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INSTITUTE OF INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL AUSTRALIA, INC.

CONTROLLER TUNING
AND
CONTROL LOOP
PERFORMANCE

Is E c o No E o I TI o NI

A Primer
By David W. St. Clair

PUBLISHED BY:
STRAIGHT-LINE CONTROL COMPANY, INCORPORATED

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BACKGROUND
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THIS BOOKLET WAS ORIGINALLY ISSUED IN 1983 AS AN INTERNAL REPORT IN
THE DUPONT COMPANY TO HELP ENGINEERS AND TECHNICIANS, WHO HA VE
NO SPECIAL TRAINING IN FEEDBACK CONTROL, UNDERSTAND THE BASIC
',

.
.
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CONSIDERATIONS AND LIMITATIONS. IT HANDILY BROKE ALL RECORDS AT

.
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. THE DUPONT COMPANY FOR NUMBER OF REQUESTED COPIES (OVER 1200)
WHEN ISSUED. THAT REPORT WAS RELEASED TO THE PUBLIC AND
.

PUBLISHED IN 1990. IT SUBSEQUENTLY SOLD OVER 16,000 COPIES. IN 1992


DUPONT REQUESTED A MANUAL TO BE WRITTEN SPECIFICALLY FOR
TRAINING, EXPANDING ON THE ORIGINAL REPORT. THIS SECOND EDITION IS
BASED PERHAPS 80% ON THAT TRAINING MANUAL.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

THE AUTHOR RETIRED · AFTER 40 YEARS OF PRACTICE IN THE FIELD OF


INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL IN THE PROCESS INDUSTRIES (8 YEARS
WITH EASTMAN KODAK AND 32 YEARS WITH DUPONT.) HE TOOK IN 1947
WHAT HE UNDERSTOOD TO BE THE FIRST COLLEGE COURSE OFFERED IN THE
THEORY OF FEEDBACK CONTROL, A CHANCE EVENT AT MIT THAT STARTED
HIS CAREER IN THE FIELD. HE ARGUABLY HAS APPLIED THE SCIENTIFIC
METHOD TO SOLVING CONTROL PROBLEMS IN THE PROCESS INDUSTRIES
LONGER T ANYONE, OR AT LEAST THAT WAS PROBABLY TRUE WHEN
HE RETIRED IN 1987. HE HAS BEEN EXPLAINING THE CONCEPTS TO THE NON-
SPECIALIST FOR MOST OF THAT TIME. HE RELISHES THIS OPPORTUNITY TO
SPREAD THE WORD TO A LARGER AUDIENCE.

HENCE THIS PUBLICATION

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PUBLISHED BY:
ST IGHT-LINE CONTROL CO., INC.

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Sampling Frequency and Loop :perfonn.ance ;· >74 . · · .· ;: ,: . , : . . : . ~: ,:. . ., .
Load Changes /Upsets I Disturbances '.· . '. 76. ·.. , . ;):/:'.\;. ·{r;.. _; '· . ) ·. ·. ·. C: ; .: 0. ; . : ...• :' . :, ', ) ··. , - -
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APPENDIX A-1
Pure Dead Time Process .· A-2 . .

Process with Dead Time and Integration .· · A~3 .· . . .

Derivative Frequency Response. A-4·.·


Order Forni A~S

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'' ,, '' '' ' ' ' . ''


IV
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PREFACE
. .

This second edition of Controller Tuning and Control Loop Performance has . . ,. . . . .

been extended in both directions :fmtn ,the first. Sections have been added for the
very beginner and for the somewhat more experienced. It is about twice the size. . .

Sections have been added on the what-to-do and how-to-do-it of tuning, to help
. . . . . . . . .

the person who may have never done it before. Then interspersed throughout are
. . . . . . •.

paragraphs that extend some of the non-math concepts to the realm of math, or at
least algebra. These sections explaining concepts in math (sometimes frequency
response terms) are clearly identified to make them easy to skip. This second
.
printing of the second edition · also has expanded part of chapter 2 and has added
. . . . . . .

two pages to chapter 8, as compared with the first printing. It still stands on its
. . own, of explaining the essence of feedback control, without referring to math. I
hope these new references will help any reader who wants to bridge the gap from
the nonmath to the math.
....,
. .

'
· The first edition was essentially a verbatim copy of a report written for DuPont in . .. . . . .

...
,
;

1983, which I was allowed to make public in 1990. This second edition is perhaps
'.. '.
80% based on a 1992 update of that original report, written for a training course
..
....
for DuPont instrument technicians and engineers. The new version was to have
. . . . . . .
specific references to the DuPont situation, and was co-authored by Paul S.
Fruehauf (of DuPont) and myself (DuPont retired). I am very appreciative of the
permission from William X. Alzos (of DuPont) to use what I wished from those
course notes.·

I am particularly grateful to Paul S. Fruehauf who has worn two hats ·in. the
preparation of this second edition, first as co-author. of the DuPont report, and . . .

second· as critical reviewer of my modifications and additions to that report. Most


of the material in chapter 2 is his. The first draft of much of that material was his,
. . .

and he persuaded me to include it in this booklet. He is currently an employee of


. .

Applied Control Engineering, Inc., a consulting firm in Delaware.

I have tried to make this second edition appeal to readers whose background may . ..

not be the chemical processing industries. I know I can only partly succeed in this
broadened scope, for all of my 40 years in the automatic control business were in
that industry.
I hope this booklet meets what I perceive as a need for more information on the
beginning end of training on the subject of controller tuning and control loop
performance.

ENJOY

·'
·-'·,·· •
...
This booklet on controller tuning and con- scapegoat, being blamed for problems that
trot loop performance stops where most are not related to tuning, with the result that
books and courses on the subject begin. Too time and energy are spent needlessly.

often the subject IS introduced with math Meanwhile a proper solution goes unsought.
unfamiliar to-the reader. That does not have
to be there are simple concepts to help While I will give ruJes · for tuning, the rules
those unschooled in the math to know and themselves are only' part of ;the picture. The
understand the basics, to appreciate the ''tuner'' needs to know what the desired per-
limitations and to know· what can be formance is and what to expect-when the
expected. system is responding as well as can be ex-

pected, and when is it not. If it ts not, then
the rules may not apply, or should be modi-
fied. This booklet teaches not only the rules,
but· what can and cannot be expected
from tuning. It is also to teach some of the
common pitfalls. Why do the tuning rules
not seem to work sometimes? In addition,
My field for 40 years was industrial process
tuning is often done to fix some problem.
control. The basic concepts of control are
You· cannot use or fix anything unless you
the same, regardless of the field. The exam-
know how it should work, and that includes
ples will change, but the concepts, princi-
control loops.
ples, and much of thevocabulary won't. For
readers whose field. is different from mine I
hope you will gain some useful insight
. . .
into
your situation.

Not everyone needs to know about control-


ler tuning. Many businesses, like banking
and insurance, probably need no one. Other
businesses, like the automotive business, Tuning rules presume that the desired result
probably need only a few. But that still is a "tight" system, one that does the best
job of reducing the effects of disturbances,
leaves many businesses that do need to .

know, and you wouldn't be reading this if and/or one that responds quickly to setpoint

you didn't feel a need to know! In many in- changes. This may not always be what IS
dustries proper tuning is vital to quality, and desired. Many level controls are often delib-
often decisions are made to take expensive erately detuned (made more sluggish than
steps when better tuning might do the job. the tuning rules would make it), a condition
On other occasions controller tuning is the referred to as averaging level control. Many

loops Ill a plant do not have a very vital
r -,....
.,....
·.. , .;iiit;
'.

2 Chapter 1, Getting Started

bearing on quality or other business consid- made? Not many. Quite possibly not any.
erations, so whether they are tuned tightly Usually there are at least a few loops that
or not is not all that important. How many stay on manual for some time, sometimes

new operations are started up and have all even years. It IS hard to argue that these
the loops on automatic for the' first product loops need tight tuning.
·'
'.

Controller tuning is mostly science, Tuning mathematically pure and simple models are
rules are based on mathematically clean and used to represent the ''typical'' process.
simple models that approximate the real Don't worry about that, certainly not at this
stage, The differences are relatively small
compared with what I consider realistic
goals in tuning. We will not be concerned
about determining settings to within 1%
world. If the real world were and generally not within 10 or 20%. For '
mathematically clean and. simple.. then instance, if the tuning rules determine that a

controller .tuning would . . be all science controller setting should be 1.00, it doesn't
. . .

(provided of course, therewas agreement on


. . '
really matter · if it is set for 1.01 or 1.10.
what was desired from the tuning). Happily,
. . . ..
.. .. . . .

experience (and higher math) has shown


that the real world can be simplified without
sacrificing accuracy enoughto worry about,

It IS known, with .a reasonable degree of

certainty, when this simplification lS
. . .

invalid, and therefore when the rules for Even if· set for 1.20 you would be hard

tuning will break down, pressed to see the difference ID most •

practical cases. Determining settings within


. . . ·.. . . .

30 to 50% is a more realistic expectation. ' .

Two specialists in tuning will almost surely


come up with different settings in any given
situation. They are far more likely to, indeed
will .almost . certainly,
~ . -
come up with the . . .

There are ··numerous publications givmg • • same analysis of what m.ay be wrong with a
tuning rules, and, as you might expect, they loop. They are less likely to agree on what
. .: .

don't all. give exactly the same rules. This IS the best solution is. It is rather like politics
: •·. ';. . . . . ' . . . .

Ill that regard .
because different .criteria are used for what . . .

constitutes "proper" tuning. Different

'.
••

Chapter 1, Getting Started 3


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No reasonably thorough writing -on control- loop· method. · Nichols . then verified . the
ler tuning would be complete without pay- mathematical validity of; the ·open-loop ap-
ing tribute to J . .G. Ziegler and N. B .. Nichols proach.
(Optimum Settings .. <for · Automatic
. .

Controllers,•·Transactions··;of the ASME,· v For history buffs there is a book you should

. 64, Nov. 1942; · p7.S.:.?)., :_ Their contribution
...... .
know about: Automatic Control, aassical
·..I
.
., was a quantum leap. forward in the science
.· . . ···~
Linear Theory, edited by George J.· Thaler,
and/or art of tuning industrial controllers. It Naval Postgraduate School. It was published
..
. - .
'
·. took perhaps /10 years or more after that be- by Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross .Inc.,
fore subsequent authors started to hone and
. .
Stroudsbµrg,11-~A./.:in_ ~l'.9Jfl~,
. . :
It
.... is qui of ·:ptint
. ·. . . . . . ,.. .. ~.. ; _ ·-~:':.~:.. . .,·. ':;~· ,.. , . : . ;. . . .. . ·.'· , ~ .. . . ..• .. . .

refine . their: recommendations, .. but . the es- now, :biit~can·;t,e·-9i,ttfn.ed frqm ·major techni-
sence of their approach has remained un-
. .
cal· ··Iibraties. )-/The :iibook "is .one ··.of the
.. ~ . . .

.. . ·' ...
. .
"Benchmark Papers in Electrical. Engineer-
..,. .mg. anc d .Computer
. 'Science,
. . '' v. 7, wit. h
. .
. . .. •, .
.· .
.


,. . ..
·.
'
Library of Congress Catalog .Number: 74-
f ..

2469, ., and . ISBN: · 0-87933-083-X,._ ·It ·• is a


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f
photographic· reproduction .of .milestone
..

f ,.

. .
papers. on the math of· the feedback control .
(

.. scathed to this day! . Ziegler and Nicholsnot loop, with-editorial ·comments on .the contri-
'

. only brought. order out .of chaos; but· they bution. each made from-a historical: view-
'

presented . it · in · a simple, understandable point.··•·. The British· papers by Callender,


rr,. way. They· presented two ways· 'of· de- Hartree.. Porter (and Stevenson); 1936· and
i
•·

'' ,. termining controller settings. One was based 1937, from which Nichols was able to con-
t
r
.'
,,.
on closed-loop tests, the other on open-loop firm the formulas presented by himself and
I
'
:'·
i'
tests. . · They were both based on sound Ziegler, are also containedin it, as well as
i
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'
'~ . '· mathematics, though their peers did not rec- . the original Ziegler and Nichols paper.

' ' .
;'
•t ognize oraccept it at the time. A 1991 con- .
~
i

ii. versation wi.th each of . them revealed· that The Ziegler and Nichols paper is also
included in a collection of papers on PIO
(
• ,.
'~-
',.. Nichols, with a mathematical bent, was pri-
marily responsible for verifying the math of
'f
"
;
f. tuning: Reference Guide to PID Tuning,
.... ·
;

..'
i.
the closed-loop formulas, while: Ziegler; of ·a published by Control Engineering. · .· . .
''
,.

•''
i
more empirical bent, conceived the open-
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'

.
4 Chapter 1, Getting Started '

The task of tuning a controller can run from The science of control is based on math that
fairly simple to quite complex. It is rather is formidable to most persons. Happily it is
like. income taxes. Many.·.·•cases· ate· .quite not necessary to understand or even use the
simple, ·but<then:·,there:ate a few that need a supporting math to absorb · the governing
specialist. Also like taxes, it has to bedone. principles. The math will be largely, if not '

For the simpler cases, which constitute totally, omitted. No proofs will be provided. .
'
'..
..

. '
'
possibly 80% (somewhere between half and There are however concepts, which may be ""

"
',.

all) of the loops typically encountered, the new, which should be mastered. These .... ..
procedure can .be reduced to a set· of easy- relate primarily to understanding the
to-follow rules. · importance TIME has in the control loop. .
··,., .
. .

AMOUNT is also important, but not as


much as time. By far the most important
concept to master in understanding control
loops- is the concept of LAGS. An effect
happens AFTER some cause. A control '

..' .
valve moves AFTER the controller output ... . ,'

changes. The measurement of a temperature


While these rules are based on sound sci- in a well LAGS the actual temperature .. .. .
ence, applying them without knowing. what outside the well . The coldest day of the year
is · expected leaves little · understanding of occurs AF*l'ER the shortest day of the year.
what is· going on .. Each tuning experience . ' ·.
. .
.

becomes an isolated event. There . is no


..
.
' .
·:
·. ,·
.: :

framework on which to build understanding,


no adequate way to transfer experience from
'

one. time to the next, or from one person to '


',

.••
another. One goal of this booklet, is to pro-
vide that framework, that way of defining Not all lags are the.same, orhave the same
. .

the experience so it is both. understandable importance in a control loop. It will be a


. . .

to the person doing the tuning, and transfer- major part of this training material to de- '
', .

able to others. It· might be called· THE velop. an understanding of where lags come .
. . .

LANGUAGE OF CONTROL. Inciden- from, the different types that are used to ap-
tally,· while I assume .the reader has ·some proximate the real world, and what their
familiarity with· many of the terms used in · relative importance· is. A few words, mean-
. . . . . . . '
." .
.

automatic feedback control, I have provided ing specific things in a control loop, will be
a glossary for the terms most likely to need added to your vocabulary. Again, it is THE
defining. LANGUAGE OF CONTROL.

;
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,

Chapter 1, Getting Started s

As with, I suppose, all fields, the science are sometimes · available if the tuning· is
and art of feedback control grew before the done with a digital· control system. This
committees on standard terminology were constancy of the PID function in an era of
formed. The predicable result is that several
different terms are used to name the same
thing .. The controllers we are going to talk
about have . three adjustments. They · are
troportional, Integral and Derivative (PID).
Computer based systems· often have the . .' . .

fourth, which is an adjustment for the filter phenomenal techni~al progress is a sobering
. .

time. Computer based controllers may also thought. THE P.RINCIPLES HAVE
. , . ! .

have a decision to be made about the cycle REMAINED UNCHANGED. I understand


time (how often the controller looks at the that some really high powered · math has
shown that the PIO function is the best gen-
·.

process), but this is not considered a con-


troller setting. It is, however, quite impor- eral purpose function to use to do the job.
tant, but it will-be discussed in chapter 9 More sophisticated control algorithms will
r
i:
t..
'i·
produce better performance when fitted to a
. .
I
r
1. PID controllers have been around since specific process, but poorer performance

!.
l•· about 1940. Modem controllers perform the results if the process changes. This sensitiv-
f
f same functions as those, perhaps with a few ity to process changes is called robustness,
"
Ii
r
embellishments and certainly more accu- with more robust being less sensitive. The
,.
! rately, but the same functions nonetheless. PID algorithm is an excellent trade-off
f
i
So the tuning rules have remained essen- between robustness and performance.
'e . .
'
tially the same over the years, though aids

We talk ·about proportional action . but we . .

tend to refer to the adjustment itself as gain Figure .1.1 . shows what gain does to the
. .

or proportional band. The action means that controller output in response to the .error.
. . .

the controller output moves in proportion For a gain of one, the output . changes the
to the error between setpoint and controlled same amount as the controlled ·variable (or
variable. Many terms have been used by the setpoint). Higher and lower gains cause
different manufacturers to designate this greater or smaller changes in the output for ·
. . .

action. It has been called proportional band, the same change in _the error. If the. output
proportional gain, gain, throttling band, increases . as . the controlled variable in-
sensitivity and surely others. Some are creases, then the controller is said to be
reciprocals of others. For instance gain is
I 00 divided by proportional band. I will use

gazn .

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6 · · Chapter.I, Getting Started .,

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.·,
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- .
. ·.· :...: . . ... . ·,
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. . . ·.: be an offset
"

if the coll~Jlerhas no Qltegrat ·. . . ·. . ·. . . '


....
'
·· : · : Gain :::;: 2 2_ • · .
~ ..
. · · actio ,,n· • · ·T· he · · offset
. .
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. · enough to worry. about, >but:-it·~/Wltt!-'.~'--thet.e> . . ·:. · · . ,•

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···'·.,
: It has to be; e:xcept;;,-~~~;tgµe precise point::<i~,/- :; . · -. l
'>

'5 G» .
the output-versus-errorcurve. . . - , . ...

a.-
.. ca
.
. ·. . . ..

Figure 1.1 is not totally accurate. Many


_- ..c· digital controllers · can 'be.:· configured to
. e:.. .
_.., CJ
: . · have the proportional action occur on·ly on . ·
c: .. .
o·• ~ .:; . . .
oo.. the controlled variable.~·notontheJerror, to
. .. . . . . .· , . . . . . .....
avoid potentially undesirable . actionion ·
. · .. I · · .· See:Text for setpoint changes.· This· is a 'desirable op- ·
. . ·- . . :~I · : · aua·11t1cat1ons
. . . . · •. . . . . : :_ . ·.· I
. .· ' . . .
.
·.
....
..
.
".. . ; .. . . :·.. .' tion, but will not be discussed here. Also, ..
·•.

if · · a controller . · has . no · automatic reset : "


,·'

. . .. o .· :·. . . . .
: . ·j ·.... ; ,. . . . ·.
" ,,. '
;.
. (integral) · action, · to. be described • soon, ·
. ···· ... ·:,··.·. ·\· .. : ",
. . . . . . . . .
..
·,
',

· . Error, Percent of Scale then it will usually .have a manual reset .· ,


,

','

Figure 1.1. A proportion~l~onlycontroller has a fixed


. . .
· (integral) adjustment, 'This· is an-adjust- .· ,·..
'
..

relationship betwe_en error and output •.


· ment that allows . some manual compen-
.
. . .
sation· for the. offset. ·
direct: acting. If it decreases as the con- . . . .. .
.
·~
., .
. .·.
·.
.
~ ...
.
. . .

trolled variable increases, then it is· called·


. . .
.
. . ..
~.. ··
. .... ·. .. . . .·'.
.....
·: ..·:: ..::.
:
. ·.· .
reverse acting. The controller action is set .

. · -· . Controller
(or checked) initially, when a controller is
. ~ . ..
Setpoint ·_· . ·:- ·. · , .· ·., ; ·. · · · · · ·.. · . . · · · . :• . · Output·.
first put into :seryice,. and is not changed. . . p ........-
after that .. The action has to:. be right to get '. ..

the . controller . output. to. go .in _ the ·right.


. .
.

. ~ . . . . ..
- . .
. . .
.

..

direction when.. the . controlled .. · variable ·. Controlled


. . . . . . ' ·: . : ·.... ··,. ., . ..! . ·, ·.. .

...................... ·. Manual
changes, or else ..the controlled variable
. .

. . . ·. . . . .. . . . : . . .Variable . Reset
will avalanche away from the setpoint, ..... 0: : · .
'"
... . ,· .
.
. .

Figure 1.2. · A signal-flow·diagram to show how manual


reset may·
. be
.. . .
used to shift·. the output· for any· given
error. · · .: ·:· . .. .

· Figure 1.2 shows how this is represented


.
"
in a ·sigiia-l;'flow diagram, -: and • Figure · : 1.3
. ... .· . . ·.. ... . ·.· .. ~· ·. .. , .... ; ... :.. . ..

shows · how· this· might be ·represented··


\ :·

With any controller that is proportional-only 'graphically. It allows


. .
for adjusting what
(no integrating action; yet to be discussed), the controller - output is'. to be when the
there has . to be. an . error between . the
.. .

. .
_ error .is zeto.· It: may·;-t,e,.:thought · of _as
setpoint · and the controlled
. .
variable. · This .
sliding: the gain curve up· or down on . the
error is· frequently called offset. The · easiest graph. · Manual reset permits reducing the ·
way to understand this is to look again - at offset · at the- normal operating conditions,
Figure 1.1. · The only time the error is zero is but : it does not change .· the · basic
when the controller output is at· 50%. If the characteristic of proportional-only control,
controller output· is at any other value, then that there will· always be an offset, except : ·
there has to be an error to produce ·that out- at-one exact point ..
put. Simply remember that there will 'always
,.

. .r!J· .

Chapter.I, (jetting Started .


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·. . . . . .,
! • · ..: · - <·: - • • • •• •
···.· ·,· .. ~· . . ... .. . . . .. . '.. . . . .. . .. : . . .... ..,~ . . . . . : . ·.
.· . .

I · .· · · . . · .: . ·.· · . ·. . · •.. · • . Kc·7' C9.lltf9ller gain , . 1


... -~.. ·.~· : · .· : ~· : . . . ·: .,: . . . -, ·.... \· . :. : . . : ·. . . . . : ,·:.~· \ .. · . ·.. ' . . . ; . . . . .
· · B-b,as
. . . :. . . . . : . \ < . : .· ; . : ; : ; ...
· ··
. •. . .· .. : : .•. ·.· .' . · . . . . . . .. ·. . ..
· ..
. . . . . . . ~ . . .
. : . .·
. . . . .. .

i. >· · • ' i o . . .. 'II~ 't,fuV( Veiy ffni<I :gf ~rittf19 81(thJt ,


.. Error, Percent of Scale ,r.,ath . "(a.P.l{!BIIY~ fA/gel:>~fJ) ;· : and :-:'Jejy. ·. . .
. i

... .
. . quickly forget ~aboiit· tfiti· ~bias,: 'B~ ·as· it . · · : · .
Figure: .. 1,~3~·<· Ma.11ual _ reset ·. in . a proportional-only : is; rarely: of:· since it does . riot;: .• /. . coneem
. contr9.ller : ctiar,ge.~ ;the : fixed relationship between affect · dynamic - . {)fliformance. -.: The . . . · '
error and contr9ller·:O\ltput : . - : . .. ·. .· .. proportional~nly: controller :then , ,has: · : . .
.:. . ,· ·:·... . . .·•·· : ... . -. : . . ... ·: . . . ·. ·.'':··.·::;;:·I:./::.~,~.. .: . . .. . .

Any· Ioop Will Cycltt.~~- UllStabte} if a ·~ :La~lace' traniJ.onn : . · or·. transfer.· : . ·


the gain is increased far enough; The task function of: . · · :. , . · .. , ...
of setting the. gain ·is on~ . -~f.. g~tting the . .

effect · you want wi~out causing Output =Kc


instability. . · :i · · · · Error
. . .. '··.··· ..'.·.,.::·.. ·. . . '. . . . ..·, ,·. ·. . . . ,: ... · : ... :··:. ···: ..... : ·:·, ,.-,,:;,~;ti.!:':...
. .

or more simply:

K·c
. . . . .

· · This
is· ·the first ·section dealing with
the· math I algepra of control. If you· · since the left hand side of the
... want . to. ·skip:;. :,t, ,: ~:sny subse,quent or equation is ·understood. to-,;be. .- the···.· .
section-· so devoted, --1 encourage you output divid,d . by:" :t.fJs inp1li#t!t·:;:[hf>.:_:. ,., .
.· to . ao; so~ :!/:1.€11."' i$ no need tq get transfer· function· :Of ,any . tle:ment. '.:in;,.: . : . . . ·
. bogged qqwn:~/ il1::. this and frightened .... th~. a,olJtrpfJopp, is,:..f!iii/:O:WJ?Ut, diy~· <) '.·.
. off what l_afTI t.,ying-.to say. lv1y intent by the , ilJPP.t•.1. l:ri, tt,i~ case it: is what .~ "., ·
. is to make the booklet stand alone
. .
. · you : m~ltiply·"lrie: ei#,r\ bY to· get the ·:. · ·
• '·without- reference:··::.to math. ·These··· ·
:

. . . .
. .
>·. dutpLlti\ · _ ' · \ ,.(,i .ti·. • · ii < i · . •·.·· · · . ·. · · ·. • · · . . .. · .
. . .. ,. . : .~. : .. ·'.r .'). '· ·.,:·. .. . . :. :: ;: .,: ·.~' \~:·. . .. . .:, . . . . .. ; :. , . ,: : ..

· .· brief : :. sections · ar:e.: .. · presented-·;;· to .· ·. ·. ·. . .


. .

· .· . introcJuce . the math td. Lthose~ of you. · . . .


.
· · : Once yea :g$t ;nto: ·. the · algebra you · · ; · · .·
. ·. who might .be -interested.,:: . with the : ·•> >
. . ..
·.
. · :/·,-can · :satisfy •yourself. that·· these· . are·;; ;,; . • ·
. hopt;1 that you won't be intimidatf}d if . ,.::;. ; -legitlltJate · simplifications~. You ·should · . · ;i :
. you decide.to ·,ead other materiflt.on ·. -'.t·,::·· .. . . n.Qt:., play ,round: : V:f'-1}(.: much. with . the .·. :/ .
· th~ subject. . . . . . ·. . ·.· ., ; .. . , ;;.,.,// . . ·· · algebra ;.wit~o.ut. ::lea.rnif!g·, a. great deal : ,
. . . .. . . .. .. . . .
. .
. ;
. . · more than this lxJoklet will teach you. ·
• • • • • •• • •• • •• • : • •• • • :·.,,:'~ ..,·,, • • .' •• ·:. • ,. , • • ~· 6,';;):,.\v, , • ' •

.. . : ·the .. math . ··:of : : a,. . proporlional-dnly . . ... . I ha_ye IJO intention of teaching you .
. controller is quite: $.lmple: .. . .. . the. rigors of the underlying math.·
>
.. ,. . ..
. .. .
··.: ·: .. :
.
.. ·.··: )' .. ~·. . :... If you decide to learn more, you need
•.. : to use another source. . : . . . : ..
: · Output = (Ertot x :Gain) + Bias ·
. . ' . . , . . .

.. ..

.
. '

' .
·.


·,,
. .. .. ,.... ' .
: ..
:....

8 ChapterL'Getting Started

In the earlier days of industrial automatic was due to proportional· action alone.
control the integral function was- almost Within the physical · constraints of the
universally called reset. Now the more sci- controller, the output will continue to
entifically correct term integral is gaining change at the same rate. This change comes . .

widespread use. I tend· to use them · inter- from integrating the error.
changeably, • especially when talking as
compared with writing. When referring to So, the integral action causes the: controller
the adjustment the terms reset time, .and output to change at a RATE proportional
reset rate are both in common use. One is .
. . .

the reciprocal of the other, so of course it is


vital to know which one you are talking
about. To say to: ''tum the reset up'' .is. an ..Cl) ...
. . .

.
I· ... -. i
ambiguous statement, because you· .don't =ea. :s
know whether the speaker is talking . about .......
c :, - - - __.. _I A- -
reset time or reset rate. It usually means to (JoO I .
A
decrease the integral time, ·but the phrase .__, I + __
still leaves uncertainty. It is rather like
"
I • Integral_ I
saying to tum the air conditioner up. Does I Time I
that mean to get more cooling or to tum the
I
thermostat higher? I will use reset time· or . .: . . . .

integral time when· referring to the setting


I . . . : .

... I
itself, discouraging the use of reset rate. e...
w o.__..,
Integral action .is not as easy to understand
',

as proportional action. The graph ·that.· is Time


often used to explain it is· given as Figure Figure 1.4. A proportional .. plus integral controller will "

1.4, which is really for proportional-plus- integrate the error. to··add an amount to the ·output equal
integral action. Imagine· a controller just by to the proportional change in one integral time. ·
itself, not connected to · a process. Then . . to the error. The longer the integral time
imagine that from an initial condition for the slower it changes. A controller with
which the error is .zero, that an error is integral. action will eventually reduce the
suddenly introduced, called a step change. error to zero, as the output will continue to
The controller output will then change to a change until there ·is no error. That is, this
new value, and the amount of the change is · will happen if there . are no continuing
arbitrarily called ''A'' in Figure 1.4.: · · disturbances to · require the output to
continue to change, and if the manipulated
After that the controller output continues to variable has enough ''muscle'' to achieve
move in the same direction it went initially.
. . that. Manufacturers build their integrating
It will move an amount equal to the initial
. . function to be as close to mathematically
amount ''A'' in a time that is the integral pure as they can, and they do a good job of
time or the reset time. The units of reset it, whether it be one of the very first
time or integral time are minutes per repeat. pneumatic controllers, or one of the latest
The reason for this terminology is illustrated digital controllers.
in Figure 1.4, which shows that the integral
time is the time to repeat the change that
'


Chapter 1, Getting Started


.

Before the advent of digital controllers there Not much more will be. said about the reset
were integral-only c(jntrollers, but they were windup problem -at this point, . except to· say
. . . .

not in widespread use. The . · function is the twothings. One isthatit isaphenomenon
same as in . a proportional-plus-integral that does exist; and two is that the measures
controller,··. except of course' there is .no taken to combat the problem work with only
change in controller output .. · due to varying degrees of success. These measures .,, .

proportional · action. The . change in con- seldom totally eliminate the problem. It is
. . . . . .

troller output is all from integrating the er- far better to take steps to see that the
ror. With essentially all digital controllers controller does not windup in the first place,
there is the · option to have integral-only than to ·. expect · the . anti-windup features . to
action. When · this · might be used will be keep you out of trouble, Forbatchprocesses
discussed later. reset. windup · can be an especially severe
problem on start .up ... Specially
. .
. configured
. .. ... . . .

controllers exist to combat this problem, but . . . .

they will not be discussed in this booklet.



.
• •
.
• >
.

.

. .

. ' .
. . . . . . . .

Any loop will cycle · if yoµ · reduce the The math (algebra) for a propor-
. . .

integral .· time . far enough. This .. is. true tional-only controller had nothing in it
relative to time. The proportional-
whether the controller is proportional-plus-
plus-integral controller does. · This
integral . or only integral ...The task. of. setting introduces a new symbol, which is
the integral time is one of setting it low used in essentially all of the literature
enough but not too low. today, and that is the lower case ''s. ''

d
s=-
dt

..
Any control loop with integral action is If you didlT't know what it was before,
••
subject to having a problem called reset you still don't! The d is the derivative
windup, or more recently, integral windup. . dt
This refers to. the condition when the con- relative to time. If you see :!_, this is the
troller output does not have enough muscle . s
reciprocal of derivative, which . is
to reduce the error to zero. Since the con- integral. Please simply accept that. The
troller integrates this error, the output will . Laplace transform (transfer function) for
continue to change until it reaches some the proportional-plus-integral controller
limit, which may or may not be the limit of is written like this:
.
'
' the manipulated variable. In digital con-
trollers this is a limit set in the menu· for that
.
•.

controller, or it may be set in the software .


Kc 1+ 1
1
,

'
-,
T:s
I
For electronic controllers it might be set
with a manual adjustment. For pneumatic where T; = integral time
controllers the normal situation is that no
;
provision is made to avoid windup, but that Sometimes it is written this way:
.
,.. extra instrument items can be installed to
'
combat the problem. 1js+1 ·
\
'
Kc T;s
'


..

,.
,· ...·..
.. · :;,

...
10 . . ;,

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.:· .· ·.. ::' . ::.. .K
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'

c·-· . ,..... :· . •..


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··"> ...., ·:,\•

The . firlit. ·umn i$ \tb~ . · i,r.<ipQtfipft."'/


.,