Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 5

Measurement 45 (2012) 2283–2287

Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect

Measurement
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/measurement

Animated visualization of the maximum material requirement


Zbigniew Humienny a,⇑, Piotr Turek b
a
Warsaw University of Technology, Institute of Machine Design Fundamentals, Narbutta 84, 02-524 Warsaw, Poland
b
Tachion Engineering S.A. Gen. L. Okulickiego 7/9, 05-500 Piaseczno, Poland

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: The usage of animation technique applied as a powerful tool to explain the complex con-
Available online 29 September 2011 cept of the maximum material requirement (MMR) is shown. The concepts of datum sys-
tem and the maximum material virtual condition envelope, that is located by theoretically
Keywords: exact dimensions are highlighted. The maximum material virtual condition state, that lim-
Tolerancing its the collective effect of the feature maximum material size and the maximum acceptable
GPS geometrical deviation for that size is examined. The tolerances of perpendicularity and
Geometrical product specifications
position with the maximum material modifiers applied in the tolerance frames for the tol-
MMR
eranced features or respectively for the datum features are explored. The simplicity of the
verification of the conformance with the specification employing the MMR by the gauge
that represents the matting counter part is emphasized.
Ó 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction problems with understanding the basic concepts of the


geometrical tolerancing the MMR looks very mystique
The staff in a manufacturing enterprise needs compe- and they give up. The similar situation is in several compa-
tences in appropriate specification of tolerances [1]. Cor- nies, even world wide spread, some ‘‘strange’’ drawings
rect, unambiguous geometrical product specification and with encircled M are sent by customers.
therefore clear interpretation of the specified requirements A picture explaining the geometrical dimensioning and
is also essential for reliable uncertainty estimation of coor- tolerancing rules is worth a thousand words, but the ani-
dinate measurements [2]. The usage of the maximum mated simulation and the workpiece with relevant gauge,
material requirement (MMR) for tolerancing of matting that may be handled are priceless. That is clear conclusion
features of size enables unique specification of functional from the university lectures and number of trainings con-
requirements with highest allowable tolerances that out- ducted for industry people. So the authors decided to
put significant technical and economic benefits [3,4]. So demystify effectively the MMR by the application of ani-
it shall be widely applicable in the industry, especially in mation technique as well as fabrication of ‘‘real’’ material
automotive industry with the high production volume. workpieces and especially designed gauge, that can be
The effective implementation of the MMR may be per- manipulated by the students.
formed only by the people, who well understand the
requirement. The fundamentals of the geometrical toler- 2. Maximum material requirement
ancing according to the ISO 1101 and other GPS standards
[5,6] are presented at the Warsaw University of Technol- The maximum material requirement is defined in the
ogy and the other Universities [3] starting from macro up recently revised International Standard ISO 2692 [8]. When
to micro-geometry issues [7]. For some students, that have the MMR is specified the two requirements – size and geo-
metrical tolerance – are combined into one collective
⇑ Corresponding author. requirement (Figs. 1 and 2). The actual surface of the toler-
E-mail addresses: zhu@simr.pw.edu.pl (Z. Humienny), piotr.turek@ta- anced feature shall not violate the maximum material vir-
chion.pl (P. Turek). tual condition (MMVC) state i.e. envelope defined

0263-2241/$ - see front matter Ó 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.measurement.2011.09.018
2284 Z. Humienny, P. Turek / Measurement 45 (2012) 2283–2287

Fig. 1. Maximum material requirement for an external cylindrical feature


Fig. 4. Maximum material requirement for an internal cylindrical feature
based on size and position requirements – specification.
based on size and position requirements – interpretation.

 the extracted feature shall have everywhere a local


diameter equal or larger than least material size,
LMS = 19,9 mm and equal or smaller than maxi-
mum material size, MMS = 20,0 mm;
 the orientation of the MMVC is perpendicular to the
primary datum A, whereas the location of the
MMVC is in the theoretically exact position 15 mm
from the secondary datum B and theoretically exact
position 0 mm from the tertiary datum C. The
datum A is established by the plane associated to
Fig. 2. Maximum material requirement for an internal cylindrical feature
datum feature A – i.e. the extracted integral surface.
based on size and position requirements – specification.
The default associated criteria for the primary
datum is to minimize the maximum distance
respectively to the MMR specification (Figs. 3 and 4). For
external features of size the envelope size (maximum
material virtual size – MMVS) is equal to the sum of max-
imum material size (MMS) and the geometrical tolerance,
whereas for internal features of size, it is equal to the dif-
ference between MMS and the geometrical tolerance.
The intended function of the part toleranced in Fig. 1
could be an assembly with a part as shown in Fig. 2. The
functional requirement is, that the two planar faces
marked on both drawings as datum A shall be in contact,
while the two planar faces marked as secondary datum B
shall both simultaneously be in contact with the bearing
plane. More over the toleranced pin shall be in the middle
of the base sides, that are nominally spread 40 mm apart
(Fig. 1) and similarly the toleranced hole shall be in the
middle of the block sides that are nominally spread
40 mm apart (Fig. 2).
According to the set of rules given in the International
Standard ISO 2692:2006 the MMR specification marked
in Fig. 1 outputs the following requirements:
 the extracted feature shall not violate the maximum
material virtual condition, MMVC, which has the
diameter MMVS = MMS + Tposition = 20,3 mm;

Fig. 5. The maximum material requirement for an internal cylindrical


feature based on size and perpendicularity requirements, the maximum
material requirement for an internal prism feature based on size and
position requirements, the maximum material requirement for the
Fig. 3. Maximum material requirement for an external cylindrical feature pattern of three internal cylindrical features based on size and position
based on size and position requirements – interpretation. requirements.
Z. Humienny, P. Turek / Measurement 45 (2012) 2283–2287 2285

Fig. 6. Snapshots from the flash clips show – verification of the MMR for an internal cylindrical feature based on size and perpendicularity requirements.

between the associated plane and the datum fea- ity), firstly from the primary datum (datum A) and
ture. The primary datum imposes orientation con- secondarily from the second datum (datum B) and
straint on the secondary datum defined by minimizes the maximum distance to the two base
theoretically exact perpendicularity between the extracted surfaces.
secondary and the primary datums. Taking perpen-
dicularity constraint the datum B is established by The analogous set of requirements is implied by specifica-
the associated plane that minimizes the maximum tions marked in Fig. 2, particularly:
distance to the datum feature B. For the tertiary
datum the datum indicator with letter C identifying  the extracted feature shall not violate the maximum
the datum is placed on the extension of the dimen- material virtual condition, MMVC, which has the diam-
sion line and therefore indicates as the datum eter MMVS = MMS Tposition = 20,3 mm;
derived plane obtained from two actual surfaces,  the extracted feature shall have everywhere a local
that are nominally parallel planes. The datum C is diameter equal or larger than MMS = 20,7 mm and
the situation feature of the collection of two parallel equal or smaller than LMS = 20,9 mm;
planes associated together to the surfaces used for  the orientation of the MMVC is perpendicular to the pri-
establishing the tertiary datum (the symmetry mary datum A, whereas the location of the MMVC is in
plane). The pair of two parallel planes (C1 and C2 the theoretically exact position 15 mm from the sec-
in Fig. 3) that is associated to the actual base sides ondary datum B and theoretically exact position 0 mm
respects the orientation constraints (perpendicular- from the tertiary datum C.
2286 Z. Humienny, P. Turek / Measurement 45 (2012) 2283–2287

Fig. 7. Snapshot from the flash clip – the MMR for the pattern of three internal cylindrical features based on size and location requirements.

click on PLAY button displays the pin with its size in the
3. Animation window bottom right corner. The snapshot taken from
the third clip is shown in Fig. 6c. The rectangular prism
The animation is developed to help discussion over the of the gauge is moving towards slot in the disk. This prism
functional advantages and verification procedure of the shall be guided by the slot in the gauge plate. The slot is lo-
requirements specified in Fig. 5. The disk with one central cated by symmetry plane, that is perpendicular to datum A
hole, the slot and the circular pattern of three holes is ana- and pass through the datum B, that is defined by axis of
lyzed. The tolerances of perpendicularity and position with central pin. Next to the prism reached the disk slot the stu-
maximum material modifiers applied for the toleranced dents are asked to give the prism size and conditions for its
features or respectively for the datum features are placement.
explored. The snapshot taken from the last but one clip is shown
The purpose of the developed animation is also to show, in Fig. 7. The pattern of three pins shall pass through three
how the functional gauges shall be used to verify maxi- holes in the disk. The appropriate pins location is forced by
mum material requirements. The animation is divided into the three holes in gauge plate that are oriented by theoret-
seven clips. The PLAY button is used to initialize animation ically exact angle 90° to the datum A and located by theo-
sequentially (Fig. 6). So during the stops the lecturer has retically exact coaxiality to the datum B (the axis of the
the time to discuss with the students the design intend central hole) and theoretically exact radius 20 mm from
as well as the concepts of datum system and the theoreti- the datum B. The theoretically exact angle 90° locates the
cally exact dimensions, that orient or locate the tolerance pattern against the datum C. The diameter of each pin in
zones. Before the execution of the next clip the students the pattern is equal 9,86 mm.
shall prove their competence to find the size of the gauge,
that was shown to check the requirement.
The first animation clip is preceded by the workpiece 4. Conclusions
drawing displayed on the screen left side. The students
have to comment the specifications and enumerate the se- The usage of the animated explanations provides the
quence of the inspection operations. This drawing is dis- powerful tool for the lectures to teach effectively the com-
played permanently to facilitate understanding the way plex concept of the maximum material requirement. The
in which the maximum material requirements are verified. presentations with animation enhance the content, attract
The snapshot taken from the first clip is shown in Fig. 6a. the students’ attention and are better than equivalent sta-
The lower surface of the toleranced disk (datum feature tic presentations. The correct understanding of the MMR
A) is placed against the datum plane which is materialized ensures that the intent of the designer is precisely commu-
by the datum feature simulator (the top plane of the gauge nicated and has the uniform interpretation across the
plate). After the part is set over, the pin is placed in the whole production process.
central hole. The last frame from the second clip is dis- The successful implementations of presented animation
played in Fig. 6b. The pin inserted perpendicularly to the technique during the onsite vocational trainings for vari-
datum A represents the MMVC. The students are asked to ous groups in manufacturing enterprises have been
give the pin size. The right answer is maximum material achieved. The animation is aided by hard gauge and two
virtual size, MMVS = MMS Tperpendicularity = 19,9 mm. The workpieces, that were manufactured on CNC machining
Z. Humienny, P. Turek / Measurement 45 (2012) 2283–2287 2287

center. The first one is intentionally manufactured with the [2] W. Jakubiec, Estimation of uncertainty of coordinate measurements
according to the type B method, Key Engineering Materials 437
holes and the slot at maximum material sizes, the second
(2010) 253–257.
with the features at least material sizes. The participants [3] P.H. Osanna, M. Tamre, A. Weckenmann, L. Blunt, W. Jakubiec, in: Z.
can manipulate with them, that enhance effectiveness Humienny (Ed.), Geometrical Product Specifications – Course for
and efficiency in explanation of the MMR concept. Combi- Technical Universities, Warsaw University of Technology Printing
House, Warsaw 2001, ISBN 83-912,190-9-9.
nation of virtual gauging and hard gauging enables to [4] G. Henzold, in: Geometrical Dimensioning, and Tolerancing for
achieve sustainable learning effect. Design, Manufacturing and Inspection, Butterworth-Heinemann,
The experience gathered during development and usage 2006.
[5] Z. Humienny, State of Art in Standardization in GPS Area, CIRP Journal
of the discussed animation is now utilized to build out the of Manufacturing Science and Technology 2 (2009) 1–7.
new computer based learning package for computer aided [6] J.-Y. Dantan, A. Ballu, L. Mathieu, Geometrical product specifications –
teaching of the geometrical dimensioning and tolerancing model for product life cycle, Computer Aided Design 40 (4) (2008)
493–501.
principles and rules. [7] K.K. Manesh, B. Ramamoorthy, M. Singaperumal, Numerical
generation of anisotropic 3D non-Gaussian engineering surfaces
References with specified 3D surface roughness parameters, Wear 268 (2010)
1371–1379.
[8] ISO 2692:2006 GPS – Geometrical Tolerancing – Maximum Material
[1] A. Weckenmann, T. Werner, Computer-assisted generation of individual
Requirement (MMR), Least Material Requirement (LMR) and
training concepts for advanced education in manufacturing metrology,
Reciprocity Requirement (RPR).
Measurement Science and Technology 21 (5) (2010).