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SHELLS FORMING SURFACE OF REVOLUTION 555 181. Spherical Shells with an Edge Ring. In order to reduce the effect of the thrust of a dome in its action upon the supporting structure, an edge ring (Figs. 275a and 276a) is sometimes used. The vertical deflection of this ring, supported either continuously or in a number of points, may be neglected in the following analysis. Fra. 275 Let us consider the conditions on the edge » = a of the dome carrying some dis- tributed, symmetrical load. ‘The membrane forces N¢, Ne due to this load would produce, according to Eq. (r) (page 543) an increase of the radius ro = a sin a equal to re bom ee (Ne — Ne)ena @ This displacement will be accompanied by rotation of the edge tangent 1 dt 1 da Yeas ( + %) “a [sot el + NN — NO Fe — oe o according to results obtained on page 538, and by thrust Hy = —cos a(Ny)pma © The corresponding tension force in the ring is Horo, and the elongation is «9 = @ where E denotes Young’s modulus of the material of the ring. The increase of the radius ro due to the action of He will be 3, = core = ue @ 556. THEORY OF PLATES AND SHELLS In order to bring the edge deformation of the shell in accordance with the deforma- tion of the ring, let us apply along the circumference of both the edge and the ring uniformly distributed couples of an intensity Mg and radial forces of an intensity H 275b). Using the results (827) and (828), we obtain the following expressions for the horizontal displacement of the edge and the rotation V: 2a si in? a pa tsina yy _ 2adsin Eh 7 Eh ey ©) 4s 2a4 sina ve-™ yy, Bha Me + ay where Mm BCL = *)(a/a)? The action of Ma and H upon the ring is statically equivalent to the combined action of the overturning couples T=Ma+He no and of forces H applied on the level of the centroid of the ring section (Fig. 275c). ‘These latter cause a radial displacement of the ring equal to Ht o: = ea (9) as follows from Eq, (d), but no rotation. It still remains to consider the deformation of the ring due to the couples 7. An element of the ring of length ds = rod@ is held in equilibrium by the action of an overturning couple T ds and two bending couples My = T ds/d9 = Tre (see Fig. 275d, where all three couples are represented by equivalent vectors). Thus, the maximum. hoop stress in the ring due to the couples 7 is o = £6Mo/bd* = +6Tre/odt The corresponding unit elongation of the top and bottom fibers of the ring is seen to be « = +6T7ro/Ebd*, respectively. Hence the rotation of the transverse section of the ring becomes 2re _ 127r$ Vang ll = eae (hy where |e| denotes the absolute value of the largest unit. elongation. Now, the total horizontal displacement of the shell edge must be equal to that of the ring, and the same holds for the rotation. This yields the following relations: bo + 6 = 81 + bn + Vie @ VotVaVs o in which the term Vze represents the effect of the rotation on the radial displacement of the ring at the level of the edge of the shell. After substitution of the expressions (a) to (h) for the displacement and the rotation in (@) and (j), we obtain two linear equations for the unknown values of Mz and H. These values also define the con- stants of integration of the approximate solution, as shown in Art. 130. The total stress resultants and deflections of the shell can be found then by combining the effect. of membrane forces with the effect of bending, this latter being expressed, for example, by Eqs. (823), (324), and (825). As an illustrative example, let us consider a spherical dome (Fig. 276a) with a = 76.6 ft, @ = 40°, ro = 49.2 ft, h = 2.36 in., and the cross-sectional dimensions of the SHELLS FORMING SURFACE OF REVOLUTION 357 Fie. 276 ring b = 1.97 ft, d = 1.64 ft, and e ~ d/2; the modulus E is the same for the shell and the ring, and the constant » is assumed equal to zero. The dome is submitted to the action of its own weight q = 41 psf of the surface of the dome. The membrane forces due to this load are given by Eqs. (257), and the procedure of computation indicated above leads to the following values of the edge forces:* Ma = —24.84 Ib-in. per in. H = —8.95 Ib per in, The corresponding values of bending moment My are shown in Fig. 276b. In the foregoing the simplified differential equation (2), Art. 130, has been employed ' The details of computation may be found in K. Girkmann, “Flichentragwerke,” 4th ed., p. 442, Springer-Verlag, Vienna, 1956, The diagram Fig. 2766 is repro- duced here by courtesy of Professor K. Girkmann and the Springer-Verlag, Vienna.

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