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MATH2020 Assignment One

1. Consider the 2-dimensional vector fields

F1 (x, y) = (2x, −3y) F2 (x, y) = (2x, x − y)

(a) Give a graphical representation of each field.


(b) Determine whether or not each of these fields is a gradient field.
(c) Find the circulation of each field around the unit circle.
(d) Find the flux of each field across the unit circle.
(e) Explain (geometrically) the meaning of the signs you got in the
previous part.

2. Let C be the curve


√ !
2 2 3/2 t2
r(t) = t, t , t ∈ [0, 2]
3 2

(a) Verify that the parameterization of C is smooth.


(b) Find the length of C.
(c) Find the mass of a thin wire of variable density δ = 1/(t + 1) lying
along C.
(d) Locate the centre of mass of the wire.

3. In each of the following situations prove, or disprove (with an explicit


example), that the given set W is a subspace of the specified vector
space V . (You may assume that the vector spaces V in this question
all have their “usual” vector addition and scalar multiplication.)

(a) V = R3 and W = {(x, y, z) | x + y − z = 0}.


(b) V = R3 (viewed geometrically) and W is the set of all points at
whose distance from the origin is at most 1.
(c) V = R2×2 and W is the set of all matrices A such that A2 = 0.
(d) V = F52 and W is the set of all vectors that contain an even
number of 1s.
(e) V = R5 and W is the set of all vectors that contain an even
number of 1s.

1
(f) V is an arbitrary vector space, W1 and W2 are subspaces of V and
W is the set of all vectors w that can be written as w = w1 − w2
where w1 ∈ W1 and w2 ∈ W2 .
(g) V = R3×3 and W is the set of all matrices of the form
 
α β 0
 0 α+β 0 
0 α β

where α, β ∈ R.
(h) V = R3 and W = {(x, y, z) | x2 + y 2 + z 2 ≤ 1}.
(i) V = R3 and W = {(x, y, z) | x2 + y 2 + z 2 ≤ 0}.
(j) Let V = RR and let W be the set of all functions that are either
monotonically increasing or monotonically decreasing. (A func-
tion is monotonically increasing if f (x) ≤ f (y) whenever x ≤ y,
and monotonically decreasing if f (x) ≥ f (y) whenever x ≥ y).

4. Let RR denote the set of all functions f : R → R. Define an unusual


vector addition operator ⊕ as follows: if f , g ∈ RR then f ⊕ g is the
function such that

(f ⊕ g)(x) = max{f (x), g(x)}.

For example, if f (x) = x3 and g(x) = x2 then


(
x2 , if x < 0;
f ⊕g =
x3 , if x ≥ 0.

Check each of the seven axioms for a vector space, and determine which
of them are satisfied by (RR , ⊕, ·), where · is the usual scalar multipli-
cation for RR .
If an axiom is satisfied, you must prove it, and otherwise give a coun-
terexample.

Legal Stuff (Short Version)

Don’t copy anyone else. Don’t talk to anyone (except the lecturer) about the
assignment questions.

Due Date: Monday 1 September 12 noon (before lecture)