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GOLOGAN, RADU
10 Years of Romanian Mathematical competitions / Radu Gologan, Dan
$tefan
Marinescu, Mihai Monea. - Pitegti :Paralela45,2Al8
Index
rsBN 978-973 -47 -27 20-9
I. Marinescu. Dan-$tefan
lI.Monea, Mihai
51

Copyright @ Editura Paralela 45,20lB

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Radu Gologan
Dan $tefan Marinescu
Mihai Monea

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fl o L l-r e,Tr o 1= ical
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Editura Paralela 45
Contents

Preface .. ...2
Members of the RMC Editorial Board .. .. .8
Abbreviations and Notations . ........ g
Algebra ... 11
1.1. Problems ... . .. 11
1.2. Solutions.. ....18
Combinatorics .......87
2.1. Problems.. .... JT
2.2. Solutions .. .... 44
Geometry.... ...69
3.1. Problems . . .... Og
3.2. Solutions.. ....76
NumberTheory ......99
4.1. Problems .. .... gg
4.2. Solutions.. ...10b
Calculus .. L2L
5.1. Problems.. ...I2I
5.2. Solutions . . .. .I2g
Higher Algebra .... lb1
6.1. Problems .. . .. 151
6.2. Solutions . . .. .IST
Authors Index .... LTB
Algebra
1.1. Problems
A1. We say that the function / ' Ql ---+ Q has property 2 if
f@a):f(*)+f(a),
for anv r.u e Oi.
sf

a) Prove that there are no one-to-one functions with property P;


b) Does there exist onto functions with property P?
Bogdan Moldovan - ONM 2017

A2. Determineallintegers n)2 suchthat a+J2 €Qand a"+12€Q,


-db for some real number o depending on n.
b
Mihai BXIund - IIMO 2017

A3. Let o € N, a 2 2. Prove that the following statements are equivalents:


a) One can find b, c € N* such that a2 : b2 + c2;
b) One can find d € N*, such that the equations 12 - ar ld : 0 and
12 - ar - d:0 have integer roots.
Vasile Pop - OJM 2016

A4. a) Prove that there exist non-periodical functions ,f , R ---+ lR. such
that
f ("+1)+f ("-1) :JEf @),
forallr€iR;
b) Prove that any function g : IR --+ IR such that

g (r +1) + g (, - D :'[3s 1r1,

for all ,r € lR, is periodical.


Vasile Pop - OJM 2016
10 Years of Romanian Mathematical Competi,ti,ons

A5. Let f : lR. --+ IR be a function with the following properties:

(P1) : f(r+s) </(r)+f(a)


and
(P2): f(tr+(1 - t) a) ( r/ (r) + (1 - t) f (il,
for all r,?J e IR and ,€[0, 1] .

a) Prove that
f@+f
foranya(b(c( d such that
b) Prove that

,(r'-)
\t:r
f (n-r, (I
)
f k-))
1(i<l(n
foralln€N,n23, and r1r12r...r/?? € ]R.
Nicolae Bourbdcu! - ONM 2016

A6. Determine all functions / : N* ---+ N*, such that f (m) 2 m and
f (* +n) divides f (m) + f (n), for all m,n € N*.
Marius Cavachi - IIMO 2016

A7. Find all real numbers a and b such that the equality

lar -r ba) + lbr + aa) : @ + b)1, + a)


holds, for every r, y € IR.
Lucian Dragomir - OJM 2015

A8. A quadratic function / sends any interval 1 of length 1 to an interval


/(1) of length at ieast 1. Prove that for any interval .r of length 2, thelength
of the intervai /(/) is at least 4.

Mihai Bdlund, - ONM 201b


&npetiti,ons Alsebra 13

A9. Let a be a natural odd number which is not a perfect square. If


Trt,n e N* prove that:

") {*@+ t/d} I


- t/")}; {"@
b) L-@+1G))ll"@-J')l
Vasile Pop - ONM 2014

A10. Consider the function y' : N* --+ N* which satisfies the properties:
a) f(1):1;
u) f (p): 1 t f (p - 1), for anv prime number p;
c) f (ptpr...p) : f (pr) + f (pz) +.'.+ f (p,), for any prime numbers
Pt. pz. ..., p,. not necessary distinct.
prove 1tnu12f @) l nr --3/("); for aly n € N, n ) 2.

8t), George Stoica - ONM 2014

A11. Find all functions ./,.q Q --+ Q such that


'
- oNM 2016
f (g(*) + g(a)): f (g(r)) +a
)mand and
g (f (r) + f (a)) : s (f (d) + a,
i - IIMO 2016 for all r, g e Q.
Vasile Pop - ONM 2015

AI2. Let n € N,n ) 2. Prove that there exist n*l pairwise distinct
numbers rr, fr2, ...,, fin, fin+r e Q \ Z such that

- oJM 20i5 t'?) + {"8} +.. + {'i} : {r'.*.},


where {r} denotes the fractional part of the real number r.
! to an interval
orel Mihet - IIMO 2014
2- the length

A13. Given an odd prime p, determine all polynomials / and g, with


- oNlr 2015 integral coefficients, satisfying the condition f (g(X)) : t;:lX*
Cezar Lupu & Vlad Matei - IIMO 2014
74 10 Years of Romani,an Mathemati,cal Competi,ti,ons

Al4. Let f : function and g : lR. ---+ IR. be a quadratic function


IR. ---+ lR be a
such that, for any m,n € lR, the equation f (r): mr-fn has soiutions if
and only if the equation g(r):mr I n has soiutions. prove that : g.
f
Vasile Pop - ONM 2013

A15. Letn € N* and at,a2,...,enelR suchthat a1 loz+...Iat lk,for


any k € {I,2, . . .,n}. Prove that

a102an111
+ +... +
r t ; S t+ r*... -r -.
Marius Cavachi - OJM 2013

A16. Let n € N, n ) 2, and an,bn, cn e Z such that


/ "- \n
(72-t) :antb,W*cn(4.
Prove that cn: 1 (mod 3) if and only if n:2(mod 3).
Dorin Andrica & Mihai Piticari - IIMO 2013

AL7. Let o,,b e (0,oo)


such that a I b and [na] divides [nbJ, for every
n € N*. Prove that a and b are both integer.
Marius Cavachi - IIMO 2013

A18. Let f and g be two polynomials with integral coefficients such that
d"s(/) > deg (9) and d"s (/) > 2. rf the polynomiar pf * 9 has a rational
root, for infinitely many primes p, prove that / has a rational root.
Marius cavachi & Radu Gologan - IMo 2012 short List & tIMo 2013

A19. An irrational number r from (0, 1) is called sui,table if its first 4 de-
cimals, in the decimal representation, are equals. Find the smallest rz € N*
such that any t € (0,1) may be written as a sum of n distinct sui,table
numbers.
Lucian lurea - TJBMO 2007