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Chapter 1

Physical quantities – the quantities that are measurable with instruments in laboratory or can be
derived from the measured quantities
Basic quantities – the quantities that cannot be derived in terms of other physical quantities
Derived quantities – the physical quantities that are derived from other basic quantities according to a
difining equation
Dimension – is a method used to describe a physical quantities in term of its basic quantities
regardless the system of units used
Scalar quantities – quantity with magnitude only
Vector quantities – quantity with both magnitude and direction

Chapter 2
Kinematic – description of motion of object without consideration of what causes the motion (mass of
force)
Linear motion – the motion of an object along a straight line path
Distance – the total length of the travel in moving from one location to another
Displacement – the shortest distance from the initial position to the final position of an object
Speed – the distance travelled per unit time
Average speed – the total distance travelled divided by the total time elapsed
Velocity –
Average velocity – the rate change of displacement
Instantaneous velocity – velocity at a specific position or instant of time along the path of motion
Acceleration – rate change of velocity
Average acceleration – change in velocity divided by the time taken to make the change
Instantaneous acceleration – the acceleration at a particular instant of time

Chapter 3
Linear momentum – product of mass and velocity
Impulse – the change of momentum / the product of force and time
Principle of conservation of linear momentum – in an isolated system, the total momentum of the
system is constant
Chapter 4
Weight – force acting on it due to the gravitational pull
Normal Reaction force – the force that exists whenever 2 solid surface are in contact
Tension – the force in a cord that pulls on a body
Friction – the force that resists the motion of a body as it slides over the rough surface
Newton 1st Law of Motion – states if there is no net force acting on the object, the object at rest will
remains at rest, or continue to move with uniform velocity in a straight line
Newton 2nd Law of Motion – states the rate change of momentum of a moving body is directly
proportional to the resultant force and is in the same direction as the force acting on it
Newton 3rd Law of Motion – every action force has a reaction that is equal in magnitude but opposite
in the direction

Chapter 5
Work – the product of the magnitude of the displacement times the component of the force parallel to
the displacement
Kinetic energy – energy of a body due to its motion
Potential energy – energy stored in a body or a system because of its position, shapes and the state
Gravitational potential energy – Energy stored in a body or a system because of its position
Elastic potential energy – energy stored in elastic materials as the result of their stretching or
compressing
Conservation of Mechanical Energy – in a conservative system, the total mechanical energy is
constant
Power – the rate at which work is done

Chapter 6
Circular Motion – motion which occurs when bodies rotate around something or move in a circular
path
Angular displacement – the angle undergone by an object from a fixed reference point
Angular velocity – the rate change of angular displacement
Period – time for an object to make one complete revolution
Centripetal acceleration – the acceleration of an object moving in circular path whose direction is
towards the centre of the circular path
Centripetal force – the net force required to keep an object of mass m, moving at a speed v on a
circular path or radius r
Chapter 7
Gravitational force – the force which one body attract the others due to their mass
Newton’s Law of Gravitation – 2 bodies attract each other with a force which is directly proportional
to the product of their mass and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between their
centre.
Gravitational Field – the region where a body having a mass experience gravitational force
Gravitational Field Strength – gravitational force per unit mass acting on a body at that point
Gravitational potential energy – the work done by a gravitational force in bringing a test mass from
infinity to a point

Chapter 9
Simple Harmonic Motion – the motion of an object without the loss of energy where its acceleration
is directly proportional to the displacement from equilibrium point and in opposite direction
Equilibrium position – a point where the acceleration of the body undergoing oscillation is zero
Restoring Force – the force which cause simple harmonic motion to occur

Chapter 10
Progressive Wave – wave that propagates continuously outward from the source of disturbance
Particle displacement – the displacement of a particle from its equilibrium position
Wave displacement – the displacement of a particle from the source of the disturbance
Amplitude – the maximum distance from the particle equilibrium position
Frequency – the number of complete waveforms that pass by a given point during each second
Period – the time for one complete waveforms to pass by a given point
Wavelength – the distance between two successive crest or trough
Standing wave – the wave whose profile doesn’t advance and no energy is transferred from 1 end of
the medium to another end
Intensity – the energy transported per unit time across a unit area which is perpendicular to the
direction of the wave propagation
Doppler effect – the change in the frequency of the sound when there is a relative motion between the
source of the sound and the observer
*the progressive wave is produced by the source of disturbance, meanwhile the standing wave is
produced by the superposition of two identical progressive waves travel in opposite direction
Chapter 11
Stress – the forcing acting per unit cross sectional area
Strain – the elongation per unit length
Young Modulus – ratio of tensile stress to strain

Chapter 12
Temperature – relative measurement of hotness or coldness
Heat – the energy transferred from one object to another because of the difference in the temperature
between the two object
Heat conduction – process where the heat is transferred through a solid from the region of high
temperature to low temperature
Heat conductivity – the characteristic of heat conducting ability of a material

Chapter 13
Boyle’s Law – for a fixed amount of gas at a constant temperature, gas pressure is inversely
proportional to the gas volume
Charles’s Law – for a fixed amount of gas at a constant pressure, gas volume is directly proportional
to its absolute temperature
Pressure Law – for a fixed amount of gas at a constant temperature, the gas pressure is directly
proportional to its absolute temperature
Gas pressure – the result of the collision of the large amount of molecules on the wall of container
Principle of Equipartition of Energy – the mean kinetic energy associated with each degree of
freedom of a molecule is ½kT
Assumption of Kinetic Theory of Gases:
- All gases are made of atoms or molecules
- All atoms or molecules move randomly
- The volume of the atoms/molecules is negligible when compared with the volume occupied
by the gas
- The molecules undergo perfectly elastic collision with each other & the wall of container
- The intermolecular force are negligible except during collision
- The time of collision between molecules is negligible compared to the time between collision
- Atoms/molecules move with constant velocity between collision. Gravity has no effect on
molecular motion

Chapter 14
First Law of Thermodynamic – The heat supplied to the system is equal to the increase of internal
energy of the system plus work done by the system on the surroundings