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ISSN: 1693-6930, accredited A by DIKTI, Decree No: 58/DIKTI/Kep/2013

DOI: 10.12928/telkomnika.v16i1.5919 n 18

Bay, North Sulawesi

Negeri Manado, Tondano, Indonesia

Jl. Kampus FT-Unima Tondano 95618, North Sulawesi, Indonesia, +62431322543 *Corresponding

author, e-mail: parabelemrompas@unima.ac.id

Abstract

This study is investigating about marine currents provided electrical energy through the numerical

model. The objective of this study is to know the power available distributions in the Manado Bay, North

Sulawesi, Indonesia. The Manado Bay was width 2200 m with 79 m of depth. In computation, we are made

grids in x and y horizontal were 7 m respectively, also for z vertical of four layers. The results shown that the

power available distributions in the Manado Bay at 0.1 Sv were 0.00-20.00 kW/m2 when low tide currents and

when high tide currents were 0.00-105 kW/m2. The values will enable for marine currents power plant in the

Manado Bay to future.

Keywords: numerical model, marine currents, the Manado Bay, power available

1. Introduction

Numerical methods are one completion to determine the power available in Manado Bay.

Already many researchers are investigating on numerical methods for ocean currents such as

Casulli and Cheng in [1] that study on numerical method in San Francisco Bay, California and

Lagoon of Venice, Italy. They simulated flooding and drying of tidal mud-flats in conjunction by

3D flows. Clement, et al., in [2] that developed numerical models in Bering Sea in North Pacific

which have investigated the short-term marine circulation and flux in a small geographic region.

Zarrati and Jin in [3] developed the mathematical model for 3D simulation into multi-layer model.

Their models were able to predict diverse three-dimensional flow conditions through the velocity

distribution and secondary flows. Rompas and Manongko [4] have studied on velocities of marine

current in Bunaken Strait, North Sulawesi, Indonesia by numerical simulation. Draper, et al., [5]

simulated energy potential of a tidal near a coastal headland using 2D depth averaged numerical

model. Numerical experiments of tidal currents near New River inlet, NC, USA are conducted by

Chen, et al., [6]. The Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations as the basic equations

used to solve numerical modeling [7-9]. The numerical models of tidal currents are developed such

as in a coastal ocean (Maine Gulf, Fundy Bay, Minas Passage, and Minas Basin in North America)

with subgrid approximation [10], in the Gold Coast Seaway area, Gold Coast, Australia [11] with

simulations of flow, wave, and sediment transport. The evolution of tidal creek has studied by Gu,

et al., [12]. Elzalabani, et al., [13] have presented the mathematical modeling and simulation tidal

current energy that can be modeled as a stream of harmonics and applicated in building the tidal

barrage across a bay.

In this study, we have used a numerical model that developed from [1-3]. Also, we want to

investigate the power available distributions in the Manado Bay, North Sulawesi, Indonesia which

influenced by Singkil river, refer to Figure 3.

2. Theory

2.1. Mathematical Model

The governing equations used to get the distributions of the power available from basic

RANS Equations [14]. The model of Equations become:

u u u u η

(1)

t x y z x

v v v v η

u v w g div νeff grad v fcoru (2)

t x y z y

u v w

0 (3)

x y z

where u (x,y,z,t), v (x,y,z,t), and w (x,y,,z,t) are the velocities in horizontal directions of x, y, and z-

direction respectively, η(x,y,t) is the elevation of free surface, t is the time, νeff is an effective

diffusion taking of account turbulent viscosity and dispersion, νeff ν νt , fcor is the Coriolis

parameter, assumed to be constant, and g is the gravity.

The equation of turbulence that used was turbulent viscosity from the mixing-length model

[15, 16] as follow:

1/2 ν lh4

2 u 2 2 vy 2 vx uy 2 4 uz 2

v 2 (4) t x

lv z

where lh and lv are horizontal and vertical mixing length scales respectively.

In the numerical study here, the boundary conditions need to be set as [14]: by the bottom,

by the surface of the water [17], by boundaries which can be vertical impermeable structures (wall),

and by boundaries in the open sea [18]. The power available in the Manado Bay, we can be

obtaining from Equation [19-20]:

P ρ(v)310 3 (5)

where P in kW/m2, v is u2 v2 w2 (m/s) and ρ is density of water (kg/m3).

The numerical method that used was semi-implicit finite difference for the 3D in Equation

(1), (2), and (3) was used by: [1], [3], [12], [15], and [21-23].

Figure 1 shows choices adopt in the vertical direction. The velocities are defined on the

edge of the mesh, we guessed virtual meshes to write the limiting conditions with the walls, and we

decorate the free surface with the grid.

The generally, we can be written semi-implicit discretization in Equation (1) and (2) in the

compact matrix form [1] as follow:

(6)

Ain 1/2, j Uin 11/2, j Gin 1/2, j g Δt ηin 11,j ηi,nj 1 ΔZin 1/2, j

Δx

(7)

Ai,nj 1/2Vi,nj 11/2 Gi,nj 1/2 g Δt ηi,nj 11 ηi,nj 1 ΔZi,nj 1/2

Δy

n 1 wi,nj, k1 1/2 Δzin 1/2, j,kuin 11/2, j,k Δzin 1/2, j,kuin 11/2, j,k

wi,j,k 1/2

Δx

(8)

Δz

i,nj 1/2,kvi,nj 11/2,k Δzi,nj 1/2,kvi,nj 11/2,k

Δy

P ρ (vi,nj, 1 3

k ) 10

3

(9)

n 1 2 2 2

where P is the availability power in the Manado Bay (kW/m2) and vi, j, k u v w is

velocity resultant with u 1 (ui,nj,k 1 uin 11, j,k ),v 1(vi,nj, k1 vi,nj 11,k ) and w 1 (wi,nj,k 1

2 2 2

respectively.

Figure 1. Meshes and notations for computational (2D and 3D)

3. Method

Figure 2 shows flow chart for solution of a numerical model in calculating the velocities of

u , v and w respectively and the power available in the Manado Bay. The “calculate components of

the velocities (u, v and w) and power available” symbol are show a process for calculating of

horizontal velocities u in Equation 6 and v in Equation 7 with a linear threediagonal, whereas for

calculating velocity vertical w use Equation (8). Finally, calculating the power available where the

calculation used Equation (9). The “n” symbol shows the quantity of calculating with iteration do-

process until maximum iteration (T max). The “T > Tmax” symbol is the process to execute

determination when the iteration has been greater than maximum iteration, if no then process will

be go to “n” for continue to calculate again, and if yes then it go to “finish”.

The position of Manado Bay in Indonesia and numerical area are located in the Sulawesi

Sea with approximately 300 km2 of the area as shown in Figure 3 and width of about 2.2 km

between Bunaken Island and Sulawesi Island, and down to 79 m deep.

We are made two types of simulations in 3D-simulations with one discharge. There are

four layers to deep. In calculation, there are 174 x 318 mesh in x, y directions with Δx = Δy = 7 m.

Also, we are used four vertical layers and the integration time Δt = 0.4 sec as shown in Table 1, and

discharge is 0.1 Sv (1 Sv = 106 m3/s). Figure 4 illustrates the bathymetry 3-D and 2D of the Manado

Bay which used for numerical simulation.

Tide predictions were computed based on the Admiralty method using Harmonic

Constants taken from the Indonesia Sailing Direction and the results of the HydroOceanographic

surveys. Information about tide is needed for the safety of navigation as mention in navigational

Indonesia regulation number 21, 1992 [24]. Hourly heights of tide of 95 stations in Indonesia are

given for whole period in one year. Time used in local standard time. Predictions refer to Chard

Datum of Low Water Spring. Height should be added to charted depths, unless preceded by minus

sign (-) then they should be subtracted. Water heights are given in Meter. It is pointed that though

the prediction in the tide tables, in substance gives the actual movements of tide.

G 9.81 m s-2 Ρ kg/m3

Cz 48 Δx m

τo days Δy m

τi day Δz m

Discharge 0.1 Sv Δt 0.4 sec

Parameter Value Parameter Value

START

READ DATA

INITIAL CONDITIONS

BOUNDARY CONDITION S

TURBULENCE VISCOSITY

POWER AVAILABLE

PRINT RESULTS

no

T>T max

yes

STOP

Figure 3. The position of Manado Bay in Indonesia and numerical area

(a) (b)

We can see that the power available distributions when high tide currents (Figure 6b) at in

front of the Singkil river downstream (Figure 4b) where around 80-105 kW/m2 bigger than the

other area in around that of 1-60 kW/m2. It caused by existence of manger and average depth in the

place of ~5 m. Also, in West area, especially at centre area where power availabilities around 16-20

kW/m2. Whereas in North area where the power available still less unless in South area about 30-50

kW/m2. Figure 5 shows the tide predictions for 37 days from on 16 January to 21 February 2014

[24]. Predictions refer to Chart Datum 1.2 m under Mean Sea Level (MSL). The type of tides is

mixed, mainly semidiurnal and some of that are diurnal. If we see in Westside (left hand) where

there are power availabilities biggest around 10-15 kW/m2. When low tide currents (Figure 6. a) at

in front of the Singkil river, East-North, and East-South, where around 15-20 kW/m2. Whereas at

enter channel in Singkil river of 0.5-8 kW/m2. It is caused due to the confluence of the river and the

marine currents, also, the flow of river water to move freely into the sea with an average depth of 2

m.

Figure 5. Tide predictions of the Manado Bay

(a) (b)

Figure 6. 2D-Simulated distributions of the power available when low tide currents (a) and high

tide currents (b) in the Manado Bay

(a)

(b)

Figure 7. 3D-Simulated distributions of the power available when low tide currents (a) and high

tide currents (b) in the Manado Bay

The distributions of the power available when low and high tide currents in the Manado

Bay (3D-simulation) at discharge 0.1 Sv respectively showed in Figure 7. Tide currents very

influence to the power available which very big at high tide current [25-27]. When low tide

currents, the distributions were 0.00-20.00 kW/m2 and 0.00-105.00 kW/m2 when high tide currents

in the Manado Bay.

4. Conclusion

Study on marine current in the Manado Bay, North Sulawesi, Indonesia through a

numerical model has been successfully accomplished. The maximum of power available at

discharge of 0.1 Sv when low and high tide currents were 20 and 105 kW/m2 respectively. The

results will be enabling to design the turbines that used in the marine current power plant in

Manado Bay in the future.

Acknowledgements

This work is supported by Dirlitabmas, Dirjendikti, Ministry of Education and Culture,

Republic of Indonesia. Authors also acknowledge the Rector of Universitas Negeri Manado,

Indonesia who has proposed this research grant.

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2016. IEEE. 2017: 104-110.

Numerical simulation of marine currents in the Bunaken

Strait, North Sulawesi, Indonesia

Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Negeri Manado, Tondano, North Sulawesi, 95618, Indonesia

Abstract. This study intended for the generation of hydroelectric power at suitable area of the strait

in order to provide electric current to a close environment. The project uses a threedimensional

model of taking flow into account the variation of hydrostatic pressure in the liquid vertical layers.

We brought back to a two-dimensional calculation using the shallow water equations. The

objectives of the study are getting simultaneous obtaining the velocities of currents by the

component of velocities and distributions of the kinetic energy from the numerical results. The

Bunaken strait is 5280 m width for an average depth of 130 m. Numerical calculation is simulated

using horizontal meshes of 60 side meters. The numerical solutions obtained by using a time step

of one second. It found that there was no great difference between 2D and 3D numerical

simulations because the effect of flow velocity in the vertical direction is very small. The numerical

results have shown that the average current velocities when low and high tide currents are 1.46 m/s

and 0.85 m/s respectively. The kinetic energy ranged from 0.01 to 2.54 kW/m 2 when low and high

tide in the Bunaken strait area at discharge of 1 Sv, whereas at discharge 2 Sv, 0.11-17.40 kW/m2

and 0.11-2.77 kW/m2 (when low and high tide currents). These results can used in the design of

turbines for power generation marine currents in the Bunaken strait at depths below 60 meters.

1. Introduction

Construction of electrical power plants in Indonesia is urgently needed to overcome the shortage of

electrical energy to date. One of the components for the construction of the power plant is marine current turbine [8,

9]. Marine current turbine designs requiring variable of current velocity which is directly proportional to the kinetic

energy. Many ways to get the data of current velocity, one way is by numerical model [2]. A numerical model of

marine currents in Bunaken strait used a semi-implicit finite difference method for the numerical solution of three-

dimensional shallow water flows. Several numerical methods with solution of shallow water equations used in

practical applications [1, 2, 3, 5]. Several existing numerical model for two and three dimensional shallow water flow

simulations based on an alternating direction implicit ADI method. In semi-implicit method, only the barotropic

pressure gradient in the momentum equations and the velocity divergence in the continuity equation taken implicitly.

Each time step a linear five-diagonal system solved in new the water surface elevations for the entire domain are the

unknowns. The model is generally explicit with the exception that the vertical eddy viscosity terms discretized

implicitly. In the model formulation, the governing system of equations split into an external and an internal mode

[2]. Momentum exchanges between vertical layers expressed in a set of tri-diagonal matrix equations relating the

discrete horizontal velocities in each vertical level to the gradient of the water surface elevations [5].

Content from this work may be used under the terms of theCreativeCommonsAttribution 3.0 licence. Any further

distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI.

Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd 1

This paper is more majoring to study the velocities of current and know the availability of kinetic energy in

the Bunaken Strait. In addition, intended for the installation of marine current turbine in the place more adapted strait

in order to provide electrical current to the close environment.

The objectives of the study are getting simultaneous obtaining the velocities of currents by the component of

velocities and distributions of the kinetic energy from the numerical results.

2. Experimental Setup

The model of three-dimensional equations that developed from the Navier-Stokes equations after turbulent

averaging and under assumption that the pressure is hydrostatic [2, 3], the equations as follow:

2 2

u u u u u u u (1)

u v w g x2 y2 z t z f v.

t x y z x

v v v v 2

v 2

v v (2)

u v w g x2 y2 z t z f u.

t x y z y

u v w

0 x (3)

y z

where u(x,y,z,t), v(x,y,z,t), and w(x,y,,z,t) are the velocity components in the directions represent x, y, and z

respectively,

η(x,y,t) is the free surface, t is the time, and t are the eddy viscosity coefficients of horizontal and vertical

respectively, f is the Coriolis parameter, assumed to be constant, And g is the constant gravitational acceleration.

The current computing power does allow taken into the account direct one by using the Reynolds Average

Navier-Stokes Equations (RANS) [1].

A formula for turbulent viscosity is the standard form as defined:

4 u2 v2 v u2 4 u2 v2 (4)

t lh 2( x) 2( y) ( x y) lv ( z) ( z)

Where: lv = κ(z-zb), for (z-zb)/h < λ/κ; lv = λh, for λ/κ < (z-zb)/h < 1, for lh = β lv, for the horizontal length

scale is larger, κ is the von Karman's constant (κ = 0.41), λ is a constant (λ = 0.09); (z-zb) is the distance from the

wall, h is the boundary layer thickness assumed to be equal to the water depth,

lv and lh are the vertical and horizontal length scales,

In addition, the constant β has to be determined from comparison with experiment.

Some types of boundary conditions are required as the boundary conditions at the free surface are specified

by the prescribed wind stresses of directions x and y, and a slip boundary u z/ v z/ 0. At the bottom

stress can be related to the turbulent law of the wall, a drag coefficient associated with using a Chezy formula [2].

Velocity on a solid wall is a no-slip condition, and on the open boundary, we used principally two condition, the first

is Neumann method and the second is a condition radiation which derived from Orlanski’s algorithm that developed

by Treguier et al. [4].

The kinetic energy in the Bunaken strait (PA), we can be obtaining from equation [6]:

3 3

P1

PA v10 (5)

A2

Where PA in kW/m2, v is the velocity resultant of marine current (m/s) and ρ is seawater density (kg/m3).

2.2 Numerical Model

Semi-implicit finite difference method for the numerical solution of the three-dimensional Equation 1 and

Equation 2 used by Casulli & Cheng [2], and Stansby [3] in the computation of shallow water flows. The free surface

flow equations can derive in which the gradient of surface elevation in the momentum equations and the velocity can

discretized implicitly. The convective, Coriolis and horizontal viscosity terms in the momentum equations discretized

explicitly, but in order to eliminate a stability condition due to the vertical eddy viscosity, the vertical mixing terms

discretized implicitly.

(a) (b)

Figure 1. Schematic diagram of computational mesh and notations

Figure 1 shown that a spatial mesh which consists of rectangular cells of length Δx, width Δy and height Δzk

is introduced. Each cell is numbered at its centre with indices i, j and k. Figure 1 (a) show that the discrete u-velocity

is then defined at half-integer i, j and k; v is defined at integers i, k, and half-integer j; w is defined at integers i, j, and

half-integer k. Then figure 1 (b) show that η is defined at integers i and j. The water depth h(x,y) is specified at the u

and v horizontal points. So that a general semi-implicit discretization of the momentum equations in Equation 1 and

Equation 2 can be written in the more compact matrix form as

n n 1 n n 1n 1 n

t (6)

A Ui 1/2, j i 1/2, j Gi 1/2, j g i 1, j i j, ΔZi 1/2, j x

n n 1 n t n 1 n 1 n (7)

A Vi j, 1/ 2 i j, 1/ 2 Gi j, 1/ 2 g i j, 1 i

j, ΔZi j, 1/ 2 y

n 1

Equation 6 and Equation 7 are linear tri-diagonal systems. For determine the free surface i j , can be

n 1 n 1 t T n 1 T n 1

i j, , i j, , ΔZi 1/ 2, j Ui 1/ 2, j ΔZi 1/ 2, j Ui 1/ 2, j

x (8)

t T n 1 T n 1

ΔZi j, 1/ 2 Vi j, 1/ 2 ΔZi j, 1/ 2 Vi j, 1/ 2 y

The available energy that investigated in this study is the kinetic energy (kW/m2). The first, we will back at

the equation of the kinetic energy which is equation of the marine current power in the Bunaken strait can be

discretized from Equation 5 becomes:

n 1 3 3

P1 (9)

PA (vi j k, , ) 10

A2

The Bunaken strait is located between the Pacific ocean and the Sulawesi sea (Celebes sea) whose area is

approximately 200 km2 (Figure 2), with a minimum width between Bunaken island and Sulawesi island about 5.28

km and the average depth of 130 m.

The three-dimensional current circulation in the Bunaken strait is simulated using the present model with

174 x 318 x 4 finite difference meshes of equal Δx = Δy = 60 m and Δx = 20 m. The numerical solutions used an

integration time Δt = 1 sec and inlet volume transports (discharges) are 1 Sv to 2 Sv (1 Sv = 10 6 m3s-1). Figure 3

illustrates the bathymetry (a) and the meshes (b), the 3D of the Bunaken strait used for numerical simulation. The

water depth distributions show the complex areas.

Currents in the Bunaken strait closely related with ocean currents and Indonesian throughflow. According to

Brown et al. [7] that the global wind system would be if the Earth were completely covered with water, and the

atmospheric circulation transports heat from low to high latitudes and the same is true in the oceans, where surface

currents warmed in low latitudes carry heat polewards, while currents cooled at high latitudes flow equatorwards.

Marine currents in the Bunaken strait consist of two i.e. high tide currents and low tide currents. In the morning,

occurred high tide currents where input currents from from Maluku Sea (see right of Figure 2). The currents then go

out to Manado bay and then they go out to Sulawesi Sea. In the evening, occurred low tides currents that are inversed

on obtaining of high tide currents. The currents obtain from Sulawesi Sea and Manado bay. The currents then go

inside pass in the left of Bunaken strait. Then the currents go out to the right of Bunaken strait and then go out to

Maluku Sea.

Sulawesi Sea

Maluku Sea

Bunaken Island

Bunaken Strait

Sulawesi

Manado Bay Island

(a)

(b)

Figure 3. The 3D of the Bunaken strait with water depth: (a) Bathymetry and (b) Meshes.

In 2D simulations, we made two type of simulations with two variations of discharge. In first simulation, we

have conducted when low tide current where each simulation has considerate with constant discharge inside. In

second simulation, when high tide currents with condition discharge same as in first simulation. Parameter of

discharge varies from 1 to 2 Sv with classifications are 1 Sv and 2 Sv.

Like in 2D simulations, 3D simulations we also have made two type of simulations with two variations of

discharge. In 3D simulations, there are 4 layers of seawater column which each layer depth of 20 m (Δz),

respectively. Whereas in 2D simulations only one layer of seawater column which layer depth is maximum depth.

The current velocity is a key factor in the design of a marine current power plant, since it sets the limits for

both the power output as well as the forces acting on the turbine and support structures [8]. Figure 4 shows simulated

of velocity component distributions at seawater column when low (a) and high (b) tide currents. Generally, when low

tide currents which water enters from left side section and then flows go to section of right side. A small part to top

side section which previous rotate form two eddies like elliptic diameter at centre. The average velocity at enter of

Bunaken strait is 1.46 m/s (figure 4a). On the contrary, when high tide current (figure 4b), current enters from right

side section go to section of left side and a small part to top side section which previous happened eddy is very small

at center east area near Bunaken island. The average velocity at enter of Bunaken strait is 0.85 m/s.

Figure 4. Simulated of velocity component (2D) and kinetic energy (3D) distributions at seawater column

when the tide currents of low (a and c) and high (b and d) at discharge of 1 Sv.

(a) (b) (c) (d)

Figure 5. Simulated of velocity component (2D) and kinetic energy (3D) distributions at seawater column

when the tide currents of low (a and c) and high (b and d) at discharge of 2 Sv.

Simulated (2D) of velocity component distributions at seawater column when low (a) and high (b) tide

currents shown Figure 5. Water flows when tide currents but the average velocities are different. When low tide current

and high tide current at enter of Bunaken strait are 2.6 m/s and 2.0 m/s respectively.

The distributions of the kinetic energy when the tide currents of low (c) and high (d) in the Bunaken strait at

discharge of 1 and 2 Sv respectively showed in figure 4 and figure 5. Discharge influence to the kinetic energy is

very big where ever greater of discharge then ever greater also kinetic energy. Discharge of 1 Sv shows that there are

about 0.05-2.54 kW/m2 (when low tide currents) and 0.01-0.38 kW/m2 (when high tide currents) kinetic energies,

whereas at discharge of 2 Sv, 0.41-17.40 kW/m2 (when low tide currents) and 0.11-2.77 kW/m2 (when high tide

currents) available in the Bunaken strait.

We can see generally that the values of current velocities and kinetic energy are bigger when low tide

currents. That's because the cross sectional area of water that entered the Bunaken strait is smaller when low tide

currents than when high tide currents.

4. Conclusions

Numerical simulation of marine currents in the Bunaken strait, North Sulawesi, Indonesia has presented.

The values of the kinetic energy obtained by calculations could be enabling to choose a suitable place for installing

the turbines adapted well for a future undersea electricity power plant in the Bunaken strait. The numerical results

have shown that the values of current velocities and kinetic energy are bigger when low tide currents. At the

discharge of 1 Sv, the average current velocities are 1.46 m/s (when low tide currents) and 0.85 m/s (when high tide

currents), the distributions of the kinetic energy are 0.05-2.54 kW/m2 (when low tide currents) and 0.01-0.38 kW/m2

(when high tide currents). Whereas at discharge of 2 Sv, the average current velocities are 2.6 m/s (when low tide

currents) and 2.00 m/s (when high tide currents), the distributions of the kinetic energy are 0.41-17.40 kW/m2 (when

low tide currents) and 0.11-2.77 kW/m2 (when high tide currents). These results can used in the design of turbines for

power generation marine currents in the Bunaken strait at depths below 60 meters.

References

[1] Broomans P 2003 Numerical Accuracy in Solution of the Shallow-Water Equations (Master thesis, TU Delft

& WL, Delft Hydraulics)

[2] Casulli V and Cheng R T 1992 Semi-implicit finite difference methods for three-dimensional shallow water

flow International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids 15 629-648

[3] Stansby P K 1997 Semi-implicit finite volume shallow-water flow and solute transport solver with k-ε

turbulence model International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids 25 285313

[4] Treguier A M, Barnier B, and De Miranda A P 2001 An eddy-permitting model of the Atlantic circulation:

Evaluating open boundary condition J. Geophy. Res. Oceans 106 (C10) (2211522129) 1-23

[5] Zarrati A R and Jin Y C 2004 Development of a generalized multi-layer model for 3-D simulation of free

surface flows Int. J. Numer. Meth. Fluids 46 1049-1067

[6] Luquet R, Bellevre D, Fréchou D, Perdon P, and Guinard P 2013 Design and model testing of an optimized

ducted marine current turbine International Journal of Marine Energy 2 61-80

[7] Brown E, Colling A, and Park D 2001 Ocean circulation (second edition, The open university, England:

Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA and Butterworth-Heinemann)

[8] Thomas K 2007 Low Speed Energy Conversion from Marine Currents (Ph.D. Thesis, Acta Universitatis

Upsaliensis, Uppsala: Digital comprehensive summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science

and Technology)

[9] Fraenkel P L 1999 New Development in Tidal and Wave Power

Technologies (Presented at Towards a renewable future: silver jubilee

conference, Brighton, UK)

Acknowledgments

The authors wish to express their appreciation to Dirlitabmas, Dirjendikti, Ministry of Education and

Culture of the Republic of Indonesia which had finance all of the research activities, and Rector of Manado

State University, Indonesia who has proposed

Study on Marine Current with Approach of a

Numerical Model for Marine Current Power Plant

(PLTAL) in the Bangka Strait North Sulawesi

Parabelem Tinno Dolf Rompas education of engineering universitas negeri

information and communication technology universitas manado

negeri manado Tondano, Indonesia ferry_sangari@yahoo.com

Tondano, Indonesia

parabelem_rompas@yahoo.com

Heindrich Tanunaumang

education of physics

universitas negeri manado

Tondano, Indonesia

hein.taunaumang@yahoo.com

I. INTRODUCTION

Abstract—Study on marine current with approach of a numerical

model for marine current power plant (PLTAL) in the Bangka

Development of electricity power plant is a part of a

strait North Sulawesi has been investigated. Construction of whole development in North Sulawesi because the electricity

power plant is needed to overcome the shortage of electricity in consumption would go up along with the increasing of public

North Sulawesi. Before building the electrical energy it would activity and a prosperous people (as the economy has grown

require a feasibility study which aim to ensure the certainty of rapidly in North Sulawesi the last years, so has the demand for

the construction of power plant. One of them is through the study electricity). Public utilizes electricity for many purpose such as

of marine currents in the design of a numerical model. The

objective of this investigates for long-term is to get a profile of household requirement as well as economics trade. Therefore

marine current turbines as one component in the construction of supplying adequate amount of electricity and existence of

marine current power plant in the Bangka strait. Specific targets continuities electricity power should help to maintain conducive

to achieve are to get the first; data such as tide, sea water and air social and economic activity, and to motivate public economic

temperature on the surface, the wind speed above sea level, a growth. When the electricity is insufficient, the electricity

map of the Bangka Strait and bathymetry, the second; a design of power will be put out to balance the supply for consumer.

numerical model and kinetic energy distributions. The method

used was initially literature study, survey in the research Putting out of electricity has been occurring several times in

location, measurements of data such as tide, temperatures of sea North Sulawesi, this case has influenced by the development

water and the air above the surface, wind speed above sea level, and investment.

bathymetry of the Bangka strait, finally are the analysis of data The ideal locations for power station installation of the

measurements and design of a numerical model in the form of current energy have velocities of current two directions

numerical program. The results showed that the data tide from (minimum bidirectional) 2 m/s [12]. The ideal is 2.5 m/s or

January 16 until February 21, 2016 the maximum and minimum

of 2.4 m and 0.3 m respectively that oscillates at datum line of 1.2 more. One way (river/current of geotropic) is minimum 1.21.5

m. Numerical program developed from the semi implicit finite m/s. The deepness not less than 15 m and the most at 40 or 50

difference method for shallow water in two and three dimensions m. Close to coast so that energy can be channeled with low

by the basis algorithm that consists of three fractional steps are expense. They have add for wide that more than one turbine can

advection step, diffusion step, and pressure-continuity step. The be attached, not sea transport and the fish arrest area.

numerical program will be a product in analyzing potential

A numerical model of marine currents in Bangka strait

kinetic energy as the prime mover of turbines for marine current

power plant in the Bangka strait. used a semi-implicit finite difference method for the numerical

solution of three-dimensional shallow water flows. Several

Keywords—numerical modeling; numerical simulation; marine numerical methods with solution of shallow water equations are

current turbines; PLTAL used in practical applications [3], [4], [7]. In semi-implicit

methods only the barotropic pressure gradient in the momentum

equations and the velocity divergence in the continuity equation

are taken implicitly. Each time step a linear five-diagonal

Ferry Jhony Sangari system is solved in the new water surface elevations for the

education of electrical entire domain are the unknowns. The model is generally explicit

with the exception that the vertical eddy viscosity terms are

discretized implicitly. In the model formulation the Free surface equation

governing system of equations is split into an external

and an internal mode [2]. Momentum exchanges between

vertical layers are expressed in a set of tri-diagonal matrix ∂η+ ∂ η + ∂ η

− h udz ∂ y − h vdz =0 (4)

equations relating the discrete horizontal velocities in

each vertical level to the gradient of the water surface ∂t ∂x

elevations [11]. A formal expression for the solution of Where, νeff is an effective diffusion taking of account turbulent

these tri-diagonal systems can be written in terms of the viscosity and dispersionνeff = +ν νt . This effective diffusion is

barotropic pressure gradient. Substituting the formal given by means of a model of turbulence adapted to the

solutions into the vertically integrated continuity equation problem considers. Equation (1) to (4) will be those considered

gives rise to a linear five-diagonal system whose only in the continuation of the report.

unknowns are the water surface elevation over the Power is just energy divided by time, so the power

domain of interest. Such a system is symmetric and available from the seawater current [13]-[17] can be expressed

positive definite and can be solved uniquely and as:

efficiently by using a conjugate gradient method. By

direct substitution of the barotropic pressure gradient

P = Ek = 1ρ.v .3 A (5) dt

known at the advanced time level, the horizontal velocity

for each vertical layer can be computed. The vertical 2

velocity component can be found by integration of the Where, P is the power available from the seawater current in

continuity equation. This paper is more majoring to study Watt.

the velocities of current and know the availability of In this study we will calculate the power of marine

kinetic energy in the Bangka Strait. This study is intended current in the Bangka strait per unit cross-sectional area (m2),

for the installation of turbines in the place more adapted thus, from equation 5 we can be obtain:

strait in order to provide electrical current to the close

environment. PA = =P 1ρv 103 −3 (6)

The objective of this investigates for long-term is A2

to get a profile of marine current turbines as one component Where, PA is the power per cross-sectional area in kW/m2 and v

in the construction of marine current power plant in the is the velocity resultant of marine current that defined as v = u v

Bangka strait. Specific targets to achieve are to get the first;

w2 + +2 2 with u , v and w respectively are scalars of the

data such as tide, sea water and air temperature on the

surface, the wind speed above sea level, a map of the velocitiesu , v and w respectively, and ρ = 1024 kg/m3 [18] (at

Bangka Strait and bathymetry, the second; a design of 20 (C) and salinity of 34).

numerical model and kinetic energy distributions. B. Turbulence model

II. MODEL EQUATIONS A formula for turbulent viscosity is the standard form

as defined from the mixing-length model with assuming (∂w / ∂z )

A. Basic equations

Under the assumptions of hydrostatic pressure,

2

<< (∂u / ∂x ) 2 + (∂v / ∂y ) 2 , ∂w / ∂y << ∂v / ∂z

and

and by using the decomposition of preceding Reynolds, the for shallow water flows where vertical velocity w

∂w / ∂x << ∂u / ∂z

realized average Navier-Stokes equations are written [6]: is small was used by Stansby [9] and Cea [4]. The eddy

Continuity equation viscosity is computed at each point from the horizontal and

vertical component velocity gradients and length scales for

∂u + ∂v + ∂w =0 (1) horizontal and vertical motion, giving a formula for turbulent

∂x ∂y ∂z viscosity as:

∂u

∂t

∂ ∂ ∂

+ u u + v u + w u =− g

∂x ∂y ∂z

∂η

∂x

( )

+ divν eff gradu() + f cor v (2) υt =

+∂∂uy)2

lh4

+lv4

2(∂∂ux)2 +2(∂∂yv)2 +(∂∂vx

(∂∂uz)2 +(∂∂vz)2 (7)

∂v

∂t

∂ ∂ ∂

+ u v + v v + w v =− g

∂x ∂y ∂z

∂η

∂y

( )

+ div ν eff gradv() − f cor u (3)

Momentum equation for lv = κ(z-zb), for (z-zb)/h < λ/κ; lv = λh, for λ/κ < (z-zb)/h < 1;

and lh = β lv, for the horizontal length scale is larger; where κ is

the von Karman's constant (κ = 0.41), λ is a constant (λ = 0.09),

(z-zb) is the distance from the wall, h is the boundary layer

thickness assumed to be equal to the water depth, lv and lh are

the vertical and horizontal length scales, and the constant u in++11/ 2 , j M,

β has to be determined from comparison with experiment.

n+1

C. Boundary conditions

For the problem studied in this paper, some u i + 1 / 2 , j M, − 1 n+

imposed as follows: (i) the boundary conditions at the

free surface are specified by the prescribed wind stresses U i+1/2,j u i + 1 / 2 , j M, −2 ,

of directions x and y, and a slip boundary∂ ∂ =∂ ∂ =u z/ v z/ :

0 ; (ii) the boundary conditions at the bottom stress can be

related to the turbulent law of the wall, a drag coefficient

associated with using a Chezy formula [2]; (iii) the u in++11/ 2 , j m,

boundary conditions for velocity on a solid wall is a no-

slip condition [6], and on the open boundary, we used

principally two condition, the first is Neumann method

and the second is a condition radiation which derived

from Orlanski’s algorithm [10].

Semi-implicit finite difference method for the

numerical solution of the three-dimensional in (1) to (4)

was used by Casulli & Cheng [2], Stansby [8], and Chen

[5] in the computation of shallow water flows. Equation (2)

and (3) will be derived in which the gradient of surface

elevation in the momentum equations and the velocity in

the free surface in (4) will be discretized implicitly. The

convective, Coriolis and horizontal viscosity terms in the

momentum equations will be discretized explicitly, but in

order to eliminate a stability condition due to the vertical

eddy viscosity, the vertical

Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of computational mesh and notations

rectangular cells of length Δx, width Δy and height Δzk is

introduced. Each cell is numbered at its centre with indices

i, j and k. The discrete u-velocity is then defined at half-

integer i, j and k; v is defined at integers i, k, and half-

integer j; w is defined at integers i, j, and half-integer k.

Then η is defined at integers i and j. The water depth h(x,y)

is specified at the u and

v in, +j 1+1 / 2 ,M

+1 ΔzM

v

in, j +1 / 2 ,M −1

− Δν ν Δ+ Δ +( 2 2

)

n +1 = i jn, +1+1 / 2 ,M − 2 ΔzM −1

V i j, +1 / 2 v , 0 Δzmm−1−1/2/2t Δ +zm Δmz+m1/+21/2t g t u vCz2

: Δ =Z ΔzM −2

n +1 :

v i , j +1 / 2 ,m Δzm Where m and M denote the k-index of the bottom and the top

,

Δz M Fu in+1 / 2, j M, +Δtτxw

Δz M −1 Fu in+1 / 2, j M, −1

n = Δ

n

G i+1 / 2, j z M − 2 Fu i+1 / 2, j M, − 2

:

Δz Fum in+1 / 2, j m,

,

Δz M Fv i jn, +1 / 2,M +Δtτyw

Δz M −1 Fv i jn, +1 / 2,M −1

:

Δ +νM−1/2Δt − ΔνM−1/2 t

zM ΔzM−1/2 ΔzM−1/2

0

: : : : is the Chezy's friction

v horizontal points. So that a general semi-implicit finite difference stencil respectively, Cz

discretization of the momentum equations in (2) and (3) can τ w τw

be written in the more compact matrix form as coefficient, x and y are wind stresses, and F is non-linear

t

(

A in+1/ 2, j U in++11/ 2, j =G in+1/ 2, j − g Δ η ηin++11, j − i jn,+1 ΔZ in+1/ 2, j ) finite difference operator and an explicit.

Δx (8) Equation (8) and (9) are linear tri-diagonal systems. For

( )

A i jn, +1/ 2 Vi jn, ++11/ 2 =G i jn, +1/ 2 − g Δt η ηi jn,++11 − i jn,+1 ΔZ i jn, +1/ 2 (9) determine the free surface ηi jn,+1 as in (4) can be written in the

Δy

matrix notation form

where U, V, ΔZ, G and A are defined as: η ηn+1 = n+1 −ΔΔt [( )T n+1 −( )T n+1 ]

i j, , i j, , i+1/ 2, j Ui+1/ 2, j ΔZi−1/ 2, j Ui−1/ 2, j ΔZ

x (10)

T Vi jn, ++11/ 2 −(ΔZi j, −1/ 2 )T Vi jn, +−11/ 2 ]y

The available energy that investigated in this study is the

START

available power per m2 (kW/m2). The first, we will back at the

equation of the available power which is equation of the marine

READ DATA

current power in the Bangka strait can be discretized from (6)

become:

−

3

(12)

PA (vi j k, , ) 10

GENERATION OF THE INDEX

A2

Where PA is the marine current power (kinetic energy) in the

INITIAL CONDITIONS Bangka strait in kW/m2 and vi j kn, ,+1 = u 2 + +v2 w 2 is velocity

1

with ,

n resultant 2 u = (ui j kn, ,+1 +uin++1, ,1j k ) v

1 1

= (vi j kn, ,+1 +vi jn, ++11,k ),

2

BOUNDARY CONDITIONS and 2

w = (wi j kn, ,+1 +wi j kn, ,+1 +1) are scalars, respectively.

CALCULATE ADVECTIONS IN U & V

TURBULENCE MODEL The method used was initially literature study; survey in the

research location; measurements of data such as tide (January

and February, 2016), temperatures of sea water and the air

CALCULATE FREE SURFACE above the surface, wind speed above sea level; bathymetry of

the Bangka strait; finally are the analysis of data measurements

and design of a numerical model in the form of numerical

CALCULATE VELOCITIES (U,V,W) AND program.

KINETIC ENERGY Fig. 2 shows steps of a numerical model in calculating the

velocities ofu , v and w respectively and the power of marine

PRINT RESULTS current in the Bangka strait per cross-sectional area.

no The Bangka strait is located between the Pacific Ocean

T>TMAX

and the Sulawesi sea whose area is approximately 200 km2 (Fig.

yes

4), with a minimum width between Sahaong foreland (in

FINISH Bangka island) and Mokotamba foreland (in Likupang town)

about 5.5 km and down to 69 meters deep (the average depth of

Fig. 2. Flow chart of a numerical model 40 m).

The three-dimensional current circulation in the Bangka strait

is simulated using the present model with a 174 x 318 finite

The vertical component of the velocity w at the difference mesh of equal Δx = Δy = 60 m. The numerical

new time level can be discretized from the continuity as in solutions have been achieved using four vertical layers and an

(1) becomes: integration time Δt = 1 sec, and inlet volume transports at

Δn n+1 −Δ n n+1

sections A and B (see Fig. 4) are 0.025 Sv, 0.1 Sv, 0.3 Sv and

wi j kn, ,+1 +1/ 2 = wi j kn, ,+1 −1/ 2 − zi+1/ 2, ,j kui+1/ 2, ,j k zi−1/ 2, ,j kui−1/ 2, ,j k 0.5 Sv.

3

Δx (11)

2.5

Δzi jn, +1/ 2,kvi jn, ++11/ 2,k −Δzi jn, −1/ 2,kvi jn, +−11/ 2,k 2

−

Δy 1.5

1

Where, k=m, m+1...M, and the no-flux condition across the

bottom boundary is assumed by taking wi j mn, ,+1 −1/2 = 0. 0.5

0

0 24 48 72 96 120 144 168 192 216 240 264 288 312 336 360 384 408 432 456 480 504 528 552 576 600 624 648 672 696 720 744 768 792 816 840 864 888

Time (hour)

Discharge variable Δt 1 sec

Fig. 3. Tides measurement results of the Bangka strait Twater 20 C Tair 29 C

Fig. 3 shows a result of the tide measurements in The distributions of the available power per m2 (kinetic

the Bangka strait from January 16 to February 21, 2016. energy) when low tide currents (3D-simulation) shown in Fig. 6.

The types of tides are mixed type, in particular Discharge influence to the available power is very big where ever

semidiurnal type and diurnal type was only occurred on greater of discharge then ever greater also power availability like

February 9. The tidal range variations were taken place in 2D-simulation. At discharge of 0.025 Sv (a) shows that there

between 0.3 m to 1.9 m. The tidal period variations were are about 1.5-5 W/m2 available in around section A (see Fig. 4),

between 10 h to 20 h. The maximum and minimum of 2.4 whereas 5-350 W/ m2 at 0.1 Sv (b), 0.510 kW/ m2 at 0.3 Sv (c)

m and 0.3 m respectively that oscillates at datum line of and at 0.5 Sv (d) available of 1-45 kW/m2 which is maximum

1.2 m. The tides data were obtained by direct monitoring discharge.

of water level (1 h intervals) using a tide gage. The first Also, when high tide currents in Fig. 7, we found

day measurement on January 16, 2016 was started at around section A where the power availabilities per m2 are

01.00 am until 00.00 pm. Measurements of tide on maximal. Generally, there are about 2-9 W/m2 at 0.025 Sv (a),

second days until days 37th were performed as the first 5-550 W/m2 at 0.1 Sv (b), 0.5-16 kW/m2 at 0.3 Sv (c) and 1-77

day measurement. The results of tide measurement on kW/m2 at 0.5 Sv (d) power availabilities per m2 in the Bangka

January 18, 2016 which lower low water at level 0.3 m strait which the values are bigger than in Fig. 6. We also can see

and highest high water at level 2 m, while higher low that the two when low and high tide currents where can be

water at 0.6 m and lower high water at 1.8 m. The concluded that biggest values are at section A.

variation tidal range was obtained at

1.2 m to 1.7 m. The minimum tidal range was occurred at

03.00 am to 08.00 am at level 1.2 m and a maximum that Philippines Pacific Ocean

occurred at 02.00 pm to 08.00 pm at level 1.7 m. The

Sulawesi

variation tidal period was taken place between 11 to 12

Sea

hours. The minimum wave period was occurred during 11

Sulawesi Island

hours at 03.00 am to 02.00 pm and a maximum was

occurred during 12 hours at 08.00 am to 08.00 pm. I N D O N E S I A

In the 3D-simulations, we also have made two

types of simulations with four variation of discharge. The

Indian Ocean

first type, we also have conducted when low tide current Australia

where each simulation has considerate with constant

discharge inside. In second type, when high tide currents

with same condition discharge as in first simulations. Sulawesi Pacific Ocean

Parameter of entry discharge, we also have made varies Sea Talisei

from 0.025 Sv to 0.5 Sv with classifications are 0.025 Sv, Island

0.1 Sv, 0.3 Sv and 0.5 Sv (1 Sv = 1x10 6 m3/s). For the other C

parameter, we can see in table 1. Measurement results in

the area of numerical such as temperatures of sea water B

(Twater) and the air above the surface (T air) of 20 C and 29 C Gangga Bangka

respectively. Island Island

Fig. 5 illustrates the bathymetry of the Bangka

strait used for numerical simulation. The water depth A (a)

distributions show the complex areas where maximum D Bangka Strait

depth of 69 m (between Bangka island and Likupang

town). Sulawesi Islan

d * Likupang

t

TABLE I. NUMERICAL PARAMETER FOR 3D-SIMULATION

Fig. 4. Location of the Bangka strait in Indonesia and numerical area

Parameter Value Parameter Value

g 9.81 m s-2 ρseawater 1024 kg/m3

Cz 48 Δx 60 m

τo 2 days Δy 60 m

τi 1 day Δz 20 m

Fig. 5. Bathymetry of the Bangka strait

a b

c

d

Fig. 6. Simulated (3D) distributions of the available power per m2 at seawater column of 20 m when low tide currents at (a) discharge 0.025 Sv, (b) discharge 0.1

Sv, (c) discharge 0.3 Sv and (d) discharge 0.5 Sv.

a

b

c d

Fig. 7. Simulated (3D) distributions of the available power per m 2 at seawater column of 20 m when high tide currents at (a) discharge 0.025 Sv, (b) discharge 0.1

Sv, (c) discharge 0.3 Sv and (d) discharge 0.5 Sv.

The results showed that the numerical program will be a product in analyzing potential kinetic energy

as the prime mover of turbines for marine current power plant in the Bangka strait.

VI. CONCLUSIONS

A numerical semi-implicit finite difference models for the study marine currents in the Bangka Strait

has been presented. The numerical program will be a product in analyzing potential kinetic energy as the prime

mover of turbines for marine current power plant in the Bangka strait. When low tide currents, available from

0.5 W/ m2 until 45 kW/m2 and from 0.5 W/m2 until 77 kW/m2 at high tide currents. The values obtained by

calculations will be enabling to choose a suitable place for installing the turbines adapted well for a future

undersea electricity power plant in the Bangka strait.

Acknowledgment

The authors wish to express their appreciation to Kemristekdikti of the Republic of Indonesia which

had financed all of the research activities, and Rector of Manado State University, Indonesia who has proposed

research grant.

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vol. 216, No. 1, pp. 1-14, 2002.

[13] A.S.Bahaj, and L.E. Myers, “Fundamentals Applicable to the Utilisation of Marine Current Turbines for Energy Production,”

Renewable Energy, vol. 28, pp. 2205-2211, 2003.

[14] BC Hydro. (2016, January 20). Green Energy Study for British Columbia-Phase 2- Mainland Tidal Current Energy [Online].

Available: http://www.llbe.leg.bc.ca/public/PubDocs/bcdocs/357590/environment3

928.pdf

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http://www.seafriends.org.nz/oceano/oceans2.htm

A Numerical Model of Seawater Volume and Velocity

Dynamic for Marine Currents Power Plant in the Bangka

Strait, North

Sulawesi, Indonesia

P T D Rompas*1, H Taunaumang2, and F J Sangari3

1

Departemen Pendidikan Teknologi Informasi dan Komunikasi, Universitas Negeri

Manado, Tondano 95618, Indonesia

2

Departemen Fisika, Universitas Negeri Manado, Tondano 95618, Indonesia

3

Departemen Pendidikan Teknik Elektro, Universitas Negeri Manado, Tondano 95618,

Indonesia

*parabelemrompas@unima.ac.id

Abstract. One of equipment as prime movers in the marine current power plant is turbine.

Marine current turbines require a data of marine currents velocity in its design. The objective

of this study was to get the velocities distribution of marine currents in the Bangka strait. The

method used survey, observation, and measurement in the Bangka strait. The data of seawater

density conducted measurement in the Bangka strait. The data of width and depth of the strait

collected from the map of Bangka strait and its depth of the sea. Problem solving of the study

used a numerical model. The velocities distribution of marine current obtained from a

numerical model in the form of numerical program. The results showed that the velocities

distribution at seawater column when low and high tide currents which the maximum

happened at 0.1 Sv were 0-0.9 and 0-1.0 m/s respectively, while at 0.3 Sv were 0-2.7 and 0-

3.0 m/s respectively. The results will be a product in analyzing the potential kinetic energy

that used to design profile of the turbines as prime mover for marine currents power plant in

the Bangka strait, North Sulawesi, Indonesia.

1. Introduction

The Indonesian government through the President and Vice President seriously encourage increased

electricity infrastructure in Indonesia [1]. It implemented with the issuance of Presidential Decree (Decree) No.

4 2016 on accelerating the development of electricity infrastructure. Earlier, the President had inaugurated the

35 thousand MW to Indonesia. Ministry Coordinator (CMEA) of Economic Affairs conducts socialization on

follow-up to Presidential Decree no. 4 2016. The socialization intended to provide insight for agencies, as well

as follow the implementation of efforts to accelerate the development of electricity infrastructure with emphasis

on the use of New and Renewable Energy (EBT) to support efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

A numerical model to determine the velocity distribution of of marine currents in some areas in

Indonesia has conducted by the Indonesian Hydrodynamics Laboratory BPPT and The Society of

Naval Architects of Japan [2]. Similarly, Rompas and Manongko [3] have done it in the study on the

distributions of marine current velocity in the Strait of Bunaken, North Sulawesi, Indonesia.

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further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and

DOI.

Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd

One component of marine current electricity power plant is the turbine. Making the turbine was badly in

need marine current velocity data. It obtained by a study on numerical model of seawater volume and velocity

dynamics.

The objective of this study was to get the velocities distribution of marine current in the Bangka strait, North

Sulawesi, Indonesia by a numerical model.

2. Governing Equations

Fundamental mathematics equation that used in the numerical model is the conservation of energy

equation. It would express the variations in temperature, especially in account dissipation by friction, will

ignore and temperature will later appear as a tracer only liable for the effects of buoyancy. Conservative of the

fluid mass based on the following equation [4]

1 (U )

U U)

t div ( ) g F

(1) where be

the density of the fluid, and U the velocity vector, whose components are U, V, W. is

the tensor operator “nabla”. g F is external forces where g is the constant gravitational acceleration

and the other forces (Coriolis acceleration, etc.)

In this study, based on the decomposition of preceding Reynolds and under the assumptions of hydrostatic

pressure, then conservative of the fluid mass become Realized Average Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations [5].

The RANS equations were as a basic for the formulation of numerical model.

The domain of the Bangka strait is more complex of forms to free surface flows. Therefore, it needs

limited. Some types of boundary conditions are required such as the boundary conditions at the bottom, the

surface of the water, the wall, and open boundary. The first, at the bottom only horizontal velocity that could

considered with used a Chezy formula [6]. At the surface, we used principally two conditions, the first is wind

shear stresses in x-direction and the second is wind shear stresses in y-direction [7]. At the wall, we used the

impermeable condition [4]. Finally, a condition of radiation and adaptive boundary condition that developed by

Treguier et al. [8] used at open boundary.

The turbulent model for 2D used dept-average formulation from Stansby [9] as defined follow:

l 2

t h4 u 2 2 vy 2 vx uy 2 u hf 2 1/ 2 (2)

2

where the friction velocity u f b / with ρ is water density and bed shear stress b bx

2

by where ( bx , by ) Cf (u v u, ) 2 v2 with C f 0.0559 Re h

0.25

is friction coefficient of the

Blasius formula where the depth Reynolds number Reh ( u 2 v h2 ) / , and is the Elder constant

about 0.067 which are the depth-averaged vertical mixing, and the horizontal mixing length lh= h where is

a boundary layer constant ( =0.09), h is water depth and =lh/lv is the constant from result comparison with

experiment.

3. Numerical Approach

The numerical equations that used in this study were results developing from mathematical equations.

Also, from the results of modification of the YAXUM/3D model that used by Ramirez et al. [10]. In the

numerical model, we used semi-implicit finite difference method for the numerical solution of the

threedimensional Equation 1 in the computation of shallow water flows [6].

The velocities in x, y, and z directions, we used the equations which a general semi-implicit discretization of

the momentum equations and we can written in the more compact matrix form as [6]

Ain 1/2, j Uin 11/2, j Gin 1/2, j g t in 11, j i jn, 1 ΔZin 1/2, j

x (3)

A Vi jn, 1/2i jn, 11/2 Gi jn, 1/2 g t i jn, 11 i jn, 1 ΔZi jn, 1/2

y (4)

4. Method

The geographical location of the Bangka Strait is from 125 ° 04'40 "E to 125 ° 11'18" E and from 1 °

41'25 "N to 1 ° 44'03" N which consist of islands of Talise, Kinabuhutan, Ganges, Tindila, Lehaga, and

Sulawesi. In the east, there are the Maluku Sea and Pacific oceans, and to the west is the Sulawesi Sea (see

figure 1). In addition, there are two of the current circulations in the Bangka strait i.e. low tide currents and high

tide currents.

Bangka Strait

4.2.Methods of study

The methods used survey, observation, and measurement in the Bangka strait. The data of seawater

density conducted measurement in the Bangka strait. The data of width and depth in the strait collected from the

map of Bangka strait and its depth of the sea. Problem solving of the study used a numerical model. The

solution of a numerical model we take the case in the Bangka strait for calculating the velocities of u , v and w

respectively, we can explain step by step as the first is the beginning of computation with start. Then, the read

data that using the all of parameters in the numerical equations and time of calculating until time maximum for

doing iteration. Next step, generation of the mesh such as horizontal and vertical meshes and then continue to

the process generating the index such as generate the layers of vertical axis (depth) and boundary layers. The

next process, it makes the initial conditions of velocities and seawater surface elevation. Then, step in the start

of iteration process until maximum iteration that the beginning with the process of boundary conditions in the

Bangka strait. Next, calculate advections in u andv , which are the processes for calculating advections of

horizontal velocities. Then, calculate surface elevations with a linear five-diagonal system. The next calculation

is the calculation process of velocities in horizontal direction. Finally, the process to execute determination

when the iteration has been greater than maximum iteration, if no then process will be continue to calculate

again, and if yes then calculation to finish.

Parameter Value Parameter Value

G 9.81 m s-2 ρseawater 1024 kg/m3

Cz 48 Δx 60 m

Τo 2 days Δy 60 m

τi 1 day Δt 1 sec

Discharge variable

In table 1, there are two discharges that calculated with classifications are 0.1 Sv and 0.3 Sv. τo and τi are

relaxation timescales at outflow and inflow conditions respectively [8]. Cz is Chezy coefficient and ρseawater is

density of seawater. Δx, Δy, and Δt are space step in x direction, space step in y direction, and time step

respectively.

Figure 2-5 showed the result of modelling and numerical simulation. We can see that in the forms of

simulations i.e. 2D-simulations when low tide currents and high tide currents. Figure 2 shows distributions of

velocities and current threads at seawater column when low tide currents. Generally, seawater enters from

section A and B where current flows from section A and go to section D and a small part flow to section C

which previous rotate form two eddies like elliptic diameter at centre between Gangga and Bangka Islands. On

the other side, current enter in section B flow to section C which previous form eddy in north area near Talise

Island and a small part flow to section D which previous form small maelstrom like diameter between Gangga

and Bangka islands. On the contrary, when high tide current (see Figure 3), current enters from section D go to

section A and a small part flow to section B which previous happened eddy at center east area near Bangka

Island whereas current from section C go to section B which previous form eddy like elliptic diameter at north

area near Talise Island and a small part of the other current go to south side of Gangga Island at section A.

We can see in figure 4 which maximal velocities predominated at around section A when low and high tide

currents at 0.3 Sv of 1.5-2.7 m/s (figure 4.b) and 1.2-3.0 m/s (figure 5.b) respectively. When high tide currents,

the volume of seawater passing through the area was so large which is the result of a combination of direction

section A and D (see also figure 3). Whereas when low tide current (see bottom centre area in figure 4), it was

the depth that only of 5 m. The values shown that currents flow when high tide currents greater when low tide

currents. Figure 5 shows distribution of marine current velocities at seawater column at discharges of 0.1 and

0.3 Sv respectively when high tide currents. The currents were so strong in the top of section C by 3 m/s. It is

because not only so large volumes of seawater but also shallow sea of 6 m. In the centre of area, we can see that

the average of marine currents velocity by 2.7 m/s.

Figure 2. Simulations (2D) of marine current velocities and current threads at seawater column when

low tide currents at discharges of 0.1 Sv (a) and 0.3 Sv (b)

Figure 3. Simulations (2D) of marine current velocities and current threads at seawater column when

high tide currents at discharges of 0.1 Sv (a) and 0.3 Sv (b)

a b

Figure 4. Distribution of marine current velocities at seawater column when low tide currents at

discharges of 0.1 Sv (a) and 0.3 Sv (b)

a b

Figure 5. Distribution of marine current velocities at seawater column when high tide currents at

discharges of 0.1 Sv (a) and 0.3 Sv (b)

The results in the figures 4 and 5 especially in the centre area of strait that the values of velocity can be used

to design profile of the marine current turbine. Besides, this area is suited installed turbines for power plant

which the ideal locations for power plant installation of the current energy have velocities of current two

directions (minimum bidirectional) of 2.5 m/s or more, one way is minimum 1.2-1.5 m/s. The deepness not less

than 15 m and the most at 50 m, the construction near the beach so that energy can be supplied at low cost, the

area is spacious enough for more than one turbine installation, and no the area of sea transport and fishing [11].

6. Conclusions

We successfully obtained the velocities distribution of marine currents at seawater column in the

Bangka strait, North Sulawesi, Indonesia by the numerical model. The velocities distribution at seawater

column when low and high tide currents which the maximum happened at 0.1 Sv were 0-0.9 and 0-1.0 m/s

respectively, while at 0.3 Sv were 0-2.7 and 0-3.0 m/s respectively. The results will be a product in analyzing

the potential kinetic energy, which can used to design profile of turbines for marine currents power plant in the

Bangka strait North Sulawesi, Indonesia.

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank profusely to DRPM, Kementerian Riset, Teknologi, dan Pendidikan

Tinggi Republik Indonesia who has given funding all of the research activities, and to Rector of Universitas

Negeri Manado, Indonesia who has agreed our research.

References

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(http://www.pln.co.id/blog/langkah-pasti-proyek-35-000-mw-didukung-oleh-perpresno-4-

tahun-2016/) access on 12 May 2016

[2] Erwandi 2016 Sources of energy current: alternatives to fuel oil, sustainable and renewable

(http://www.energi.lipi.go.id/utama.cgi?cetakartikel&1125749769) access on 12 May 2016

[3] Rompas P T D and Manongko J D I 2016 Numerical simulation of marine currents in the Bunaken

Strait, North Sulawesi, Indonesia Int. Conf. on Innovation and Vocational Education IOP Conf.

Series: Materials Science and Engineering 128 1-7

[4] Hervouet J M 2007 Hydrodynamics of free surface flows: Modelling with the finite element method.

(England: John Willey & Sons, Ltd.) pp. xiv-341

[5] Broomans P 2003 Numerical Accuracy in Solution of the Shallow-Water Equations (Master thesis,

TU Delft & WL, Delft Hydraulics)

[6] Casulli V and Cheng R T 1992 Semi-implicit finite difference methods for three-dimensional shallow

water flow Int. J. for Numerical Methods in Fluids 15 629-648

[7] Chen X 2003 A free-surface correction method for simulating shallow water flows J. Comput.

Phys. 189 557-578

[8] Treguier A M, Barnier B, and De Miranda A P 2001 An eddy-permitting model of the Atlantic

circulation: Evaluating open boundary condition J. Geophy. Res. Oceans 106 (C10) (2211522129) 1-

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[9] Stansby P K 2006 Limitations of depth-averaged modeling for shallow wakes J. of Hydraulic

Engineering 132 (7) 737-740

[10] Ramirez H, Barrios H, Rodriguez C, and Couder C 2005 Baroclinic mathematical modeling of fresh

water plumes in the interaction river-sea Int. J. of Numerical Analysis and Modeling 2 1-14

Fraenkel P L 2002 Power from marine currents, proceedings of the institution of mechanical

engineers: part A J. Power and Energy 216 (1) 1-1

A Model of Small Capacity Power Plant in Tateli Village,

North Sulawesi

F J Sangari*, P T D Rompas

Universitas Negeri Manado, Tondano 95618, Indonesia

*ferry_sangari@yahoo.com

Abstract. The electricity supply in North Sulawesi is still very limited so ubiquitous electric

current outage. It makes rural communities have problems in life because most uses electrical

energy. One of the solutions is a model of power plants to supply electricity in Tateli village,

Minahasa, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. The objective of this research is to get the model that

generate electrical energy for household needs through power plant that using a model of

Picohydro with cross flow turbine in Tateli village. The method used the study of literature,

survey the construction site of the power plant and the characteristics of the location being a

place of research, analysis of hydropower ability and analyzing costs of power plant. The result

showed that the design model of cross flow turbines used in pico-hydro hydropower

installations is connected to a generator to produce electrical energy maximum of 3.29 kW for

household needs. This analyze will be propose to local government of Minahasa, North

Sulawesi, Indonesia to be followed.

1. Introduction

North Sulawesi region more specifically in the villages of Minahasa district has a mountainous

topography and has many rivers which is a potential source of enormous energy for power plants which, when

carefully planned can overcome the problem of electric energy crisis. Problems that have long and at this time

every day power outage for about 2-3 hours a day. However, the electricity crisis was not so much solved using

the integral energy source potential flow of river water in the area of North Sulawesi. There are still many

villages far from urban areas still do not have adequate power supply [1]. In anticipation of that, it is necessary to

build small-scale power plants (1 kW - 5 kW).

Figure 1 shows that the electrical energy production by 2013 in the province of North Sulawesi using water

power is still very little 9.02% [2]. It shows that the construction of the hydroelectric power plant is still very

much needed in the area of North Sulawesi. Shortage of electricity in rural areas is very likely to occur because it

is far from the urban and the power grid, but did not rule urban areas are also experiencing the same thing. In

fact, many cities and districts that rely on diesel and hard to come by when the oil, resulting in a power outage in

rotation may even are expanded. One solution is emerging development in Indonesia at this time is to find a way

out through the construction of power plants micro scale with the power source stream flow and more

dependable again when rural communities require the construction of power plants as small as possible, namely

less than 5 kW and that can be realized through pico-hydro power plant (PLTPH).

During this time there is a kind of consensus that development PLTPH must have a double impact, not only

to improve the provision and equitable distribution of power supply, especially in rural areas but also makes the

vehicle to improve the ability of local industry to address the development PLTPH starting from feasibility

studies, planning, manufacturing machinery and equipment, to the realization

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further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and

DOI.

Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd

of the installation. In addition PLTPH development pattern aligned with the level of presence in the

form of appropriate technology in rural areas. Rural technology in irrigation development people get almost the

same pattern with the construction PLTPH, just need refinement for power knows no season. PLTPH itself is an

intermediate technology that has been applied since long ago and is expected to have a positive impact or benefit

for the creativity and dynamism of society in lifestyle in order to improve the welfare of rural communities. It is

becoming urgency in this study in addition to the efficiency and effectiveness of the construction of power

plants, especially in the energy forces turn turbines and planning / selection of appropriate turbine to turn a

generator needs to be analyzed.

Figure 1. Production of electric energy in North Sulawesi (2013)

Based on the analysis of the energy force of the waterfalls and design analysis turbines, all of which were

made through experiments in the laboratory and in the field (in the village where the installation location) to the

mounting PLTPH and generate electrical energy production is less than 5 kW is an invention/innovation targeted

in research this. PLTPH development is to be realized in the villages Minahasa North Sulawesi province are in

accordance with the roadmap of the Indonesian government as shown in figure 2 [3]. In the period 2015-2025,

the government has planned the role of government research and development (R & D) that update data on

potential PLTPH in the area and manufacturing feasibility study PLTPH, development turbines PLTPH the

efficient use of technology crosflow, propeller, and kaplan and system development capacity of 750 kW and the

role of manufacturing industries seek turbine development results. Based on the role of government and industry

in the 20152025 year, the study is in conformity with the government's plan 2015-2025 year on R & D activities

are potential PLTPH map updates and the total development of the system. Was further strengthened by the

government of North Sulawesi province that integrate and provide services to the activity centers in the region of

North Sulawesi province with the publication of the North Sulawesi provincial regulations No. 1 Year 2014 on

Spatial Planning of North Sulawesi province from 2014 to 2034 Year Article 22 (a) and 23 (a) that the

government regulates the energy network system includes one electric generating system in Minahasa [4].

For the creation of the PLTPH development, it previously had to be done: first, about the theoretical studies

as the basis for analysis through literature; second, conduct survey research sites (including survey the village is

selected villages that have the potential to obtain characteristics of the villages and communities for the purpose

of character education for these communities through socialization to shape the character of the community so

that there is a sense of belonging and accept, help build and maintain the power plant in village) in the form of:

discharge of river water, river water dam layout, long conductive flow of water to the location of the water falls,

the water level fell, and location of turbines; Third, experiments in laboratory experiments in the form of high

variation of water falling; Last, economic analysis and supply to the local government Minahasa district for

expansion into other villages potentially built PLTPH.

Pico-hydro is hydro power with a maximum electrical output of 5 kW [5] [6] [7]. The system is beneficial in

terms of cost and simplicity from a different approach in the design, planning and installation from the power

applied to the water is greater. The latest innovations in pico-hydro technology have made an economic

powerhouse even in some of the poorest places in the world and can be accessed. It is also a versatile resource.

AC electricity possible can be produced from a standard electrical equipment to be used. Common examples of

devices that can be powered by pico-hydro are light bulbs, radio and television.

Typically, pico-hydro power systems are found in rural areas or hilly. Figure 3 shows an example of a

typical application of pico-hydro hydro system in hilly areas [7][8]. This system will operate using a container of

water on which a few meters from the ground. From the reservoir, the water flows downhill through the piping

system and it allows the water to turn turbines. Thus, the turbine will rotate the alternator to produce electricity.

However, this study was conducted to demonstrate the potential of consuming water that is distributed to homes

in rural areas as an alternative renewable energy source. The flow of water in the pipe has the potential and

kinetic energy will be converted into the potential energy of motion of the turbine which then into electrical

energy in generators.

Figure 2. Roadmap of PLTPH development in Indonesia

Technically, pico-hydro has three main components: water (as a source of energy), turbine and generator [9]

[10]. Pico-hydro get energy from the flow of water that has a certain altitude difference. Basically, pico-hydro

utilized the potential energy of water falling (head). The higher the water falls, the greater the potential energy of

water that can be converted into electrical energy. In addition to geographical factors (layout of the river), the

height of falling water can also be obtained by stemming the flow of water so that the water level is high. Air

flowed through a pipe plant rapidly into the house in general was built on the banks of the river to drive turbines

or waterwheels pico-hydro. Mechanical energy derived from rotation of the turbine shaft is converted into

electrical energy by a generator.

The objectives of this research is to get the model of efficient and effective from cross flow turbine models

for installation in PLTPH which generates electrical energy production of less than 5 kW for a household in the

village Tateli Minahasa North Sulawesi.

1.1. Impulse Turbine

The principle works: water flowing perpendicular to the turbine shaft through the rapidly incoming pipe

at high speed and push the rotor blades of the turbine, causing the turbine rotor rotation [9] [10] [11]. The

pressure drop in the water flow in the nozzle and the turbine wheel operates at atmospheric pressure. The

examples of Cross flow Impulse Turbines (figure 4) are a Pelton wheel, wheel Turgo and crossflow turbine

(Banki-Michell). Impulse turbines generally operate best with medium or high head above 10 m.

Reaction turbines operate under pressure inside the stator (casing). When water passing through the

stator in the direction of the turbine shaft helical, causing a whirlpool. The flow was then directed by the blades

of the turbine wheel. The angular momentum of the forces in the water rotates the turbine wheel. In contrast to

the impulse turbine, the water pressure drops in the stator and the turbine wheel. Examples of a reaction turbine

(figure 5) is Propeller (propeller), Kaplan, and Francis, Screw and kinetic turbines water (used to lower head is

less than 5 m). Reaction turbines often have houses and geometry turbine blades of a complex which makes it

more difficult to process large-scale production of the smallest in the settings in developing countries. However,

the reaction turbine can perform well even in low head distance of less than 10 m, thus making it more desirable

since the low head of water resources are more accessible and closer location. Water turbines can be classified in

two categories namely [11] [12]:

Figure 3. Examples of application of pico-hydro power systems in rural areas

Turbin power (Pt) defined [9] [10]:

= (1) where ρ is water density (1000

3 2 3

kg/m ), g is gravity (m /s), H is head, Q is water flow (m /s), and ɳ is turbine efficiency (normally 70-80 %

depend on turbine type).

Calculation of Electric Power and Energy:

Power turbine shaft:

= 9.81 (2)

Power is transmitted to the generator:

= 9.81 (3)

Power generated generator:

,

= 9.81 (4)

Where ɳ = turbine efficiency (0.74 and 0.75 for the cross flow turbine to turbine axial), ɳbelt =

transmission efficiency, 0.98 for a flat belt, 0.95 for the V belt, ɳgen = generator efficiency

Figure 5. Type of axial reaction turbine

This generator power generated will be distributed to users. In planning the required amount of power at the

load center should be under the power capacity is raised, so that the power supply voltage is stable and the

system becomes more reliable (long).

The water flowing with capacity and a certain height distributed to the house installation (casing). At home

the turbine, the water plant will pound turbine, turbine ascertained in this case will receive the water energy and

convert it into mechanical energy in the form of turbine shaft rotation. The rotating shaft is then connected to the

generator by using the tire/belt. Of the generator will produce electricity that will go into the control system

before the electrical current supplied to homes or other purposes (load). That briefly the process of pico-hydro,

alter energy flow and water level into electrical energy [10].

2. Approach method

The method used literature study, site survey research (including survey the village in order to obtain

the characteristics of villages and rural communities Tateli for the purpose of character education for these

communities in receiving, helped build and maintain the power plant), analysis beginning on the ability of

electric power, and discussions with local authorities (see figure 6). Conducting preparatory activities before

carrying out such research; reflecting the result of socialization, preparation of materials and experimental tools,

setting work schedules. Data collection in the village Tateli form: discharge of river water, water velocity,

channel length conductor, high waterfalls, and location of the turbines. Methods of direct observation in the field

through measures such as speed streams and cross-sectional area perpendicular to the water flow of the river to

get water discharge flowing river as initial data in the analysis of the ability of river water, and then to analyze

the electrical energy taken preliminary data height measurements falling water (planned 1.34 m) including

measuring the distance from the dam to the water fall. Technique of direct measurement with the following

procedure: first measure the water velocity and the second measuring cross-sectional area perpendicular to the

flow of river water in order to get water discharge (cross-sectional area multiplied by the speed of the water,

m3/s), and the last measure the height of falling water to get the length of the aqueduct of dam water to the

waterfall.

Figure 6. Location of research in village Tateli, Minahasa

Analyze and calculate a preliminary survey in the form of the findings of the theory through literature, site

survey and collection of field data and then analyze the debit mainstay and planning ability hydroelectric

developed in the planning and continued in the field with a pass calculation electrical energy through analysis of

turbine and generator, voltage, and power generated. Finally, proceed with analyzing the PLTPH development

costs.

The analysis results of water capability that obtained from basis of the gross calculation before analysis

further can be seen in table 1. The water discharge (Q) is planned to enter the pipe rapidly with water fall head of

1.34 m and if we calculate minimum water flow of 20% of the water flow was then obtained

91.6 l litre/s. Generates power without taking into account the total efficiency of 5.12 kW and if we take

into account the total efficiency of 0.643, the installed power of 3.29 kW.

Q (m3/s) Hbruto (m) Hlosses (m) Heff (m) P (kW) P’ (kW)

Table 2 shows the results of the analysis of electrical energy which is calculated based on the total efficiency,

the force of gravity, high falls and the actual effective water obtained from the difference between the height of

fall slop and total loss of height of falling water (0.1 m previously planned 0.134 m). The total energy obtained

during a year high real effective water fall of 1.2 m was 29.335 MWh with installed power of 3.29 kW. Total

electrical energy obtained within a year of 29,335 kWh. If we calculate the value of selling electricity to PLN by

calculating the total cost of expenditure per year of IDR 25 million, the value of the electricity sold at IDR

852/kWh.

All of the results are showed that the electrical energy needs can be fulfiled not only for the village Tateli but

also other villages nearby. So as to realize it, then the results of this study will be proposed to local governments

Minahasa to be realized in order to meet the needs of not only domestic but also for street lighting and other

facilities available in the village Tateli.

∑η H eff ( m)

3

Q80 ( m / s)

3

Q90 ( m / s)

3

Q100 ( m / s) ∑ E (MWh )

4. Conclusions

The ability of hydroelectric power of 5.12 kW is installed or the electrical power produced by the

capability of the water. The effective head of 1.2 m with the generated power of 3.29 kW and water flow of

0.458 m3/s. The total energy is obtained within a year is 29.335 MWh. The electrical needs could be satisfied in

Tateli. This model will be proposed to local government of Minahasa, North Sulawesi, Indonesia to be followed.

5. Acknowledgments

The Authors gave the highest appreciation to DRPM Kemenristekdikti Jakarta Republic of Indonesia

that has funded all of these activities. Also, thank to head of Tateli village, Minahasa, North Sulawesi, Indonesia

who had been allowed for implementing this study.

References

[1] Harian Metro 30 September 2014 Pemadaman Meresahkan, PLN Mengaku Kekurangan Pasokan

Listrik. http://www.harianmetro.co.id/index.php/2013-02-02-05-25-09/minsel-

mitra/19104pemadaman-meresahkan-pln-mengaku-kekurangan-pasokan-listrik#.VTJcuPCPxVc

Accessed on February 15 2016

[2] PT PLN (Persero) 2014 Statistik PLN 2013 Sekretariat Perusahaan PT PLN (Persero) ISSN 0852–

8179 No. Publikasi: 02601-140722 http://www.pln.co.id/dataweb/STAT/STAT2013IND.pdf Accessed

on January 23 2015

[3] Indonesia 2005-2025 Buku Putih. 2006. Penelitian, Pengembangan dan Penerapan Ilmu Pengetahuan

dan Teknologi Bidang Sumber Energi Baru dan Terbarukan untuk Mendukung

Keamanan Ketersediaan Energi Tahun 2025, Kementerian Negara Riset dan Teknologi Republik

Indonesia. Jakarta

[4] Peraturan Daerah Provinsi Sulawesi Utara No. 1 Tahun 2014 tentang Rencana Tata Ruang Wilayah

Provinsi Sulawesi Utara Tahun 2014-2034

[5] Basar M F., Sapiee R, Rahman S, Hamdan Z, Borhan S and Sopian K 2014 Advances in Environmental Biology 8 14

147-151

[6] Martin S and Sharma A B 2014 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering & Technology

(IJARCET) 3 6 2121-2126

[7] Zainuddin H, Yahaya M S, Lazi J M, Basar M F M and Ibrahim Z 2009 World Academy of Science, Engineering and

Technology 59 154-159

[8] Maher P and Smith N 2001 Pico Hidro Potencia para Aldeas: Un Manual Práctico para Instalaciones de hasta 5 kW

en Terrenos de Pendientes Fuertes. Ed. 2.0 http://www.riaed.net/IMG/pdf/Pico_Hidro_-

_Potencia_para_Aldeas_1.pdf. Accessed on March 5 2015

[9] Kapoor R 2013 International Journal of Scientific Research 2 9 159-160

[10] Nimje A A and Dhanjode G 2015 IOSR Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology (IOSR-

JESTFT) 9 1 Ver. III 59-67

[11] At-Tasneem M A, Azam W M and Jamaludin U 2014 Word Applied Sciences Journal (Innovation Challenges in

Multidiciplinary Research & Practice) 30 420-423

[12] Sangal S, Garg A and Kumar D 2013 International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineerng 3 3

424-430

Study on the Seawater Surface Elevation through Numerical

Modeling Approach in Gulf of Manado

*

P T D Rompas , J D I Manongko

Universitas Negeri Manado, Tondano 95618, Indonesia

Abstract. This paper presents the seawater surface elevation in Gulf of Manado with

numerical approach. The RANS shallow water flow equation is used to obtain a numerical

equation of seawater surface elevation with a semi-implicit approximation approach in which

the pressure distribution in the vertical layer of seawater is assumed hydrostatic. The results

found that the high seawater level is not more than 1.81 m upper seawater level and 1.30 m

under seawater level respectively. The results can be used as a recommendation to predict the

condition of sea waves in the Gulf of Manado.

1. Introduction

The horizontal and vertical motion of seawater occurs caused by the wind stress at the sea surface. If

surface seawater is a divergence, water at the bottom will rise to surface and this situation will happened

upwelling; conversely, where it is a convergence and will happened downwelling. For condition where a system

of cyclonic wind on surface seawaters where the average movement of the wind-driven layer is to the right of

the wind which causing divergence of surface water and upwelling, and the sea-surface is lowered and the

thermocline is raised, it is called Ekman pumping. In condition inverse correspond in anticyclonic wind is

convergence and sinking (downwelling), it causes the seasurface to slope upwards the middle of the gyre [1]. It

will produce a sea wave called seawater surface elevation. Transport at the position of Gulf of Manado is

convergence.

A numerical modeling can predict seawater surface elevation. It conducted by [2-5] in the Straits of

Bunaken and Bangka, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Chen [6] has discussed the simulation seawater surface

elevation from shallow water flows with a free surface correction method. Rodrigues-Cuevas et al [7] have

proposed the distribution of seawater surface elevation with respect to a reference level (m) by study on

modeling shallow water wakes using a hybrid turbulence model. Claeyssen et al [8] have conducted calculating

of seawater surface elevation by using the semi-lagrangian method and they compute the non-linear response

of the full model due to a shear stress that comes from the action of the wind at the ocean surface. Sirjacobs et

al [9] have simulated seawater surface elevation in the variations of typical seasonal corresponding to the

period 1956-1960 from the surface wind stress in the Aral sea. Also, Balasubramanya et al [10] have

implemented fully-implicit time integration schemes in a version of parallel ocean program for calculation of

seawater surface elevation by its simulation in the North Atlantic.

The objective of this study was to get distribution of seawater surface elevation by using numerical

modeling in the Gulf of Manado, North Sulawesi, Indonesia.

The conservation of energy equation, which would express the variations in temperature, particularly taking

into account dissipation by friction, will be put aside and temperature will later appear as a tracer solely

responsible for the effects of buoyancy. Let be the density of the fluid, and the velocity vector, whose

components are U, V, W. Conservative of the fluid mass contained in a domain is expressed as [11] d

d 0 (1) dt

where Ω is the domain of study (see figure 1) and t is time.

y

z

free surface

bottom

Ω2 D

x

If we assume hydrostatic pressure, and by using the decomposition of preceding Reynolds, the

realized average Navier-Stokes equations are written [11, 12]:

Continuity equation

u v w

0 (2)

x y z

Momentum equation

u u u u

t x y z x

v v v v

t x y z y

Free surface equation

where eff is an effective diffusion taking of account turbulent viscosity and dispersion, eff t.

This effective diffusion is given by means of a model of turbulence adapted to the problem considers.

Conservative of the fluid mass becomes Realized Average Navier-Stokes (RANS) shallow water flow

equations (as in equations (2) to (5)) which were as a basic for the computation of numerical modeling.

The numerical modeling equations used diffusion step [11] with a general semi-implicit discretization of

the momentum equations in equations (3) and (4) to get the velocities while the seawater surface elevation

used equation (5). The velocities in x, y, and z directions, we can written in the more compact matrix form as in

[2-5]. For determine the seawater surface elevation (as in equation (5)) in form numerical modeling, we can be

written in the matrix notation form [2, 3]

ΔZ U ΔZ Un 1 x (6)

ΔZ V ΔZ Vin 1/ 2

t i, j 1/ 2 T in, j 11/ 2 i, j 1/ 2 T , j 1

4. Methods

The Gulf of Manado is located between the Pacific Ocean and the Sulawesi Sea (Celebes Sea) whose

2

area is approximately 300 km (Figure 2), with an average width about 2.2 km and down to 79 meters deep

(figure 3).

The three-dimensional current circulation in the Gulf of Manado is simulated using the present model

with a 174 x 318 finite difference mesh of equal Δx = Δy = 7 m. The numerical solutions have been achieved

using four vertical layers and an integration time Δt = 0.4 sec, and inlet volume transports at sections Singkil

3

river, North, and South of Manado bay (figures 2 and 3) are 0.1 Sv (100000 m /s). In addition, there are two of

the current circulations in the Gulf of Manado i.e. low tide currents and high tide currents.

Figure 3. Bathymetry of Manado Gulf

The three-dimensional semi-implicit numerical method used in this study. The solution of a numerical

model in calculating the velocities of u , v and w respectively, we can explain step by step as follows:

- start is the beginning of numerical computation.

- read data is the process to read all data that using the all of parameters in equations 2 to 5 and table 1

which needed in calculation and also read data of variables: time of calculating maximum for doing

iteration.

- generation of the mesh is the process to make the computational meshes which using Arakawa C-grid

[13] and notations (spatial discretization).

- generation of the index is the process to make the index and generate the layers of vertical axis

(depth) and generate index of boundary layers as denote calculating in the meshes.

- initial conditions are the process to make the initial conditions of velocities and seawater surface

elevation, and also to make the coordinates for the result simulations in the tecplot program.

- the quantity of calculation with iteration do-process until maximum iteration.

- boundary conditions are the process which give boundary conditions of calculation domain in the Gulf

of Manado. Also, generation and determination about boundaries of velocities when enter and exit the

Gulf of Manado bases data of investigation results.

- calculate advections in u and v are the process for calculation advection of u and v .

- turbulence model is the process calculating the turbulence of a mixing-length model [7] (for three-

dimensional calculation). In this process also calculated diffusion step.

- calculate components of velocities (u , v and w ) are the process for calculating of horizontal velocities

u and v (equations 4 and 5) with a linear three-diagonal.

- calculate seawater surface elevations are the process for calculating equation 6 which is values of the

seawater surface elevation with a linear five-diagonal system.

- print results are the process for print results calculation that we necessary.

- T > Tmax is the process to execute determination when the iteration has been greater than maximum

iteration, if no then process will be go to the quantity of calculation for continue to calculate again, and

if yes then it go to “finish”.

- finish is the process where the calculation is stop.

Parameter Value Parameter Value

-2 1024

g 9.81 m s ρs 3

kg/m

Cz 48 Δx 7m

τo 2 days Δy 7m

τi 1 day Δz 1m

6 3

Table 1 shows a discharge is 0.1 Sv (0.1 x 10 m /s). τo and τi are relaxation timescales at outflow and

inflow conditions respectively [14]. Cz is Chezy coefficient and ρs is density of seawater. Δx, Δy, and Δt are

space step in x direction, space step in y direction, and time step respectively.

distributions when low tide currents at discharge of 0.1 Sv

5. Results and Discussion

The numerical modeling results we can see in figures 4 and 5 which are in the forms of simulations i.e.

3D-simulations (showed in 2D) when low tide currents and high tide currents. Figure 4 shows distributions of

seawater surface elevation when low tide currents. High seawater level when low tide currents is biggest

around Southside which the maximum of 75 cm and Northside locations of 130 cm under seawater level.

Whereas when high tide currents, there is 181 cm of maximum high seawater level in Northside and the

minimum of 117 cm under seawater level in Southside (figure 5). The distributions of seawater surface

elevation when low tide currents in Eastside are 2 cm, Westside around 28-79 cm, and Centerside around 28-

53 cm respectively under seawater level. Whereas when high tide currents in Eastside same as Westside

around 32-107 cm, and Centerside around 70 cm respectively upper seawater level.

Figure 5. Simulations of seawater surface

elevation distributions when high tide currents at discharge

of 0.1 Sv

The high seawater level occurs when high tide currents greater than low tide currents. It caused by the

influence of velocities of seawater when high tide currents greater than when low tide currents [3]. The other

effect is the horizontal and vertical movement of seawater results in the wind stress at the sea-surface when

high tide currents greater than when low tide currents [1, 10].

6. Conclusions

The seawater surface elevation by numerical modeling approach in the Gulf of Manado, North

Sulawesi, Indonesia has been investigation. The distributions of high seawater level were 1.81 m upper

seawater level and 1.30 m under seawater level respectively. The results can be used as a recommendation to

predict the condition of sea waves in the gulf of Manado.

References

[1] Broomans P 2003 Numerical Accuracy in Solution of the Shallow-Water Equations (Master thesis, TU

Delft & WL, Delft Hydraulics)

[2] Rompas P T D and Manongko J D I 2016 Numerical simulation of marine currents in the

Bunaken Strait, North Sulawesi, Indonesia Int. Conf. on Innovation and Vocational Education IOP

Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 128(012003) 1-7

[3] Rompas P T D, Sangari F J, and Tanunaumang H 2017 Study on marine current with approach of a

numerical model for marine current power plant (PLTAL) in the Bangka Strait North Sulawesi

Proceedings-2016 International Seminar on Application of Technology for Information and

Communication, ISEMANTIC 2016. IEEE 1 104-110.

[4] Rompas P T D, Taunaumang H, and Sangari F J 2017 A numerical design of marine current for

predicting velocity and kinetic energy Indonesian Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer

Science 5(2) 401-409.

[5] Rompas P T D, Taunaumang H, and Sangari F J 2017 A numerical model of seawater volume and

velocity dynamic for marine currents power plant in the Bangka Strait, North Sulawesi, Indonesia IOP

Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering 180(012100) 1-7.

[6] Chen X 2003 A free-surface correction method for simulating shallow water flows J. Comput. Phys. 189

557-578

[7] Rodriguez-Cuevas C, Couder-Castaneda C, Flores-Mendez E, Herrera-Diaz I E, and CisnerosAlmazan

R 2014 Modelling shallow water wakes using a hybrid turbulence Journal of Applied Mathematics 1 1-10.

[8] Claeyssen J R, Garibotti C, and Vielmo S 2006 The free surface of a coupled ocean-atmosphere model

due to forcing effects Mathematics and Computer in Simulation 73 114-124.

[9] Sirjacobs D, Gregoire M, Delhez E, and Nihoul J C J 2004 Influence of the aral sea negative water

balance on its seasonal circulation patterns: use of a 3D hydrodynamic model Journal of Marine System

47 51-66.

[10] Balasubramanya T N, Taylor M, and Lorenz J 2006 Ocean modelling for climate studies: Eliminasi short

time scales in long-term, high resolution studies of ocean circulation Mathematical and Computer

Modelling 44 870-886.

[11] Hervouet J M 2007 Hydrodynamics of free surface flows: Modelling with the finite element method.

(England: John Willey & Sons, Ltd.) xiv-341.

[12] Casulli V and Cheng R T 1992 Semi-implicit finite difference methods for three-dimensional shallow

water flow Int. J. for Numerical Methods in Fluids 15 629-648.

[13] Arakawa A and Lamb V R 1977 Computational design of the basic dynamical processes of the UCLA

general circulation model Methods of Computational Physics 17 173-265.

[14] Treguier A M, Barnier B, and De Miranda A P 2001 An eddy-permitting model of the Atlantic circulation:

Evaluating open boundary condition J. Geophy. Res. Oceans 106 (C10) (2211522129) 1-23.

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful for DRPM, Ministry of Research, Technology, and Higher Education of the

Republic of Indonesia who has given funding all of the research activities, and also thank the Rector of Manado

State University, Indonesia who has supported this research.

Modeling Approach in Gulf of Manado

*

P T D Rompas , J D I Manongko

Universitas Negeri Manado, Tondano 95618, Indonesia

Abstract. This paper presents the seawater surface elevation in Gulf of Manado with

numerical approach. The RANS shallow water flow equation is used to obtain a numerical

equation of seawater surface elevation with a semi-implicit approximation approach in which

the pressure distribution in the vertical layer of seawater is assumed hydrostatic. The results

found that the high seawater level is not more than 1.81 m upper seawater level and 1.30 m

under seawater level respectively. The results can be used as a recommendation to predict the

condition of sea waves in the Gulf of Manado.

1. Introduction

The horizontal and vertical motion of seawater occurs caused by the wind stress at the sea surface. If

surface seawater is a divergence, water at the bottom will rise to surface and this situation will happened

upwelling; conversely, where it is a convergence and will happened downwelling. For condition where a system

of cyclonic wind on surface seawaters where the average movement of the wind-driven layer is to the right of

the wind which causing divergence of surface water and upwelling, and the sea-surface is lowered and the

thermocline is raised, it is called Ekman pumping. In condition inverse correspond in anticyclonic wind is

convergence and sinking (downwelling), it causes the seasurface to slope upwards the middle of the gyre [1]. It

will produce a sea wave called seawater surface elevation. Transport at the position of Gulf of Manado is

convergence.

A numerical modeling can predict seawater surface elevation. It conducted by [2-5] in the Straits of

Bunaken and Bangka, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Chen [6] has discussed the simulation seawater surface

elevation from shallow water flows with a free surface correction method. Rodrigues-Cuevas et al [7] have

proposed the distribution of seawater surface elevation with respect to a reference level (m) by study on

modeling shallow water wakes using a hybrid turbulence model. Claeyssen et al [8] have conducted calculating

of seawater surface elevation by using the semi-lagrangian method and they compute the non-linear response

of the full model due to a shear stress that comes from the action of the wind at the ocean surface. Sirjacobs et

al [9] have simulated seawater surface elevation in the variations of typical seasonal corresponding to the

period 1956-1960 from the surface wind stress in the Aral sea. Also, Balasubramanya et al [10] have

implemented fully-implicit time integration schemes in a version of parallel ocean program for calculation of

seawater surface elevation by its simulation in the North Atlantic.

The objective of this study was to get distribution of seawater surface elevation by using numerical

modeling in the Gulf of Manado, North Sulawesi, Indonesia.

The conservation of energy equation, which would express the variations in temperature, particularly taking

into account dissipation by friction, will be put aside and temperature will later appear as a tracer solely

responsible for the effects of buoyancy. Let be the density of the fluid, and the velocity vector, whose

components are U, V, W. Conservative of the fluid mass contained in a domain is expressed as [11] d

d 0 (1) dt

where Ω is the domain of study (see figure 1) and t is time.

y

z

free surface

bottom

Ω2 D

x

If we assume hydrostatic pressure, and by using the decomposition of preceding Reynolds, the

realized average Navier-Stokes equations are written [11, 12]:

Continuity equation

u v w

0 (2)

x y z

Momentum equation

u u u u

t x y z x

v v v v

t x y z y

Free surface equation

where eff is an effective diffusion taking of account turbulent viscosity and dispersion, eff t.

This effective diffusion is given by means of a model of turbulence adapted to the problem considers.

Conservative of the fluid mass becomes Realized Average Navier-Stokes (RANS) shallow water flow

equations (as in equations (2) to (5)) which were as a basic for the computation of numerical modeling.

The numerical modeling equations used diffusion step [11] with a general semi-implicit discretization of

the momentum equations in equations (3) and (4) to get the velocities while the seawater surface elevation

used equation (5). The velocities in x, y, and z directions, we can written in the more compact matrix form as in

[2-5]. For determine the seawater surface elevation (as in equation (5)) in form numerical modeling, we can be

written in the matrix notation form [2, 3]

ΔZ U ΔZ Un 1 x (6)

ΔZ V ΔZ Vin 1/ 2

t i, j 1/ 2 T in, j 11/ 2 i, j 1/ 2 T , j 1

4. Methods

The Gulf of Manado is located between the Pacific Ocean and the Sulawesi Sea (Celebes Sea) whose

2

area is approximately 300 km (Figure 2), with an average width about 2.2 km and down to 79 meters deep

(figure 3).

The three-dimensional current circulation in the Gulf of Manado is simulated using the present model

with a 174 x 318 finite difference mesh of equal Δx = Δy = 7 m. The numerical solutions have been achieved

using four vertical layers and an integration time Δt = 0.4 sec, and inlet volume transports at sections Singkil

3

river, North, and South of Manado bay (figures 2 and 3) are 0.1 Sv (100000 m /s). In addition, there are two of

the current circulations in the Gulf of Manado i.e. low tide currents and high tide currents.

Figure 3. Bathymetry of Manado Gulf

The three-dimensional semi-implicit numerical method used in this study. The solution of a numerical

model in calculating the velocities of u , v and w respectively, we can explain step by step as follows:

- start is the beginning of numerical computation.

- read data is the process to read all data that using the all of parameters in equations 2 to 5 and table 1

which needed in calculation and also read data of variables: time of calculating maximum for doing

iteration.

- generation of the mesh is the process to make the computational meshes which using Arakawa C-grid

[13] and notations (spatial discretization).

- generation of the index is the process to make the index and generate the layers of vertical axis

(depth) and generate index of boundary layers as denote calculating in the meshes.

- initial conditions are the process to make the initial conditions of velocities and seawater surface

elevation, and also to make the coordinates for the result simulations in the tecplot program.

- the quantity of calculation with iteration do-process until maximum iteration.

- boundary conditions are the process which give boundary conditions of calculation domain in the Gulf

of Manado. Also, generation and determination about boundaries of velocities when enter and exit the

Gulf of Manado bases data of investigation results.

- calculate advections in u and v are the process for calculation advection of u and v .

- turbulence model is the process calculating the turbulence of a mixing-length model [7] (for three-

dimensional calculation). In this process also calculated diffusion step.

- calculate components of velocities (u , v and w ) are the process for calculating of horizontal velocities

u and v (equations 4 and 5) with a linear three-diagonal.

- calculate seawater surface elevations are the process for calculating equation 6 which is values of the

seawater surface elevation with a linear five-diagonal system.

- print results are the process for print results calculation that we necessary.

- T > Tmax is the process to execute determination when the iteration has been greater than maximum

iteration, if no then process will be go to the quantity of calculation for continue to calculate again, and

if yes then it go to “finish”.

- finish is the process where the calculation is stop.

Parameter Value Parameter Value

-2 1024

g 9.81 m s ρs 3

kg/m

Cz 48 Δx 7m

τo 2 days Δy 7m

τi 1 day Δz 1m

6 3

Table 1 shows a discharge is 0.1 Sv (0.1 x 10 m /s). τo and τi are relaxation timescales at outflow and

inflow conditions respectively [14]. Cz is Chezy coefficient and ρs is density of seawater. Δx, Δy, and Δt are

space step in x direction, space step in y direction, and time step respectively.

distributions when low tide currents at discharge of 0.1 Sv

5. Results and Discussion

The numerical modeling results we can see in figures 4 and 5 which are in the forms of simulations i.e.

3D-simulations (showed in 2D) when low tide currents and high tide currents. Figure 4 shows distributions of

seawater surface elevation when low tide currents. High seawater level when low tide currents is biggest

around Southside which the maximum of 75 cm and Northside locations of 130 cm under seawater level.

Whereas when high tide currents, there is 181 cm of maximum high seawater level in Northside and the

minimum of 117 cm under seawater level in Southside (figure 5). The distributions of seawater surface

elevation when low tide currents in Eastside are 2 cm, Westside around 28-79 cm, and Centerside around 28-

53 cm respectively under seawater level. Whereas when high tide currents in Eastside same as Westside

around 32-107 cm, and Centerside around 70 cm respectively upper seawater level.

Figure 5. Simulations of seawater surface

elevation distributions when high tide currents at discharge

of 0.1 Sv

The high seawater level occurs when high tide currents greater than low tide currents. It caused by the

influence of velocities of seawater when high tide currents greater than when low tide currents [3]. The other

effect is the horizontal and vertical movement of seawater results in the wind stress at the sea-surface when

high tide currents greater than when low tide currents [1, 10].

6. Conclusions

The seawater surface elevation by numerical modeling approach in the Gulf of Manado, North

Sulawesi, Indonesia has been investigation. The distributions of high seawater level were 1.81 m upper

seawater level and 1.30 m under seawater level respectively. The results can be used as a recommendation to

predict the condition of sea waves in the gulf of Manado.

References

[15] Broomans P 2003 Numerical Accuracy in Solution of the Shallow-Water Equations (Master thesis, TU

Delft & WL, Delft Hydraulics)

[16] Rompas P T D and Manongko J D I 2016 Numerical simulation of marine currents in the

Bunaken Strait, North Sulawesi, Indonesia Int. Conf. on Innovation and Vocational Education IOP

Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 128(012003) 1-7

[17] Rompas P T D, Sangari F J, and Tanunaumang H 2017 Study on marine current with approach of a

numerical model for marine current power plant (PLTAL) in the Bangka Strait North Sulawesi

Proceedings-2016 International Seminar on Application of Technology for Information and

Communication, ISEMANTIC 2016. IEEE 1 104-110.

[18] Rompas P T D, Taunaumang H, and Sangari F J 2017 A numerical design of marine current for

predicting velocity and kinetic energy Indonesian Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer

Science 5(2) 401-409.

[19] Rompas P T D, Taunaumang H, and Sangari F J 2017 A numerical model of seawater volume and

velocity dynamic for marine currents power plant in the Bangka Strait, North Sulawesi, Indonesia IOP

Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering 180(012100) 1-7.

[20] Chen X 2003 A free-surface correction method for simulating shallow water flows J. Comput. Phys. 189

557-578

[21] Rodriguez-Cuevas C, Couder-Castaneda C, Flores-Mendez E, Herrera-Diaz I E, and CisnerosAlmazan

R 2014 Modelling shallow water wakes using a hybrid turbulence Journal of Applied Mathematics 1 1-10.

[22] Claeyssen J R, Garibotti C, and Vielmo S 2006 The free surface of a coupled ocean-atmosphere model

due to forcing effects Mathematics and Computer in Simulation 73 114-124.

[23] Sirjacobs D, Gregoire M, Delhez E, and Nihoul J C J 2004 Influence of the aral sea negative water

balance on its seasonal circulation patterns: use of a 3D hydrodynamic model Journal of Marine System

47 51-66.

[24] Balasubramanya T N, Taylor M, and Lorenz J 2006 Ocean modelling for climate studies: Eliminasi short

time scales in long-term, high resolution studies of ocean circulation Mathematical and Computer

Modelling 44 870-886.

[25] Hervouet J M 2007 Hydrodynamics of free surface flows: Modelling with the finite element method.

(England: John Willey & Sons, Ltd.) xiv-341.

[26] Casulli V and Cheng R T 1992 Semi-implicit finite difference methods for three-dimensional shallow

water flow Int. J. for Numerical Methods in Fluids 15 629-648.

[27] Arakawa A and Lamb V R 1977 Computational design of the basic dynamical processes of the UCLA

general circulation model Methods of Computational Physics 17 173-265.

[28] Treguier A M, Barnier B, and De Miranda A P 2001 An eddy-permitting model of the Atlantic circulation:

Evaluating open boundary condition J. Geophy. Res. Oceans 106 (C10) (2211522129) 1-23.

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful for DRPM, Ministry of Research, Technology, and Higher Education of the

Republic of Indonesia who has given funding all of the research activities, and also thank the Rector of Manado

State University, Indonesia who has supported this research.

Validation of a Numerical Program for Analyzing Kinetic

Energy Potential in the Bangka Strait, North Sulawesi,

Indonesia

Universitas Negeri Manado, Tondano, 95618, Sulawesi Utara, Indonesia

*parabelemrompas@unima.ac.id

Abstract. The paper presents validation of the numerical program that computes the

distribution of marine current velocities in the Bangka strait and the kinetic energy potential in

the form the distributions of available power per area in the Bangka strait. The numerical

program used the RANS model where the pressure distribution in the vertical assumed to be

hydrostatic. The 2D and 3D numerical program results compared with the measurement results

that are observation results to the moment conditions of low and high tide currents. It found no

different significant between the numerical results and the measurement results. There are

0.97-2.2 kW/m2 the kinetic energy potential in the form the distributions of available

power per area in the Bangka strait when low tide currents, whereas when high tide currents of

1.02-2.1 kW/m2. The results show that to be enabling the installation of marine current turbines

for construction of power plant in the Bangka strait, North Sulawesi, Indonesia.

1. Introduction

The potential of kinetic energy in Bangka Strait, North Sulawesi, Indonesia can analyzed by approach

of a numerical program that analyzes the velocity of the ocean currents necessary to calculate the kinetic energy

of ocean currents.

The study of ocean currents through numerical modeling has performed [1]. Who implicated the numerical

model in San Francisco Bay California and the Lagoon of Venice, Italy by using semiimplicit finite difference

method for 3D shallow water flow, Rompas and Manongko [2] simulated the marine currents in the Bunaken

strait, North Sulawesi, Indonesia with the numerical model, Rompas et al [3-5] studied the marine currents in the

Bangka strait, North Sulawesi, Indonesia with the modelling and numerical simulation which predicted the

velocities and the kinetic energies but the numerical program has not been validated, Rodrigues-Cuevas et al [6]

researched a numerical model with difference turbulence models, O’Donncha et al [7] were applied the model-

3D of hydro-environmental code to a designated tidal energy test site on the East Coast of the United States,

Gonzales-Gorbena et al [8] optimized the hydrokinetic turbine array layouts by surrogate modelling, Zangiabadi

et al [9, 10] developed the a CFD model by using the bathymetry of a potential tidal stream turbines deployment

site and presented the tidal stream turbines for tidal power production. Martins et al [11] used 3D modelling in

the Sado estuary by using a new generic vertical discretization approach. Luquet et al [12] tested design and

model of an optimized ducted marine current turbine. The 3D hydrodynamic model used [13] for knowing

influence of the Aral Sea negative water balance on its seasonal circulation patterns, whereas [14] studied

climate with ocean modelling for eliminated short time

Content from this work may be used under the terms of theCreativeCommonsAttribution 3.0 licence. Any further

distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI.

Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd

scales in long-term and high resolution of ocean circulation. The simulation of electrical power

potential in the Alderney Race has been successfully which conducted by Myers and Bahaj [15] for marine

current turbine arrays. On the other hand, Thiebot et al [16] developed the effects of large arrays of tidal turbines

with dept-average Actuator Disks by modelling. Pinon et al [17] predicted wake of marine current turbines with

a particle method by using the numerical simulation. Whereas, Elhanafi et al [18] used the numerical simulation

with CFD to analyzing the offshore stationaryfloating oscillating water column-wave energy converter. Also, Ho

and Riddette [19] applied CFD to evaluate hydraulic performance of spillways in Australia.

The purpose of numerical program validation is to obtain a numerical program that can generate data in

accordance with the measurement results [20]. Validation done by comparing the numerical programs with the

data of measurement results and there are some researcher have conducted it. Maters et al [21] have validated a

numerical program to analyzing tidal stream turbine. The study of numerical and experimental has conducted by

Mycek et al [22] for analyzing interaction between two marine current turbines.

This paper studied on the validation of the numerical program computation results to the measurement

results of the velocities of marine current when the low tide and high tide in the Bangka Strait. The objectives of

the study are getting validation results of the numerical program computation result to measurement result and

analyzing the available power potential of marine current kinetic energy in the Bangka strait, North Sulawesi,

Indonesia.

2. A Numerical Program

The three-dimensional semi-implicit numerical method used by Casulli & Cheng [1] and Chen [23] in the

computation of shallow water flows. The method the finite differences is used for simplicity of its

implementation. The basic idea consists with [24]:

• To reduce the field of resolution of the differential equation to a limited field.

• To define a grid (or grid) finished points of this field.

• To approach the derivative this appears in the equation using a development of Taylor around the points of

the grid. For the points located at the edges of the field of calculation, we will write the boundary conditions

in an exact or possibly approximate way.

Concerning the first and second phase, there are no general methods [25]. The determination of the field of

calculation depends on the problem to approach. For the third stage, it is enough to recall that if f is a sufficiently

regular function of the variable reality x in a vicinity of the point x0, then we have the development of following

Taylor [25]:

f (x) n (x x )k f (k ) k (!x0) (x

0

k0

(k)

Where f indicates the derivative of f of order k and θ {0,1}. The order to which the development is

truncated gives the space order of approximation of the quantity f.

2.1.1. Fractional steps method. The basis algorithm consists of three fractional steps. We write [25]: f fn 1

fD fD fC fC fn (2)

t t

This leads to a successive resolution of three steps: An

advection step:

fC f n

+ advection terms = 0 ( f U,V )

(3) t A diffusion step:

fD fC

+ diffusion terms = source terms ( f U,V ) (5) t A

pressure-continuity step:

fn 1

fD

+ pressure terms = 0 (6)

t

This last step includes also the resolution of the continuity equation div(U) 0 that helps to deduce the

water depth h and the vertical component of velocity W [25]. Each of these steps will be resolved in detail one

after the other. Prior to this, however, discretization in space and building up the mesh to specified. 2.1.2. Spatial

discretization. The spatial discretization selected by a discretization with the differences finished in

parallelepiped elements [1]. The parallelepiped makes it possible to build a threedimensional grid starting from a

two-dimensional grid. It is enough to net in rectangles the twodimensional field, then to duplicate this grid on the

vertical. It is possible to make with the same grid a calculation in 2D and 3D [26]. The grid makes it possible to

discretize the physical field in a whole of material points to which we will apply the finite difference method. For

the calculation of the variables, those are in a fixed mesh with different positions. Into particulate, the scalar sizes

cantered.

An Arakawa C-grid [26] is used. For the calculation of the variables, those are in a fixed mesh in different

positions (staggered concealment), so much on the horizontal levels as on the vertical levels. The velocities

defined on the edge of the mesh; we guessed virtual meshes to write the limiting conditions with the walls; we

decorate the free surface with the grid.

2.1.3. Advection step. In advection step we are using Eulerian-Lagrangian discretization of convective and

viscous terms. This discretization is one of the major difficulties in the numerical treatment of the shallow water

equations. Consider then the following convection-diffusion equation in three space dimensions [1]:

Cu C v C w C x2C2 y2C2 z

eff Cz (7)

t x y z

Where μ and νeff are non-negative diffusion coefficients and for the time being, the convective velocities u , v

and w are assumed to be constants.

The equation (7) can solve numerically in a variety of ways. A convenient semi-implicit finite difference

method, whose stability does not depend upon the vertical eddy diffusivity, is obtained by discretizing the

convective terms by explicit upwind finite differences, the horizontal eddy diffusivity by explicit central

differences and the vertical eddy diffusivity term by an implicit finite difference.

Cin, j,1k Cin, j,k Cin, j,k Cin 1, j,k Cin, j,kCin, j 1,k Cin, j,k 1

u v w t x y z

Cin 1, j,k 2Cxin,2j,k Cin 1, j,k Cin, j 1,k 2Cyin,2j,k Cin, j 1,k (8)

z

zi, j,k

For every i and j this method requires the solution of a symmetric, positive definite, tri-diagonal system. The

necessary and sufficient stability condition of scheme equation (8) is

u v w 1 1

t x y z 2 x2 y2 (9)

In convection-dominated problems, the stability condition equation (9) is not very restrictive. This method,

however, is only first-order-accurate in space and the truncation error is in the form of a diffusion term. This

artificial viscosity is directionally dependent. Hence, in convection-dominated problems, not only the artificial

viscosity will prevail over the physical viscosity, but also drastically different numerical predictions can obtained

simply because of different spatial orientations of the computational grid.

In order to improve the stability and accuracy of an explicit finite difference method, consider again equation

(7) in the Lagrangian form

2 2

C C C C

t x2 y2 z eff z (10)

Where the substantial derivative d/dt indicates that the time rate of change is calculated along the streak line

defined by dx/dt = u , dy/dt = v , dz/dt = w (11)

Cin, j,1k Cin a1, j b,k d eff k 1/ 2 zi, j,k 1/ 2 eff k 1/ 2 zi, j,k 1/ 2

(12)

t zi, j,k

C C C C C C

in a 1, j b,k d 2 in a, j 2b,k d in a 1, j b,k d in a, j b 1,k d 2 y

in a, j 2b,k d in b, j b 1,k d

Where a=u Δt/Δx, b=v Δt/Δy and d= w Δt/Δz are the grid Courant Numbers.

Then Cin a, j b,k d in equation (12) approximated by Casulli and Cheng [1] become:

p[(1 q)Cin l 1, j m,k n qCin l 1, j m 1,k n ]}

The stability condition for the scheme equation (12) as follow [1]

1

1 1

t 2 x2 y2 (14)

Which is much less restrictive than equation (9). Clearly, when μ=0, this scheme becomes unconditionally

stable.

2.1.4. Diffusion step. A general semi-implicit discretization of the momentum equations can write into form as

[1]:

x

uin 11/ 2, j,k 1 uin 11/ 2, j,k uin 11/ 2, j,k uin 11/ 2, j,k 1

t, (15)

z

i 1/ 2, j,k

vin, j 11/ 2,k 1 vin, j 11/ 2,k vin, j 11/ 2,k vin, j 11/ 2,k 1

t (16)

z

i, j 1/ 2,k

Where zi 1/ 2, j,k and zi, j 1/ 2,k are in general the thickness of the kth water layer more simply denoted by

zk .

The finite difference operator F in equations (15) and (16) can define as [1]:

uin 1/ 2 a 1, j b,k d 2uin 1/ 2 a, j b,k d uin 1/ 2 a 1, j b,k d

2 x

u u u

in 1/ 2 a, j b 1,k d 2 in 1/ 2 a,2j b,k d in 1/ 2 a, j b 1,k d

y

n

fcor tv i 1/ 2 a, j b,k d , (17)

v v

vin a 1, j 1/ 2 b,k d 2 in a, j 1/ 2 b,k d in a 1, j 1/ 2 b,k d

t x2

v v v

in a, j 1/ 2 b 1,k d 2 in a, j 1/22 b,k d in a, j 1/ 2 b 1,k d

y

fcor

The boundary conditions at the free surface and at the sediment-water interface are following [1]:

uin 11/ 2, j,M 1 uin 11/ 2, j,M w vin, j 11/ 2,M 1 vin, j 11/ 2,M w

z z

(19)

i 1/ 2, j,M ,

1/ 2

i, j 1/ 2,M 1/ 2

u n 1u n 1g i 1/ 2, j,m i 1/ 2,

j,m 1 uin 1/ 2, j,m 2

m 1/ 2

vin 1/ 2, j,m 2 n 1

z u

i 1/ 2, j,m 1/ 2 2 i 1/ 2, j,m , (

Cz 20)

v n 1 v n 1 g i, j 1/ 2,m i, j 1/

2,m 1 uin, j 1/ 2,m 2 vin, j 1/

2,m

m 1/ 2

2

z

i, j 1/ 2,m 1/ 2

M 1/

2 x M 1/ 2 y

n 1

v

C

z2

i, j 1/ 2,m

The equations (15) and (16) with the respective boundary conditions equations (19) and (20), we can write in

the compact matrix form as [1, 5]:

n 1/ 2, j g t in 11, j in, j1 ΔZin 1/ 2, j

(21) Ai 1/ 2, j

x

(22)

y

u v z

in 11/ 2, j,M in, j 11/ 2,M M

Ui 1/ 2, j

: :

:

uin 11/ 2, j,m

zM (Fu)in 1/ 2, j,M zM (Fv)in, j 1/ 2,M

t xw t yw

2 2,M 2

: :

,

( eff )M 1/ 2 t ( eff )M 1/ 2 t

zM 0

zM 1/ 2 zM 1/ 2

A zM 1/ 2 zM zM 1/ 2 zM 3/ 2 zM 3/ 2

: : :

:

( eff )m 1/ 2 t( eff )m 1/ 2 t

g t u2 v2

0 zm 1/ 2 zm zm 1/ 2

Cz2

Equations (21) and (22) are linear tri-diagonal systems which are coupled to the seawater surface elevation

n 1

( ) at time (tn 1).

n 1

2.1.5. Pressure-continuity step. For determine i , j and for numerical stability, the new velocity field has to satisfy

for each i,j the finite difference analogue of the seawater surface elevation equation:

x

in, j1 in, j t k M m zi 1/ 2, j,k n 1 zi u

1/ 2, j,k in 11/ 2, j,k

ui 1/ 2, j,k

(23)

y

t

k M m n 1 zi, j v

1/ 2,k in, j 11/ 2,k

zi, j v

1/ 2,k i, j 1/ 2,k

Or we can be written in the compact matrix form:

x

(24)

T Vin, j 11/ 2

i, j 1/ 2

Since A is positive definite, A-1 is also positive definite and therefore (ΔZ)TA-1ΔZ is a non-negative number.

Hence equation (25) constitutes a linear five-diagonal system of equations for in, j1 which is symmetric and strictly

diagonally dominant with positive elements on the main diagonal and negative ones elsewhere. Thus the system is

positive definite and has a unique solution. In practice, this fivediagonal system can be solved very efficiently by a

conjugate gradient method. Once the new free surface location has been determined, equations (21) and (22) are

readily applicable to yield the new velocities u , v at time tn 1.

( Z)

in, j,1 g xt 22 T A 1 Z in 1/ 2, j

in, j1 in, j 11

y2

in, j t ΔZ T A 1G in 1/ 2, j ΔZ T A 1G in 1/ 2, j

x

t T 1 G in, j 1/ 2 ΔZ T A 1G in, j 1/ 2

ΔZ A

y

(25)

Finally, the vertical component of the velocity w at the new time level can discretized from the continuity

equation becomes:

z u z u

n 1 win, j ,1k 1/ 2 in 1/ 2, j,k in 11/ 2, j,k in 1/ 2, j,k in 11/ 2, j,k

wi, j,k 1/ 2

1/ 2,k in, j 11/ 2,k (26) zi, j 1/ 2,k

Where k=m,m+1,...,M, and the no-flux condition across the bottom boundary is assumed by taking win, j ,1m 1/ 2

0.

2.2 The available power of marine current and the boundary conditions

The available kinetic energy in this study is the available power per m2 (kW/m2). We used the available power that

is equation of the marine current power in the Bangka strait from [2, 5]:

P (vin, 1 3

j ,k ) 10

3

(27)

A

Where P is the marine current power in the Bangka strait in kW/m2, Ek is kinetic energy, dt is time,

2

,1k 1

v (vi, j,k

2 2

We used the boundary conditions for the simulations of model 2D and 3D such as:

• On the free surface the effect of the wind, supposed negligible which is not taken into account,

U

which translated by 0.

n

• At the bottom, the coefficient of friction (law of Chezy) is Cz = 48.

• At open boundary condition, we can radiation equation from Treguier et al [27].

• The domain of computation is discretized of 55332 elements (for 2D) where 174 elements in direction x and

318 elements in direction y.

• Each element of horizontal is 60 m x 60 m. In 3D, there are 221328 elements where 174 elements in x-direction,

318 elements in y-direction and 4 elements in z-direction.

• Each element is parallelepiped dimensions of 60 m x 60 m x 20 m.

• The flow rate is 0.3 Sv (300000 m3/s where 1 Sv = 1 x 106 m3/s [28]) with two conditions of marine currents

e.g. when low and high tide.

The comparisons of numerical model results and measurement results have been obtained by specify the

velocity measurement results at area inlet and outlet as boundary conditions. Then, the numerical model results (2D

and 3D) are studied and compared mainly focused at points location of P1 to P9 (see Figure 1). Finally, the

numerical model results for the study on marine currents in the Bangka strait has been obtained both in 2D and 3D

with four flow rates variations which are as the inlet boundary conditions.

3.1. The comparisons of the numerical program results and the measurement

results

Figure 2 shows the comparisons of the minimum velocities from the measurement (observation) results and the

numerical program (2D and 3D model) results when low tide currents. The velocities in locations of P3 and P8 are

come near with results of observation but the other locations are rather different. The difference values of velocities

for both 2D and 3D to observed results in P3 are 0.1 m/s and its directions are 11 0 (Figure 3), whereas in P8 of 0.02

m/s for 3D and there is not for 2D and only 2 0 for both 2D and 3D respectively. On the contrary, in P1, there is 0.34

m/s for 2D and 0.38 m/s for 3D, whereas its directions for both 2D and 3D of 18 0 respectively.

bs

Figure 2. Current velocities at the minimum velocities boundary condition when low tide

currents.

The current directions from the numerical model results are not so differ with the observation results mainly P4

to P8 (Figure 3) and also points of P5 to P7 in Figure 5 with boundary conditions of the maximum velocities

whereas the other locations are rather different. The biggest differences are in locations of P1, P2, P5, and P9. If we

see in Figure 4, the velocities at P5 to P7 are not so differ between observation results and numerical model with the

boundary conditions. Whereas velocities from the calculation results of 2D and 3D models are not so differ.

bser

OI

Figure 3. Current directions at the minimum velocities boundary condition when low tide currents.

The difference values of velocities for both 2D and 3D to observed results in P5 are 0.04 m/s (Figure 4) and its

directions are 30 in Figure 5, then in P7 of 0.04 m/s for 2D and 0.02 m/s for 2D and there are not differ with its

directions for both 2D and 3D respectively. On the contrary, in P1, there is 0.55 m/s for 2D and 0.58 m/s for 3D,

whereas its directions for both 2D and 3D of 200 respectively.

bs

Figure 4. Current velocities at the maximum velocities boundary condition when low tide currents.

bse

OI

Figure 5. Current directions at the maximum velocities boundary condition when low tide currents.

Figure 6 shows comparisons of the minimum velocities from observation results with the numerical model

results when high tide currents. At point P4 where the velocity of 2D and 3D models result compared to the

observation result is almost same and also at points of P4 to P6 in Figure 7. Whereas current directions rather near

between models (2D and 3D) and observation in Figure 8 except at points P1 to P3.

b

Figure 6. Current velocities at the minimum velocities boundary condition when high tide currents.

Ban

gka Island

0

Figure 7. Distributions of the available power per m2 at seawater column of 20 m when low tide currents at flow

rate of 0.3 Sv in the Bangka strait.

Figure 8. Distributions of the available power per m2 at seawater column of 20 m when high tide currents at flow

rate of 0.3 Sv in the Bangka strait.

3.2. The kinetic energy potential in the Bangka strait

The kinetic energy potential in this study that generated in form the available power of marine current in

the Bangka strait have been analyzed. We can see the distributions of the available power per unit of area (kW/m2)

at seawater column of 20 m in Figures 7 and 8 which described the potential in the Bangka strait when low and high

tide currents at flow rate of 0.3 Sv (1 Sv = 1 x 10 6 m3/s [27]).

Figure 7 shows distributions of available power per m2 at seawater column of 20 m when low tide currents at of

0.3 Sv in the Bangka strait. There is 2.22 kW/m2 of the available power at P4 and its value is biggest compared at

the other points. It caused by nearby the point is existed a manger with deepness of ~5 m. On the contrary, the value

of available power per m2 is smallest at P1 (0.97 kW/m2). We can also see that available power per m2 in South area

of Bangka island (in the enter channel) where around 3-5 kW/m2 bigger than the other area in around that of 1.5

kW/m2. Also, in West area, especially at center area where power availabilities around 2-7 kW/m2. Whereas in

North and South area where available power per m2 still less unless near point of P9 about 2-3 kW /m2. If we see in

Westside of P6 and P7 where there are power availabilities biggest around 9-10 kW/m2. That thing caused by

existence of manger and average depth in the place of ~5 m [3, 5].

The distributions of the available power per m2 at seawater column of 20 m when high tide currents at flow rate

of 0.3 Sv in the Bangka strait showed in Figure 8. The available power per m 2 counted of 1.02 kW/m2 at point of P1

and that value is smallest if compared with the other points. On the contrary, there is 2.1 kW/m 2 available of the

biggest available power per m2 at P8 which has the biggest velocity.

4. Conclusions

The validations of the numerical program through the comparisons of the numerical computation results

and the measurement results have been analyzed and the results are not so far different. The kinetic energy potential

in the form the distributions of available power per area in the Bangka strait when low tide currents of 0.97-2.2

kW/m2, whereas when high tide currents of 1.02-2.1 kW/m2. The results show that to be enabling the installation of

marine current turbines for construction of power plant in the Bangka strait, North Sulawesi, Indonesia.

Acknowledgments

The authors express gratitude to DRPM, Ministry of Research, Technology, and Higher Education of the

Republic of Indonesia that had finance all of the research activities, and to Rector of Universitas Negeri Manado,

Indonesia through the head of research institution who has approved this research.

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Performance of Savonius Blade Waterwheel with Variation

of Blade Number

1* 2

L Sule and P T D Rompas

1 Universitas Hasanuddin, Makassar, Sulawesi Selatan,

Indonesia

2

Universitas Negeri Manado, Tondano 95618, Sulawesi Utara, Indonesia

*luther.sule@yahoo.co.id

Abstract. The utilization of water energy source is mainly used as a provider of electrical

energy through hydroelectric power. The potential utilization of water flow energy is relatively

small. The objective of this study is to know the best blade of Savonius waterwheel with

various variables such as water discharge, blade number, and loading. The data used the

efficiency of waterwheel, variation of blade number, variable water discharge, and loading in

the shaft. The test results have shown that the performances of a top-water mill with the

semicircular curve where the variation in the number of blades are 4, 6, and 8 at discharge and

loading of 0.01587 m3/s and 1000 grams respectively were 9.945%, 13.929%, and 17.056%

respectively. The blades number of 8 obtained the greatest performance. The more number of

blades the greater the efficiency of the waterwheel Savonius.

1. Introduction

The condition of Indonesian topography which has many mountains and hills as well as the

stretch of river is almost found in every region [1]. Water energy is the energy that is suitable and the

most potential to be developed in Indonesia. The rate of growth of hydropower in Indonesia is very slow,

whereas the potential of Indonesia's hydro power is quite large reach 75.000 MW. Utilization through the

national electricity supply only reached 10.1% or 7,572 MW. Based on data from the Ministry of Energy

and Mineral Resources, the potential of hydropower energy is spread by 15,600 MW in Sumatra, 4,200

MW in Java, 21,600 MW in Kalimantan, 10,200 MW in Sulawesi, 620 MW in Bali-NTT-NTB, 430 MW in

Maluku and 22,350 MW in Papua. While in the world, the potential for water energy is estimated to reach

657 million HP or 489,924.8156 MW, but the utilization to 15%. The potential of water energy in each

continent is different [2] and we can be seen in the Table 1.

The greatest potential energy of water is in the African continent [3]. It can be seen with the river

Congo in Africa which became the largest potential energy of water in the world as well as several other

rivers that are used as a producer of electricity. Electric power is obtained from the conversion of

hydropower that turns the waterwheel or water turbine that utilizes the waterfall or stream in the river [4].

Fine the optimum performance of each specific amount of blade, i.e. 4, 6 and 8 blades on the water

(discharge) and the constant end equal head for Savonius model blade of capacity used for hydropower.

Determine the maximum power coefficient of the change in the number of Savonius model drops used for

hydropower [5]. As reference in the design of water wheel with the Savonius model savings benefits

research. The research results can be applied in the field of renewable energy conversion, especially in

the design of small-scale hydro power plant to micro [6].

Content from this work may be used under the terms of theCreativeCommonsAttribution 3.0 licence. Any

further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and

DOI.

Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd

Table 1. Potential and developed hydropower in the world

Potential (in Percentage of Developed (in Percentage

Continent million horse power) total million horse power) of total

Asia 151 23.0 13.7 13.6

North America 87 13.2 41.1 40.8

Europe 69 10.5 40.8 40.5

South America 55 8.4 3.1 3.1

Oceania 23 3.5 1.4 1.4

2. Methods

This study used experiment in fluid machineries laboratory of Mechanical Engineering

Department, Universitas Hasanuddin with the installation as in Figure 1. The data retried by repeating the

test/retrieval procedure at least 5 repetitions for analysis. The data collection procedure/testing such as

we conducted by: the initial, check the state of the tool to be used on the waterwheel test and check the

valve is in good condition; connecting the pump with a power source; set the valve opening to determine

the discharge; allow the water to flow for 2 minutes to obtain stable flow conditions in the channel;

calculate the amount of first discharge by using bucket and stopwatch; install one of the waterwheels with

the number of 4 pieces of blade in position; record the water level and water temperature in the channel;

after that calculate the number of turns of the waterwheel using a tachometer without loading until loading

until the wheel cannot spin or stop; after that record the amount of rounds generated in each loading; after

obtaining the data from the waterwheel test the 4 pumps are turned off by disconnecting the electric

current source; and the finally, repeat procedure 2-10 for waterwheels 6 and 8 (Figure 2).

Figure 2. Parameters of Blades (4, 6, and 8)

The Figure 3 and Table 2 showed the relation of efficiency to the waterwheel load with variation of

3 3 3

discharge i.e. 0.01124 m /s (Q1), 0.01358 m /s (Q2), and 0.01587 m /s (Q3) with waterwheels of 4

3

blades. The maximum efficiencies occurred at 600 gram loading to discharge of 0.01124 m /s and

3 3

0.01358 m /s are 6.13% and 5.95% respectively. While, at discharge of 0.01587 m /s and loading of 1000

gram, the maximum efficiency is 9.66%.

3

In Figure 5, for 0.01124 m /s of discharge, it is seen that the efficiency increases from no load to 600

gram loading and decreases the efficiency of the waterwheel as the addition of loading, from load 600 to

1200 gram loading. The waterwheel will produce power because the wheel can offset the given torque

[7][8][9]. When a given torque is equal to zero, the waterwheel will not produce power because the

windmill will spin very quickly as a result of the absence of loading given so that no incubation occurs

[10][11]. Conversely, after reaching the critical point along with the increase in loading then braking occurs

in the pulley resulting in angular velocity and the power of the waterwheel decreases [12][13][14]. The

3

phenomenon that occurs for discharges of 0.01124 and 0.01358 m /s is caused by the same thing that

3

occurs at a discharge of 0.01587 m /s for the same blade.

20

10

y = -1E-05x2 + 0.0281x + 1.1745

0 R² = 0.9771

Q1

0 1000 2000 3000

-10

y = -1E-05x2 + 0.0219x + 0.6489 Q2

R² = 0.9745

-20

Q3

-30 y = -2E-05x2 + 0.0278x

R² = 1

-40

Load (gram)

Figure 3. Relation of efficiency to load with variation of discharge on waterwheel with 4 blades

3

In Figure 4 and Table 2, it is found that the discharge of 0.01587 m /s is the largest discharge between

the variations of the discharge used where the efficiency of 9.95% to loading of 100 gram. This is

because the amount of water flow that flows directly proportional to the water speed in the channel makes

the mass of the waterwheel lighter so that the resulting round is also large and requires a large load to

brake [15].

Load Variation for 4 blades Variation for 6 blades Variation for 8 blades

(gram) η (Q1) η (Q2) η (Q3) η (Q1) η (Q2) η (Q3) η (Q1) η (Q2) η (Q3)

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 3,213 3,176 3,552 3,797 3,970 4,691 4,674 4,975

200 5,258 5,161 6,251 6,427 6,749 8,244 8,179 9,097

400 6,134 5,955 8,099 7,887 8,338 11,087 9,640 12,366

600 4,674 6,352 9,661 8,179 8,735 12,508 10,516 14,782

800 2,921 5,955 9,946 7,303 8,933 13,503 10,224 16,346

1000 0 4,764 9,377 5,258 8,338 13,645 8,763 17,056

1200 4,169 7,956 4,089 6,948 13,929 6,134 16,914

1400 0 6,820 0 7,764 13,645 4,674 15,919

1600 5,115 3,573 12,792 0 15,351

1800 2,842 0 9,950 2,792

2000 0 7,814 9,381

2200 5,117 6,823

2400 0 3,696

2600 0

2800

Note: variation of discharge i.e. 0.01124 m3/s (Q1), 0.01358 m3/s (Q2), and 0.01587 m3/s (Q3

The relation of efficiency to the waterwheel load with variation of debit i.e. 0,01124 m3 / s,

0,01358 m3 / s and 0,01587 m3 / s with waterwheels 6 blades is shown in Figure 5 and Table 3.

40

20

y = -1E-05x2 + 0.0355x + 0.9892

R² = 0.9912

0 Q1

0 1000 2000 3000

Q2

-20

y = -1E-05x2 + 0.0281x + 1.1745

R² = 0.9771 Q3

-40

y = -2E-05x2 + 0.0314x + 0.4134

R² = 0.9843

-60

Load (gram)

Figure 4. Relation of efficiency to load with variation of discharge on waterwheel with 4 blades

3

Based on Figure 4 and Table 3 were found that for discharge of 0.01124 m /s, the maximum

efficiency is 8.17920093% which occurs at 800 gram loading. While at discharge of 0.01358 m3 / s

3

maximum efficiency is obtained 8.93% with loading 1000 gram. While at 0.01587 m /s of discharge,

the maximum efficiency at loading of 1400 gram is 13.93%.

3

In Figure 5, for 0.01124 m /s of discharge, it was seen that the efficiency increased from no-load to

800 gram loading and decreased the efficiency of the waterwheel as the addition of loading, from a

load of 800 to 1600 gram loading. The waterwheel will produce power because the wheel can offset

the given torque [7][8][9]. When a given torque is equal to zero, the waterwheel will not produce

power because the windmill will spin very quickly as a result of the absence of loading given so that

no incubation occurs [16]. Conversely, after reaching the critical point along with the increase in

loading then braking occurs in the pulley resulting in angular velocity and the power of the waterwheel

3

decreases [17]. The phenomenon that occurs for discharges of 0.01124 and 0.01358 m /s is caused

3

by the same thing that occurs at a discharge of 0.01587 m /s for the same blade.

3.3. Relation of efficiency to load for 8 blades

3

Based on Figure 5 and Table 4 it is found that for debit 0.01124 m /s maximum efficiency is

3

10.52% which occurs at 800 gram loading. While at debit 0.01358 m /s maximum efficiency is

3

obtained by 13.90% with loading 1000 gram. While at 0.01587 m /s of discharge, the maximum

efficiency at loading of 1200 gram is 17.06%.

20

10

y = -9E-06x2 + 0.0237x + 0.8052

R² = 0.9882

0

0 1000 2000 3000 Q1

-10

Q2

-20 Q3

y = -1E-05x2 + 0.0243x + 0.7673

R² = 0.9867

-30

y = -1E-05x2 + 0.0224x + 0.5577

R² = 0.982

-40

Load (gram)

2

Figure 5. Distributions of the available power per m at seawater column of 20 m when low tide

currents at flow rate of 0.3 Sv in the Bangka strait.

3

In Figure 6 for a 0.01124 m /s of discharge, it is seen that the efficiency increases from no-load to 800

gram loading and decreases the efficiency of the waterwheel as the addition of loading from a load of 800

to 1600 gram. The waterwheel will produce power because the wheel can offset the given torque

[7][8][9]. When a given torque is equal to zero, the waterwheel will not produce power because the

windmill will spin very quickly as a result of the absence of loading given so that no incubation occurs [16].

Conversely, after reaching the critical point along with the increase in loading then braking occurs in the

pulley resulting in angular velocity and the power of the waterwheel decreases [17][18][19]. The

3

phenomenon that occurs for discharges of 0.01124 and 0.01358 m /s caused by the same thing that

3

occurs at discharge (0.01587 m /s) for the same blade [20].

4. Conclusions

The efficiency produced by the waterwheel Savonius blade is affected by the discharge and the

amount of the blade. In the waterwheel of 4 maximum efficiency blade obtained 9.95% with debit 0.01587

3

m /s at loading 1000 gram. While on the waterwheels 6 blades, the greatest efficiency of 13.93% is

3

obtained at discharge of 0.01587 m /s at 1400 gram loading. While on the waterwheels 8 blades, the

3

greatest efficiency of 17.06% is obtained at a discharge of 0.01587 m /s for with a loading of 1200 grams.

The maximum power of the wheel produced by the water wheel on the flat plate blade occurs at the

3

opening of the discharge III (Q3 = 0.01587 m /s) with the number of 8 blades of 2.403984 W. The

3

greatest efficiency was obtained at 0.01587 m /s discharge of 17.06% with 1200 gram loading. So the

best blade is a waterwheel with 8 blades.

References

[1] Patty O F 1995 Tenaga Air (Erlangga: Jakarta)

[2] http://www.yourarticlelibray.com/powers/distribution-of-hydro-power-in-the-word/25579/

[3] Robert H D 2002 Water Wheel, E-Maill : www.waterhistori.org

[4] Szytula A and Leciejewicz J 1989 Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths 12 ed K

A Gschneidner Jr and L Erwin (Amsterdam: Elsevier) 133

[5] Nakajima M, Iio S and Ikeda T 2008 Performance of Savonius rotor for environmentally friendly

hydraulic turbine Journal of Fluid Science and Technology 3 3 420-429

[6] Kyozuka Y 2008 An experimental study on the Darrieus Savonius turbine for the tidal current power

generation Journal of Fluid Science and Technology 3 3 439-449 [7] Esty J 2005 Water wheels

(Peabody museum of natural history: Yale University)

[8] Samman M 2005 Rediscovering the waterweel “Noria Al-Muhammadiyah” (Asme Internasional

Histori Lanmark; Asme Northwest Houston Subsection Meeting)

[9] Kusnaidi 1999 Karakteristik Kincir Air (online) available at http://anonime.co.id

[10] Gerholdt M 2009 Modeling the chaotic waterwheel Department of Mathematics Graduate Student

Presentation, Spring

[11] Gerald M, Cristian W 2004 The breastshot waterwheel: design and model tests (Berlin, Germany:

Researcher, Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries)

[12] Hansen R D 2002 Water wheel (online) available at www.waterhistory.org

[13] Pelz P F and Bearrf T 2006 Studies on the maximum harvestable hydropower in open

channelaplication to a water wheel and a turbine Technische Universitat Germany

[14] Radheika 2008 Kincir pusar untuk irigasi (online) available at http//radheika.com

[15] Tevata A and Inprasit C 2011 The effect of paddle number and immersed radius on water wheel

performance Energy Procedia 9 359-365

[16] Pujol T, Sola J, Montoro L and Pelegri M 2010 Hydraulic performance of an ancient Spanish

watermill Renewable Energy 35 387-396

[17] Ibrahim A G, Haron C C H and Ashari H C 2002 Traditional water wheels as a renewable rural

energy. Department of Mechanichanical and Material Engineering, Unversiti

Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi Darul Ehsan Selangtor 436000: Malaysia

[18] Pujol T and Montoro L 2010 High hydraulic performance in horizontal waterwheels Renewable

Energy 35 2543-2551

[19] Denny M 2004 The Efficiency of overshot and undershot waterwheels Eur.J.Phys. 25 193-202

[20] Choi Y D, Lim J I and Lee Y H 2008 Performance and internal flow characteristics of a cross-flow

hydro turbine by the shapes of nozzle and runner blade Journal of Fluid Science and Technology 3

3 398-409

Model of Vocational Education Learning Format

to Comply

Hopefulness in Companies and Industries

Parabelem Tinno Dolf Rompas & Herry Sumual

Universitas Negeri Manado, Indonesia

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

_______________

ARTICLEINFO ABSTRACT

Article history: The companies and industries were very demanding manpower

Received 23 December 2016 not only must be prepared to work in accordance with their

Received in revised form 9

January 2017 competence but also that very important of them was the work

Accepted 21 January 2017 attitude should be good. In fact, currently it was not so because of

Available online 28 February 2017 any manpower that was when received as worker. The study

presents the concept of vocational education learning

format model that appropriate and comply hopefulness of

companies and

Keywords: industries. The method used the literature review, interview,

Vocational education learning creation of the competency-based learning program of work in

Learning format companies and industries. The results have shown that the model

Comply hopefulness of learning format was vary and depending on the characteristics of the subject

of course to be achieved and attitude learning applied in

every learning. Implementation of learning format model

should be supported by together from education leadership

and

Corresponding author: head of companies and industries in achieving the goals and

parabelemrompas@unima.ac.id benefits together.

Introduction

The vocational education is a higher education diploma program that prepares students to work with

particular expertise applied to the applied bachelor program (Lows of Indonesia Republic No. 12 2012). In

the explanation of Article 16 to paragraph one which states that the vocational education is education that

preparing student to become professional with skill or ability of high work. It has historically identified with

their internship in the workplace that the learning process conducted by observation, imitation and

personal correction, not by the application of a preposition common in classrooms and through textbooks

(Moodies, 2008). It is concern on the development of vocational education practical ability, practical

knowledge, and understanding of certain jobs (UNESCO Institute for Statistics 2010). Vocational

education study program of engineering faculty is the unit of education and learning activity that has

curriculum and specific learning method in one type of vocational education under clumps of engineering

science in the faculty of engineering (Regulation of Education and Culture Minister of Indonesia Republic

No. 49 2014).

Coherence and relevance of skill or ability to work from the process result of mechanical

engineering vocational education with the companies and industries were the major factor of priceless

human resources for a community that will promote economic growth and prosperity public (Arifin, 2014).

According to direct observation by interview to the directors in several companies and industries such as:

Automotive Machine Shop, PT. Telkom, Electronics, Tourism and Hospitality, Building Contractors, Food

and Beverage, and Coconut Oil Industry where there are the gap especially in terms of attitude between

the student competence (not only current practice or industrial internship but also already graduated and

worked) and the ability to work. The attitude shown by some student of field work practice (PKL) or

internship industry and graduate or manpower was still lacking so well thus the results of work that

obtained far from the expectation of com-panies and industries (actually expectation of companies and

industries was the work of student and manpower must be professional and can benefit their business).

Base on Presidential Decree No. 8 (2012) on Indonesian Qualification Framework (KKNI) that learning

achievement is the ability obtained by the internalization of knowledge, attitudes, skills, competencies,

and accumulation of work experience. It is useless for the companies and the industries if student of PKL

or industrial internship and graduate or manpower) have high of the ability to internalize the knowledge,

skills, competencies, work experience but very low of the ability of attitude (Rifandi, 2013). Also,

according to the results of directly interview to the heads of vocational education study program in FT-

UNIMA that attitude element included in the creation of learning outcome in the curriculum that created

by Decree of National Education Minister of Indonesia Republic No. 045 (2002) and created in 2003,

Laws of Indonesia Republic No. 12 (2012), Indonesian Presidential Regulation No. 8 (2012), and the draft

Regulation of Education and Culture Minister of Indonesia Republic on National Standard for Higher

Education (creation of the 2013 about revision of curriculum based on KKNI) (The Education and Culture

Ministry, General Directorate of Higher Education and the National Education Standards Agency 2013),

and the lectures had already applied.

Competency standards are minimum criteria concerning the qualifications of graduates capabilities

that include attitudes, knowledge, and skills are expressed in the formulation of graduate learning

outcomes (Regulation of Education and Culture Minister of Indonesia Republic No. 49 2014). The

attitudes are correct and cultured behavior as a result of internalizing and actualizing the values and

norms reflected in the spiritual and social life through a learning process, student work experience,

research and/or community service related learning. The attitude formulation can be added by

universities, proposed to the DirectorGeneral to set into the learning achievement of graduates, assessed

and determined by the DirectorGeneral as a kind of study program. The fulfillment of graduate learning

outcomes for each course the learning process must facilitated by forms of learning such as lectures,

responsiveness and tutorials, seminars, lab, studio practice, practice workshops, or field practice,

research, and community service. The elements of attitudes in the learning achievement of graduates

must become very important elements in the learning process through the container forms of learning,

but the problem is how the model of a learning program with elements of at-titude becomes a key

element in the learning process of each course in vocational technical school? And how do the

implementation?

The problem was particularly important for the companies and industries which really need student

that practice or industrial internship, and graduate or manpower has the attitude that suitable with minimal

standard of good when they were doing the job.

The aim of this study is to get the concept of vocational education learning format model that

appropriate and comply hopefulness of companies and industries.

Method

The beginning, we did library research, direct interview to the director in several enterprises fields of

automotive engineering workshop in the province of North Sulawesi such as Automotive Machine Shop

Company, PT. Telkom, Electronics, Tourism and Hospitality, Building Contractors, Food and Beverage,

and Coconut Oil Industry. Then, we conducted direct interview to the heads of the vocational education

study program in FT-UNIMA such as: Mechanical Engineering Education, Education Electrical

Engineering, Engineering Education Building, Education Information and Communication Technology,

and Education and Family Welfare. We analyzed the interview results, conducted decision-making, and

created a solution through the creation of form model for learning in all subjects. Finally, we planned the

implementation to subject of PKL/industrial apprenticeship in the Vocational Education Study Program

FT-UNIMA on Academic Year 2016-2017 second semester.

Results and Discussion

The result of analysis from the directly interview to the directors in several enterprises in the

province of North Sulawesi indicated that all the directors have the problems in the elements of attitude

as the main element that owned by the student and manpower who currently working was poor

performance. It was very interfere in achieving goal of corporate especially to produce the profits (Batalla-

Busquets & PachecoBernal 2013).

The attitude such as the behavior that not right in the job, for example the workers were often

violated the discipline of the company (in and out of working time was not timely, damage and not

keeping the infrastructure company, work arbitrarily, sometimes dishonest, lacking respect among fellow

workers, never willing to follow orders from seniors). Also, they had knowledge, skills, competencies, and

the accumulation of work experiences is a good average.

We made the model form of learning for next implementation which refer to a form of learning such

as lectures, responsiveness and tutorials, seminars, labors, studio practices, practice workshops, or field

practices, researches, and community services. Then, in the learning process, the selections of learning

very depend on the material characteristics learning each course.

Figure 1 shows the scenario of the learning process for one meeting on a subject which the

emphasis on the process of internalizing and actualizing values and norms are reflected in the spiritual

and social life, especially in the working environment in the enterprise. It contained the formulation of

attitudes according to attachment of Regulation of Education and Culture Minister of Indonesia Republic

No. 49 (2014) as: (1) be cautious to God Almighty and be able to demonstrate religious attitude; (2)

uphold the human values in the line of duty based on religion, morals, and ethics; (3) contribute to

improving the quality of life of society, nation, state, and the progress of civilization based on five

precepts; (4) acting as a citizen of pride and patriotism, nationalism and a sense of responsibility to the

state and nation; (5) respect for cultural diversity, views, religions, and beliefs, as well as the original

findings of an opinion or any other person; (6) cooperate and social sensitivity and concern for the

community and the environment; (7) obeying the law and discipline in the life of society and state; (8)

internalized the values, norms, and academic ethics; (9) show a responsible attitude to work

independently in the automotive field; and (10) internalize the spirit of independence, innova-tion, effort,

and entrepreneurship.

Figure 1. The scenario of learning process for one meeting on a subject

In the preparation of semester learning plan (RPS) formulation attitude (in the application) are

translated into steps of learning activity (opening activity, main activity, and closing activity). The process

of drafting RPS referred to article 12, paragraph 3 of the Regulation of Minister of Education and Culture

of Indonesia Republic No. 49 (2014) and Indonesian Presidential Regulation No. 8 (2012). During the

process of learning activities conducted observation (monitoring) to student and lectures to measure the

achievement of attitude elements. At the end of the main activities, we evaluated by using the attitude

scale questionnaires. After learning of one meeting, we evaluated and reflected as the basis for

developing a learning plan of next meeting.

The minimum standard of attitude that expected from the results of the learning process is the

attitude that developed when someone worked in the companies and industries that provides a positive

evaluation of someone on the aspects of the work environment of them (Robbins & Judge, 2007). In a job

in companies and industries, the most important of the attitudes should be developed are job satisfaction,

commitment of organizations or enterprises, and job involvement, so that what is expected from the

enterprise to the problems of someone's attitude when doing the work can be solved and resolved

(Akhtar at al. 2016).

Implementation of learning form that involves companies and industries must be supported by

strong global leadership education and business entities in achieving a goal and the advantages of each,

so that the expectations of business and industry can be met and that the perpetrators of street vendors

and workers can be good at her job (Lamsa et al. 2008). If it conducted, then interactive cooperation

between academic activity in the FT-UNIMA with the activity of companies and industries has been good.

Conclusion

The model forms of learning are varied and depending on the material characteristic of the subjects

to be achieved that base on the formulation of attitudes according to attachment of Regulation of Minister

of Education and Culture of Indonesia Republic No. 49 year 2014 about National Standard for Higher

Education which in the application of learning are elaborated into steps of learning activities. The results

of the implementation of the model forms of learning by focusing on the application of the attitude

learning in each subject can comply hopefulness for the companies and industries when student were on

PKL and graduate student as manpower are working.

References

Akhtar, Omair, Wheeler & Christian, A. 2016. Belief in the immutability of attitudes both increases

and decreases advocacy. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 111(4): 475-492.

Arifin Z.N. 2014. Model Teaching Industri Politeknik Negeri Jakarta (Industry Based Vocational

Education System / IVE-PNJ System), (http://dikti.go.id/blog/2014/02/10/ model-teaching-industri-

politeknik-negerijakarta-industry-based-vocational-education-system-ive-pnj-system/), access on 10

Desember 2014.

perceptions. IRRODL The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning 14(1): 40-

64.

Decree of Minister of National Education of Indonesia Republic No. 045 / U / 2002 Higher

Education Main Curriculum.

Lamsa, A., Vehkapera, M., Puttonen, T. & Pesonen, H.L. 2008. Effect of Business education on

women and men students’ attitudes on corporate responsibility in society. Journal of Business Ethics

82(1): 45-48.

Ministry of Education and Culture Directorate General of Higher Education and the National Education

Standards Agency. 2013. The draft Regulation of Minister of Education and Culture of the Republic of

Indonesia about National Standard for Higher Education (SNPT).

McGrawHill International (UK) Limited.

Regulation of Minister of Education and Culture of Indonesia Republic No. 49. 2014. National

Standards for Higher Education.

Rifandi, A. 2013. Mutu Pembelajaran dan Kompetensi Lulusan Diploma III Politeknik. Cakrawala

XXXII(1): 125-138.

UNESCO Institute for Statistics. 2010. International Standard Clasification of Education (ISCED)

2011Draft, For Global Consultation June-October. p. 6, United Nations Educational, Scientific and

Cultural Organization.

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