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Topic 15 – Born-Haber cycles www.msjchem.

com

Born-Haber cycles
Born-Haber cycles are enthalpy cycles that show how ionic compounds are formed from
their elements.

Some important definitions:

Lattice enthalpy (ΔHƟlat) - the enthalpy change when one mole of a solid ionic compound
is separated into gaseous ions under standard conditions (endothermic).

Example: NaCl(s) → Na+(g) + Cl-(g)

Enthalpy of atomisation (ΔHƟatom) – the enthalpy change when one mole of gaseous
atoms is formed from an element in its standard state (endothermic).

Example: Na(s) → Na(g) (+107 kJmol-1)

First ionisation energy (ΔHƟi) – the energy required to remove one mole of electrons
from one mole of gaseous atoms (endothermic)

Example: Na(g) → Na+(g) + e- (+496 kJmol-1)

Bond dissociation enthalpy (E) – the enthalpy change when one mole of bonds is broken
in the gaseous state (endothermic).

Example: Cl2(g) → 2Cl(g) (+242 kJmol-1)

First electron affinity (ΔHƟe) – the enthalpy change when one mole of electrons are
added to mole of gaseous atoms (exothermic).

Example: Cl(g) + e- → Cl-(g) (-349 kJmol-1)

Standard enthalpy change of formation (ΔHƟf) - The enthalpy change when one mole of a
compound is formed from it elements in their standard states under standard conditions.

Example: Na(s) + ½ Cl2(g) → NaCl(s) (-411 kJmol-1)

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Topic 15 – Born-Haber cycles www.msjchem.com

1) Using the values given above, construct a Born-Haber cycle using the template
below, and calculate the ΔHƟlat for NaCl.

2) Using the values given in the table below, construct a Born-Haber cycle and calculate
the ΔHƟlat for CaF2

ΔHat Ca(s) (enthalpy of atomization) +179 kJ mol–1

E F2(g) (bond dissociation enthalpy) +158 kJ mol–1

ΔHƟi Ca(g) (1st ionisation energy) +590 kJ mol–1

ΔHƟi Ca+(g) (2nd ionisation energy) +1150 kJ mol–1

ΔHƟe F(g) (first electron affinity) –348 kJ mol–1

ΔHf CaF2(s) (enthalpy of formation) –1220 kJ mol–1

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Topic 15 – Born-Haber cycles www.msjchem.com

Answers:

1) Born-Haber cycle for NaCl

Na+(g) + Cl(g)

½ E Cl2(g) ½(+242kJ) Na+(g) + ½ Cl2(g)


ΔHƟe Cl (-349kJ)
Na+(g) + Cl-(g)
ΔHƟi Na(g) (+496 kJ)
Na(g) + ½ Cl2(g)

ΔHƟatom Na(s) (+107 kJ) Na(s) + ½ Cl2(g) ΔHƟlat NaCl

ΔHƟf NaCl (-411 kJmol-1) NaCl(s)

ΔHƟlat = (ΔHƟatom Na(s)) + (ΔHƟi Na(g)) + (½ E Cl2(g)) + (ΔHƟe Cl) – (ΔHƟf NaCl)

ΔHƟlat = (+107) + (+496) + (+121) + (-349) - (-411)

ΔHƟlat = +786 kJmol-1

2) Born-Haber cycle for CaF2

Ca2+(g) + 2F(g)

E F2(g) (+158kJ) Ca2+(g) + F2(g)


ΔHƟe F (-348kJ) x2
Ca2+(g) + 2F-(g)
ΔHƟi Ca+(g) (+1150 kJ)
ΔHƟi Ca(g) (+590 kJ) Ca(g) + F2(g)

ΔHƟatom Ca(s) (+179 kJ) Ca(s) + F2(g) ΔHƟlat CaF2

ΔHƟf CaF2 (-1220 kJmol-1) CaF2(s)

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Topic 15 – Born-Haber cycles www.msjchem.com

ΔHƟlat = (ΔHƟatom Ca(s)) + (ΔHƟi Ca(g)) + (ΔHƟi Ca+(g)) + (E F2(g)) + 2(ΔHƟe F2) – (ΔHƟf CaF2)

ΔHƟlat = (+193) + (+590) + (+1150) + (+158) + 2(-348) - (-1220)

ΔHƟlat = +2615 kJmol-1

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