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Christina N. Hoffman



Romanian Reference Grammar


The Romanian Reference Grammar was prepared by Christina N. Hoffman, Acting Language Training Supervisor for Romanian, as an outgrouth of her classroom teaching experience. Editorial and technical guidance were provided by Michael S. Allen and Hedy A. St. Denis. Revisions were based on observation of student performance and comments by both students and instructors at the Foreign Service Institute. The Romanian Language and Culture Instructors Ligia Filotti, Cora Tudoran, and Victoria Vidrascu have field tested the Romanian Reference Grammar in class, over a one-year period. We would also like to express special thanks to members of the foreign service community at post who offered their comments on the draft text.

Technical assistance for the cover design was provided by Gelinda M. Giacomin in the F.S.I. Audio-Visual Section, under the guidance of John McClelland. Arrangements for final publication were made by Hedy A. St. Denis.

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U.S. Department of State


Romanian Reference Grammar

Table of Contents

1. Acknowledgements


2. Abbreviation List VI

3. Nouns 1

Gender 1

Declension 2

4. Adjectives 7

Degrees of Comparison 9

5. Adverbs 11

6. Pronouns 13

Personal Pronouns 13

Possessive Pronouns 18

Interrogative-Relative Pronouns 20

Demonstrative Pronoun 23

More Pronouns 24

7. Numerals 26

Cardinal Numerals 26

Ordinal Numerals 29

8. Verbs 30

Auxiliary Verbs (to be, to have) .

Regular Verbs .

Direct and Indirect Reflexive Verbs .

Use of Verb Moods and Tenses .

Unipersonal and Impersonal Verbs .

Irregular Verbs .

9. Prepositions .

10. Verb Index (English -- Romanian) .

11. Verb Index (Romanian Verbs -- Conjugated)


30 34 37 44 50 51 52 54 67

Romanian Reference Grammar

Abbreviation List
Ace. accusative
cornp, past compound past
Condo conditional
Oat. dative
dim. diminutive
F/Fem. feminine
Gen. genitive
imperf. imperfect
Ind. indicative
M/Masc. masculine
N. neuter
Nom. nominative
p. person
pI. plural
pp. pluperfect
pres. present
sg. singular
Subj. subjunctive
Voe. vocative VLl

Romanian Reference Grammar

1. Nouns


On the basis of their grammatical structure, Romanian nouns are divided into three classes (traditionally called genders): masculine, feminine, and neuter. The form of the indefinite article that accompanies a noun and the ending of the noun indicates the gender to which the noun belongs.

Masculine nouns take a consonant plus -u, -e, or -i endings and the plural is marked by a final-i. The indefinite articles for masculine nouns are un for singular and niste for plural. Since niste is also the plural form for feminines and neuters, the way Romanians clearly identify the gender of nouns is by placing a cardinal numeral in front of the noun. (The Romanian cardinal numerals one (un, 0) and two (doi, doua) agree in gender and number with the noun that follows.) The definite articles are all inflected. Most singular masculine nouns end in -I, plural-i.

Article Masc. Singular Masc. Plural
Indefinite un barbat niste/doi barbati
un fiu niste/doi fii
un munte niste/doi munti
un pui ni~te/doi pui
Definite barbatfu)] barbatii
fiul fiii
muntele rnuntii
puiul puii Feminine nouns end in -a, -e, -ea, -a. Plurals are marked by -Ie, -e or -i endings. The indefinite articles for feminine nouns are 0 for singular and niste for plural. The definite articles are -a for singular and -Ie for plural.


Romanian Reference Grammar

Article Fem. Singular Fem. Plural
Indefinite o cafea niste/doua cafele
o fata niste/doua fete
ofemeie niste/doua femei
Definite cafeaua cafelele
fata fetele
femeia femeile In form, the Neuter appears as masculine singular and feminine plural.

Article Neuter Singular Neuter Plural
Indefinite un autobuz niste/doua autobuze
un hotel niste/doua hoteluri
Definite autobuzul autobuzele
hotelul hotelurile Declension

Romanian is an inflected language, with endings on all nouns according to their usage in the sentence. Even though there are five cases (Nominative, Genitive, Dative, Accusative and Vocative), the Nominative and Accusative have identical endings, and so do the Genitive and Dative. Therefore, within each gender, there are two main endings, in singular and plural form. (Vocative is only used with proper names and has been replaced with the Nom.-Acc. form on most occasions.)

Each case would be defined as follows:


Romanian Reference Grammar


subject case (person or thing that generates an action):

Domnul Spencer lucreaza la Departamentul de Stat. Mr. Spencer works for the Department of State.

Zapada a acoperit tot orasul peste noapte. The snow covered the whole city overnight.


possessive case (English "of" and" 's" structures); also limited prepositional case:

Capitala Americii este Washington. (possessive) The capital of America is Washington.

Biroul domnului Popescu este la etajul zece. (possessive) Mr. Popescu's office is on the tenth floor.

Nori negri treceau deasupra orasului, -- prepositional case Black clouds were passing above the city.

Dat.: recipient of message/action case (English "to whom")

Transmite-i, te rog, salutari doamei Andreescu! Please say hello to Mrs. Andreescu!

Acc.: prepositional and direct object case

Simbata am fost la film, apoi la restaurant. -- prepositional case On Saturday we went to the movies, then to a restaurant.

Am trecut pe la libarie ~i mi-am curnparat 0 carte interesanta,

(direct object) I dropped by the bookstore and I bought an interesting book.


Romanian Reference Grammar

L-am vazut pe Ion la biblioteca. (direct object & prepositional case) I saw John at the library.


In the last example, 1 pe Ion is the direct object, la biblioteca is the

prepositional case. See 'Direct Object', p. 48.


order, command

Vino aici, fetito, stai jos!

Come here, little girl, sit down!

In most cases, however, the Vocative was replaced with more familiar forms:

Poftiti, doamna, serviti-va! (Nom. indefinite form for VOc.) Please, Madam, help yourself!

Doamna lonescu, a~ vrea sa va intreb ceva. (Nom. definite form for VOc.) Mrs. lonescu, I'd like to ask you something.

Masculine nouns remain more conservative in the Vocative form:

Domnule (Ionescu), va rog cornpletati acest formular. (Voc. form) Sir (Mr. lonescu), please fill out this form.

Since dictionaries provide the Nom.-Acc. form, the simplest way to figure out the remaining Gen.-Dat. is by keeping in mind the so called Gen. - Dat. triangle:

Masc. sg. -ui


Fem. sg. -ei / -ii

(fetei, femeli)

Masc., Fem. pl. -lor (barbatilor, fetelor, femeilor)


Romanian Reference Grammar

To form the masculine singular Gen.-Oat., add -ui to the singular definite form:

barbat /barbatul I barbatului fiu I fiul I fiului munte I muntele I muntelui


When the -ui ending is preceded by a vowel, as in 'muntele + ui', that vowel is dropped while the Gen.-Oat. ending remains intact.

To form the feminine singular Gen.-Oat., add -ei I -ii to the plural indefinite form:

fata I fete I fetei femeie I femei I femeii cafea I cafele I cafelei cofetarie I cofetarii I cofetariei

To form the masculine and feminine plural Gen.Oat., add -lor to the plural indefinite form:

barbat I barbat] I barbatilor fiu I fii I fiilor munte I rnunti I rnuntilor

fata I fete I fetelor cafea I cafele I cafelelor cofetarie I cofetarii I cofetariilor

The proper nouns also form their Gen.-Oat. depending on gender. The pattern for masculine nouns is 'lui + proper noun':

lui Andrei lui Razvan lui Mihai


Romanian Reference Grammar

Feminine proper nouns, which in Romanian have mostly -a endings, follow the general rule of forming the Gen.-Dat. for feminine nouns:

Corina / Corinei Angela / Angelei Dora / Dorei

Feminine nicknames with endings other than -a, and foreign names, follow the masculine pattern:

lui Ani

lui Cristi lui Ingrid lui Agnes


Romanian Reference Grammar

2. Adjectives

Adjectives in Romanian are much different from adjectives in English. Adjectives agree with nouns in gender, number and case. Unlike in English, the typical place for an adjective in a sentence is after the noun, not in front of it. Whenever an adjective preceeds a noun, the intention is purely emphatic. Adjectives may have one or two main endings, the latter being more frequent.

Adjectives with two endings: bun (masc. sq.), buna (fem. sg.) buni (masc. pl.), bune (fem. pl.)


vechi, veche,

vechi (masc. and fem. pi)

old (for inanimate objects only)

batrln. batrina batrlni, batrlne

old (for animate objects only)

nou,noua noi


tlnar, tinara tineri, tinere



There is a usage peculiarity for tinar/batrin (young lold). Whenever one refers to a younger lolder sibling, the adjective is mic (smelt), not tinar, and mare (big), not batrin.

Sora mea rnai mica este profesoara, cea mai mare, doctorita.

My youngest sister is a teacher, my oldest one, a medical doctor.

frumos, frumoasa frurnosi, frumoase


inteligent, inteligenta inteliqenti, inteligente

intelligent, smart


Romanian Reference Grammar

Some adjectives are derived from verbal past participles:

a cunoaste ~ cunoscut (past participle) cunoscut, cunoscuta

cunoscuti, cunoscute


a aprecia ~ apreciat apreciat, apreciata apreciati, apreciate

appreciated (person, work)

Adjectives with one ending (better known as 'adjectives with sg. -e ending '):

rece (masc. and fem. sg.)

reci (masc. and fem. pl.) cold


fierbinti hot, heated


iuti hot, spicy

dulce dulci


limpede limpezi


mare mari






Romanian Reference Grammar

Some adjectives, most of them neologisms or names of colors, have the same form for all genders and numbers:

cumsecade = kind, helpful, nice (for people only) atroce = atrocious

eficace = efficient

bleu = light blue

gri = gray

lila = lavender maro = brown

olive = olive green vernil = light green

Degrees of Comparison:



intelligent, smart, bright


rnai inteligent decit / ea

rnai putin inteligent decit / ea la fel de inteligent ea

more intelligent than less intelligent than as intelligent as


eel rnai inteligent foarte / extraordinar de inteligent

the most intelligent

very intelligent

In a noun-adjective structure, the adjective agrees with the noun in gender and number. The G.-D. ending always applies to the first word of the structure, be it the noun or the adjective.

Note that the G.-D. singular and plural for the feminine second term of a noun- adjective or adjective-noun structure looks like either a singular G.-D. that lost its final vowel or a plural N.-Ac. (See chart below)


Romanian Reference Grammar

Singular Plural
Masc. N-Ac barbat inteligent barbati inteliqenti
inteligent barbat inteliqenti barbati
Masc. G-O barbatului inteligent barbatilor inteliqenti
inteligentului barbat inteliqentilor barbati
Fem. N-Ac femeie inteligenta femei inteligente
inteligenta femeie inteligente femei
Fem. G-O femeii inteligente femeilor inteligente
inteligentei femei inteligentelor femei Examples:

Cladirea ONU este foarte impunatoare. The U.N. building is very impressive.

Domnul Ralea si-a oferit serviciile unei companii de comer! b;ne cunoscute. Mr. Ralea offered his services to a well-known trade company.

In ultima vreme s-a discutat mult despre arhitectura no;; $coli.

There was a lot of talk lately about the architecture of the new school.

Still in the adjective category are several expressions that function as adjectives and never change their form. Most of the time these expressions refer to human qualities:

de incredere = trustworthy

fara scrupule = unscrupulous

cu capul pe umeri = level-headed cu capul plecat = humble

cu nasul pe sus = full of himself/herself; vain


Romanian Reference Grammar

3. Adverbs

Adverbs describe actions, and therefore appear next or close to verbs. Adverbs are generally not inflected. Some follow the same degree of comparison rules as adjectives. Others could take the form of diminutives because of emotional involvement in conversation. Some adverbs are simple, others are compound:

cind = when

unde = where cum = how

acasa = at home

aseara = last night atunci = then

ieri = yesterday

miine = tomorrow

duminica = on Sunday duminica = every Sunday

niciodata = never

rornaneste (enqlezeste, frantuzeste, italieneste, nernteste. etc.) = in Romanian, ... etc.

inceti~or(dim.) = slowly

pe de rost = by heart din nou = again

o data = once

din cind in cind = sometimes a~a-~i-a~a = so and so

pe neasteptate = unexpectedly (in)totdeauna = always mai ales = especially


Romanian Reference Grammar

Many adverbs and adjectives look alike. The mechanism for forming degrees of comparison IS Identical to the one described for edjecttves. The form of the adverb always remains masculine, Singular, and indefinite. These adverbs correspond to the Engftsh '-Iy' adverbs.

frumos = beautifully rar = slowly

repede = quickly

tare = strongly, loudly rece = coldly

cald = warmly

interesant = with Interest pia cut = pleasantly

Examples of paired adjectives and adverbs:


Astazi vremea e frumoasa, Today the weather IS nice.

Copacii erau foarte rari.

The trees were auite scarce.

o ploaie rece a cazut peste oras, A cold rain fell over the City.


Este frumos astazi, It's nice todey.

Rornanii din Transilvania vorbesc foarte rar. (The) Romeniens from Transylvania speak very slowly.

Domnul Anton le-a vorbit rece. Mr. Anton spoke to them coldly.


Romanian Reference Grammar

4. Pronoun

The most frequently used Romanian pronouns are personal, possessive, relative, and demonstrative. Since the grammar is derived from Latin, pronouns fall into case patterns, just like nouns. Latin-derived unstressed pronouns, as opposed to the stressed ones, increase the number of pronouns currently in use.

In the category of personal pronouns, there are three different degrees of politeness when referring to a second or third person. While the 'tu' form is extremely familiar and therefore used only when addressing family members, close friends, and children, it may be considered an insult if addressed to people who do not fall into these categories. The 'dumneata', 'dinsul', and 'dinsa' forms are appropriate when addressing coworkers, support people, and acquaintances. 'Dumneavoastra' is the safest -- official and polite -- form of addressing anyone over the age of twenty.

sg. 1st p.



eu (I) pl. noi (we)
tu (you) voi (you)
dumneata (you) dumneavoastra (you)
durnneavoastra (you) dumneavoastra (you)

el (he) ei (they)
dinsul (he) din$ii (they)
dumnealui (he) dumnealor (they)

ea (she) ele (they)
dinsa (she) dinsele (they)
dumneaei (she) dumnealor (they) These personal pronouns are considered 'main' or 'stressed' pronouns, and they are quite easy to remember. Unfortunately, because of the verb endings that often indicate the subject of the sentence, the main pronouns are omitted while 'unstressed' pronouns, which appear in rather peculiar forms, have a much higher frequency in the language.


Romanian Reference Grammar

The next chart includes main personal pronouns (without the polite forms) and their unstressed forms.

1stp.5g. N eu PI. noi
D mie, lrni, mi noua, ne, ne, ni
Ac pe mine, rna, m pe noi, ne
2nd p. 5g. N tu PI. voi
D tie, iti, ti voua, va, v, vi
Ac pe tine, te pe voi, va, v
V tu! voi!
3rd p. 5g. N el PI. ei
ea ele
D lui, n. i lor, Ie, Ie, Ii
ei, n. i lor, Ie, Ie, Ii
Ac pe el, n. I pe ei, li, i
pe ea, 0 pe ele, Ie As in the above chart, in the Dative case (mie, lmi, mi / noua, ne, ni / tie, iti, ti / voua, va, vi, v Ilui, li, i Ilor, Ie, Ii / ei, li, i I lor, Ie, Ii) the pronouns appear in front of the verb, regardless of the verb mood or tense:

• The first pronoun (mie) is used for emphasis and may be omitted, while the rest of the pronouns are mandatory, appearing in different verb tense combinations.

(Mie) imi place baclavaua. , like bacia va.


Romanian Reference Grammar

• The second pronouns (lmi, i1i, li, ne, va) appear in combinations with the Indicative present, imperfect, future (with 'voi'), simple past, and pluperfect tenses.

imi face placers sa merg pe jos. (Ind. pres.) I like to walk.

hi placea sa mergi la expozitii in Romania? (Ind. imperf) Did you enjoy going to exhibits in Romania?

ii voi da cartea milne. (Ind. future with "voi")


I will give him/her the book tomorrow.

La inceput va displacuse ideea, dar acum pareti multumitl. (Ind. pp) At the beginning you had disliked the idea, but now you seem to be content.

• The third pronominal forms (mi, ti, i, ne, v, Ie) are linked to Indicative compound past and Conditional.

Daniela mi-a telefonat acasa, (Ind. como. past) Daniela called me at home.

Il-a~ oferi 0 cafea daca ai timp. (Cond. pres.)

I would offer you a coffee if you had the time.

• The fourth pronominal forms (ni, vi, Ii) are linked to impersonal/generic verbs.

Ni s-a spus ca. din cauza zapezii. putem pleca acasa.(lnd.comp. past) We were told that, due to the snow, we may go home.

All pronouns in the Accusative case follow the same pattern. However the feminine singular (o) appears before most verbs, but comes after compound indicative verbs and after conditional verbs.

o intilnesc pe Mihaela in fiecare dirnineata, la metrou. (Ind. pres.) I meet Michelle every morning at the subway (stop).


Romanian Reference Grammar

Am intilnit-2 pe Mihaela la statia de metrou. (Ind. comp. past) I met Michelle at the subway stop.

Cind 2 intilnisem in Bucuresti, Anca era studenta, (Ind. pp.) When I had met Anca in Bucharest, she was a student.

Daca as vedea-2 pe Anca, probabil ca nu as recunoaste-2. (Cond.) If I saw Anca, I would probably not recognize her.

Normally, in natural speech, many pronouns occur together depending on verb specifications.


(Mie) imi place foarte mult primavara, nu mi-a placut niciodata vara. (As for myself) I like spring very much, I never liked summer.

Daca ne aduceti cite va cani, timpul ni se va parea mai scurt.

If you bring us some books, the time will seem to us shorter/we will pass the time easier.

Acum ma cheama Alexandra Voicu, in facultate rn-a chemat Alexandra Matei.

= =

Now I am called AlexandraVoicu; at the university I was called Alexandra Matei.

Ar fi bine sa ne telefonati simbata.

It would be good to call us on Saturday.

Ii-am spus sa vii oricind ill convine.

I told you to come whenever it's convenient to you.

y-am trimis 0 scrisoare saptarnlna trecuta ~i va trimit inca una azi. I sent you a letter last week and 1(,11) send you one more today.


Romanian Reference Grammar

Daca asa vi s-a spus, probabil ca e corect.

If this is the way you were told, it is probably correct.

Lui Dan i-am cumparat 0 cravata, Elenei II curnpar un fular. I bought a tie for Dan (and) 1(,11) buy a scarf for Elena.

Anul trecut i-am invitat la Institut pe domnul Ambasador, anul acesta 2 invitarn pe doamna Consul General.

Last year we invited the American Ambassador to the Institute; this year wet'tt) invite the Consul General.

Cind II vedeti pe Pope$ti, transmiteti-le, va rog, salutari de la noi. When you see the Popescus, please say hello from us.

Daca Ie rntllniti pe surorile Orleanu, invitati-Ie la ziua Ruxandrei. Nu-! uitati nici pe fratele lor.

If you meet the Orleanu sisters, invite them to Ruxandra's birthday. And don't forget their brother.

Prima data i-am vazut pe fotbali$tii rornani la Madrid.

The first time I saw the Romanian soccer players was in Madrid.

Imediat ce II contactati pe prietenii durnneavoastra, spuneti-le ca se apropie 0 avalansa,

As soon as you contact your friends, tell them that an avalanche is coming.

Note: When present in the sentence, the noun that was doubled by unstressed pronouns has been underlined.


Romanian Reference Grammar

The possessive pronouns/adjectives agree in gender and number with the 'possessed object' and in number with the 'possessor'. Depending on the gender and number of the possessed object, four main forms (masc. and fem. sg. and pl.) are available for each of the three persons:

1 t

s person
Masc. 5g meu Fem.5g. mea
Masc. PI. mei Fem. PI. mele ciinele meu = my dog (masc. sg) ciinii mei = my dogs (masc. pI)


prsica mea = my cat (fem. sg.) pisicile mele = my cats (fem. pI)

2nd person

Masc.5g. tau / Fem.5g. ta /
dumitale / dumitale /
dumneavoastra dumneavoastra
Masc. PI. tail Fem. PI. tale /
dumitale / dumitale /
dumneavoastra dumneavoastra While the second person possessives function very much like the first person pronouns, notice the three degrees of politeness.


Romanian Reference Grammar


r person
Masc. 5g. sau I Fem.5g. sa I
(dumnea)lui (dumneaiei
Masc. PI. sail Fem. PI. sale I
(dumnea)lui (dumneaiei The agreement in number with the 'possessor' works as in English:

ciinele meu = my dog ciinele nostru = our dog

ciinele lui = his dog ciinele ei = her dog

The possessive pronoun replaces a noun, indicating the idea of possession. The possessive markers are:

al (masc., sg.) a (fem., sg.)

ai (masc., pI) ale (fem., pl.)


Ma~ina mea e Ford, ca ~i a dumneavoastra. My car is a Ford, just like yours.

Numele meu este rornanesc, allui e american.


My name is Romanian; his is American.

Copiii nostri slnt la scoala, unde sint ai durnneavoastra? Our children are at school; where are yours?

Cartile me Ie slnt in limba rornana, ale ei slnt in engleza. My books are in Romanian; hers are in English.

As shown in the above examples, the possessive markers (ai, a ai, ale) change structures like 'my + noun' into 'mine', in which the possessive pronoun refers to a previously mentioned noun.


Romanian Reference Grammar

In interrogative questions, the interrogative-relative pronoun replaces the words that are expected as an answer to the question being asked. These pronouns are:

care = which, that cine = who

ce = what

cit = how much / many

'Care', 'cine' and 'cit' follow the noun declension rules and, with the exception of 'cine', also have different forms for masculine and feminine:


Case Gender Number Pronoun Number Pronoun
Nom.-Acc. MIFIN 5g. care PI. care
Gen. M (ai, a, ai, ale) (ai, a, ai, ale)
caruita) carorta)
F (ai, a, ai, ale) (ai, a, ai, ale)
careita) carorta)
Dat. MIN caruia carora
F careia carora Examples:

Care este mai complete, prima editie sau a doua? (Nom.) Which is more complete, the first edition or the second?

Profesoara care a luat cuvintul este de la Universitatea Bucuresti, (Nom.) The professor that took the floor is from University of Bucharest.

Colega al carei sot este francez a plecat la Paris. (Gen.) The colleague whose husband is French has left for Paris.

Au venit la petrecere toti prietenii carora Ie-am trimis invitatil. (Dat.) All my friends to whom I sent invitations came to the party.


Romanian Reference Grammar

Nu rna pot hotarl pe care rochie sa 0 cum par. (Acc.) I can't decide which dress I should buy.



Case Pronoun
Nom.-Acc. cine
Gen. (ai, a, ai, ale)
Oat. cui Examples:

Pentru cine bat clopotele. (Acc.) For whom the bells toll.

Nu slnt sigura cui sa-i dau acest cadou: fetei sau baiatului? (Dat.)

I'm not sure whom I should give this present: to the girl or to the boy?

Am qasit un bilet pe birou, dar nu stiu al cui este. (Gen.) I found a note on my desk, but I don't know whose it is.

ICe' has only one form and is usually translated as 'what'.


Ce crezi ca are de gind Dana?

What do you think Dana has in mind?

Nu stiu ce sa mai credo

I don't know what to think any more.

Ce s-a'ntimplat?

What happened? / What's going on? / What's up?


Romanian Reference Grammar


The clarification question 'Ce?' (What?) is perceived as being terribly impolite, and therefore should never be used as such. 'Poftim?' or 'Poftiti?' are the polite forms.




Case Gender Pronoun Gender Pronoun
N-Ac MIN cit M citi
F cit a FIN cite
G-O MIFIN citor Examples:

Nu sint sigur cit trebuie sa asteptarn.

I'm not sure how much (time) we should wait.

CIte kilograme de mere? How many kilos of apples?

Clta miere folositi la prajitura asta?

How much honey do you use for this pastry?

Cltor studenti le-ati dat nota maxima?

To how many students have you given the highest grade?

Aside from their regular use, relative pronouns appear in many high frequency idiomatic expressions such as:

Ce sa fac?! Cine ?tie?!

Ce s-a'ntirnplat?

as far as I'm concerned from what I've heard from what I know

Let's see who wins! (i.e. the outcome of a debate, fight, etc.)

What can I do?

Who knows?

What's up?, What happened?, What's going on?

In ceea ce rna priveste din cite am auzit


din cite stiu

Sa vedem care pe care!


Romanian Reference Grammar

The demonstrative pronoun replaces a noun while indicating closeness or distance in space or time. When accompanying a noun, it functions as an adjective, and agreement between the noun and the adjective is required. In form, demonstrative adjectives appear to be indefinite, while demonstrative pronouns are definite.

Masc. Nom.-Acc. 5g. acest (this) PI. acesti (these)
Gen.-Oat. acestui acestor
Fem. Nom.-Acc. aceasta * (this) aceste (these)
Gen.-Oat. acestei acestor
Masc. Nom.-Acc. acel (that) acei (those)
Gen.-Oat. acelui acelor
Fem. Nom.-Acc. acea * * (that) acele (those)
Gen.-Oat. acelei acelor All these forms become definite by adding an -a at the end.



aceasta ~ aceasta acea -s aceea


As an adjective, the demonstrative could be placed either before or after the noun, the first possibility being easier to use and more frequent. The English version of both variants is identical.

Demonstrative - Noun combinations:

Nom. -Acc.:

Gen. - Oat.:

indefinite demonstrative + indefinite noun modified demonstrative + indefinite noun

Noun - Demonstrative combinations:

Nom. - Acc.:

Gen. - Oat.:

definite noun + definite demonstrative modified noun + modified demonstra tive


Romanian Reference Grammar


Acest student este american.(Nom.)

Studentul acesta este american.

This student is American.

Am discutat deja cu acest student.(Acc.)

Am discutat deja cu studentu]


I already talked to this student.

Cartile acestui student slnt noi.(Gen.)

Cartile studentului acestuia sint noi.

This student's books are new.

t-arn dat cartile acestui student. (Oat.)

I-am dat cartile studentului acestuia.

I (We) gave the books to this student.

In the second category, for reasons easy to understand, speakers of Romanian tend to simplify the Gen.-Oat. demonstratives by eliminating the Gen.-Oat. inflection:

studentului acestuia ~ studentului acesta

More pronouns

The English expressions 'the same' and 'the same one (5)' are rendered in Romanian by the definite demonstrative pronoun acela / aceea + si:

Case/Number Masc. Fern.
Nom.-Acc. Sg acelasi aceeasl
Gen.-Dat. 5g. aceluiasi aceleiasi
Nom.-Acc. PI. aceiasi aceleasi
Gen.-Dat. PI. acelorasi acelorasi Examples:


Romanian Reference Grammar

Avem aceleasi intentii, dar nu acelasi modus operandi.

We have the same intentions, but not the same modus operandi.

Anul acesta oferim acelasi curs de limba ca ~i anul trecut. This year we offer the same language course as last year.

Vara aceasta nu s-au mai acordat burse acelorasi studenti ca anul trecut. Scholarships were not granted to the same students this summer as last year.

As above, the pronoun always precedes the noun and agrees with it, as do demonstratives in similar positions. (see Demonstrative Pronouns, p. 23).

Indefinite Pronouns replace a noun without providing any specific information about the replaced noun. The most-used indefinite pronouns are:

cineva (G-D cuiva) = ceva =

oricine (G-D oricui) = orice =

fiecare (G-D fiecarui) = alt, alta

alti, alte =

Negative Pronouns

someone something anyone anything each, every


nimeni (G-D nirnanui) = nobody

nimic = nothing

Pronouns of Emphasis

insumi, lnsami in~i~i, insele =

myself, themselves


Romanian Reference Grammar

5. Numerals

The Numerals, simple or compound, follow rather regular patterns:

1 (unu)

2 (doi)

3 (trei)

4 (patru)

5 (cinci)

6 (sase)

7 (sapte)

8 (opt)

9 (noua)

10 (zece)

11 (unsprezece I written and oral I, unspe loral only I)

12 (doisprezece, doispe)

13 (treisprezece, treispe)

14 (paisprezece, paispe)

15 (cinsprezece, cinspe)

16 (saisprezece, saispe)

17 (saptesprezece, saptespe)

18 (optsprezece, optispe)

19 (nouasprezece, nouaspe)

20 (douazeci)

21 (douazeci ~i unu)

22 (douazeci ~i doi) ...

30 (treizeci)

40 (patruzeci)

50 (ci n( ci)zeci)

60 (saizeci)

70 (saptezeci)

80 (optzeci)

90 (nouazeci)

100 (o suta)


Romanian Reference Grammar

101 (0 suta unu)
102 (0 suta doi) ...
200 (doua sute)
300 (trei sute) ...
1.000 (0 mie)
2.000 (doua mii)
1.000.000 (un milion)
2.000.000 (doua milioane) (un miliard) (doua miliarde) In Romanian there a two basic numeric structures:

Numeral (1-19) + Noun:

trei studenti, sapte carti, unsprezece ziare, nouasprezece lei

Numeral (20 to 999999 ... ) + de + Noun:

douazeci de studenti
treizeci ~i cinci de carti
o suta saptezeci de ziare
doua mii de lei 27

Romanian Reference Grammar

Unlike the rest of the numerals, the number '1' has a more complicated status:

• When next to a noun, it is identical with the indefinite article (see pages 1-2).

Case Masc. & Neuter Fem.
N-Ac. un 0
G-O unui unei Examples:

Am cumparat 0 sinqura carte pe care i-am dat-o unui student. I bought only one book which' gave to a/one student.

• Sometimes this numeral has a 'pronoun' value.

Case Masc. & Neuter Fem.
N-Ac. unul una
G-O unuia uneia Examples:

Cit despre studenti, unul a plecat deja la Bucuresti ~i una e pe drum.

As for our students, one has already left for Bucharest, and one is on her way.

While the numeral '1' has become a pronoun, with all the inflections of pronouns, the numeral '2' only has a feminine form. Compound numerals containing '1' or '2' as their last digit follow the same rules.

Am fost la rnasa cu doi americani ~i doua nemtoaice.

We went out to lunch/dinner with two American men and two German ladies.


Romanian Reference Grammar

The ordinal numerals are also divided by gender Inumber:

1. primul (intiiul) - prima (intiia) = the first (masc. and fem. sg.) primii - primele = the first (masc. and fem. pl.)

2. al doilea - a doua = the second (masc. and fem. sg.)

3. al treilea - a treia = the third (masc. and fem. sg.)

4. al patrulea - a patra = the fourth (masc. and fem. sq.), etc.

'Primul' and 'prima' excluded, all the other ordinal numerals receive:

lall + cardinal numeral + I -leal for masculine singular

lal + cardinal numeral + I -al for feminine singular.

The plural forms for masculine and feminine are rarely used.


in primul rind, vreau sa va rnulturnesc pentru ospitalitate.

First of all (in the first place) I would like to thank you for your hospitality.

Aceasta a fost a cincea carte a Rodicai Ojog Brasoveanu. This was Rodica Ojog Brasoveanu's fifth book.

Prietenul nostru a terminat cursa al doilea. Our friend finished the race in second place.


Romanian Reference Grammar

6. Verb

The verb is the core of any sentence. Without a verb, there may be elliptic interrogations, and rhetorical exclamations, but not complete sentences. Romanian verbs fall into three categories:

• auxiliary verbs

• regular verbs

• irregular verbs

The 3 Romanian auxiliary verbs (a fi = to be, a avea = to have, a voi = to want) appear in combination with main verbs as part of a compound mood or tense. They can also stand by themselves, as main verbs.

A fi =to be

Indicative Present: eu (nu) sint

tu (nu) esti

el lea (nu) este noi (nu) sintem voi (nu) slnteti ei lele (nu) sint

Indicative Imperfect: eu (nu) eram

tu (nu) erai

el I ea (nu) era

noi (nu) eram

voi (nu) erati

ei I ele (nu) erau


Romanian Reference Grammar

Indicative Compound Past (with auxiliary verb a avea in simplified form): eu {nul am fost

tu {nul ai fost

el / ea {nul a fost

noi {nul am fost

voi {nul ati fost

ei / ele {nul au fost

Indicative Future (with auxiliary verb a voi in simplified form):

Formal Informal

eu {nul voi fi eu {nul 0 sa fiu

tu {nul vei fi tu {nul 0 sa fii

el / ea {nul va fi noi {nul vom fi voi {nul veti fi ei / ele {nul vor fi

el / ea {nul o sa fie
noi {nul o sa fim
voi {nul o sa fiti
ei / ele {nul or sa fie The Subjunctive usually follows an active verb: eu {nul -sa fiu

tu {nul - sa fii

el / ea {nul -sa fie

noi {nul - sa fim

voi {nul - sa fiti

ei /ele {nul -sa fie

Conditional: eu {nul as fi tu {nul ai fi

el / ea {nul ar fi noi {nul am fi voi {nul ati fi ei / ele (nu) ar fi

Past Participle: fost

Gerund: fiind


Romanian Reference Grammar

A avea = to have

Indicative Present: eu (nu) am

tu (nu) ai

el/ea (nu) are
noi (nu) avem
voi (nu) aveti
ei I ele (nu) au
Indicative Imperfect:
eu (nu) aveam
tu (nu) aveai
el/ea (nu) avea
noi (nu) aveam
voi (nu) aveati
ei I ele (nu) aveau Indicative Compound Past: eu (nu) am avut tu (nu) ai avut

ell ea (nu) a avut
noi (nu) am avut
voi (nu) ati avut
ei I ele (nu) au avut Formal

eu (nu) voi avea tu (nu) vei avea

Indicative Future:


eu (nu) 0 sa am tu (nu) 0 sa ai

ell ea (nu) va avea ell ea (nu) o sa aiba
noi (nu) vomavea noi (nu) o sa avem
voi (nu) Yeti avea voi (nu) o sa aveti
ei I ele (nu) voravea ei / ele (nu) or sa aiba 32

Romanian Reference Grammar

Subjunctive: eu (nu) - sa am tu (nu) -sa ai

el / ea (nu) -sa aiba noi (nu) - sa avem voi (nu) - sa aveti ei / eJe (nu) -sa aiba


eu (nu) a~ avea tu (nu) ai avea

el / ea (nu) aravea
noi (nu) am avea
voi (nu) ati avea
ei /ele (nu) aravea Past Participle: avut

Gerund: avind

The verb 'a voi' appears as an auxiliary verb in the future Indicative (see conjugation of the verbs 'a fi' and 'a avea'). When used as an active verb, meaning 'to want', another verb is preferred: 'a vrea' (see Verb Index below).

Note: In confirmation-type interrogative sentences, Romanian, unlike English, uses an invariable confirmation segment: 'nu-i a~a?'


l-ati invitat ~i pe prietenii durnneavoastra. nu-i asa? You've invited your friends too, haven't you?

Slnteti americani, nu-i asa?

You are Americans, aren't you?

Vreti sa vedeti un film american, nu-i a~a?

You want to watch an American movie, don't you?


Romanian Reference Grammar

There are four groups of regular verbs:

Group I:

-a ending (Infinitive):

a lucr~ (to work), a vizita (to visit), a leg~ (to tie), a declara (to declare)

Group II:

-ea ending (Infinitive):

a vedea (to see), a placea (to like), a parea (to seem), a cadea (to fall)

Group III:

-e ending (Infinitive):

a decide (to decide), a fac~ (to do, make), a pllng~ (to cry)

Group IV:

-i I-i ending (Infinitive):

a cit! (to read), a prim! (to receive), a dormi (to sleep), a hotarl (to

- -

decide), a ur] (to hate), a cobor] (to go down [the mountain, the stairs, etc.})

Groups I and IV are very rich and productive. They contain all the verbs formed in Romanian, as well as neologisms.

Groups /I and III are non-productive, retaining only verbs from Latin.

Group 1-- Indicative Present Diagram

a ctnta a lucra
-- cint -ez lucrez
. clnti lucrezi
-I -ezi
-a clnta -eaza lucreaza
-m cintam -m lucrarn
-1i clntati -1i lucrati
-a ctnta -eaza lucreaza 34

Romanian Reference Grammar

Groups 1/ and 11/-- Indicative Present Diagram

a vedea {II) a face {III)
-- vad fac
. vezi faci
-e vede face
-m vedem facem
-1i vedeti faceti
-- vad fac Group IV -- Indicative Present Diagram

a dormi a citi a coborl a hotarl
-- dorm -esc citesc -- cobor -asc hotarasc
-I dormi -esti citesti -I cobori -asti hotarasti
-e doarme -e~te citeste -a coboara a~te hotataste
-m dormim -m citim -m coborlm -m hotarlm
-1i dorrniti -1i cititi -1i coborlti -1i hotarlti
-- dorm -esc citesc -a coboara -asc hotarasc As illustrated in the diagrams, the classification of a verb is not always a clear indication of its conjugation. The way verbs are listed in Romanian includes the first person singular of the present Indicative (i.e., a lucra is an -ez verb). The safest way to figure out the whole conjugation of a verb is by memorizing a few important forms:

a lucra Ind. Pres., 1st pers. Subj., 3rd pers. Past Participle Short Infinitive


sa lucreze lucrat lucra


Romanian Reference Grammar

Once these forms have been memorized, all verbs follow a regular pattern:

Indicative Present:

luerez, luerezi, lucreaza, lucrarn, lucrati, lucreaza Example: Luerez la Departamentul de Stat.

I work for the State Department.

Indicative Imperfect (stem of the verb + -am, ai, -a, -am, -ati, -au): lueram, luerai, luera, lueram, luerati, luerau

Example: Cind lueram la 0 scoala publica, aveam zeee-einsprezeee elevi in clasa.

When I was working for a public school, I had ten-fifteen students in a class.

Indicative Compound Past (am, ai, a, am, ati, au + Past Participle of the main verb): am luerat, ai luerat, a luerat, am luerat, ati luerat, au luerat

Example: In Franta ati luerat la Arnbasada sau la Consulat?

In France did you work at the Embassy or in the Consulate?

Indicative Future (0 + Subjunctive or voi, vei, va, vom, veti, vor + Short Infinitive): o sa luerez, 0 sa luerezi, 0 sa luereze, 0 sa lucrarn, 0 sa lucrati. or sa luereze

voi luera, vei luera, va luera, vom luera, veti luera, vor luera

Example: Clnd veti merge in Romania, 0 sa vizitati Castelullui Dracula.

When you (will) go to Romania, you will visit Dracula's Castle.

Subjunctive (identical with Indicative pres., except for the 3rd person, sg. and pI.): sa luerez, sa luerezi, sa luereze, sa lucrarn, sa lucrati, sa luereze

Example: Vreti sa mergeti la film sau la teatru?

Do you want to go to the movies or to the theater?

Conditional (a~, ai, ar, am, ati, ar + Short Infinitive): a~ luera, ai luera, ar luera, am luera, ati luera, ar luera

Example: V-ar interesa un proieet la care ati luera eu placere?

Would you be interested in a project you would really like to do?


Romanian Reference Grammar

Gerund (stem of the main verb + -ind) lucrind

Example: V-am vazut lucrind ~i nu v-am deranjat.

I saw you working and I didn 't bother you.


Some moods and tenses whose frequency in the language is low have been omitted.

Direct and Indirect Reflexive Verbs

The action of the reflexive verbs reflects upon the author of the action rather than on the object of the action. When a direct reflexive verb is used, its action refers to the subject of the sentence, as an entity, as a person/animate object. The indirect reflexive verbs also refer to the subject, but in a different way. The focus of the action is something that belongs to the subject, not the subject itself. Most verbs that are considered reflexive could, in fact, be active, direct reflexives, and indirect reflexives. Sometimes, depending on the reflexive pronoun used, the meaning of the verb changes too.


Active Verb:

a duee (to carry)

Miine due cartile la biblioteca,

Tomorrow I'll take the books to the library.

Direct Reflexive Verb:

a se duee (to go, to carry yourself to ... ) Vara rna due la piscina in fiecare zi.

In the summer I go to the pool every day.

Indirect Reflexive Verb:

a-~i duee (to carry)

Irni due hainele la curatat de doua ori pe luna.

I take my clothes to the cleaners twice a month.

Asa rule,

• active verbs mayor may not be followed by a direct object:

Nu piing usor,

I don 't cry easily.


Romanian Reference Grammar

Cunose istoria Europei foarte bine.

I know the history of Europe very well .

• direct reflexive verbs are never followed by a direct object:

Irnediat ce rna scol, preqatesc cafeaua. As soon as I get up, I fix the coffee.

• indirect reflexive verbs are always followed by a direct object:

Imi spal rnasina in fata casei fara problerne.

I wash my car in front of the house without any problems.

Note: Some English speakers use a direct object and a possessive pronoun for 'my car' ('Ma~ina mea'). However, this is a mistake in Romanian. The correct form is illustrated: 'lmi spal mesine' or even 'Spal mesine.' The assumption is that the subject of the sentence would normally wash his/her own car, not somebody else's, therefore the possessive pronoun is understood.

Direct and Indirect Reflexive Verbs (Sample)

a se spala (to wash)
Indicative Present: rna /imi spal
te / iti speli
se / i~i spala
ne spalam
va spalati
se / i~i spala Indicative Imperfect: ma limi spalarn
te I i~i spala
se / i~i spala
ne spalam
va spalati
se / i~i spalau 38

Romanian Reference Grammar

Indicative Compound Past:

m- Imi- am spalat te-/ti- ai spalat s-I ~i- a spalat ne- am spalat v- ati spalat s-I ~i- au spalat

Indicative Future:

ma voi spala
te vei spala
se va spala
ne vom spala
va veti spala
se vor spala Direct Reflexives

o sa rna spal

o sa te speli

o sa se spele

o sa ne spalam

o sa va spalati or sa se spele

irni voi spala
iti vei spala
i~i va spala
ne vom spala
va veti spala
i~i vor spala Indirect Reflexives: o sa-mi spal

o sa-ti speli
o sa-~i spele
o sa ne spalam
o sa va spalati
or sa-~i spele Subjunctive (Direct and Indirect Reflexives): -- sa rna I-mi spal

-- sa te I-ti speli

-- sa se I -~i speli I spele

-- sa ne spalarn

-- sa va I-~i spalati I spele

-.. sa se I-~i spele


Romanian Reference Grammar

m-/ mi- as spala
te- / ti- ai spala
5- /~i- ar spala
ne- am spala
v- ati spala
5- /~i- ar spala
Gerund: spallndu / -se / -~i Active verb Direct Reflexive Verb Indirect Reflexive Verb
a convinge a se convinge a-~i convinge (prietenii)
to persuade to convince oneself to convince/persuade one's friends
a corecta a se co recta a-~i corecta (qreselile)
to correct to correct oneself to correct one's own mistakes
a culca a se culca a-si culca (copiii)
to put to bed to go to sleep to put one's own children to bed
a cunoaste a se cunoaste (pe sine) a-sl cunoaste (interesul)
to know to know oneself to know own's interest
a dedica a se dedica a-si dedica (eforturile)
to dedicate to dedicate oneself to to dedicate one's own efforts to
aduce a se duce a-si duce (colegii la)
to take, carry togo to take colleagues to
a face a se face a-sl face (cafea)
to do, make to become to make one's own coffee 40

Romanian Reference Grammar

a lrnbraca a se trnbraca a-si lmbraca (copiii)
to dress to dress oneself to dress one's children
a incuia a se incuia a-~i incuia (dosarele)
to lock to lock oneself to lock own files
a ingriji a se ingriji a-~i ingriji (plantele)
to care for to care for one's own to care for one's own plants
health, appearance
a intreba a se intreba a-sl intreba (veci n i i)
to ask (a question) to ask oneself to ask one's own neighbors
alauda a se lauda (pe sine) a-sl lauda (marfa)
to praise to praise oneself to praise one's own merchandise
a pierde a se pierde a-si pierde (rabdarea)
to lose to lose your way to lose patience
a plictisi a se plictisi a-si plictisi (audienta)
to bore, annoy to get bored to annoy the audience
a plimba (ursul!) a se plimba a-si plimba (ciinele)
to go away to walk to walk one's own dog
a plinge a se plinge a-~i plinge (confratii)
to cry to complain to cry for one's buddies
a purta a se purta
to carry, wear, bear to behave, act
a reface a se reface a-sl reface (forte Ie)
to redo to recover to recover 41

Romanian Reference Grammar

a retrage a se retrage
to withdraw to withdraw
a spala a se spala
to wash to wash oneself
a tala a se tala
to cut to cut oneself a-~i retrage (plingerea)

to withdraw (the complaint)

a-~i spala (masina)

to wash one's own car

a-~i tala ('sandwiciul')

to cut one's own sandwich

a trezi a se trezi

to wake someone up to wake up

a-sl trezi (vecinii)

to wake the neighbors up

a uita

to forget

a se uita to look at

a-sl uita (cartile acasa) to leave books at home

Few verbs are used exclusively as direct reflexives:

a se plimba = to take a walk a se preface = to pretend

Some other verbs come in active -- indirect reflexive pairs:

a aduce aminte to remind

a-sl aduce aminte to remember

a aminti to remind

a-si aminti

to remember

a pierde to lose

a-~i pierde (timpul) to waste time

a cumpara to buy

a-~i curnpara

to buy for oneself


to take, get

a-si lua

to get something for oneself


Romanian Reference Grammar

a aduce to bring

a-sl aduce

to bring something for oneself


Am adus citeva carti romanesti pentru student]. !active verb! I brought some Romanian books for the students.

Mi-am adus citeva carti de citit. !indirect reflexive verb! I brought some of my books to read.

The indirect reflexive pronouns are also called 'possessive' pronouns because of their semantic function.


Romanian Reference Grammar

Use of Verb Moods and Tenses

Indicative * -- action presented by the speaker as being real (the high frequency moods/tenses are marked with an asterisk).

The Indicative has several tenses, some more frequent than others:


in fiecare zi orele incep la noua, Classes start at 9 0' clock every day.

Imperfect* (continuous action that took place in the past):

Cind era studenta, mergea des la discoteca,

When she was a student, she used to go to the disco often.

Compound Past* (past action, limited in length):

Cind era students, a mers la discoteca numai 0 data. When she was a student, she only went to the disco once.

Future (Formal) *:

Cind Yeti merge in Romania, 0 sa vedeti mai multe. When you (will) go to Romania, you will see more.

Pluperfect (past action completed before another past action):

Va trimisesem deja scrisoarea cind mi-ati dat telefon. I had already sent you the letter when you ca/led.

Simple past (literary or dialectal tense that describes a recent past action):

Razvan doar pleca, Razvan just left.

Subjunctive * -- an action that is possible; second verb in a group of two verbs.


Sa vedem ce se va intimpla! Let's see what will happen!


Romanian Reference Grammar

A~ vrea sa beau 0 cafea.

I would like to drink a coffee.

The Subjunctive, as a second verb in a sentence, appears frequently after verbs such as: a vrea (to want), a placea (to like), a prefera (to prefer), a ruga (to ask); it also appears after several expressions:

e usor sa

e dificil Igreu sa e 0 placere sa

e plictisitor sa

e normal sa

e (nelplacut sa

it is easy to

it is difficult I hard to it is a pleasure to

it is boring to

it is normal to

it is (un)pleasant to

Past Tense *:

Mi-ar fi pia cut sa fi vazut 'Casablanca' cind s-a discutat acest film.

I would have liked to have seen 'Casablanca' when the movie was discussed.

Conditiona/* -- action whose accomplishment depends on a condition

Present Tense *:

A$ merge la film daca a$ avea timp.

I would go to the movies if I had the time.

Past Tense:

A$ fi mers la film daca a$ fi avut timp.

I would have gone to the movies if I had had the time.

Note: In their attempt to simplify the language, Romanian speakers often replace the Conditional with Indicative forms:

A~ merge Merg la film daca a~ a·tea am timp.

A~ fi mers Mergeam la film daca a~ fi avut aveam timp.


Romanian Reference Grammar

Imperative * -- action that expresses an order, command, or request Dati-mi, va rog, un bilet pentru spectacolul de la ora 7.

Please give me a ticket for the 70 'clock show.

Nu va deranjati, rna descurc singur.

Don't bother, I can take care of this myself

Infinitive * -- used, in its short form, after one verb: 'a putea' Nu pot lnteleqe ce s-a lntlmplat.

I cannot understand what happened.

Past Participle * -- used in some compound verb tenses (Indicative compound past is the most frequently used)

Clnd am vazut ca ploua, mi-am luat umbrela. When I realized it was raining, I took my umbrella.

The past participle is frequently used with a preposition:

in week-end am mult de spalat,

Over the weekend I have a lot to wash.

Am dus hainele la curatat.

I took my clothes to be cleaned.

Curind trebuie sa merg la tuns. Soon I have to go get a haircut.

Gerund -- unfolding action, without precise time reference Am vazut-o pe Andreea plecind de acasa.

I saw Andrea leaving home.

Note: Unlike in English, the Gerund has low-frequency use in Romanian. Structures such as 'Running is a popular sport' would be translated 'Alergatul este un sport popular' in which 'alergatul' is not a Gerund, but a noun drawn from a past participle:

a alerga / alergat (past participle) / alergatul (definite noun)


Romanian Reference Grammar

Even though there is a clear definition of each mood and tense, sometimes easier or more convenient forms are used in place of the recommended ones.


Plecam la munte daca aveam bani.

I would have gone to the mountains had I had the money (if I had the money).

The recommended form would be:

A~ fi plecat la munte daca as fi avut bani.

using two past Conditionals in place of the much simpler Indicative imperfect. This form is usually found in written texts.

Vara aceasta mergem la munte ~i la mare.

This summer we'll go to the mountains and to the sea.

The recommended form would be:

Vara aceasta vom mergelo sa mergem la munte ~i fa mare.

(using either form of the Indicative future. The Indicative present however, does the job just as well.) This form is usually spoken rather than written.

Bogdan a spus ca va fi acolo miine.

Bogdan said that he would be there tomorrow.

The verb tense agreement for past tenses is not as strict as in English. The 'said' ~~ 'would' combination comes across in Romanian as 'a spus' (compound past) -- 'va fi' (future), simply because the action of the first sentence takes place in the past, while the action of the second sentence takes place in the future.

Note that some verbs require nouns/pronouns in the Dative case when one might expect the much simpler and more common Accusative case. Verbs such as ' a merge' (to walk), 'a luera' (to work), 'a vizita' (to visit), 'a minca' (to eat), 'a calatort' (to trevett, 'a completa' (to complete, finish, fill out), mayor may not have a direct object whose case is always in the Accusative.


Romanian Reference Grammar


Merg la servici in fiecare zi. (NO direct object) I go to work every day.

Am vizitat Romania acum citiva ani. /Rornania (direct object) I visited Romania a few years ago.

(Eu) I-am vizitat pe Dan.

I visited Dan.

Note that in Romanian, when the direct object is a person, the structure of the sentence stresses the direct object double pronoun (1- .... ) as well as the direct object itself accompanied by 'pe':

II vad pe Dan.

ii vad pe Dan si Andrei. o vad pe Dana.

Le vad pe Dana si Carina.

L-am vazut pe Dan

I-am vazut pe Dan si Andrei. Am vazut-o pe Dana.

The direct object pronoun for feminine singular follows compound tense verbs instead of preceding the verb.

Le-am vazut pe Dana si Carina.

Other verbs must have an indirect object whose case is always in the Dative. Examples:

a da (to give)

t-arn dat Mariei dteva carti, I gave Maria a few books.

Note: All compound verbs (some idiomatic expressions are excluded!) that contain 'a da' follow the same pattern:

a da telefon (to call on the phone) ada sfaturi (to give advice)

a da baqi~ (to give a tip)


Romanian Reference Grammar

a spune (to say)

Le-am spus studentilor ca pot participa la aceasta activitate. I told the students that they may take part in this activity.

a arata (to show)

Ghidulle-a aratat turistilor citeva manuscrise originale.

The tour guide showed the tourists some original manuscripts.

a aduce (to bring)

Data viitoare aduceti-mi, va rog, certificatul de nastere, Next time, please bring me your birth certificate.

a duce (to take)

o sa-i due Alexandrei bomboane ~i flori.

I will take some candy and flowers tolfor Alexandra.

a trimite (to send)

Le-am trimis vederi prietenilor mei. I sent postcards to my friends.

a multumi (to thank)

i-am multumit lui Dan pentru felicitare. I thanked Dan for the greeting card.

a serie (to write)

I-am seris 0 scrisoare vecinei mele din Vermont. I wrote a letter to my neighbor in Vermont.

a citi (to read)

!-ai citit povestea fetitei?

Did you read the story to your little girl?

Except for 'a multurni', all these verbs accept a direct object as well as an indirect object that indicates the direction or destination of the action.


Romanian Reference Grammar

a placea (to like)

imi place sa beau apa minerala. I like to drink mineral water.

imi plac foarte mult florile tropicale. I like tropical flowers very much.

Note: In this latter example 'lrni place' is followed by singular direct objects; 'lmi plac' is followed by plural direct objects.

Widely used verbs that do not exactly fit into any of the above categories are: mi-e, ti-e, ii e, ne e, va e, Ie e + foame = I'm, you are ... hungry

sete = thirsty

cald = hot

frig = cold

frica = afraid

rusine = ashamed

jena = embarrassed

Unipersonal and Impersonal Verbs

The conjugation of these verbs is characterized by the presence of only one person: 3rd person singular:

ploua = it rains

ninge = it snows

tuna = it's thundering

se spune ca = it is said that

se afirma ca = it is stated that se aude ca = it is rumored that

The expression 'have to', 'must' = 'trebuie' is also unipersonal.


Trebuie sa merg la serviciu. I have to go to work.


Romanian Reference Grammar

Cind trebuie sa aveti raportul gata? When must you have the report done?

Trebuie sa plec. I've got to go.

The Irregular Verbs display stem variations when they are conjugated. The most used ones are:

Short Infinitive Past Participle Subj., 3rd p. Indicative Present
da (give) dat dea dau, dai, da. dam, dati, dau
minca (eat) mincat manince rnanlnc, maninci. maninca, rnincarn,
rnlncati, rnaninca
bea (drink) baut bea beau, bei, bea, bem, beti, beau
putea (can) putut poata pot, poti, poate, putem, putesi, pot
da (give) dat dea dau, dai, da. dam, dati, dau
lua (take) luat ia iau, iei, ia, luarn, luati, iau
sta (stay) stat stea stau, stai, sta, starn, stati, stau 51

Romanian Reference Grammar

7. Prepositions

Most prepositions, whether they are simple or compound, require the Accusative

la at
pe on
in in
cu with
pentru for
linga beside
sub under
peste over
inspre toward
despre about, etc. Some prepositions, however, most of them in definite-like form, require the Gen.Oat. case:

in jurul in fata

contra, impotriva asupra


gratie, multurnita datorita

din cauza


in front of against about

over thanks to because of due to

As illustrated, some of the Gen.-Oat. prepositions have corresponding Accusative counterparts: despre (Acc.) I asupra (Gen.-Oat.):


Sa va spun cite ceva despre aceasta problema. (Acc.)

Sa va spun cite ceva asupra acestei probleme. (Gen.-Oat.) Let me tell you something about this issue.


Romanian Reference Grammar

The preposition 'datorita' should always be used with positive statements, while 'din cauza' should be used with negative statements.


Am terminat facultatea la timp datorita bursei pe care am obtinut-o in ultimul an.

I graduated from the university in time because of the grant I obtained in my senior year.

Din cauza vremii ploioase, nu am putut merge la pic-nic. Due to the rainy weather, we couldn't go to the picnic.

While the abstract meaning of the prepositions is easy to memorize, as soon as they are used in a syntactic context, the logic of using a certain preposition and not another may become difficult to figure out. An American could be on the plane; a Romanian is always in the plane. (The use of the Romanian equivalent of 'on', in this context, would place the person on top of the plane.)

In English, prepositions are frequently not followed by a noun (e.g., 'get up', 'what are you looking at?', etc.). In Romanian, a preposition is always the first part of a two-word unit:

in capitala (in the capita/)

la Bucuresti (in/to Bucharest) cu mine (with me)

pe romaneste (in Romanian) la telefon (on the phone)

in avion (on the plane)

The intention behind this Reference Grammar was to present the most frequent grammatical features used by educated Romanians. Structures that are known to have given a hard time to English speakers learning Romanian have been expanded and illustrated by comparison / contrast with English.


Romanian Reference Grammar



abandon accompany accustom acquire, gain add

admit, hospitalize adorn




annihilate announce


approach arrange, adjust arrive


ask for, request ask (inquire) ask (request) assume




attend, be present, sit in, audit (a course) attend




8 bake base be

be able, can, may be absent, lacking

parasi, abandona tnsoti



adauqa, aduna (math) interna





nimici, anihila anunta aparea

se apropia potrivi

sosi, ajunge urea

cere lntreba ruga presupune asigura ata~a


asista frecventa atrage astepta destepta

coace intemeia fi

putea lipsi


Romanian Reference Grammar

be bored se plictisi
be born se naste
become deveni
begin in cepe
be glad se bucura
beg implora
believe crede
be located se afla
be satisfied, be full se satura
blow sufla
boil fierbe
border rnarqini
break rupe, frtna. fringe
break, shatter sparge
breathe respira
breathe (easily) rasufla
bribe mitui
bring aduce
browbeat maltrata
build cladi
burn arde
burst izbucni
buy cumpara
call chema
calm down linisti, astimpara
care for ingriji
carry duce
cash incasa
catch prinde
catch a cold raci
change, exchange schimba
change one's mind se razqindi
charm, delight lnclnta
check controla
choke se ineca
choose alege
circulate circula
claim pretinde, revendica
clean curata 56

Romanian Reference Grammar

close, shut collect, gather come

come back, return complain

complete, graduate comprehend, excel in comprise

conduct, direct congratulate conquer


convince, persuade cook



cover create

cross oneself cry


dance dare daub deafen decide dedicate defend deflate delay

depart, leave depend deposit descend describe develop


discover discuss


ad una, culege veni


se pinge absolvi

se pricepe cuprinde dirija felicita cuceri construi convinge

face mincare (see 'face') coopera

nurnara (math), conta (on people, things)



se inchina pllnge


lndrazni. provoca rnizqali


hotart, decide dedica, inchina apara dezumfla lntlrzia


depinde depune


descrie dezvolta


descoperi discuta


Romanian Reference Grammar

displace distinguish disturb dive

divide divorce

do, make drain dream dress


drive (a car)

drive mad, go mad drizzle

drown, sink




eliminate embarrass embrace



endure, stand enhance




erode, gnaw

err, make mistakes escape


exceed, surpass excuse







strarnuta distinge deranja

se scufunda lmparti, desparti divorta


scurge (water), seca (a lake) visa






se Ineca



lichida, elimina jena

tmbratisa lnlantui Inzestra suporta







scapa, evada (from prison) instaura, stabili










Romanian Reference Grammar


fall favor feel fertilize fight fill


find out, learn (something new) fire (a person)

float, drift

flourish, bloom


follow, come after follow, pursue forbid


foresee, stipulate forget




fulfill, acquit fulfill



cadea favoriza sirnti

ingra~a, fertiliza lupta, se bate umple










sili, forta prevedea



fonda, intemeia se infrati


indeplini functions mobila

G gather

get aboard, ascend get along

get in, board


give (gifts) glide, slide go

go fora walk

go out, come out go to bed

go to sleep

aduna se sui

se Impaca se urea da

darui aluneea

merge, se duee se plimba


se eulca adormi


Romanian Reference Grammar

go up, rise urea
govern guverna
grab apuea
grant aeorda
grate (cheese, etc.) rade
greet saluta
grow ere~te
grumble bornbani
happen se intlmpla
harvest reeolta
have avea
hear auzi
heat, warm up tncalzi
help ajuta
hesitate ezita, pregeta
hijack (a plane) deturna
hint, refer to viza
hire, employ angaja
hit, strike lovi
hold tine
hold up (a bank) jefui
honor cinsti
hope spera
hurry se qrabi
hurt, ache durea
improve trnbunatati
increase spori, mari
inherit rnosteni
inquire intreba
insist insista
interest interesa
iron; walk (descriptive) calca
join together impreuna
jump sari 60

Romanian Reference Grammar


keep kidnap kiss know

pastra rapi

saruta. pupa cunoaste, sti


labor, toil last


launch, introduce lay


learn; teach leave; start

let, allow, leave (something) lie

light (fire, electric bulbs) listen



look at

look for, seek look, look at lose

lose one's way love




make peace manage marry

munci dura ride lansa asterne conduce tnvata porni lasa rninti aprinde asculta

sta, locui, trai lncarca



se uita


se rataci



matter mean, signify meet





se lrnpaca qospodari, conduce

se casatori: se rnarita (for females), se lnsura (for males)




se contopi mulge rataci


Romanian Reference Grammar

moan, groan move

move, relocate multiply murmur mutter


name, call neighbor note nurse

o obtain

occupy, be busy oil, grease



order overthrow overwhelm

p participate go through pay penetrate perish pierce



play (a musical instrument) please




pour, shed (tears) practice




geme rnisca

se muta Inrnulti murmura balrna]i

numi invecina nota alapta

obtine ocupa unge deschide oprima

porunci, ordona rasturna


participa pati

plati patrunde pieri gauri

planifica, planui se juca

cinta la



pensa (eyebrows), jumuli (birds) arnlna







Romanian Reference Grammar

prepare preqati
prescribe prescrie
press, lean apasa
pretend se preface
prey on prada
pride oneself se mindri
process prelucra
promote promova
pronounce pronunta
prove dovedi
provide aproviziona
provoke stirni, provoca
push impinge
put in place piasa
put out (fire, cigarette) stinge
put, place, set pune
puzzle incurca
quiet down potoli, linisti
rain ploua
raise, lift ridica
read citi
receive primi
recommend recomanda
record inregistra
redden lnrosi
refer se referi
regret parea rau, regreta
rejuvenate lntineri
remain, stay ramine
remind aminti
rent inchiria
repeat repeta
replace lnlocui
request cere
rescue, save salva
research cerceta
resemble; sow (plants) semana 63

Romanian Reference Grammar

respond, answer rest




ride (a horse) ring, sound rise, get up rise, spring up rock




raspunde se odihni relua

se lntoarce reinvia calari


se scula rasari

cutremura (violently); legana (a baby) freca




save, economize say, tell





see again, revise seem, appear sell


settle down


shake; shake hands shave

shine, glitter show, look sign

sing, play (a musical instrument) SIp

sit down situate ski

skim, scan skin

sleep smart, sting

economisi spune, zice inregistra dispretui sculpta vedea revedea parea vinde

desparti, separa se stabili


scutura; da rnina (see 'da') se rade

luci, straluci arata semna cinta


sta jos aseza

schia frunzari jupui

dormi ustura


Romanian Reference Grammar

smell smile smoke snow

speak formally speak, talk specify


spend, pass spit

spoil, ruin, corrupt spot, drip on spread



stay, stand, live (address) steal

stick, paste stock


stretch, extend strive




suffice swallow


sweat, perspire swim

T take

take apart take, carry take out talk tarnish taste taunt

mirosi zimbi

fuma (cigarettes), afuma (meat) ninge







strica, corupe pica, pata raspindi strlnge

porni (engine), Incepe, se apuca de/sa ( + action)







se stradui









lua desface duce scoate vorbi, grai pata gusta injura


Romanian Reference Grammar

tear rupe
tear apart sfisia
tell povesti (story), spune
testify, confess rnarturisi
thank rnultumi
think qindi
throw arunca
thrust impinge
tickle gidila
tie, fasten, connect lega
tip apleca
tire, fatigue obosi
touch, reach atinge
travel calatori
traverse, cross strabate. traversa
try, attempt incerca
undermine submina
understand Inteleqe, pricepe
unfasten desface
unfold desfasura
unite uni
unload descarca
untie descheia
use folosi, uza
value pretui
verify verifica
violate tncalca
walk, travel umbla, calatori
want, wish vrea
wash spala
weaken slabi
wear, bear, carry purta
weave, braid lmpleti
weep, cry plinge
wet uda
whistle fluiera 66

Romanian Reference Grammar

wield, spin win, earn wish, desire

wonder, ask oneself wonder, be surprized work





yell, shout

invirti cistiqa dori

se intreba se mira lucra inrautati scrie

a da prioritate striga


Romanian Reference Grammar

INDEX (Romanian Verbs -- Conjugated)

Short Infinitive Past Participle Subjunctive Indicative Present
abandona abandonat abandoneze abandonez, abandonezi,
abandonati, abandoneaza
absolvi absolvit *** ***
achita achitat achite achit, achiti, achita, achitam,
achitati, achita
acoperi acoperit acopere acopar, acoperi, acopera, acoperim,
acoperiti, acopera
adauga adauqat adauge adaug, adaugi, adauqa, adauqarn,
adauqati, adauqa
adormi adormit adoarma adorm, adormi, adoarme,
adormim, adormiti, adorm
aduce adus aduca aduc, aduci, aduce, aducem,
aduceti, aduc
aduna adunat adune adun, aduni, aduna, adunarn,
adunati, aduna
afla aflat afle aflu, afli, afla, aflam. atlati, afla
afuma afumat afume afum, afumi, afurna, afumarn,
afumati, afurna
ajunge ajuns ajunqa ajung, ajungi, ajunqe. ajungem,
ajunqeti, ajung
ajuta ajutat ajute ajut, ajuti, ajuta, ajutarn, ajutati,
alapta alaptat alapteze alaptez, alaptezi, alapteeza.
alaptarn, alaptatl, alapteaza Romanian Reference Grammar

alege ales aleaqa aleg, alegi, alege, alegem, aleqeti,
alerga alergat alerge alerg, alergi, alearga, alerqam,
alerqati, alearqa
aluneca alunecat alunece alunec, aluneci, aluneca, alunecarn.
alunecati, aluneca
amina aminat amine amin, amini, arnina, aminarn,
aminati, arntna
aminti amintit arninteasca amintesc, arnintesti, arninteste,
amintim, arnintiti, amintesc
angaja angajat angajeze angajez, angajezi, angajeaza,
anqajam, anqajati. angajeaza
anihila anihilat anihileze anihilez, anihilezi, anihileaza,
anihilam, anihilati, anihileaza
anunta anuntat anunte anunt, anunti, anunta. anuntam,
anuntatl, anunta
apara aparat apere apar, aperi, apara, aparam. aparati,
aparea aparut apara apar, apari, apare, aparern, apareti,
apasa apasat apese apas, apesi, apasa. apasarn. apastl,
apleca aplecat apiece aplec, apleci, apleaca, aplecarn,
aplecati, apleaca
aprinde aprins aprinda aprind, aprinzi, aprinde, aprindem,
aprindeti, aprind
apropia apropiat apropie apropii, apropii, apropie,
apropiem, apropiati, apropie 70

Romanian Reference Grammar

aproviziona aprovizionat aprovizioneze aprovizionez, aprovizionati,
aprovizioneaza, aprovizionam,
aprovizionati, aprovizioneaza
apuca apucat apuce apuc, apuci, apuca, apucarn,
apucati, apuca
ara arat are ar, ari, ara, aram, arati, ara
arata aratat arate arat. arati, arata, aratam, aratati,
arde ars arda ard, arzi, arde, ardem, ardeti, ard
arunca aruncat arunce arunc, arunci, arunca, aruncam,
aruncatl, arunca
asculta ascultat asculte ascult, asculti, asculta, ascultarn,
ascultati. asculta
a~eza a~ezat aseze asez, asezi, aseaza, asezarn, asezati,
asigura asigurat asigure asigur, asiguri, asigura, asiquram,
asiqurati, asigura
asista asistat asiste asist, asisti, asista, aslstarn, asistati,
astepta asteptat astepte astept, astepti, asteapta, asteptarn,
asteptati, asteapta
asterne asternut astearna astern, asternl. asterne, asternem,
asterntl, astern
astlmpara astlrnparat astimpere astlmpar, astimperi, astimpara,
asttmpararn. astlmparati, astimpara
asurzi asurzit asurzeasca asurzesc, asurzesti, asurzeste,
asurzim, asurziti, asurzesc
ataca atacat atace atac, ataci, ataca, atacarn. atacati,
ataca 71

Romanian Reference Grammar

ata~a ata~at ataseze atasez, atasezi, ataseaza, atasam,
atasati, ataseaza
atinge atins atinga ating, atingi, atinge, atingem,
atinqeti, ating
atrage atras atraga atrag, atragi, atrage, atragem,
atraqeti, atrag
auzi auzit auda aud, auzi, aude, auzim, auziti, aud
avea avut alba am, ai, are, avem, aveti, au
balmaji balmajit balrnajeasca balmajesc, balrnajesti, balrnajeste,
balrnajirn, balmajiti, balrnajesc
bate batut bata bat, batl, bate, batem, bateti, bat
bea baut bea beau, bei, bea, bem, beti, beau
bombani bombanit bombaneasca bornbanesc, bornbanesti,
bombaneste, bornbanirn,
bornbaniti, bombanesc
se bucura bucurat bucure bucur, bucuri, bucura, bucurarn,
bucuratl, bucura
burnita burnltat burniteze burniteaza
cades cazut cada cad, cazi, cade, eadem, cadeti, cade
calari calarit calareasca calaresc, calaresti, calareste.
calarim, calariti, calaresc
calatori calatorit calatoreasca calatoresc, calatoresti, calatoreste,
calatorim, calatoriti, calatoresc
calca calcat calee cale, calei, calca, calcam, calcati,
calca 72

Romanian Reference Grammar

se casatori casatorlt casatoreasca casatoresc,casatore~ti,casatore~te,
casatorim, casatoriti, casatoreste
cauta cautat caute caut, cauti, cauta, cautarn, cautati,
cerceta cercetat cerceteze cercetez, cercetezi, cerceteaza,
cercetarn, cercetati, cerceteaza
cere cerut ceara cer, ceri, cere, cerem, cereti, cer
cheltui cheltuit cheltuiasca cheltuiesc, cheltuiesti, cheltuieste.
cheltuim, cheltuiti, cheltuiesc
chema chemat cheme chem, chemi, cheama, chernam,
chemati, cheama
cinsti cinstit cinsteasca cinstesc, cinstesti, cinsteste, cinstim,
cinstiti, cinstesc
cinta cintat dnte cint, cinti, clnta, cintarn, clntati,
circula circulat eircule circul, circuli, circula, circularn,
circulati, circula
cistlqa cistlqat d~tige d~tig, cistiqi. ci~tiga, cistiqam,
clstiqati, ci~tiga
citi citit citeasca citesc, citesti, citeste, citim, cititi,
cladi clait cladeasca cladesc, cladesti, cladeste, cladirn,
claditi, clad esc
coace copt coaca coc, coei, coace, coacem, coaceti,
coase cusut coase cos, cosi, coase, cusem, cuseti, cos
cobori coborlt coboare cobor, cobori, coboara. coborim,
coborlti, coboara 73

Romanian Reference Grammar

concedia concediat concedieze concediez, concediezi, concedlaza,
concediem, concediati, concediaza
conduce condus conduce conduc, conduci, conduce,
conducem, conduceti, conduc
construi construit construiasca construiesc, construiesti,
construieste, construim, construiti,
conta contat conteze contez, contezi, conteaza, contarn,
contati. conteaza
se contopi contopit contopeasca contopesc (3rd pers. pl.)
controla controlat controleze controlez, controlezi, controleaza.
controlarn, controlati, controleaza
convinge convins convinqa conving, convingi, convinge,
convingem, convinqeti, conving
coopera cooperat coopereze cooperam, cooperati, coopereaza,
cooperam, cooperati, coopereaza
coplesi coplesit copleseasca coplesesc, coplesesti, copleseste,
coplesirn, coplesiti, coplesesc
corupe corupt corupa corup, corupi, corupe, corupem,
corupeti, corup
crea creat creeze creez, creezi, creeaza, cream, creati,
crede crezut creada cred, crezi, crede, credem, credeti,
cre~te crescut creasca cresc, cresti, creste, crestern cresteti,
cuceri cucerit cucereasca cuceresc, cuceresti, cucereste,
cucerim, cuceriti. cuceresc
se culca culcat culce culc, culci, culca, culcam, culcati.
culca 74

Romanian Reference Grammar

culege cules culeaqa culeg, culegi, culege, culegem,
culeqeti, culeg
curnpara cumparat cumpere curnpar, cmperi, cumpara,
cumpararn, cumparati, cumpara
cunoaste cunoscut cunoasca cunosc, cunosti, cunoaste.
cunoastern, cunoasteti, cunosc
cuprinde cuprins cuprinda cuprind, cuprinzi, cuprinde,
cuprindem, cuprindeti, cuprind
curata curatat curete curat, cureti, curata, curatam,
curatati, curata
se cutremura cutremurat cutremure cutremur, cutremuri, cutrernura,
cutrernuram, cutremurati,
cutrernura 0
da dat dea dau, dai, da, dam, dati, dau
dansa dansat danseze dansez, dansezi, danseaza,
dansam, dansati, danseaza
darui daruit daruiasca daruiesc, daruiesti, daruieste,
daruim. daruiti, daruiesc
depa~i depasit depaseasca depasesc, depasesti, depaseste,
depasim, depasiti, depasesc
depinde depins depinda depind, depinzi, depinde,
depindem, depindeti, depind
depune depus depuna depun, depui, depune, depunem,
depuneti, depun
deranja deranjat deranjeze deranjez, deranjezi, deranjeaza,
deranjarn, deranjati, deranjeaza
descarca descarcat descarce descarc, descarci, descarca,
descarcam, descarcati, descarca 75

Romanian Reference Grammar

descheia descheiat descheie deschei, deschei, descheie,
descheiem, descheiati, descheie
deschide deschis deschida deschid, deschizi, deschide,
deschidem, deschideti, deschid
descoperi descoperit descopere descopar. descoperi, descopera,
descoperim, descoperiti. descopera
descrie descris descrie descriu, descrii, descrie, descriem,
descrieti, descriu
desface desfacut desfaca desfac, desfaci, desface, desfacem,
desfaceti, desfac
desfasura destasurat desfasoare desfasor, desfasori, desfasoara,
desfasurarn, desfasurati, desfa~oara
desparti despartit desparta despart, desparti, desparte,
despartim, despartiti, despart
destepta desteptat destepte destept, destepti, desteapta,
desteptarn, desteptati, desteapta
deturna deturnat deturneze ***
deveni devenit devina devin, devii, devine, devenim,
deveniti, devin
dezumfla dezumflat dezumfle dezumflu, dezumfli, dezurnfla,
dezumflarn. dezurnflati, dezumfla
dezvolta dezvoltat dezvolte dezvolt, dezvolti, dezvolta,
dezvoltarn. dezvoltati, dezvolta
dirija dirijat dirijeze dirijez, dirijezi, dirijeaza, dirijarn,
dirijati, dirijeaza
discuta discutat discute discut, discuti, discuta. discutarn,
discutati, discuta 76

Romanian Reference Grammar

dispretui dispretuit d ispretu iasca dispretuiesc, dispretuiesti,
dispretuieste, dispretuim,
dispretuiti, dispretuiesc
distinge distins distinqa disting, distingi, distinge,
distingem, distinqeti, isting
divorta divortat divorteze divortez, divortezi, divorteaza.
divortam, divortati, divorteaza
dobindi dobindit doblndeasca dobindesc, doblndestl, dobindeste.
doblndim, dobinditi, dobindesc
dori dorit doreasca doresc, doresti, doreste, dorim,
doriti, doresc
dormi dorm it doarrna dorm, dormi, doarme, dormim,
dorrniti, dorm
dovedi dovedit dovedeasca dovedesc, dovedesti, dovedeste,
dovedim, dovediti, dovedesc
duee dus duea due, dud, duee, ducem, duceti, due
dura durat dureze dureaza (3rd pers., s9 and pI.)
durea durut doara (rna, te, 11/0, ne, va, Ii / Ie) doare
echipa echipat echipeze echipez, echipezi, echipeaza,
echipam, echipati, echipeaza
economisi economisit economiseasca economisesc, econornosesti,
economiseste, economisim,
economisiti, economisesc
elimina eliminat elimine elimin, elimini, elimina. eliminam,
elirninati, elirnina
evada evadat evadeze evadez, evadezi, evadeaza,
evadarn, evadati, evadeaza 77

Romanian Reference Grammar

exersa exersat exerseze exersez, exersezi, exerseaza.
exersam, exersati, exerseaza
exprima exprimat exprime exprim, exprimi, exprirna,
exprimarn, exprirnati, exprima
expulza expulzat expulzeze *** expulzarn, expulzati,
extrage extras extraqa extrag, extragi, extrage, extragem,
extraqeti, extrag
ezita ezitat ezite ezit, eziti, ezita, ezitarn, ezitati.
ezita F
favoriza favorizat favorizeze favorizez, favorizezi, favorizeaza,
tavorizam, favorizati, favorizeaza
felicita felicitat felicite felicit, feliclti, felicita, felicitam,
felicitati, felicita
fertiliza fertilizat fertilizeze fertilizez, fertilizezi, fertilizeaza,
fertilizarn, fertilizati, fertilizeaza
fi fost fie sint, esti, este, sintem, sinteti, sint
fierbe fiert fiarba fierb, fierbi, fierbe, fierbem,
fierbeti, fierb
fluiera fluierat fluiere fluier, fluieri, fluiera, fluierarn,
fluierati. fluiera
folosi folosit foloseasca folosesc,folose~ti,folose~te,
folosim, folositi, folosesc
fonda fondat fondeze *** fondam, fondati, fondeze
forta tortat forteze fortez, fortezi, forteaza, fortarn,
fortati, forteaza
fosni fosnit tosneasca *** fosneste, fosnesc 78

Romanian Reference Grammar

freea freeat freee free, freci, freaca, frecam, frecati,
freeventa freeventat freeventeze freeventez, freeventezi,
freeventeaza, frecventam,
frecventati, freeventeaza
frina frlnat frineze frinez, frinezi, frineaza, frlnarn,
frlnati, frineaza
fringe frint frlnqa fring, fringi, fringe, fringem,
frinqeti, fring
frunzari frunzarit frunzareasca frunzaresc, frunzaresti, frunzareste,
frunzarim, frunzariti, frunzaresc
fuma fumat fumeze fumez, fumezi, fumeaza, fumarn.
furnati, furneaza
functiona functionat functioneze *** functioneaza
fura furat fure fur, furi, fura, furarn, turati, fura
gasi gasit gaseasea gasese, gase~ti, gase~te, qasirn,
gasiti, qasesc
gauri gaurit qaureasca gauresc, gaure~ti, gaure~te,
gaurim, gauriti, gaurese
geme gemut qeama gem, gemi, geme, gemem, qerneti,
gidila gidilat gidile gidil, gidili, gidila, qidilam, qidilati,
gindi gindit qlndeasca gindese, qindesti. qindeste. gindim,
qlndit], gindesc
qospodari qospodarit qospodareasca qospodaresc, qospodaresti,
qospodareste, qospodarim,
qospodariti, qospodaresc 79

Romanian Reference Grammar

qrabi qrabit qrabeasca qrabesc, qrabesti, qrabeste,
grabim, qrabiti, grabesc
~ . grait graiasca qraiesc, qraiesti, qraieste, graim,
graiti, qraiesc
qresi qresit qreseasca qresesc, qresesti, qreseste, qresim,
qresiti, qresesc
gusta gustat guste gust, qusti, qusta, qustam, qustati,
guverna guvernat guverneze guvernez, guvernezi, guverneaza,
quvernarn, quvernati, guverneaza
hotart horarit hotarasca hotarasc, hotarasti. hotaraste,
hotartm, hotarlti, hotarasc ierta iertat ierte iert, ierti, iarta, iertarn, iertati, iarta
ie~i iesit iasa ies, iesi, iese, iesirn, ie~iti, ies
implora implorat implore implor, implori, implore, imploram,
lmploratl. implora
instaura instaurat instaureze instaurez, instaurezi, instaureaza,
instauram, instaurati, instaureaza
intra intrat intre intru, intri, intra, intrarn, intratl,
iubi iubit iubeasca iubesc, iubesti, iubeste, iubim,
iubiti, iubesc
izbucni izbucnit izbucneasca izbucnesc, izbucnesti, izbucneste,
izbucnim, izbucniti, izbucnesc 80

Romanian Reference Grammar

imbraca trnbracat imbraee imbrae, imbraci, imbraca.
lmbracam, lmbracati, trnbraca
imbrati~a tmbratisat irnbratiseze trnbratisez, lmbratisezi,
lmbratiseaza, Irnbratisarn,
imbrati~ati, tmbratlseaza
imbunatati .-fln bu natatit imbunatateasca lmbunatatesc, lmbunatatesti.
imbunatateste. trnbunatatim,
lmbunatatiti, irnbunatatesc
trnpaca impacat impace impac, impaci, lrnpaca, lrnpacarn.
lmpacati, lmpaca
imparti lrnpartit imparta impart, imparti. imparte, irnpartim,
lmpartiti, impart
impinge impins impinga imping, impingi, impinge,
impingem, lrnpinqeti, imping
impleti impletit lrnpleteasca impletesc, lmpletesti, lrnpleteste,
impletim, lrnpletiti. impletesc
impodobi impodobit lmpodobeasca impodobesc, lmpodobesti,
lrnpodobeste, impodobim,
lmpodobiti, impodobesc
impreuna impreunat impreuneze impreunez, impreunezi,
lmpreuneaza, impreunam,
impreunati, lrnpreuneaza
tncalca incakat inealee incalc, fncalci, tncalca. tncalcam,
Incalcati, tncalca
inealzi tncalzit lncalzeasca tncalzesc, lncalzesti, lncalzeste,
incalzim, lncalziti, tncalzesc
lncarca incarcat incarce incarc, incarci, lncarca. lncarcam.
lncarcati, inca rca
incasa incasat ineaseze incasez, incasezi, incaseaza,
lncasarn, Incasati, lncaseaza 81

Romanian Reference Grammar

Incepe Inceput lnceapa Incep, Incepi, Incepe, incepem,
incepeti, incep
Incerca Incercat incerce incerc, Incerci, lncearca, tncercarn,
Inchide inchis Incpida Inchid, Inchizi, inch ide, Inchidem,
lnchideti, inchid
Inchina Inchinat inchine inchin, Inchini, lnchina. lnchinarn,
Inchiria Inchiriat inchirieze Inchiriez, inchiriezi, Inchiriaza,
Inchiriem, inchiriati. lnchirlaza
lnclnta Indntat indnte indnt, lnclnti, tnctnta, lncintam,
Incintati, lncinta
incurca incurcat incurce Incurc, Incurci, lncurca, incurcam.
tncurcati, incurca
Indeplini indeplinit lndeplineasca indeplinese, Indeplinesti,
indeplineste, indeplinim,
lndepliniti, indeplinese
lndrazni lndraznit tndrazneasca indraznesc, lndraznesti,
lndrazneste. lndraznim, lndrazniti,
se ineca ineeat ineee inee, ineci, ineaca, inecam. lnecati,
inflori inflorit lnfloreasca *** Infloreste, infloresc
se infrati Infratit tnfrateasca lnfratesc, lnfratesti, tnfrateste,
infratim, infratiti, tnfratesc
inghiti inghitit inghita inghit, lnqhiti, inghite, tnqhitlrn,
inghititi, inghit
ingina inginat ingine ingin, ingini, Inqina. lnqlnam,
lnqlnatl, ingina 82

Romanian Reference Grammar

ingra~a tnqrasat ingra~e lnqras. lnqrasl. ingra~a, ingra~am,
ingra~ati, ingra~a
Inqriji ingrijit ingrijeasca ingrijesc, tnqrijesti, lnqrijeste,
ingrijim, Inqrijiti, ingrijesc
injura injurat injure injur, injuri, injura, injurarn.
lnjurati. injura
tnlantui inlantuit tnlantulasca inlantuiesc, tnlantuiesti,
lnlantuieste, inlantuim, inlantuiti,
inlocui inlocuit tnlocuiasca inlocuiesc, lnlocuiesti, inlocuieste,
inlocuim, inlocuiti. inlocuiesc
inmulti lnmultit inmulteasca inmultesc, Inrnultesti, lnrnulteste.
lnmultim, lnmultiti, lnmultesc
innebuni innebunit innebuneasca innebunesc, innebunesti,
lnnebuneste, innebunim,
lnnebuniti, innebunesc
inota inotat inoate inot, inoti, inoata. inotam, inotati,
inrautati tnrautatit in ra utateasca tnrautatesc, inrautatesti,
lnrautateste. tnrautatim,
inrautatiti, lnrautatesc
inregistra inregistrat inregistreze inregistrez, inregistrezi,
inregistreaza, lnreqistram,
tnreqistrati, inregistreaza
Inrosi lnrosit tnroseasca inrosesc, lnrosesti, lnroseste.
lnrosirn, lnrositi, Inrosesc
insemna insemnat insemne insemn, insemni, insearnna,
(mean) lnsernnarn, lnsernnati, inseamna
insemneze insemnez, insemnezi, lnsemneaza.
(mark) lnsemnarn, lnsernnati, tnsernneaza
insista insistat insiste insist, lnsisti, lnsista, insistarn,
insistati, insista 83

Romanian Reference Grammar

tnsoti tnsotit tnsoteasca tnsotesc, insotesti, tnsoteste,
Insotirn, tnsotlti, insotesc
insura insurat insoare insor, insori, tnsoara, insuram,
tnsurati, tnsoara
intemeia intemeiat intemeieze intemeiez, intemeiezi, lnterneiaza.
lntemeiarn, Interneiati, intemeiaza
interesa interesat intereseze (rna. te, ll /0, ne, va, ii / Ie)
interna internat interneze internez, internezi, interneaza,
internarn. internati, interneaza
interzice interzis interzica interzic, interzici, interzice,
interzicem, interziceti, interzic
intilni intilnit lntll neasca intilnesc, lntilnesti, Intilneste,
intilnim, lntilniti, intilnesc
se intimpla intimplat intimple se inttmpla
intinde intins lntinda intind, intinzi, intinde, intindem,
intindeti. intind
intineri intinerit lntinereasca intineresc, lntineresti, lntinereste,
intinerim, Intineriti, intineresc
intirzia intirziat intirzie intirzii, intirzii, intirzie, intirziem,
lntlrziati, intirzie
intoarce intors lntoarca intorc, intorci, intoarce, intoarcem,
lntoarceti, intorc intreba



intreb, intrebi, tntreaba. intrbam. lntrebati, intreaba




lnteleq, lnteleqi. lnteleqe, lnteleqern, lnteleqeti. lnteleq


Romanian Reference Grammar

lnvata tnvatat lnvete tnvat, Inveti, lnvata, tnvatarn,
lnvatati, invata
invecina invecinat invecineze invecinez, invecinezi, lnvecineaza,
lnvecinarn. lnvecinati, invecineaza
lnvlrti Invirtit invlrteasca invirtese, lnvlrtesti, invlrteste,
invirtim, lnvirtiti, invirtesc
inzestra inzestrat inzestreze inzestrez, inzestrezi, inzestreaza.
inzestrarn, lnzestrati, Inzestreaza
jefui jefuit jefuiasea jefuiese, [efuiesti, jefuieste, jefuim,
jefuiti, jefuiese
jena jenat jeneze (rna, te, II /0, ne, va, li / Ie) [eneaza
juea jueat joaee joe, joci, [oaca, jucarn, jucati, joaca
jumuli jumulit [urnuleasca jumulese, jurnulesti, [umuleste,
jumulim, jumuliti, jumulese
jupui jupuit jupoaie jupoi, jupoi, jupoaie, jupuim,
jupuiti, jupoaie
jura jurat jure jur, juri, jura, jurarn, [urati, jura
lansa lansat lanseze lansez, lansezi, lanseaza, lansarn,
lasa lasat lase las, la~i, lasa, lasam, lasati, lasa
lauda laudat laude laud, lauzi, Iauda, laudarn, laudati,
lega legat lege leg, legi, leaga, legam, leqati, leaga
legana leganat legene legan, legeni, leaqana, leganam,
leganati,leagana 85

Romanian Reference Grammar

lichida lichidat lichideze lichidez, lichidezi, lichideaza,
lichidarn, Iichidati, lichideaza
linisti linistit linisteasca linistesc, linistesti, linisteste,
linistim, lini~titi, linistesc
lipi lipit lipeasca lipesc, lipesti, lipeste, lipim, lipiti,
lipsi lipsit lipseasca lipsesc, Iipsesti, lipseste, lipsim,
lipsiti, lipsesc
locui locuit locuiasca locuiesc, locuiesti, locuieste, locuim,
lovi lovit loveasca lovesc, lovesti, loveste, lovim, loviti,
lua luat ia iau, iei, ia, luarn. luati, iau
luci lucit luceasca luceste, lucesc (3rd p., 59. and pl.)
lucra lucrat lucreze lucrez, lucrezi, lucreaza, lucram.
lucrati, lucreaza
lumina luminat lumineze luminez, luminezi, lumineaza.
Iuminam, lurninat], lurnineaza
lupta luptat lupte lupt, lupti, lupta, luptarn, luptati.
maltrata maltratat maltrateze maltratez, maltratezi, maltrateaza,
rnaltratarn, maltratati, maftrateaza
margini marginit marqineasca margine~te, marginesc (3rd p., 59.
and pl.)
rnarita maritat rnarlte marit, mariti, marita, maritam,
maritati, marita 86

Romanian Reference Grammar

marturisi marturisit rnarturiseasca rnarturisesc, rnarturisesti,
rnarturiseste, rnarturisirn,
marturisiti, marturisesc
merge mers rnearqa merg, mergi, merge, mergem,
rnerqeti, merg
mitui mituit mituiasca mituiesc, mituiesti, mituieste.
mituim, mituiti, mituiesc
rninca mincat rnanlnce maninc, rnaninci, rnaninca. mlncarn,
mincati, maninca
se mfndri mindrit mtndreasca mfndresc, mindresti, mindreste.
mfndrim, mindriti. mfndresc
rninti mintit minta mint, minti, minte, mintim, mintiti,
se mira mirat mire mir, miri, mira, rnirarn. mirati, mira
mirosi mirosit miroase miros, mirosi, miroase, mirosim,
mirositi, miros
rnisca rniscat miste mise, misti, misca, rniscarn, miscati,
mitui mituit mltuiasca mituiesc, rnituiesti, rnituieste,
mituim, rnituiti, mituiesc
rnizqali mlzqalit mlzqaleasca rnlzqalesc, mlzqalesti, mlzqaleste,
rnlzqalirn, rnizqaliti. rnlzqalesc
mobila mobilat mobileze mobilez, mobilezi, mobileaza.
rnobilarn, mobilati, rnobileaza
rnosteni mostenit mosteneasca rnostenesc, rnostenesti, rnosteneste,
mostenirn, mosteniti, mostenesc
mulge muls mulga mulg, mulgi, mulge, mulgem,
mulqeti, mulg 87

Romanian Reference Grammar
multumi multumit rnultumeasca rnulturnesc, multurnesti,
multumeste, rnulturnirn,
rnultumiti, rnultumesc
muno muncit munceasca muncesc, muncesti. munceste,
muncim, munciti, muncesc
muri mort rnoara rnor, mori, moare, murim, muriti,
murmura murmurat murmure murmur, murmuri, rnurrnura,
rnurrnurarn, murrnurati, murmurs
muta mutat mute mut, rnuti, rnuta. mutarn, rnutati,
rnuta N
naste nascut nasca nasc, nasti, naste, nastern, nasteti,
nimici nimicit nimiceasca nimicesc, nimicesti, nimiceste,
nimicim, nimiciti, nimicesc
ninge nins ninga ninge
nota notat noteze notez, notezi, noteaza, notam,
notati, noteaza
nurnara nurnarat numere numar, numeri, nurnara, nurnaram,
nurnarati, numara
numi numit numeasca numesc, numesti, nurneste, numim,
nurniti, numesc
obisnui obisnuit obisnuiasca obisnuiesc, obisnuiesti, obisnuieste,
obisnuim, obisnuiti, obisnuiesc
obosi obosit oboseasca obosesc, obosesti, oboseste,
obosim, obositi, obosesc
obtine obtinut obtina obtin, obtii, obtine, obtinern
obtineti. obtin 88

Romanian Reference Grammar

oeupa oeupat oeupe oeup, oeupi, ocupa, ocuparn,
ocupati, ocupa
odihni odihnit odihneasca odihnese, odihnesti, odihneste.
odihnim, odihniti, odihnese
opn oprit opreasca oprese, opresti, opreste, oprim,
opriti, oprese
oprima oprimat oprime(ze) oprima (eaza) (3rd p., 5g. and pl.)
ordona ordonat ordone ordon, ordoni, ordona, ordonarn,
ordonati, ordona
parasi parasit paraseasca parasesc, parasesti, paraseste,
parasirn, parasiti, parasesc
parea parut para par, pari, pare, parern, pareti, par
participa participat participe particip, participi, participa,
participarn, participati, participa
pasa pasat pese (imi, iti, ii, ne, va, Ie) pasa
pastra pastrat pastreze pastrez, pastrezi, pastreaza,
pastrarn, pastrati, pastreaza
pata patat pateze patez, patezi, pateaza. patarn,
patati, pateaza
pati patit pateasca patesc. patesti, pateste, patim,
patiti, patesc
patrunde patruns patrunda patrund, patrunzf, patrunde,
patrundern, patrundeti, patrund
pensa pensat penseze pensez, pensezi, penseze, pensam,
pensati, penseaza
petreee petreeut petreaca petree, peteci, petreee, petreeem,
petrecetl, petree 89

Romanian Reference Grammar

pica picat pice pica (3rd p., sq. and pl.)
pierde pierdut piarda pierd, pierzi, pierde, pierdem,
pierdeti, pierd
pieri pierit piara pier (3rd p., sq. and pl.)
placea placut placa (imi, iti, ii, ne, va, Ie) plac(e)
planifica planificat planifice planific, planifici, planifica,
planificarn. planificati, planifica
planui planuit planuiasca planuiesc, planuiesti, planuieste,
planuirn, planuiti, planuiesc
piasa plasat plaseze plasez, plasezi, plaseaza, plasam,
plasati, plaseaza
plati platit plateasca platesc, platesti, plateste, platirn,
platiti, platesc
pleca plecat piece plec, pleci, plsaca, plecam, plecati,
plictisi plictisit plictiseasca plictisesc, plictisesti, plictiseste,
plictisim, plictisiti. plictisesc
plimba plimbat plimbe plimb, plimbi, plirnba, plimbarn,
plimbati, plirnba
plinge plins plinga piing, plint, plinge, plingem,
plinqeti, ping
ploua plouat ploua ploua
pluti plutit pluteasca plutesc, plutesti, pluteste, plutim,
plutiti, plutesc
porni pornit porneasca pornesc, pornesti, porneste.
pornim, porniti, pornesc 90

Romanian Reference Grammar

porunci poruncit porunceasca poruncesc, poruncesti. porunceste,
poruncim, porunciti, poruncesc
potoli potolit potoleasca potolesc, potolesti, potoleste,
potolim, potoliti. potolesc
potrivi potrivit potriveasca potivesc, potrivesti, potriveste,
potrivim, potriviti, potrivesc
povesti povestit povesteasca povestesc, povestesti, povesteste,
povestim, povestiti, povestesc
practica practicat practice practic, practici, practice, practicarn.
practicati, practice
prada pradat pradeze pradez, pradezi, pradeaza,
pradam, pradati, pradeaza
preciza precizat precizeze precizez, precizezi, precizeaza,
precizarn, precizati. precizeaza
predica predicat predice predic, predici, predlca, predicarn,
predicati, predica
preface prefacut prefaca prefac, prefaci, preface, prefacem,
prefaceti, prefac
prefera preferat prefere prefer, preferi, prefera, preferarn,
preferati, prefers
pregati preqatit preqateasca preqatesc, preqatesti, preqateste,
preqatim, preqatiti, preqatesc
pregeta pregetat pregete preget, preqeti, preqeta,
preqetaarn, preqetati, pregeta
prelucra prelucrat prelucreze prelucrez, prelucrezi, prelucreaza,
prelucrarn, prelucrati, prelucreaza
prescne prescris prescrie prescriu, prescrii, prescrie,
prescriem, prescrieti. prescriu 91