreme fiber.
The limiting values of the depth of neutral axis for different grades of steel based
on the assumptions are as follows:

Fy xu,max/d

250 0.53

415 0.48

500 0.46

7.2 SLAB
Slabs are the most widely used structural elements forming floors and roofs of building
for supporting load normal to its surface. Slab may be simply supported or continuous
over one or more supports and is classified according to the manner of support as: one-
way slab spanning in one direction, two-way slab spanning in directions, circular slabs
and grid floor slabs resting directly on columns with no beams and grid floor and ribbed
slab. The beams supporting the slabs are considered stiff with direction relatively very
small as compared to that of slabs. Slabs supported directly on columns without beam are
known as flat slabs.
Slabs are designed using the same theory of bending and shear as are used for beams. The
following methods of analysis are available:
a) Elastic analysis-idealization into strips or beams.
b) Semi empirical coefficients as given in the code, and
c) Yield line theory.

Slabs are analyzed and designed as having a unit width that is one meter wide strips.
Compression reinforcement is used only in exceptional cases in the slab. Shear stresses
are usually very low and shear reinforcement is never provided in slabs. It is preferred to
increase the depth of a slab and hence reduce the shear stress rather than provide shear
reinforcement. Temperature reinforcement is invariably provided at the right angles to the
longitudinal reinforcement in a slab.

7.2.1 One way slab


One way slabs are supported continuously on the two opposite sides so that the loads are
carried along one direction only. The direction in which the load is carried in one way
slab is called the span. One way slabs are usually made to span in shorter direction since
the corresponding bending moment and shear forces are the least. One way slab are those
in which the length is more than twice the breadth. One way slab may be simply

34
supported can be analyzed in a manner similar to that of continuous beam. The clear
cover, minimum spacing of the reinforcement and minimum amount of reinforcement are
provided as per IS 456: 2000 CL: 26.3-26.5. Similarly curtailments of bars are provided
as per 456: 2000 CL: 26.2.3. Shear stress in slabs are generally not critical under normal
loads but should be checked in accordance with requirements set out in IS 456:2000
CL40.2. the development length is checked at same critical points as for the beams. The
check for deflection is a very important consideration in slab design. The strip of slab
may check against span to effective depth ratio as discussed in IS456:200 CL23.2.1

7.2.2 Two way slabs


When slabs are supported on four sides, two ways spanning action occurs. Such slabs
may be simply supported or continuous or any other types. The deflection and bending
moments in a two way slabs are considerably reduced as compared to those in one way
slab. In a square slab, two way actions is equal in each direction. In long narrow slabs,
when the length is greater than twice the breadth, the way action effectively reduces to
one way action In the direction of short span although the end beam do carry some slab
loads.
A two-way slab is considered to consist of a series of inter connected beams of unit width
in either direction which transfers the loads to the respective supports. The vertical
deflection of the center point, common to both beams will be same. Elastic analysis of
two way slabs may be based on these assumptions. The exact analysis of stress in such
slabs is quiet complex. These are generally designed using approximate theories, which
are known to yield satisfactory results on experimental data.
The most popular method of analysis of two way slab is „yield line theory‟. In this theory,
the strength of slab is assumed to be governed by flexure alone. The effects of shear and
deflection are to be considered separately. It is assumed that mechanism is formed in the
slab at failure. The reinforcing steel is assumed to have fully yielded along the yield line
or cracks at failure. A simplified design can be carried out in accordance with IS
456:2000 CL 24.4 or by using Annex D.

i. Simply supported slabs:


A two slab, which is simply supported at its edges, tends to lift off if supports near the
corner when loaded. Such slab is only truly simply supported slab. The values of bending
moments used for design of such slabs can be obtained as follows:

Mx = αxwlx2
My = αywlx2
Where,
Mx, My = Maximum moments at mid span on strip of unit width
Lx = Length of the shorter side
αx, αy = Moment Coefficients can be obtained from IS 456:2000 table 27.

ii. Restrained slabs

35
A slab may have its few or all edges restrained. The degree of restraints may vary
depending whether it is continuous over its supports or cast monolithically with its
supporting beams. A hogging or negative moment will develop in the top face of
the slab at the supported sides. In these slabs the corners are prevented from lifting
and provision is made for torsion. The maximum moments Mx and My at mid
span on strips of unit width for spans lx, ly are given by:
Mx= βxwlx2
My = βyw lx2
Where,
βx ,βy= moment coefficients can be obtained from table 26 of IS 456:2000 for
different arrangements of slabs.

7.3DESIGN OF SLAB (1st, 2nd, 3rd& 4th floor slab)


SLAB PANEL DESCRIPTION
S1 Two Adjacent Edges Discontinuous
S2 One Long Edge Discontinuous
S3 One Long Edge Discontinuous
S4 Interior panels
S5 (roof cover slab) One Short Edge Discontinuous

Staircase cover slab four Edges Discontinuous

As per IS 456-2000, ANNEX D, Clause D-1-1


The maximum bending moment per unit width in a slab are given by the following
equations:
Mx = xw lx2

My = yw lx2

Value of x and yare takenfrom Table 26, IS 456-2000

36
Bending co-efficient for rectangular panels supported on four sides with provision
for torsion at corners.

Types of panel and moments w Mx My


Cases lx ly Remark
considered (KN/m2) KN-m KN-m

S1

1 Negative moments at continuous edge 2.6963 2.848 5.384 5.061


14.814
Positive moments at mid span 2.6963 2.848 4.56 3.76

S2

2 Negative moments at continuous edge 2.6963 4.678 7.606 3.98


14.814
Positive moments at mid span 2.6963 4.678 6.03 3.01

S3

3 Negative moments at continuous edge 2.848 4.678 8.65 4.445


14.814
Positive moments at mid span 2.848 4.678 6.6 4.36

S4

4 Negative moments at continuous edge 4.678 4.678 9.708 9.708


13.4
Positive moments at mid span 4.678 4.678 7.28 7.28

Staircase cover slab

Positive moments at mid span 2.6963 2.848 17.61 7.71 7.2

6 Roof slab S5

37
Negative moments at continuous edge 2.848 4.678 4.98 3.26
17.61
Positive moments at mid span 2.848 4.678 4.11 2.47

Design of Slab
Slab S1
(Two adjacent edges discontinuous)
(2.8963*3.048)
Clear shorter span = 2.8963-0.3=2.5963m
Effective span (lx) = 2.8963-0.3/2-0.3/2+0.1/2+0.1/2=2.6963m
Effective span(ly) =3.048-0.3/2-0.3/2+0.1/2+0.1/2=2.848m
As per IS-456:2000 ANNEX D, the maximum bending moment per unit width in slab are
given by the following equations:
Mx=αxωlx2
My=αyωlx2

Value of αx and αy are taken from table 26 IS-456:2000, bending coefficient of


rectangular panels supported on four sides

S.N. Type of lx ly ly /lx αx αy Factored Mx My


panel and Load, ω
moment
considered
1. Negative 0.05 0.047
moment at 5.384 5.061
continuous 2.6963 2.848 1.05 14.814
edge
2. Positive 0.0377 0.035 4.56 3.76
moment at 2.6963 2.848
mid span

Determination of slab thickness

BM= 0.138fck bd2


5.384*106 =0.138*20*1000*d2
or, d =44.125mm

Adopt effective depth as 100mm


Overall depth = 120mm

Calculation of steel along short span


At support,
BM = 0.87*415*Ast{d-415Ast/(20*1000)}
5.384*106 = 0.87*415*Ast{100-415Ast/(20*1000)}
Ast = 154mm2

Hence provide 8mm υ bar @ 200mm c/c having area 251 mm2> 144mm2 (OK)

38
At the mid span,
BM = 0.87*415*Ast{d-415Ast/(20*1000)} 1
4.56*106 = 0.87*415*Ast{85-415Ast/(20*1000)}
Ast = 166mm2

Hence provide 8mm υ bar @ 200 mm c/c having area 251 mm2

Calculation of steel along longer span


d‟ = d-υ/2- υ/2
=100- 4-4
= 92mm
At support,
BM = 0.87*415*Ast{d‟-415Ast/(20*1000)}
5.061*106 = 0.87*415*Ast{92-415Ast/(20*1000)}
Ast = 158mm2

Hence provide 8mm υ bar @ 200mm c/c having area 251mm2

At the mid span,


BM = 0.87*415*Ast{d‟-415Ast/(20*1000)}
3.76*106 = 0.87*415*Ast{92-415Ast/(20*1000)}
Ast =118mm2
Hence provide 8mm υ bar @ 200mm c/c having area 251mm2

Check for minimum reinforcement

According to clause 26.5.2.1 of IS-456:2000


Ast = 0.12% of the total X-section area
= 0.12*100*1000/100
= 120mm2 < actual reinforcement provided Hence Ok

Check for spacing

As per IS-456:2000 clause 26.3.3(b)1 spacing < 3 deff or 300mm


< 3*100 or 300mm
< 360 or 300mm
Check for shear

Along short span at support edge,


Maximum shear force at face of support (Vu)=ωlx/2
= 14.814*2.6813/2
= 17.86 KN
Nominal shear stress,
τv = Vu/bd
= (17.86*103)/(1000*100)
= 0.223 N/mm2
Percentage of steel = 100Ast/bd‟
= 100*(251/2)/(1000*92)
= 0.136%

39
τc= 0.28 N/mm2
τc‟ = k τc
= 1.3*0.28
= 0.364 N/ mm2 >τc>τv Hence, ok.

Check for deflection

From clause 23.2.1, IS-456:2000


L/d= αβγδλ

α = 26
β =1
δ =1
λ =1

for modification factor

fs = 0.58fyAst required/Astprovided
= 0.58*415*166/251
= 174N/mm2

100Ast/bd = 0.24%
γ= 2

d = Lx /αβγδλ
= (2.6813*1000)/26*1*2*1*1
=55.69mm Hence, ok.

Check for development length

M1 = 0.87*415*Ast(82-415Ast/(20*1000)
= 0.87*415*125.5(82-(415*125.5)/(20*1000)
= 4.05KN-m
According to IS- 456:2000 clause 26.2.1.1

For M20 concrete, bond stress τbd = 1.2*1.6 (60% is increased for deformed bar)
= 1.92 N/mm2

Anchorage length (Lo) = 16υ


Now,
Ld ≤ 1.3*(M1/Vu)+Lo
(fs*υ)/4*τbd ≤ 1.3*(M1/Vu)+Lo
(0.87*415* υ)/4*1.92 ≤ 1.3*(4.05*106/17.86*103)+16* υ
υ ≤ 9.50 >8mm Hence ok.

Torsional Reinforcement
According to IS: 456-2000 ANNEX D(1.8 & 1.9 )
Torsional reinforcement area = 0.75*Astmaxm at midspan

40
= 0.75*251
= 188.25 mm2
Provide 8mm- υ bars – 5nos.
Ast provided = 251mm2 at one direction as torsional reinforcement.

Slab S2
(One long edge discontinuous)
2.8963*4.878
Clear shorter span = 2.8963-0.3=2.6963
Effective span (lx) = 2.8963-0.3+0.1=2.6963m
Effective span(ly) =4.878-0.3+0.1=4.678m
As per IS-456:2000 ANNEX D, the maximum bending moment per unit width in slab are
given by the following equations:
Mx=αxωlx2
My=αyωlx2

Value of αx and αy are taken from table 26 IS-456:2000, bending coefficient of


rectangular panels supported on four sides

S.N. Type of lx ly ly /lx αx αy Factored Mx My


panel and Load, ω
moment
considered
1. Negative 0.07412 0.037 7.606 3.98
moment at
continuous 2.6963 4.678 1. 78 14.814
edge
2. Positive 0.056 0.028 6.03 3.01
moment at 2.6963 4.678
mid span

Determination of slab thickness

BM= 0.138fck bd2


7.606*106 =0.138*20*1000*d2
or, d = 52.49 mm

Adopt effective depth as 100mm


Overall depth = 120mm

Calculation of steel along short span


At support,
BM = 0.87fy*415*Ast{d-415Ast/(20*1000)}
7.606*106 = 0.87fy*415*Ast{100-415Ast/(20*1000)}
Ast = 220.84 mm2

Hence provide 8mm υ bar @ 150mm c/c having area 335 mm2> 144mm2 (OK)

41
At the mid span,
BM = 0.87fy*415*Ast{d-415Ast/(20*1000)}
6.03*106 = 0.87fy*415*Ast{100-415Ast/(20*1000)}
Ast = 173.24mm2
Hence provide 8mm υ bar @ 150 mm c/c having area 335 mm2 > 144mm2 (OK)
Calculation of steel along longer span
d‟ = d-υ/2- υ/2
= 100- 4-4
= 92mm
At support,
BM = 0.87fy*415*Ast{d‟-415Ast/(20*1000)}
3.98*106 = 0.87fy*415*Ast{92-415Ast/(20*1000)}
Ast = 123.22mm2

Hence provide 8mm υ bar @ 160mm c/c having area 314 mm2> 144mm2 (OK)

At the mid span,


BM = 0.87fy*415*Ast{d‟-415Ast/(20*1000)}
3.01*106 = 0.87fy*415*Ast{92-415Ast/(20*1000)}
Ast =92.54mm2
Hence provide 8mm υ bar @ 160 mm c/c having area 314mm2> 144mm2 (OK)

Check for minimum reinforcement

According to clause 26.5.2.1 of IS-456:2000


Ast = 0.12% of the total X-section area
= 0.12*120*1000/100
= 144mm2 < actual reinforcement provided Hence ok.

Check for spacing

As per IS-456:2000 clause 26.3.3(b) 1 spacing < 3 deff or 300mm


< 3*120 or 300mm
< 360 or 300mm
Check for shear

Along short span at support edge,


Maximum shear force at face of support (Vu)=ωlx/2
= 14.814*2.6963/2
= 19.97 KN
Nominal shear stress,
τv = Vu/bd
= (19.97*103)/(1000*100)
= 0.20 N/mm2
Percentage of steel = 100Ast/bd‟
= 100*157/(1000*92)
= 0.17%
2
τc = 0.28 N/mm
τc‟= k τc

42
= 1.3*0.28
= 0.364 N/ mm2 >τc>τv Hence ok.

Check for deflection

From clause 23.2.1, IS-456:2000


L/d= αβγδλ

α = 26
β =1
δ =1
λ =1

for modification factor

fs = 0.58fyAst required/Astprovided
= 0.58*415*151/335
= 185 N/mm2

100Ast/bd = 0.335%
γ= 2

d = Lx /αβγδλ
= (2.696*1000)/26*1*2*1*1
=57.61 mm <100 mm (effective depth) Hence ok.

Check for development length

M1 = 0.87*415*Ast(92-415Ast/(20*1000)
= 0.87*415*157(92-(415*157)/ (20*1000)
= 5.03 KN-m
According to IS- 456:2000 clause 26.2.1.1

For M20 concrete, bond stress τbd = 1.2*1.6 (60% is increased for deformed bar)
= 1.92 N/mm2

Anchorage length (Lo) = 16υ


Now,
Ld ≤ 1.3*(M1/Vu)+Lo
(fs*υ)/4*τbd ≤ 1.3*(M1/Vu)+Lo
(0.87*415* υ)/4*1.92 ≤ 1.3*(6.16*106/26.76*103)+16* υ
Φ≤ 10.56>8mm Hence ok.
Torsional Reinforcement
According to IS: 456-2000 ANNEX D(1.8 & 1.9 )
Torsional reinforcement area = 0.75*Astmaxm at midspan
= 0.75*335
= 251.25 mm2

43
Provide 8mm- υ bars – 6 nos.
Ast provided = 301 mm2 at one direction as torsional reinforcement.

Slab S3
(One long edge discontinuous)
3.048*4.878
Clear shorter span = 3.048-0.3=2.748
Effective span (lx) = 3.048-0.3+0.1=2.848m
Effective span(ly) =4.878-0.3+0.1=4.678m
As per IS-456:2000 ANNEX D, the maximum bending moment per unit width in slab are
given by the following equations:
Mx=αxωlx2
My=αyωlx2

Value of αx and αy are taken from table 26 IS-456:2000, bending coefficient of


rectangular panels supported on four sides

S.N. Type of lx ly ly /lx αx αy Factored Mx My


panel and Load, ω
moment
considered
1. Negative 8.65 4.445
moment at
continuous 2.848 4.678 1.625 0.072 0.037
edge 14.814
2. Positive 6.6 3.36
moment at 2.848 4.678 0.055 0.028
mid span

Determination of slab thickness

BM= 0.138fck bd2


8.65*106 =0.138*20*1000*d2
or, d = 55.98 mm

Adopt effective depth as 100mm


Overall depth = 120mm

Calculation of steel along short span


At support,
BM = 0.87fy*415*Ast{d-415Ast/(20*1000)}
8.65*106 = 0.87fy*415*Ast{100-415Ast/(20*1000)}
Ast = 252.84 mm2

Hence provide 8mm υ bar @ 150mm c/c having area 335 mm2> 144mm2 (OK)

At the mid span,

44
BM = 0.87fy*415*Ast{d-415Ast/(20*1000)}
6.6*106 = 0.87fy*415*Ast{100-415Ast/(20*1000)}
Ast = 190.31mm2

Hence provide 8mm υ bar @ 150 mm c/c having area 335 mm2 > 144mm2 (OK)

Calculation of steel along longer span


d‟ = d-υ/2- υ/2
= 100-4-4
= 92mm
At support,
BM = 0.87fy*415*Ast{d‟-415Ast/(20*1000)}
4.445 *106 = 0.87fy*415*Ast{92-415Ast/(20*1000)}
Ast = 138.12mm2

Hence provide 8mm υ bar @ 150mm c/c having area 314 mm2> 144mm2 (OK)

At the mid span,


BM = 0.87fy*415*Ast{d‟-415Ast/(20*1000)}
3.36*106 = 0.87fy*415*Ast{92-415Ast/(20*1000)}
Ast =118.3 mm2
Hence provide 8mm υ bar @ 150 mm c/c having area 314mm2> 144mm2 (OK)

Check for minimum reinforcement

According to clause 26.5.2.1 of IS-456:2000


Ast = 0.12% of the total X-section area
= 0.12*120*1000/100
= 144mm2 < actual reinforcement provided Hence ok.

Check for spacing

As per IS-456:2000 clause 26.3.3(b)1 spacing < 3 deff or 300mm


< 3*120 or 300mm
< 360 or 300mm
Check for shear

Along short span at support edge,


Maximum shear force at face of support (Vu)= ωlx/2
= 14.814*2.848/2
= 21.095 KN
Nominal shear stress,
τv = Vu/bd
= (21.095*103)/ (1000*100)
= 0.21 N/mm2
Percentage of steel = 100Ast/bd‟
= 100*157/ (1000*92)
= 0.17%
2
τc = 0.28 N/mm

45
τc‟ = k τc
= 1.3*0.28
= 0.364 N/ mm2 >τc>τv Hence ok

Check for deflection

From clause 23.2.1, IS-456:2000


L/d= αβγδλ

α = 26
β =1
δ =1
λ =1

For modification factor

fs = 0.58fyAst required/Astprovided
= 0.58*415*190/335
= 156.5 N/mm2

100Ast/bd= 0.28%
γ= 2

d = Lx /αβγδλ
= (2.848*1000)/26*1*2*1*1
=54.76 mm <120 mm (effective depth) Hence ok.

Check for development length

M1 = 0.87*415*Ast(92-415Ast/(20*1000)
= 0.87*415*157(112-(415*157)/(20*1000)
= 5.03 KN-m
According to IS- 456:2000 clause 26.2.1.1

For M20 concrete, bond stress τbd = 1.2*1.6 (60% is increased for deformed bar)
= 1.92 N/mm2

Anchorage length (Lo) = 16υ


Now,
Ld ≤ 1.3*(M1/Vu)+Lo
(fs*υ)/4*τbd ≤ 1.3*(M1/Vu)+Lo
(0.87*415* υ)/4*1.92 ≤ 1.3*(5.03*106/21.095*103)+16* υ
υ ≤ 9.60>8mm Hence
Ok.

Torsional Reinforcement
According to IS: 456-2000 ANNEX D(1.8 & 1.9 )
Torsional reinforcement area = 0.75*Astmaxm at midspan

46
= 0.75*335
= 251.25 mm2
Provide 8mm- υ bars – 6 nos.
Ast provided = 301 mm2 at one direction as torsional reinforcement.

Slab S4
(Interior panel)
4.878*4.878
Clear shorter span = 4.878-0.3=4.578
Effective span (lx) = 4.878-0.3+0.1=4.678m
Effective span(ly) =4.878-0.3+0.1=4.678m
As per IS-456:2000 ANNEX D, the maximum bending moment per unit width in slab are
given by the following equations:
Mx=αxωlx2
My=αyωlx2

Value of αx and αy are taken from table 26 IS-456:2000, bending coefficient of


rectangular panels supported on four sides

S.N. Type of lx ly ly /lx αx αy Factored Mx My


panel and Load, ω
moment
considered
1. Negative 0.032 0.032 14.814 9.708 9.708
moment at
continuous 4.678 4.678 1
edge
2. Positive 0.024 0.024 7.28 7.28
moment at 4.678 4.678
mid span

Determination of slab thickness

BM= 0.138fck bd2


9.708*106 =0.138*20*1000*d2
or, d = 59.3 mm

Adopt effective depth as 100mm


Overall depth = 120mm

Calculation of steel along short span


At support,
BM = 0.87fy*415*Ast{d-415Ast/(20*1000)}
9.708*106 = 0.87fy*415*Ast{100-415Ast/(20*1000)}
Ast = 285.83 mm2

Hence provide 8mm υ bar @ 150mm c/c having area 335 mm2> 144mm2 (OK)

47
At the mid span,
BM = 0.87fy*415*Ast{d-415Ast/(20*1000)}
7.28*106 = 0.87fy*415*Ast{100-415Ast/(20*1000)}
Ast = 210.85mm2

Hence provide 8mm υ bar @ 150 mm c/c having area 335 mm2 > 144mm2 (OK)

Calculation of steel along longer span


d‟ = d-υ/2- υ/2
= 100-4-4
= 92mm
At support,
BM = 0.87fy*415*Ast{d‟-415Ast/(20*1000)}
9.708*106 = 0.87fy*415*Ast{92-415Ast/(20*1000)}
Ast = 314.58mm2

Hence provide 8mm υ bar @ 160mm c/c having area 314 mm2> 144mm2 (OK)

At the mid span,


BM = 0.87fy*415*Ast{d‟-415Ast/(20*1000)}
7.28*106 = 0.87fy*415*Ast{92-415Ast/(20*1000)}
Ast =231.22 mm2
Hence provide 8mm υ bar @ 150 mm c/c having area 335mm2> 144mm2 (OK)

Check for minimum reinforcement

According to clause 26.5.2.1 of IS-456:2000


Ast = 0.12% of the total X-section area
= 0.12*120*1000/100
= 144mm2 < actual reinforcement provided Hence Ok

Check for spacing

As per IS-456:2000 clause 26.3.3(b)1 spacing < 3 deff or 300mm


< 3*120 or 300mm
< 360 or 300mm
Check for shear

Along short span at support edge,


Maximum shear force at face of support (Vu) = ωlx/2
= 14.814*4.678/2
= 34.64 KN
Nominal shear stress,
τv = Vu/bd
= (34.64*103)/(1000*100)
= 0.34 N/mm2
Percentage of steel = 100Ast/bd‟
= 100*157/(1000*92)
= 0.18%

48
τc = 0.28 N/mm2
τc‟ = k τc
= 1.3*0.28
= 0.364 N/ mm2 >τc>τv Hence ok

Check for deflection

From clause 23.2.1, IS-456:2000


L/d= αβγδλ

α = 26
β =1
δ =1
λ =1

for modification factor

fs = 0.58fyAst required/Astprovided
= 0.58*415*210.85/335
= 178.49 N/mm2

100Ast/bd = 0.28%
γ= 1.95

d = Lx /αβγδλ
= (4.678 *1000)/26*1*1.95*1*1
=92.26 mm <120 mm (effective depth)

Hence ok

Check for development length

M1 = 0.87*415*Ast(92-415Ast/(20*1000)
= 0.87*415*157(92-(415*157)/(20*1000)
= 5.85 KN-m
According to IS- 456:2000 clause 26.2.1.1

For M20 concrete, bond stress τbd = 1.2*1.6 (60% is increased for deformed bar)
= 1.92 N/mm2

Anchorage length (Lo) = 16υ


Now,
Ld ≤ 1.3*(M1/Vu)+Lo
(fs*υ)/4*τbd ≤ 1.3*(M1/Vu)+Lo
(0.87*415* υ)/4*1.92 ≤ 1.3*(5.85*106/34.64*103)+16* υ
υ ≤ 8.35>8mm Hence
Ok.

49
Torsional Reinforcement
According to IS: 456-2000 ANNEX D(1.8 & 1.9 )
Torsional reinforcement area = 0.75*Astmaxm at midspan
= 0.75*335
= 251.25 mm2
Provide 8mm- υ bars – 6 nos.
Ast provided = 301 mm2 at one direction as torsional reinforcement.

Staircase cover slab


(four edge discontinuous)
3.048 * 2.8963
Clear shorter span = 2.8963-0.3=2.5963
Effective span (lx) = 2.8963-0.3+0.1=2.6963m
Effective span(ly) =3.048-0.3+0.1=2.848m
As per IS-456:2000 ANNEX D, the maximum bending moment per unit width in slab are
given by the following equations:
Mx=αxωlx2
My=αyωlx2

Value of αx and αy are taken from table 26 IS-456:2000, bending coefficient of


rectangular panels supported on four sides

S.N. Type of lx ly ly /lx αx αy Factored Mx My


panel and Load, ω
moment
considered
1 Positive
moment at 2.6963 2.848 1.05 0.06 0.056 17.61 7.71 7.2
mid span

Determination of slab thickness

BM= 0.138fck bd2


7.71*106 =0.138*20*1000*d2
or, d = 52.85 mm

Adopt effective depth as 100mm


Overall depth = 120mm

Calculation of steel along short span


At the mid span,
BM = 0.87fy*415*Ast{d-415Ast/(20*1000)}
7.71*106 = 0.87fy*415*Ast{100-415Ast/(20*1000)}
Ast = 223.95mm2

Hence provide 8mm υ bar @ 150 mm c/c having area 335 mm2 > 144mm2 (OK)

50
Calculation of steel along longer span
d‟ = d-υ/2- υ/2
= 100-4-4
= 92mm

At the mid span,


BM = 0.87fy*415*Ast{d‟-415Ast/(20*1000)}
6
7.2*10 = 0.87fy*415*Ast{92-415Ast/(20*1000)}
Ast =228.53 mm2
Hence provide 8mm υ bar @ 160 mm c/c having area 314mm2> 144mm2 (OK)

Check for minimum reinforcement

According to clause 26.5.2.1 of IS-456:2000


Ast = 0.12% of the total X-section area
= 0.12*120*1000/100
= 144mm2 < actual reinforcement provided Hence Ok

Check for spacing

As per IS-456:2000 clause 26.3.3(b)1 spacing < 3 deff or 300mm


< 3*120 or 300mm
< 360 or 300mm
Check for shear

Along short span at support edge,


Maximum shear force at face of support (Vu) = ωlx/2
= 17.61*2.6963/2
= 23.74 KN
Nominal shear stress,
τv = Vu/bd
= (23.74*103)/(1000*100)
= 0.237 N/mm2
Percentage of steel = 100Ast/bd‟
= 100*157/(1000*92)
= 0.17%
τc = 0.28 N/mm2
τc‟ = k τc
= 1.3*0.28
= 0.364 N/ mm2 >τc>τv Hence ok

Check for deflection

From clause 23.2.1, IS-456:2000


L/d= αβγδλ

51
α = 26
β =1
δ =1
λ =1

For modification factor

fs = 0.58fyAst required/Astprovided
= 0.58*415*223.95/335
= 170.9 N/mm2

100Ast/bd = 0.335%
γ= 1.82

d = Lx /αβγδλ
= (2.6963*1000)/26*1*1.82*1*1
=56.98 mm <100 mm (effective depth) Hence ok

Check for development length

M1 = 0.87*415*Ast(112-415Ast/(20*1000)
= 0.87*415*157(92-(415*157)/ (20*1000)
= 5.03 KN-m
According to IS- 456:2000 clause 26.2.1.1

For M20 concrete, bond stress τbd = 1.2*1.6 (60% is increased for deformed bar)
= 1.92 N/mm2

Anchorage length (Lo) = 16υ


Now,
Ld ≤ 1.3*(M1/Vu)+Lo
(fs*υ)/4*τbd ≤ 1.3*(M1/Vu)+Lo
(0.87*415* υ)/4*1.92 ≤ 1.3*(5.03*106/23.74*103)+16* υ
υ ≤ 8.88>8mm Hence
Ok.

Torsional Reinforcement
According to IS: 456-2000 ANNEX D(1.8 & 1.9 )
Torsional reinforcement area = 0.75*Astmaxm at midspan
= 0.75*335
= 251.25 mm2
Provide 8mm- υ bars – 6 nos.
Ast provided = 301 mm2 at one direction as torsional reinforcement.

Roof cover slab (S5)


(One long edge discontinuous)
4.878* 3.048
Clear shorter span = 3.048-0.3=2.748

52
Effective span (lx) = 3.048-0.3/2-0.3/2+0.1/2+0.1/2=2.848m
Effective span(ly) =4.878-0.3/2-0.3/2+0.1/2+0.1/2=4.678m
As per IS-456:2000 ANNEX D, the maximum bending moment per unit width in slab are
given by the following equations:
Mx=αxωlx2
My=αyωlx2

Value of αx and αy are taken from table 26 IS-456:2000, bending coefficient of


rectangular panels supported on four sides

S.N. Type of lx ly ly /lx αx αy Factored Mx My


panel and Load, ω
moment
considered
1. Negative 0.037 10.89 4.98 3.26
moment at 4.678 0.07
continuous 2.848 1.64
edge
2. Positive 4.678 0.055 0.028 4.11 2.47
moment at 2.848
mid span

Determination of slab thickness

BM= 0.138fck bd2


4.98*106 =0.138*20*1000*d2
or, d = 42.47mm

Adopt effective depth as 100mm


Overall depth = 120mm

Calculation of steel along short span


At the mid span,
BM = 0.87fy*415*Ast {d-415Ast/(20*1000)}
4.98*106 = 0.87fy*415*Ast {100-415Ast/(20*1000)}
Ast = 155mm2

Hence provide 8mm υ bar @ 150 mm c/c having area 335 mm2 > 144mm2 (OK)

At the mid span,

BM = 0.87fy*415*Ast {d-415Ast/(20*1000)}
4.11*106 = 0.87fy*415*Ast {100-415Ast/(20*1000)}
Ast = 136.28mm2

Hence provide 8mm υ bar @ 150 mm c/c having area 335 mm2 > 144mm2 (OK)

Calculation of steel along longer span

53
d‟ = d-υ/2- υ/2
= 100-4-4
= 92mm
At support,
BM = 0.87fy*415*Ast {d‟-415Ast/(20*1000)}
3.26*106 = 0.87fy*415*Ast {92-415Ast/(20*1000)}
Ast = 100mm2

Hence provide 8mm υ bar @ 160mm c/c having area 314 mm2> 144mm2 (OK)

At the mid span,


BM = 0.87fy*415*Ast {d‟-415Ast/(20*1000)}
2.47*106 = 0.87fy*415*Ast {110-415Ast/(20*1000)}
Ast =95 mm2
Hence provide 8mm υ bar @ 160 mm c/c having area 314mm2> 144mm2 (OK)

Check for minimum reinforcement

According to clause 26.5.2.1 of IS-456:2000


Ast = 0.12% of the total X-section area
= 0.12*120*1000/100
= 144mm2 < actual reinforcement provided Hence Ok

Check for spacing

As per IS-456:2000 clause 26.3.3(b)1 spacing < 3 deff or 300mm


< 3*120 or 300mm
< 360 or 300mm
Check for shear

Along short span at support edge,


Maximum shear force at face of support (Vu) = ωlx/2
= 10.89*2.848/2
= 15.5KN
Nominal shear stress,
τv = Vu/bd
= (15.5*103)/(1000*100)
= 0.168 N/mm2
Percentage of steel = 100Ast/bd‟
= 100*157/ (1000*92)
= 0.17%
τc = 0.28 N/mm2
τc‟ = k τc
= 1.3*0.28
= 0.364 N/ mm2 >τc>τv Hence ok

Check for deflection

From clause 23.2.1, IS-456:2000


L/d= αβγδλ

54
α = 26 δ =1
β =1 λ =1
For modification factor

fs =0.58fyAst required/Astprovided
=0.58*415*300/335
=123.32 N/mm2

100Ast/bd= 0.28%
γ=2

d = Lx /αβγδλ
= (2.848*1000)/26*1*2*1*1
=54.76 mm <120 mm (effectivedepth) Hence ok.

Check for development length

M1 = 0.87*415*Ast(112-415Ast/(20*1000)
= 0.87*415*157(112-(415*157)/ (20*1000)
= 5.0316 KN-m
According to IS- 456:2000 clause 26.2.1.1

For M20 concrete, bond stress τbd = 1.2*1.6 (60% is increased for deformed bar)
= 1.92 N/mm2

Anchorage length (Lo) = 16υ


Now,
Ld ≤ 1.3*(M1/Vu) +Lo
(fs*υ)/4*τbd ≤ 1.3*(M1/Vu) +Lo
(0.87*415* υ)/4*1.92 ≤ 1.3*(5.0316*106/15.5*103) +16* υ
υ ≤ 13.91>8mm Hence ok.

Torsional Reinforcement
According to IS: 456-2000 ANNEX D (1.8 &1.9)
Torsional reinforcement area = 0.75*Astmaxm at midspan
= 0.75*335
= 251.25 mm2
Provide 8mm- υ bars – 6 nos.
Ast provided = 301 mm2 at one direction as torsional reinforcement.

55
7.4DESIGN OF BEAM
Design of moment for design is taken as maximum value of B.M. obtained from analysis
using software STAAD.
For design purpose, maximum moment of support or mid span moment is taken in
consideration for a bay for a single floor or more than one floor according to quantity of
variation. The mid-span of beam is designed as flanged beam and end section are
designed as rectangular section.

DESIGN CONSTANT:
Concrete =M20
Steel Grade =Fe 415
Beam size = 400*300 mm

56
Effective cover of tensile reinforcement (d‟) = 35 mm

Beam No. 75

Mz(kip-in)
1482 1420 1500
1500
1000 1000
500 500
37 38
500 1 2 2.89 500
1000 1000
1500 -1255 -1133 1500

Fig: bending moment diagram (beam 75)


Fy(kip)
28.6
30 30
18.7
20 20
10 10
37 38
10 5 9.48 10
20 20
-19.1
30 30
-29.3

Fig: shear force diagram (beam no75)

57
END SECTION
Design value:
i) Mu:167.466KN-m
ii) Vu:130.35 KN
iii) Clear cover:25 mm
iv) Assumed diameter of bar:25 mm

Therefore, effective depth =400-25-0.5*25 =362.5 mm

Ultimate moment of resistance,

Mu,lim= 0.36fck b xm× 𝑑 − 0.42 ∗ 𝑥𝑚

=0.36*20*300*(0.48*362.5)(362.5-0.42*0.48*362.5)

=108.775 KN-M < Mu


Therefore,the section must be designed as doubly reinforced section.
Calculation of reinforcement
Area of tension steel corresponds to Mu,lim
Mu,lim = 0.87*fy*Ast,1*(d-0.42*xm)

Or, 108.775*106 =0.87*415*Ast1*(362.5-0.42*0.48*362.5)

Thus, Ast1=1040.95 mm2


The remaining moment has to be resisted by a couple consisting compression steel and
corresponding to the tensile steel.

𝑑 ′ /d = 37.5/362.5

=0.1
The corresponding stress in compression steel can be obtained from SP-16 (table: F),page
no,13.
Therefore,
fsc =353 N/mm2

Now,

Mu-Mu-lim= (fsc-fcc)*Asc*(d-𝑑 ′ )
(167.466-108.775)*106= (353-0.446*20) Asc (362.5-37.5)
Or, Asc=524.84mm2
For equilibrium, the corresponding tension steel

58
Mu-Mu-lim=0.87fy*Ast2*(d-𝑑 ′ )
Or,58.691*106=0.87*415* Ast2*(362.5-37.5)
Or, Ast2=500.17 mm2

Total tension steel (Ast) =Ast1+ Ast2=1040.95+500.17=1541.12mm2


Provide 4-25 mm diameter rods.

Check for minimum reinforcement


As per IS: 456-2000, clause 26.5.1.1
For minimum reinforcement
𝐴0
= 0.85/fy
𝐵∗𝑑

0.85∗300 ∗362 .5
Or, A0= =222.74<Ast (ok)
415

Check for maximum reinforcement


Ast,max = 0.04*b*D
=0.04*300*400
= 4800 mm2 (ok)

Curtailment of Bars
Simplified rule for curtailment of bars in continuous beam according to Art. 3.12.10.2 of
BS 8110 – 1985 is adopted. These rule applied to continuous beam of nearly equal spans
which are designed for predominantly uniformly distributed load. First 40% of steel bars
at support is curtailed at 0.25l from the center of the support and 70% of steel at mid span
is curtailed at 0.15l.

Check for development length

As per IS: 456-2000, clause 26.2.1


Ld= 47 Φ
1.3  M1
And Ld= +Lo
V
 f y  Ast 
Where, M1 = 0.87fyAst  d  
 f ck  b 
415 ∗1963
= 0.874151963(362.5- 20∗300 )
= 160.68 KN-m

V =130.35KN
Lo = 8  + 100 = 825 +100 = 300mm
 1.3  160.68  10 3 
 47     300 
 130.35 

59
  40.47mm OK.

Check for shear reinforcement


Maximum shear occur at the face of the support.
Vu = 130.35 KN
Vu 130.35  10 3
Nominal shear stress, τv = = =1.19 N/mm 2
bd 300  362.5
A 100 1963  100
% of tension steel = st = = 1.8%
bd 300  362.5
From IS: 456-2000, Table -19
Shear strength for M20 concrete, τc =0.758 N/mm 2 <τ v
From IS: 456-2000, Table -20
τc max = 2.8 N/mm 2
 τc max>τ v >τc
Hence shear reinforcement must be designed for shear value (τv-τc) bd
Provide 2-legged stirrup of 8mm  bar having area 100 mm 2 .
The shear that has to be contributed by the vertical stirrup
Vus=(τv-τc)*b*d=(1.19-0.758)*300*362.5=46.98KN
Now, spacing of vertical stirrup
 0.87  f y  Asv  d 
Sv =  
 Vus 
 0.87  415  100.53 * 362.5 
=  =248.957 mm.
 46.98 *1000 

But, as per IS: 456-2000, clause 26.5.1.5


Sv < 300 mm
< 0.75d = 0.75362.5 =271.875mm
>=100 mm
Check for stability:
Maximum spacing for vertical stirrups at support
Sv,max=0.25*d=0.25*362.5=90.63 mm C/C
Therefore, provide 2-legged 8mm  vertical stirrup @ 100 mm C/C up to 2d (i.e.
2362.5) from vertical face of the support

MID SECTION FLANGED BEAM (T-BEAM)


Design Value:
Mu = 7.5 KN/m
Clear cover = 25 mm
Assumed diameter of bar = 25 mm

60
Now, the effective depth = 400-25-25/2 =362.5mm
D =120 mm
b =300 mm
Effective width of the flange

As per IS: 456-2000, clause 23.1.2

For intermediate slab


L = 0.7*l = 0.7*2896 =2027.2 mm

2027.2
bf=  300  6  100 = 1237.86 mm
6
Let the neutral axis lies in the flange of the beam
Ultimate moment of resistance,
Mu,lim = 0.36*fck*b*xm*(d - 0.42*xm)

=0.36*20*300*0.48*362.5*(362.5-0.42*0.48*362.5)
= 108.775 KN-m >Mu

Calculation of reinforcement
𝑓𝑦 ∗𝐴𝑠𝑡
Mu = 0.87*fy*Ast(d- 𝑓𝑐𝑘 ∗𝑏 )

415 ∗𝐴𝑠𝑡
7.5*106 =0.87*415*Ast*(362.5 – 20∗300 )

Therefore, Ast=57.944 mm²


Provide 2– 12 mm Φ in tension having area 226 mm²
Check for minimum reinforcement
As per IS: 456-2000, Clause 26.5.1.1

For minimum reinforcement


Ao(b*d) =0.85/fy
Thus,Ao =222.74 <Ast OK

Check for maximum reinforcement


Ast, max = 0.04*b*D = 0.04*300*400 =4800 mm² >Ast (ok)

61
Check for ductility:
Sv,max=0.5*362.5=181.25mm
Therefore provide 2-legged 8 mm diameter vertical stirrups @195mm c-c
Check for deflection:

l/d =        
where,

 =26
 =1(for L<10)

Now,
Fs=0.58*fy*(required steel cross section area/provided steel cross section area)

=0.58*415*(57.944/226)
=61.71 N/mm2
%p=100*Ast provided/(b*d)
=100*226/(300*362.5)
=0.207

So,  =2 (from table)

(L/d) allowable =26*1*1*2*0.8


=41.6
(L/d)actual =2896/362.5 =7.98 (OK)

62
DESIGN CONSTANT:
Concrete =M20
Steel Grade =Fe 415
Beam size = 400*300 mm

Effective cover of tensile reinforcement (d‟) = 35 mm

63
Beam No. 76 Fig: bending moment diagram (beam 76)
Mz(kip-in)
1500 1390 1390 1500
1000 1000
500 500
5.34
38 39
500 5 10 15 16 500
1000 -508 -524 -507 1000
1500 1500

Fy(kip)
30 24 30
20 20
10 10
38 39
10 5 10 15 16 10
20 20
30 -24 30

Fig: shear force diagram (beam no76)

END SECTION
Design value:

i) Mu:160.46KN-m
ii) Vu:106.776 KN
iii) Clear cover:25 mm
iv) Assumed diameter of bar:25 mm

Therefore, effective depth =400-25-0.5*25 =362.5 mm


Ultimate moment of resistance,

Mu,lim= 0.36fck b xm× 𝑑 − 0.42 ∗ 𝑥𝑚

=0.36*20*300*(0.48*362.5)(362.5-0.42*0.48*362.5)

64
=108.775 KN-M < Mu
Therefore,the section must be designed as doubly reinforced section.

Calculation of reinforcement
Area of tension steel corresponds to Mu,lim

Mu,lim = 0.87*fy*Ast,1*(d-0.42*xm)

Or, 108.775*106 =0.87*415*Ast1*(362.5-0.42*0.48*362.5)

Thus, Ast1=1040.95 mm2


The remaining moment has to be resisted by a couple consisting compression steel and
corresponding to the tensile steel.

𝑑 ′ /d = 37.5/362.5
=0.1
The corresponding stress in compression steel can be obtained from SP-16 (table: F),page
no,13.
Therefore,
fsc =353 N/mm2
Now,

Mu-Mu-lim= (fsc-fcc)*Asc*(d-𝑑 ′ )
(160.46-108.775)*106= (353-0.446*20) Asc (362.5-37.5)

Or, Asc=462.19mm2

For equilibrium, the corresponding tension steel


Mu-Mu,lim=0.87fy*Ast2*(d-𝑑 ′ )
Or,51.685*106=0.87*415* Ast2*(362.5-37.5)
Or, Ast2=440.467 mm2

Total tension steel (Ast) =Ast1+ Ast2=1040.95+440.467=1481.417mm2


Provide 4-25 mm diameter rods.

Check for minimum reinforcement


As per IS: 456-2000, clause 26.5.1.1
For minimum reinforcement
𝐴0
= 0.85/fy
𝐵∗𝑑

65
0.85∗300 ∗362 .5
Or, A0= =222.74<Ast (ok)
415

Check for maximum reinforcement


Ast,max = 0.04*b*D
=0.04*300*400

= 4800 mm2 (ok)

Curtailment of Bars
Simplified rule for curtailment of bars in continuous beam according to Art. 3.12.10.2 of
BS 8110 – 1985 is adopted. These rule applied to continuous beam of nearly equal spans
which are designed for predominantly uniformly distributed load. First 40% of steel bars
at support is curtailed at 0.25l from the center of the support and 70% of steel at mid span
is curtailed at 0.15l.

Check for development length

As per IS: 456-2000, clause 26.2.1


Ld= 47 Φ
1.3  M1
And Ld= +Lo
V
 f  Ast 
Where, M1 = 0.87fyAst  d  y 
 f ck  b 
415 ∗1963
= 0.874151963(362.5- 20∗300 )
= 160.68 KN-m

V =106.776KN
Lo = 8  + 100 = 825 +100 = 300mm
 1.3  160.68  10 3 
 47     300 
 106.776 
  48mm OK.

Check for shear reinforcement


Maximum shear occur at the face of the support.
Vu = 106.776 KN
Vu 106.776  10 3
Nominal shear stress, τv = = =0.98 N/mm 2
bd 300  362.5
Ast 100 1963  100
% of tension steel = = = 1.8%
bd 300  362.5
From IS: 456-2000, Table -19
Shear strength for M20 concrete, τc =0.758 N/mm 2 <τ v
From IS: 456-2000, Table -20
τc max = 2.8 N/mm 2
 τc max>τ v >τc

66
Hence shear reinforcement must be designed for shear value (τv-τc) bd
Provide 2-legged stirrup of 8mm  bar having area 100 mm 2 .
The shear that has to be contributed by the vertical stirrup
Vus=(τv-τc)*b*d=(0.98-0.758)*300*362.5=24.142KN
Now, spacing of vertical stirrup
 0.87  f y  Asv  d 
Sv =  
 Vus 
 0.87  415  100.53 * 362.5 
=  =545mm.
 24.142 *1000 

But, as per IS: 456-2000, clause 26.5.1.5


Sv < 300 mm
< 0.75d = 0.75362.5 =271.875mm
>=100 mm
Spaccing of the stirrups shouldn‟t be greater than 0.75d i.e.271.875.hence, spacing is
adopted as 250mm among the stirrups.
Check for stability:
Maximum spacing for vertical stirrups at support
Sv,max=0.25*d=0.25*362.5=90.63 mm C/C
Therefore, provide 2-legged 8mm  vertical stirrup @ 100 mm C/C up to 2d (i.e.
2362.5) from vertical face of the support

MID SECTION FLANGED BEAM (T-BEAM)


Design Value:
Mu =59.212KN/m
Clear cover = 25 mm
Assumed diameter of bar = 25 mm
Now, the effective depth = 400-25-25/2 =362.5mm
D =120 mm

b =300 mm
Effective width of the flange
As per IS: 456-2000, clause 23.1.2

For intermediate slab


L = 0.7*l = 0.7*4878 =3414.6 mm

67
3414.6
bf=  300  6  100 = 1469.1 mm
6
Let the neutral axis lies in the flange of the beam
Ultimate moment of resistance,
Mu,lim = 0.36*fck*b*xm*(d - 0.42*xm)
=0.36*20*300*0.48*362.5*(362.5-0.42*0.48*362.5)
= 108.775 KN-m >Mu

Calculation of reinforcement
𝑓𝑦 ∗𝐴𝑠𝑡
Mu = 0.87*fy*Ast(d- 𝑓𝑐𝑘 ∗𝑏 )

415 ∗𝐴𝑠𝑡
59.212*106 =0.87*415*Ast*(362.5 – 20∗300 )

Therefore, Ast=500.14 mm²

Provide 3– 16 mm Φ in tension having area603 mm²


Check for minimum reinforcement
As per IS: 456-2000, Clause 26.5.1.1

For minimum reinforcement


Ao(b*d) =0.85/fy
Thus,Ao =222.74 <Ast OK

Check for maximum reinforcement


Ast, max = 0.04*b*D = 0.04*300*400 =4800 mm² >Ast (ok)

Check for ductility:


Sv,max=0.5*362.5=181.25mm
Therefore provide 2-legged 8 mm diameter vertical stirrups @195mm c-c

Check for deflection:

l/d =        
where,
 =26
 =1(for L<10)

68
Now,
Fs=0.58*fy*(required steel cross section area/provided steel cross section area)
=0.58*415*(500.14/603)
=200 N/mm2

%p=100*Ast provided/(b*d)
=100*603/(300*362.5)
=0.554

So,  =2 (from table)

(L/d) allowable =26*1*1*1.55*0.8

=32.24
(L/d)actual =4878/362.5 =13.456 (OK)

69
DESIGN CONSTANT:
Concrete =M20
Steel Grade =Fe 415
Beam size = 400*300 mm
Effective cover of tensile reinforcement (d‟) = 35 mm

70
Beam No.77 Fig: bending moment diagram (beam 77)
Mz(kip-in)
1475
1500 1417 1500
1000 1000
500 500
39 40
500 5 9.51 500
1000 1000
1500 -1127 -1248 1500

Fy(kip)
29.1
30 30
18.9
20 20
10 10
39 40
10 5 9.51 10
20 20
-18.5
30 30
-28.5

Fig: shear force diagram (beam no 77)

END SECTION
Design value:
i) Mu:166.675KN-m
ii) Vu:129.465 KN

71
iii) Clear cover:25 mm
iv) Assumed diameter of bar:25 mm

Therefore, effective depth =400-25-0.5*25 =362.5 mm


Ultimate moment of resistance,

Mu,lim= 0.36fck b xm× 𝑑 − 0.42 ∗ 𝑥𝑚

=0.36*20*300*(0.48*362.5)(362.5-0.42*0.48*362.5)
=108.775 KN-M < Mu
Therefore,the section must be designed as doubly reinforced section.

Calculation of reinforcement
Area of tension steel corresponds to Mu,lim
Mu,lim = 0.87*fy*Ast,1*(d-0.42*xm)

Or, 108.775*106 =0.87*415*Ast1*(362.5-0.42*0.48*362.5)

Thus, Ast1=1040.95 mm2


The remaining moment has to be resisted by a couple consisting compression steel and
corresponding to the tensile steel.

𝑑 ′ /d = 37.5/362.5
=0.1
The corresponding stress in compression steel can be obtained from SP-16 (table: F),page
no,13.
Therefore,
fsc =353 N/mm2
Now,
Mu-Mu,lim= (fsc-fcc)*Asc*(d-𝑑 ′ )

(166.675-108.775)*106= (353-0.446*20) Asc (362.5-37.5)


Or, Asc=517.768mm2

For equilibrium, the corresponding tension steel


Mu-Mu,lim=0.87fy*Ast 2*(d-𝑑 ′ )
Or,57.9*106=0.87*415* Ast2*(362.5-37.5)
Or, Ast2=493.43 mm2

72
Total tension steel (Ast) =Ast1+ Ast2=1040.95+493.43=1534.38mm2
Provide 4-25 mm diameter rods.

Check for minimum reinforcement


As per IS: 456-2000, clause 26.5.1.1

For minimum reinforcement


𝐴0
= 0.85/fy
𝐵∗𝑑

0.85∗300 ∗362 .5
Or, A0= =222.74<Ast (ok)
415

Check for maximum reinforcement


Ast,max = 0.04*b*D

=0.04*300*400
= 4800 mm2 (ok)

Curtailment of Bars
Simplified rule for curtailment of bars in continuous beam according to Art. 3.12.10.2 of
BS 8110 – 1985 is adopted. These rule applied to continuous beam of nearly equal spans
which are designed for predominantly uniformly distributed load. First 40% of steel bars
at support is curtailed at 0.25l from the center of the support and 70% of steel at mid span
is curtailed at 0.15l.

Check for development length

As per IS: 456-2000, clause 26.2.1


Ld= 47 Φ
1.3  M1
And Ld= +Lo
V
 f y  Ast 
Where, M1 = 0.87fyAst  d  
 f ck  b 
415 ∗1963
= 0.874151963(362.5- 20∗300 )
= 160.68KN-m

V =129.465KN
Lo = 8  + 100 = 825 +100 = 300mm
 1.3  160.68  10 3 
 47     300 
 129.465 
  40.71mm OK.

Check for shear reinforcement


Maximum shear occur at the face of the support.

73
Vu = 129.465 KN
Vu 129.465  10 3
Nominal shear stress, τv = = =1.19 N/mm 2
bd 300  362.5
Ast 100 1963  100
% of tension steel = = = 1.8%
bd 300  362.5
From IS: 456-2000, Table -19
Shear strength for M20 concrete, τc =0.758 N/mm 2 <τ v
From IS: 456-2000, Table -20
τc max = 2.8 N/mm 2
 τc max>τ v >τc
Hence shear reinforcement must be designed for shear value (τv-τc) bd
Provide 2-legged stirrup of 8mm  bar having area 100 mm 2 .
The shear that has to be contributed by the vertical stirrup
Vus=(τv-τc)*b*d=(1.19-0.758)*300*362.5=46.98KN
Now, spacing of vertical stirrup
 0.87  f y  Asv  d 
Sv =  
 Vus 
 0.87  415  100.53 * 362.5 
=  =227.44 mm.
 46.98 *1000 

But, as per IS: 456-2000, clause 26.5.1.5


Sv < 300 mm
< 0.75d = 0.75362.5 =271.875mm
>=100 mm
Check for stability:
Maximum spacing for vertical stirrups at support
Sv,max=0.25*d=0.25*362.5=90.63 mm C/C
Therefore, provide 2-legged 8mm  vertical stirrup @ 100 mm C/C up to 2d (i.e.
2362.5) from vertical face of the support

MID SECTION FLANGED BEAM (T-BEAM)


Design Value:
Mu = 7.5 KN/m

Clear cover = 25 mm
Assumed diameter of bar = 25 mm
Now, the effective depth = 400-25-25/2 =362.5mm
D =120 mm
b =300 mm

74
Effective width of the flange
As per IS: 456-2000, clause 23.1.2

For intermediate slab

L = 0.7*l = 0.7*2896 =2027.2 mm

2027.2
bf=  300  6  100 = 1237.86 mm
6
Let the neutral axis lies in the flange of the beam
Ultimate moment of resistance,
Mu,lim = 0.36*fck*b*xm*(d - 0.42*xm)
=0.36*20*300*0.48*362.5*(362.5-0.42*0.48*362.5)
= 108.775 KN-m >Mu

Calculation of reinforcement
𝑓𝑦 ∗𝐴𝑠𝑡
Mu = 0.87*fy*Ast(d- 𝑓𝑐𝑘 ∗𝑏 )

415 ∗𝐴𝑠𝑡
7.5*106 =0.87*415*Ast*(362.5 – 20∗300 )

Therefore, Ast=57.944 mm²


Provide 2– 12 mm Φ in tension having area 226 mm²

Check for minimum reinforcement


As per IS: 456-2000, Clause 26.5.1.1

For minimum reinforcement


Ao(b*d) =0.85/fy
Thus,Ao =222.74 <Ast OK

Check for maximum reinforcement


Ast, max = 0.04*b*D = 0.04*300*400 =4800 mm² >Ast (ok)

Check for ductility:


Sv,max=0.5*362.5=181.25mm
Therefore provide 2-legged 8 mm diameter vertical stirrups @195mm c-c

75
Check for deflection:

l/d =        
where,

 =26
 =1(for L<10)

Now,
Fs=0.58*fy*(required steel cross section area/provided steel cross section area)
=0.58*415*(57.944/226)
=61.71 N/mm2
%p=100*Ast provided/(b*d)

=100*226/(300*362.5)
=0.207

So,  =2 (from table)

(L/d) allowable =26*1*1*2*0.8


=41.6
(L/d) actual =2896/362.5 =7.98 (OK)

76
77
7.5 DESIGN OF RAFT FOUNDATION

If the loads transmitted by the columns in a structure are so heavy or the allowable soil
bearing pressure so small that individual footing would cover more than about one half of
the area, it may be better to provide a continuous footing under all the columns and walls.
Such a footing is called a raft foundation. The raft is divided into series of continuous
strips centered on the appropriate column rows in the both directions as shown in figure
below.The shear and bending moment diagrams may be drawn using continuous beam
analysis or coefficients for each strip. The depth is selected to satisfy shear requirements.
The steel requirements will vary from strip. This method generally gives a conservative
design since the interaction of adjacent strips is neglected.
Design of Raft Foundation

Total load = 11749.66 KN


Load area = 11749.66/120 = 97.91 m2
Total plinth area = 125.32m2
Footing area > 50 % of plinth area provide raft foundation.
Safe bearing capacity of soil, = 120 KN/m2
Total vertical column load, P = 11749.66KN
Eccentricity along X direction about grid 1-1
={2.8963(688.577+1075.388+1110.059+725.082)+7.774(726.918+1111.13+1110.735+7
26.064) +10.67(417.84+722.969+722.98+417.488)}/11749.66
= 4.8 m
Therefore, ex= 10.67/2 – 4.8 = 0.535 m
Eccentricity along Y direction about grid D-D
={3.048(684.582+1075.388+1111.13+722.969)
+7.927(722.972+1110.059+1110.735+722.98)+10.9757(416.89+725.082+726.064+417.4
88)}/11749.66
= 5.54 m
Therefore, ey=5.54- 5.487= 0.052 m
Ix = 11.47 *11.77573/12 =1560.78 m4
Iy= 11.7757 * 11.473/12 = 1480.79 m4
Area (A) = 11.47*11.7757 = 135.067 m2
Mx= P * ey = 11749.66*0.052 = 610.98 KN-M

My = P * ex = 11749.66*0.535 = 6286.068 KN-M


P/A=11749.66/135.067=87
Soil pressure at different points is as follows

76
P MY MX
σ=  x y
A IY IX
Corner A4,
σ A-4 = 87+(6286.068/1480.79)*5.735+(610.98/1560.78)*5.887 = 113.64< 120 KN/M2
OK.
Corner D4,0.
.σ. .D.-.4. .=. 87+4.245*5.735-0.39*5.887= 87+24.345-2.295=109.05 KN/M2
Corner A1,
σ A-1 =87-24.345+2.295 = 64.95 KN/M2
Corner D1,

σ D-1 = 87-24.345-2.295 = 60.36 KN/M2


Grid B4,
σ B-4 = 87+24.345+0.951= 112.296 KN/M2
Grid B1,
σB-1 = 87-24.345+0.951= 63.606 KN/M2
Grid C4,
σc-4 = 87+24.345-0.951 = 110.394 KN/M2

Grid C1,
σc-1= 87-24.345-0.951 = 61.704 KN/M2
In X – direction, the raft is divided into 4 strips, i.e. 3 equivalent beams:
i) Beam A-A soil pressure, σ = 113.64 KN/m2
ii) Beam B-B soil pressure, σ = 0.5*( 113.64+112.296)
= 112.818 KN/m2
iii) Beam C-C soil pressure, σ = 0.5(110.394+112.296)
= 111.345 KN/m2
iv) Beam D-D soil pressure, σ = 0.5*(110.394+109.05)
= 109.722 KN/m2
-m /For X – direction, the bending moment is obtained by using a coefficient of 1/10 and
L as Centre of column distance,
w L2
+M = -M =
10
113.64∗4.878 2
For strip A-A, maximum bending moment = = 270.405 KN-m /m
10
112.818∗4.878 2
For strip B-B, maximum bending moment = = 268.449 KNm
10

77
111.345∗4.878 2
For strip C-C, maximum bending moment = = 264.944 KN-m /m
10
109.722∗4.878 2
For strip D-D, maximum bending moment = =261.082KN-m /m
10
In Y direction,
Grid A3,
σA-3 = 87+(4.245)*(5.735-0.4-2.8963)+(0.39)*5.8878
= 99.64 KN/M2
Grid A2,
σA-2 = 87-4.245*2.4387+0.39*5.8878

= 78.946 KN/M2
In Y – direction, soil pressure
(i) Beam 4-4, σ = 113.64 KN/m2
(ii) Beam3-3,σ = 0.5*(113.64+99. 64)
= 106.64 KN/m2
(iii) Beam 2-2, σ = 0.5*(99.64+78.946)

= 89.293 KN/m2
(iv) Beam 1-1, σ = 0.5*(78.946+64.95)
= 71.948 KN/m2

For Y – direction, the bending moment is obtained by using a coefficient of 1/10 and L as
centre of column distance,
w L2
+M = -M =
10
113.64∗4.878 2
For strip 4-4, maximum bending moment = = 270.405 KN-m /m
10
106.64∗4.878 2
For strip 3-3, maximum bending moment = =253.748 KN-m /m.
10
89.293∗4.878 2
For strip 2-2, maximum bending moment = = 212.471 KN-m /m
10
71.948∗4.878 2
For strip 1-1, maximum bending moment = = 171.199 KN-m /m
10

78
The depth of the raft will be governed by two way shear at one of the exterior columns. In
case location of critical shear is not obvious, it may be necessary to check all possible
locations.
Shear strength of concrete,′c = c =0.25 𝑓𝑐𝑘 = 0.25 20 = 1.11 N/mm2

For a corner column D1;

Perimeter b0 =2(0.5d+600) = d+1200 mm


1.5∗369.981∗1000
v = Vu/ (b0d) =
𝑑+1200 𝑑
1.5∗369.981∗1000
Therefore, 1.11 =
d+1200 d

79
On solving we get, d = 327.34 mm.

For an exterior column say A2,

Perimeter, b0 = (d+400) + 2(0.5d+600) = 2d +1600


1.5∗725.082∗1000
Therefore, 1.11 =
2d+1600 d
On solving we get, d = 406.176 mm
So, adopt effective depth, d = 500 mm and overall depth, D = 500 +50 + 10/2
=555 mm

Reinforcement calculation:
Reinforcement along long direction A-A

80
Maximum bending moment in long direction is given by A-A
𝑓𝑦 ∗𝐴𝑠𝑡
BM = 0.87 fyAst (d - )
𝑓𝑐𝑘𝑏
415∗𝐴𝑠𝑡
270.405 * 106 = 0.87 * 415 * Ast(500 - )
20∗1000
2
Therefore, we get Ast =1604.75 mm /m
Minimum reinforcement = 0.12 % of b D
= 0.12/100 * 555 * 1000
= 666 mm2 /m
< 1604.75 mm2 /m (okay)
Minimum steel will govern in the remaining shaft
So, provided 16 mm dia bar @ 120 mm c/c
Ast,provided = 1675 mm2
In both direction at top and bottom.
Reinforcement along short direction 4-4
Maximum bending moment in short direction
𝑓𝑦 ∗𝐴𝑠𝑡
BM = 0.87 fyAst (d - )
𝑓𝑐𝑘𝑏
415∗𝐴𝑠𝑡
270.405 * 106 = 0.87 * 415 * Ast(500 - )
20∗1000
2
Therefore, we get Ast =1604.75 mm /m
So, provided 16 mm dia bar @ 120 mm c/c
Ast,provided = 1675 mm2
In both directions at top and bottom.

Check for development length,


Required development length for tension Ld
Ld= (0.87*fy*𝜑)/4𝜏bd
=(0.87*415*16)/4*1.2*1.6
= 752.187 mm
The available vertical length L1 for anchorage is
L1 = (555-8-50-16-8) = 473. < 905.11 mm OK.

81
7.6 Column
3 PAGES

82
7.7DESIGN OF STAIRCASE

Staircase is an inclined structural system for the movement from one level to another.
Since it is stepped, it is called staircase. A staircase behaves like an ordinary slab. It may
span either in the direction of the steps or in the direction of going. Structurally staircase
may be classified largely into two categories, depending on the predominant direction in
which the slab staircase component of the stair undergoes flexure- stair slab spanning
transversely and stair slab spanning longitudinally.

The design of staircase requires proportioning of its different components and


determination of reinforcement and its detailing to satisfy both the serviceability and
strength requirements. The design of staircase is made for serviceability requirements of
deflection and cracks. The serviceability requirement of deflection is controlled by the
effective span to effective depth ratio. The design of reinforcement is made to satisfy the
strength requirements for moments and shear. The design for moment is made for
maximum moments either by working stress method or by the limit state method. The
area of steel is expressed as diameter and spacing of bars. It is provided along the span of
staircase and necessary curtailment is made wherever it is not required as in the case of
edge supported slab.

Generally the shear reinforcement is not required in the staircase as the shear strength of
concrete is much greater than the nominal shear stress. The shear strength of concrete in
staircase is determined as in the case of edge supported slabs.

The detailing of reinforcement in staircase shall be similar to that of the edge supported
slab except at the junction of landing and flight of staircase where it should ensure that
the reinforcement bars in tension tending to straighten out do not cause cracking in
concrete.

General rules

 Between consecutive floors there should be equal rise for every parallel steps.
Similarly there should be equal going.
 There should be at least 2m headroom measured vertically above any steps.
 The sum of going of a single step plus the twice the rise should be between
550mm and 700mm
 The rise of steps should not be more than about 200mm and the going not less
than 240mm
 The slope of the staircase should be not more than 38 degrees.
 Width of staircase depends upon the usage. The width required in residential
building differs from other public building.

84
7.7.1DESIGN OF STAIRCASE

Size of staircase
Total floor to floor height=2.74m
2R+T=600
R=170mm
No. of riser=2.74/0.17=16no.s
No. of tread = 16-1=15no.s

Width of staircase= 1.06m


Along Y-Y axis,
3.048+0.4=3.448m
3.448-0.3-0.3=2.848m
2.848-1.3-1.060=0.488m
Beam c/c distance

0.3/2+1.060+1.3+0.488+0.3/2 = 3.148m
Leff= 3.148m
Deff=Leff/35 = 3148/35 = 110.514m
Overall depth of waist slab (D) =99.94+20= 119.20mm
Let us take D=150mm

A) Inclined flight section


a.Dead load
Step Section =1/2*0.26*0.17
=0.0221m2

Inclined Slab= (0.262+0.172) *0.15

=0.04659m2
Now total X-section area of slab only=0.0221+0.04659
=0.0686m2
Density of concrete=25KN/m3

85
Load on RCC slab=25*0.0686
=1.717KN/m3

Step finishing

Density of screeding=20.4KN/m3
Density of marble =26.7KN/m3
Marble 20mm thick= (0.26+0.17)*0.02*26.7
=0.22962KN/m3

Plastering 12.5 mm thick= (0.262+0.172) *0.0125*20.4=0.0792 KN/m3

Screeding 25mm thick= (0.26+0.17)*0.025*20.4=0.2193KN/m3


Total dead load of step=2.24512KN/m
Now dead load per m2 on plan=2.24512/0.26=8.635KN/m2

b) Live load
Live load per m2 on plan =5KN/m2
Total load = Dead load + live load=8.635+5=13.635KN/m2
Factored load =1.5*13.635=20.4525 KN/m2
Taking 1.06m width of slab, total load=1.06*20.4525 = 21.67965 KN/m

B) Landing
a. Dead load
Waist slab (W)=0.15*25=3.75KN/m2
Marble finishing 20mm thick=0.020*26.7=0.534KN/m2
Thick plastering 12.5mm=0.0125*20.4KN/m2=0.2448KN/m2
Screeding 25mm thick=0.025*20.4=0.51 KN/m2

Total dead load=3.75+0.534+0.2448+0.51=5.038 KN/m2


b. live load=5KN/m2
Total load=5+5.038 =10.038 KN/m2
Factored load=1.5*10.038 = 15.057 KN/m2

86
Taking 1.06m width of slab=15.057*1.06=15.96 KN/m

1) Calculation of bending moment


Ra+Rb=15.96*0.5013+21.679*1.3+15.96*1.095
Ra+Rb= 53.6562 KN/m2 …………………..(1)

21.679 KN/m
15.96 KN/m 15.96 KN/m

0.5013m 1.3 m 1.095m

Fig: Loading diagram of Staircase


Moment at A
15.96*0.5013*(0.5013/2) +21.679*1.3*(1.3/2+0.5013)+15.96*1.095 ((1.095/2)
+1.3+0.5013)
=Rb*(0.5013+1.3+1.095)

Rb= 26.06 KN,


Ra= 53.599-26.06 = 27.539KN
If the point of zero SF at a distance „x‟ from A
27.539=15.96*0.5013+21.679*(x-0.5013)
X= 1.4m
Maximum bending moment occurs at a distance „x‟ from A(i.e.1.4 m from the support A)

Mx=Ra*1.4-15.96*0.5013(0.5013/2+1.4-0.5013)+21.679 (1.4-0.5013/2)2
=27.539*1.4-15.96*0.5013(0.5013/2+1.4-0.5013)+21.679 (1.4-0.5013/2)2

= 58 KN-m

II) Calculation of depth


Minimum depth can be calculated considering absolute maximum bending moment
We know,

87
Effective depth (d) = BMmaximum/0.138*b*fck

(d)= 58*106/0.138*20*1060

=140

D= 140 + 20 + 10/2 `
Adopt D=165mm
Available effective depth (d) =165-20-10/2
= 140mm
So, D=165mm
And d=140mm

III) Area of tension steel


We know,`
Mu=0.87*fy*Ast(d-(fy*Ast)/(fck*b))
58*106=0.87*415*Ast*(140-(415*Ast)/ (20*1060))
Ast=1435.63 mm2

From code,Ast=1470 mm2 𝜑=12mm

No. of bars = 13+ 1 = 14 nos.

And, spacing of the 12mm𝜑 reinforcement =1470 / 14 = 105 mm = 105mm

IV) Temperature reinforcement/Distribution bar


Provide 1 nos-10mm 𝜑 bar as temperature reinforcement in each riser

In waist slab,(provide minimum) 0.12%of bD


So, Ast minimum=0.12*1060*165/100
= 209.88 mm2

Using 8mm 𝜑bar,@220mm c/c.


Ast provided=228 mm2

Check for shear,

Nominal shear stress,𝜏v=vu/bd=28.8409*103/1060*145


=0.185 N / mm2
Percent of tension steel= (100*Ast) / bd
= (100*1470)/ (1060*140) =0.99

88
From clause 40.2 .1 IS 456: 2000 table 19
Interpolating
Tc = 0.617 N/mm2

Shear strength for slab 𝜏c‟=k𝜏c

From code, IS456:2000 for overall depth of slab (mm)


K=1.25

𝜏c‟= 1.25*0.6 N/mm2

=0.77N/mm2>𝜏v(ok)

Deflection
𝑙
d=𝛼∗𝛽 ∗𝛾𝑥 ∗𝛿∗𝜆

α = 26, β =1, δ =1, λ=1


Now, for modification factor „γ‟ for tension reinforcement
fs = 0.58*fy*(Area of x-section of steel required) /(Area
of x-section of steel provided)
=0.58*415 *1435.63/1470
= 235.07 N/mm2

Therefore, γ = 1.18
Therefore, d =99.34 mm ≤ 140 mm (ok)
Check for development length

Development length for 12mm 𝜑bar Ld=47𝜑


=47*12=564mm
=600mm

Ld=0.87*fy*𝜑/4𝜏bd

For M20,𝜏bd=1.2N/mm2

Ld=0.87*415*12/4*1.2*1.6
=564.14mm=600mm
Moment of resistance
M1=0.87*fy*Ast*(d-(fy*Ast)/(fck*b))
=0.87*415*1470*(140-(415*1470)/ (20*1060))
= 59.03*106

89
Hence, Ld< 1.3M1/v + LO
0.87∗415 ∗𝜙 59.03∗10 6
=1.3 *27.539∗10 3 + 16 *𝜙
4∗1.2∗1.6

Therefore, 𝜙=89.85 mm
Since bar diameter provided is 12mm ok.
Along x-x axis,
Leff = 1.134/2+0.78+1.134/2 = 1.914m

1) Calculation of bending moment


Ra+Rb=15.96*0.567+21.679*0.78+15.96*0.567
Ra+Rb= 35 KN/m2 …………………..(1)

21.679 KN/m
15.96 KN/m 15.96 KN/m

0.567 m 0.78m 0.567 m

Fig: Loading diagram of Staircase (landing to landing)


Moment at A
15.96*0.567*(0.567/2) +21.679*0.78*(0.78/2+0.567)+

15.96*0.567 ((0.567/2) +0.78+0.567)


=Rb*(1.914)
Rb= 17.50 KN
Ra= 35-17.50=17.50 KN
If the point of zero SF at a distance „x‟ from A
17.5=15.96*0.567+21.679*(x-0.567)

X= 0.956 m
Maximum bending moment occurs at a distance „x‟ from A
Mx=Ra*0.956-15.96*0.567(0.567/2+0.956-0.567)+21.679 (0.956-0.567/2)2
=17.5*0.956-15.96*0.567(0.567/2+0.956-0.567)+21.679 (0.956-0.567/2)2

90
= 20.449 KN-m

II) Calculation of depth


Minimum depth can be calculated considering absolute maximum bending moment

We know,

Effective depth (d) = BMmaximum/0.138*b*fck

(d)= 20.449*106/0.138*20*1060

=83.60 mm
D= 83.60 + 20 + 10/2

Adopt D=110mm
Available effective depth (d) =110-20-10/2
= 85mm
So, D= 110mm
And d= 85mm

III) Area of tension steel


We know,
Mu=0.87*fy*Ast(d-(fy*Ast)/(fck*b))
20.449*106=0.87*415*Ast*(85-(415*Ast)/ (20*1060))
Ast=821.89 mm2

From code,Ast=904 mm2𝜑=12mm

No. of bars = 8+ 1 = 9 nos.

And, spacing of the 12mm𝜑 reinforcement =821 / 6 = 90mm

IV) Temperature reinforcement/Distribution bar


Provide 1 nos-10mm 𝜑 bar as temperature reinforcement in each riser
In waist slab,(provide minimum) 0.12%of bD

So, Ast minimum=0.12*1060*110/100


= 139.92 mm2
Hence for the staircase design take the data along y-y axis for design.

91
CHAPTER 8

CONCLUSION

The project work entitled “DETAILED STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF


FIVE STOREY RESIDENTIAL BUILDING” was carried out by the group of four
students. The analysis of the building was done using appropriate method of analysis. The
design of elements was done using limit state design philosophy which is economic, safe
and reliable. The detailing of structure was done as per IS and IS seismic codes. The
Software used in this project is STAAD Prov8i.

Project has indeed widened our perspective and acquainted us on how to perceive and
counteract the worst possible difficulties regarding the analysis and design of five storied
structures. This project work has mainly focused towards the structural analysis and
design only. Nevertheless, the attempts have been made in the architectural planning and
for the presentation of the analysis and design results in the tabular form with necessary
drawing and details. The principle and methodology applied while analyzing and
designing the five storey frame structure in this project is universally valid for any type of
the framed structures of five storied in peri – urban areas of Kathmandu valley. A
constant painstaking study and devotion to the work by the project group couple with the
valuable guidance of the advisor made it possible in bringing up the project work to this
level.

The purpose of the project, through purely academic oriented, we had made every effort
to make it feasible for the real construction of the site.

Finally, we will consider our project report as successful if it process to be useful to the
junior students or other designers. We hope that project work will prove much useful to
us in our career.

92
BIBLIOGRAPHY AND REFERENCES

1. Jain, A.K, "Reinforced concrete (Limit State Design) ", Nemchand and Bros, 5th
Edition 1990
2. Ramamrutham, S., “Design of Reinforced Concrete Structure”, DhanpatRai Publishing
Company, 11th Edition 1989
3. Varghese, P, C. "Limit State design of reinforced concrete", Princeton Hall of India
1996
4. Sinha, S. N., "Reinforced Concrete design", Tata McGraw - Hill, 2nd Edition 1996
5. Reddy, C S, “Basic Structural Analysis”, Tata McGraw – Hill, 3rd Edition 2011
6. I. S 875 (part - I) 1987, Code of practice for design loads (other than Earthquake) for
building and structures, dead loads
7. I.S 875 (part 2nd) 1987, code of practice for design loads (other than Earthquake) for
the building and structures, Dead loads.
8. I.S 1893- 1975 Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of structures.

9. I.S: 1893-1975 and IS 4326-1976, Explanatory Handbook on codes for Earthquake


Engineering.
10. Design Aids for RCC to I.S 456-1978, SP 16:1980
11. I.S. 456-2000 Indian Standard plain and RC code of practice (fourth revision)

12. I.S. 1893 (part I):2002.


APPENDICES
Contents
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ Error! Bookmark not defined.
1.1 BACKGROUND ................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
1.2 OBJECTIVE.......................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
1.3 RATIONALE OF THE PROPOSED PROJECT .... Error! Bookmark not defined.
1.4 DESCRIPTION OF THE PROPOSED PROJECT . Error! Bookmark not defined.
1.5 BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE PLAN ................ Error! Bookmark not defined.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE PROJECT................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ..................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
2.1 GENERAL ............................................................ Error! Bookmark not defined.
2.2 TYPES OF BUILDING ......................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
2.3 COMPONENTS OF BUILDING ........................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY ............................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
3.1 LOAD CALCULATION ....................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
3.2 PRELIMINARY DESIGN ..................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
3.3 LOADING PATTERNS ........................................ Error! Bookmark not defined.
3.4 ANALYSIS ........................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
3.5 METHODS AND TOOLS FOR ANALYSIS ........ Error! Bookmark not defined.
3.6 DATA ................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
3.7 DESIGN METHOD............................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
CHAPTER 4 PRELIMINARY DESIGN .................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
4.1 PRELIMINARY DESIGN OF SLAB .................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
4.2. PRELIMINARY DESIGN OF BEAM .................. Error! Bookmark not defined.
4.3 LOAD DESCRIPTION ......................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
4.3.1 Dead load (DL) ............................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
4.3.2 Live Load (LL) ............................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
4.4 VERTICAL LOAD CALCULATION ................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
4.4.1. Load calculation for roof slab above staircase Error! Bookmark not defined.
4.4.2. Load calculation for roof slab terrace ............. Error! Bookmark not defined.
4.4.3. Load calculation for intermediate slab (1, 2, 3 & 4)Error! Bookmark not
defined.
4.4.4. Load calculation for slab S3 ........................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
4.4.5. Load calculation for projection slab................ Error! Bookmark not defined.
4.4.6. Load calculation for verandah slab ................. Error! Bookmark not defined.
4.5 PRELIMINARY DESIGN OF CRITICAL COLUMNError! Bookmark not
defined.
4.5.1 Dead load calculation ...................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
4.5.2 Load Calculation ............................................. Error! Bookmark not defined.
CHAPTER 5 LATERAL ANALYSIS ........................ Error! Bookmark not defined.
5.1 INTRODUCTION TO LATERAL LOAD ............. Error! Bookmark not defined.
5.2 CALCULATION OF SELF-WEIGHT OF ELEMENTSError! Bookmark not
defined.
5.2.1 Self-weight of beam ........................................ Error! Bookmark not defined.
5.2.2 Self-weight of tie beam ................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
5.2.3 Self-weight of column ..................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
5.2.4 Self-weight of brick wall ................................. Error! Bookmark not defined.
5.3 LUMP MASS CALCULATION ............................ Error! Bookmark not defined.
5.3.1 Lumped load of slab ........................................ Error! Bookmark not defined.
5.3.2 Lumped load of beam ................................................................................... 23
5.3.3 Lumped load of column ................................................................................ 24
5.3.4 Lumped load of wall ..................................................................................... 24
5.3.5 Lump load of staircase .................................................................................. 25
5.4 DETERMINATION OF BASE SHEAR .............................................................. 25
5.4.1 Calculation of lateral forces and shear at storey ............................................. 28
5.4.2 Calculation of nodal mass applied force ........................................................ 28
5.5 LOAD COMBINATION ..................................................................................... 30
CHAPTER 6 STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS .............................................................. 31
6.1 SALIENT FEATURE OF STAAD PRO .............................................................. 31
6.2 INPUT AND OUTPUT ....................................................................................... 31
6.3 METHODOLOGY OF ANALYSIS .................................................................... 31
CHAPTER 7 STRUCTURAL DESIGN ................................................................... 33
7.1 LIMIT STATE METHOD ................................................................................... 33
7.2 SLAB .................................................................................................................. 34
7.3 DESIGN OF SLAB (1st, 2nd, 3rd& 4th floor slab) .................................................. 36
7.4 DESIGN OF BEAM ............................................................................................ 56
7.5 DESIGN OF RAFT FOUNDATION ................................................................... 76
7.6 Column.................................................................................................................... 82
7.7 DESIGN OF STAIRCASE .................................................................................. 84
CHAPTER 8 CONCLUSION .................................................................................. 92
BIBLIOGRAPHY AND REFERENCES
APPENDICES