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Republic of the Philippines

Technological University of the Philippines

Graphics Department

Subject: BMMC – Building Materials & Methods of Construction
Course: BGT - AT – 1A
SY: 2018-2019 / 2nd SEMESTER

I. Wood (by Boncales)
a. Three Main Parts of Trees
b. Growth of the Trees

II. Characteristic and Classification of Wood (by Librando)

III. Conversion of Timber, Grades and Sizes (by Santianez)

a. Conversion of Timber

IV. Seasoning and Preservation, Waste Products (by Limin)

a. Artificial Methods of Seasoning of Wood
b. Methods of Applying Wood Preservatives

V. Plywood (by Adolfo)

a. History
b. Characteristics
c. Kinds of Plywood
d. Plywood Product

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Leader: Adolfo, Millicent L.


Boncales. Jhan Louys

Librando, Nicolas

Limin, Marlyn Dyan

Santianez, Alec

April 2019

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A very tall plants or those that could yield significant wood.


Roots – The roots of a tree serve to anchor it to the ground and gather water and
nutrients to transfer to all parts of the tree, and for reproduction defense, survival,
energy storage and many other purposes.
Trunk / Stem - The primary source of timber for lumber and pulp for paper. The
main purpose of the trunk and branches of a tree is to maximize the amount of
light that falls on the leaves.
Crown / Leaves – Trees produced all the food they need in their leaves.



The living, outermost portion of

the tree, typically lighter in color
than heartwood, contains a lot of
moisture. It will shrink when dried and is more
susceptible to termites, bugs and fungus.
Untreated sapwood of virtually all species has
very little decay resistance.

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The dormant, inner and darker section of the wood, far less susceptible to decay
and fungus and has much less moisture than sapwood which means less
shrinkage when dried. The heartwood of some wood species is naturally termite-


The greenish, slippery, slimy layer between the sapwood and the bark, a thin layer
of cells which produce phloem on one side and sapwood on the other. This is
where cell formation takes place. Responsible for all of the horizontal growth on
Annual Rings
Rings or circular lines on the ends of pieces of wood. It determines how old the

“spring” or “early” growth. Rapid growth takes place in the spring of the year
caused by greater amounts of food, moisture and producing a wide, porous layer
of wood.

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“summer” or “late” growth. Layers of darker, heavier, thicker-walled cells


It has two parts:

Cortex – the thick outer part
- protects the tree from extreme temperatures, bad weather, insects and fungi.
- Very thin in birch trees, the outer bark may be one-foot-thick in the Douglas

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Bast – the thin inner part
- also called as “phloem”
- It conveys the food-bearing sap developed in the leaves down to the various
parts of the tree.
Pith – central core of the tree

Medullary Rays
- rays or lines, radiating from the center because they spring from the pith
- These lines are too fine to be noticed


Tensile Strength

For being a relatively lightweight building material, wood outperforms even steel
when it comes to breaking length (or self-support length). Simply put, it can support

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its own weight better, which allows for larger spaces and fewer necessary supports
in some building designs.
Electrical and heat resistance
Wood has a natural resistance to electrical conduction when dried to standard
moisture content (MC) levels, usually between 7%-12% for most wood species.
(This conductivity is, in fact, the basis for one type of moisture measurement
system.) Its strength and dimensions are also not significantly affected by heat,
providing stability to the finished building and even safety implications for certain
fire situations.
Sound absorption
Wood’s acoustic properties make it ideal for minimizing echo in living or office
spaces. Wood absorbs sound, rather than reflecting or amplifying it, and can help
significantly reduce noise levels for additional comfort.
With the wide variety of species available, wood presents an incredible range
of aesthetic options, as well as provides varied mechanical, acoustic, thermal
properties along with others that can be selected based on the need of the building

 Density: Hard, medium weight
 Grain: Uniform, fine grain, small pores
 Machinability: Generally good, some swirled grain will chip out if tooling is
not sharp
 Finishing: Takes finish very well.
 Distinctive Characteristics: Very durable and strong
 Common Uses: Cabinets, seating, millwork, furniture, interior doors
 Other Names: Our Birch is the specie “Yellow Birch.” There are other
Birches (paper, white, or gray).
 Color: Cinnamon, light reddish brown to pink heartwood, sapwood is
creamy-white to yellowish

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White Oak
 Color: Light tan to brown heartwood, sapwood, sapwood is creamy white to
 Density: Very hard, shock resistant, and very dense, heavy
 Grain: Moderately open grain on plain sawn, Quartered and Rift is straight
 Machinability: Fairly well, can be tough on tooling
 Finishing: Takes a finish well.
 Distinctive Characteristics: Highly resistant to the environment, very hard,
may be a bit more color consistent than Red Oak. Quartered and Rift sawn
have a striking grain appearance.
 Common Uses: Barrels, buckets, tool handles, furniture (especially
Quartered or Rift grain)
 Other Names:Many individual species of Oak fall into the White Oak

 Color: Blood red to reddish brown, sometimes lighter in color with pale red
to grayish tinge
 Density: Medium texture, moderately heavy
 Grain: Fine grain with interlocking parallel runs at times (ribbon)
 Machinability: Excellent
 Finishing: Takes stain well, will soak it up quite a bit. We suggest using
sanding sealer.
 Distinctive Characteristics: Has long been a premier choice for high
end furniture and millwork. Usually the grade is excellent and average width
is wider than most domestic hardwoods. Excellent exterior uses.

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 Common Uses: High end furniture, interior millwork, exterior doors,
windows, and trim
 Other Names: Honduras Mahogany, Genuine Mahogany (African
Mahogany is genuine also), South American Mahogany

Red Oak
 Color: Pinkish red to blonde in color
 Density: Very hard and strong
 Grain: Openly porous and with dramatic grain patterns. Like White Oak, it
is offered in Quartered and Rift grains also.
 Machinability: Excellent
 Finishing: Due to porous nature it will soak up stains but also offers a
wide variety of finish tones.
 Distinctive Characteristics: This is probably the most popular hardwood
used in modern woodworking. Broad grains give this a pronounced
 Common Uses: Furniture, cabinets, moulding, trim, flooring, paneling,
 Other Names: Encompasses many individual species: Northern Red,
Southern Red, Black, Shumard, Cherrybark, Scarlet, Pin
 Available in Certified: Check for availability

Hard Maple
 Color: Creamy white to off white sapwood-tinged occasionally with slight
red brown heartwood

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 Density: Hard, heavy and strong, very resistant to shock and abrasive wear
 Grain: Closed grain, uniform texture. Some of the figured Hard Maple is
available (Curly, Birdseye, and Quilted)
 Machinability:Excellent, will tear out with dull tooling
 Finishing: Finishes very well. Some of the figured woods will show variable
levels of penetration.
 Distinctive Characteristics: Great wood for applications requiring hardness.
Birdseye and curly patterns are available.
 Common Uses: Furniture, handles, cabinets, woodenware,
flooring, paneling, millwork and mouldings
 Other Names: Sugar Maple, Black Maple, Norway Maple, Rock Maple
 Available in Certified: Check for availability

Beech is a hard, strong and heavy wood. It has a fine, tight grain and even texture.
Beech wood is very light in colour and has a high shock resistance. It is a popular
wood for furniture and will give your room a warm feeling. With its smooth finish it
is a great wood to polish

Ash is a tough hardwood which is known for its excellent bending abilities. It is
primarily used for bent pieces of furniture such as a chair with curved backrests.
Ash is light brown in colour with a straight grain.

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Walnut is a hardwood and is known for its strength, straight grain and its rich
chocolate brown colour, however lighter shades are available. Walnut can be a
very versatile wood, offering a range of shades and grains to complement your

Very affordable and lightweight with a pale finish which is great for staining. It is
less durable wood compared to hard woods such as maple or oak. Pine blends
well with other woods, making it ideal if you are looking for furniture that will match
existing pieces in your home.


The classification of wood divides them into hard and soft, referring to a
botanical difference rather than to any definite degree of hard¬ness. The two
groups differ in cell structure, appearance and general properties.
Hardwood trees have broad, flat leaves that falloff after maturity. The Softwood
trees have needle or scale-like leaves which they retain all year; they are the
evergreens. Most hardwoods are stronger and less likely to dent than the
softwoods; they also hold nails and screws more securely. There are some, such
as poplar and aspen that are actually softer than some of the so-called softwoods.

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Types of Wood Interior Design
 oak wood
 cedar wood
 pedauk
 teak
 walnut
 alder wood
 purple heart
 lyptus
 maple wood
 poplar wood

(Sizes and Prices)

Size: 2X2X8
Price: Php163.00

Sizes: 1X2X8 FTWOOD
Price: Php120.00

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Size: 2X2X12 FT
Price: Php360.00

KD Ext
Size: 2x2x8ft Wood
Price: Php240.00

Mat wood FJ Size: 2x12x8

Price: Php2,895.00

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• 2 inches x 2 inches x 8 feet (2 x 2 x 8 Kiln Dried) Price:

Php 115.00 - Php 130.00
• 2 inches x 3 inches x 10 feet (2 x 3 x 10 Mahogany wood) Price:
Php 150.00 - Diong Sawmill and Lumber Dealer (Address: Oroquieta City, Misamis
• 2 inches x 3 inches x 12 feet (2 x 3 x 12 Mahogany wood) Price:
Php 180.00 - Diong Sawmill and Lumber Dealer (Address: Oroquieta City,
Misamis Occidental)
• 2 inches x 4 inches x 8 feet (2 x 4 x 8 Kiln Dried) Price:
Php 240.00 - Php 265.00

(Sizes and Prices)
1/4" - P 325 - 360
3/4" - P 1220 – 1280
Plyboard (3/4") P 930 – 950
Jan 2017 235.82 0.66 %
Feb 2017 241.35 2.34 %
Mar 2017 242.98 0.68 %
Apr 2017 247.21 1.74 %
May 2017 242.62 -1.86 %
Jun 2017 245.25 1.08 %
Jul 2017 245.89 0.26 %
Aug 2017 252.77 2.80 %
Sep 2017 251.57 -0.48 %
Oct 2017 248.28 -1.31 %
Nov 2017 247.23 -0.42 %
Dec 2017 243.67 -1.44 %

Jan 2018 248.38 1.93 %

Feb 2018 261.91 5.45 %
Mar 2018 268.08 2.36 %
Apr 2018 264.42 -1.37 %
May 2018 258.03 -2.42 %

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Conversion of Timber

 Trees are cut down during winter as there is less growth, therefore less sap
 After felling trees are transported to sawmills to be cut into boards
 This process of converting logs to boards is known as conversion
 3 methods of conversion

o Through and through sawing

o Tangential sawing
o Quarter sawing

Through and Through Sawing

 This is one of the most popular methods of sawing. The log is cut in
parallel cuts in the direction of the grain.

 Advantages
 Low cost and fast
 Maximum width of planks obtained from log.
 Little wastage.
 Reveals attractive grain pattern, especially in softwoods.
 Disadvantages
 Not suitable for structural timber

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 With this method cupping caused by tangential shrinkage is a
problem (cupping is the warping of the plank away from the heart of
the tree)

Tangential Sawing

 The cut is made at a tangent to the annual rings of the log.

 Log must be turned 90º after each cut.
 Timber will display a flame figure

 Advantages
o Produce board with flame figure
o Tangential boards are strong boards, used for beams and joists
o Heartwood and sapwood are easily separated
o These boards can take a nail without splitting because of the position
of their annual rings
 Disadvantages
o Prone to shrinkage (Cupping)
o It is expensive as the log is turned 90º for each cut

Quarter Sawing

 This method leaves the annual rings of the converted timber meeting the
face of the board at 45 º or more.
 It is important to note that the log must be rotated each time a cut is

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 This method can bring the best features in wood as it produces silver
grain which has clearly defined medullary rays

 Advantages
o An attractive grain pattern is produced
o Boards are more stable and shrink less
o Boards wear more evenly,important for flooring
 Disadvantage
o Expensive, as the log has to be first quartered then turned for every
o Because the log is quartered then cut again narrower boards are


Wood drying (also seasoning lumber or wood seasoning) reduces the

moisture content of wood before its use. When the drying is done in a kiln, the
product is known as kiln-dried timber or lumber, whereas air drying is the more
traditional method. Seasoning is the process of removing the moisture content
from wood to minimize structural problems when used in construction or to provide
less smoke and more uniform combustion when used as firewood. There are two
main ways of seasoning timber, Natural (Air) and Artificial (Kiln) drying. Both
methods require the timber be stacked and separated to allow the full circulation
flow of air, etc. around the stack. Air seasoning is the method used with the timber
stacked in the open air.

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The process of removal of moisture content from wood, so as to make it useful for
construction and other uses, is called drying of wood or seasoning of wood. This
reduces the chances of decay, improves load bearing properties, reduces weight,
and exhibits more favorable properties like thermal & electrical insulation, glue
adhesive capacity & easy preservative treatment etc. Seasoning of Timber is a
process by which moisture content in a freshly cut tree is reduced to a suitable
level. By doing so the durability of timber is increased.

Artificial Methods of Seasoning of Wood

Air Seasoning

The traditional method of seasoning timber was to stack it in air and let the
heat of the atmosphere and the natural air movement around the stacked timber
remove the moisture. The process has undergone a number of refinements over
the years that have made it more efficient and reduced the quantity of wood that
was damaged by drying too quickly near the ends in air seasoning.

Method of Air Seasoning / Natural Seasoning

The basic principle is to stack the timber so that plenty of air can circulate
around each piece. The timber is stacked with wide spaces between each piece
horizontally, and with strips of wood between each layer ensuring that there is a
vertical separation too. Air can then circulate around and through the stack, to
slowly remove moisture. In some cases, weights can be placed on top of the stacks
to prevent warping of the timber as it dries. Moisture loss from the side of the wood
is at about the right rate not to cause collapse of the cells, but near the ends of the
wood, the moisture loss can prove to be too fast.

Air-drying is necessarily a slow process, particularly for hardwoods, typically taking

6 to 9 months to reach moisture content in the range 20% to 25%.Air seasoning is
the method used with the timber stacked in the open air. It requires the following:

 Stacked stable and safely with horizontal spacing of at least 25 mm.

 Vertical spacing achieved by using timber battens (piling sticks) of the same
or neutral species. Today some timber yards are using plastics. The piling sticks
should be vertically aligned and spaced close enough to prevent bowing say 600
to 1200 mm max centers.

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 Ends of boards sealed by using a suitable sealer or cover to prevent too
rapid drying out via the end grain.

 The stack raised well clear of the ground, vegetation, etc to provide good
air circulation and free from rising damp, frost, etc.

 Overhead cover from effects of direct sunlight and driving weather.

Piling Lumber for air drying:

The objective of air drying wood is to remove the water in wood by exposing
all surfaces of each piece of wood to circulating air. In Missouri, wood can be air
dried to a minimum of about 15 percent moisture content, provided the drying time
is sufficiently long. It is also necessary to support the wood during drying to prevent
the lumber from warping during the drying process. Lumber is piled in a special
way to maximize the surface exposure of each piece of lumber to the air and at the
same time to support each piece so it will dry straight and without unnecessary
warping. The first consideration is to prepare a strong foundation, 1 to 2 feet above
the ground, on which to pile the lumber. The ground beneath the foundation should
be kept free of vegetation or debris that would hinder air circulation under the pile.
Drying time:

In warm weather (April through October), 1-inch lumber can be dried to 15

or 20 percent moisture content in 45 to 60 days (2-inch lumber in 60 to 90 days).
In the winter months, lumber will require twice as long to dry. Lumber at 15 percent
to 20 percent moisture content is adequate for building unheated structures such
as garages or barns. If the wood is to be used inside a heated structure, further
drying in a commercial kiln is necessary (6 percent to 8 percent moisture content
for indoor use.)

Artificial Methods of Wood and Timber Seasoning

Artificial (kiln) Seasoning
Artificial methods of seasoning timber

Kiln drying of lumber is perhaps the most effective and economical method
Kilns are usually divided into two classes:

1. Progressive

2. Compartment

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Both methods rely on the controlled environment to dry out the timber and require
the following factors:

 Forced air circulation by using large fans, blowers, etc.

 Heat of some form provided by piped steam.

 Humidity control provided by steam jets.

Amount and Duration of Air, Heat and Humidity depends upon:

1. Species

2. Size

3. Quantity

1. Progressive Seasoning:

In the progressive kiln, timber enters at one end and moves progressively through
the kiln much as a car moves through a tunnel. Temperature and humidity
differentials are maintained throughout the length of the kiln so that the lumber
charge is progressively dried as it moves from one end to the other. Progressive
kilns may be further subdivided into natural draft kilns in which heated air is
allowed to rise through the material by natural convection, and forced draft
kilns in which fans are employed to force the air through the wood. A progressive
kiln has the stack on trolleys that ‘progressively’ travel through chambers that
change the conditions as it travels through the varying atmospheres.
2. Compartmental Seasoning:

A compartment kiln is a single enclosed container or building, etc. The timber is

stacked as described above and the whole stack is seasoned using a programme
of settings until the whole stack is reduced to the MC required. Compartment kilns
differ from progressive kilns in that the timber is loaded into the kiln and remains
in place throughout the drying process. Compartment kilns are usually smaller than
progressive kilns, and because of their construction the temperature and humidity
conditions within them can be closely controlled.


Preservatives of wood:
Preservatives increase the resistance of wood to decay and increase its useful life.
There are 3 main classes of preservatives

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1. Oily substances insoluble in water

2. Water-soluble salts

3. Salts carried in volatile solvent other than water

A) Oily Preservatives

 Coal-tar is the best known ►most widely used preservative

 Obtained from bituminous coal

 Available in many grades ► gives satisfactory results

 Insoluble in water ► hence permanent preservative

 Highly toxic to fungi

 High degree of penetration

Disadvantages of using Oily Preservatives:

1. Timber ►inflammable for a time after treatment

2. Disagreeable odor

3. Difficult to be covered with paints

B) Water Soluble Preservatives

 Zinc chloride ► most extensively used water preservative

 Readily available, clean, odorless,

C) Salts
 Another recent product is AsCu which is a copper and arsenic compound is
used as a preservative ► available in the form of powder

 Odorless and leave on strains on timber

 Good fire resistant

D) Painting
 Acts not only as a preservative but it also enhances the appearance of the
treated surface

 Only well-seasoned timber should be painted ► moisture entrapped ►

closing of timber pores by paint
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Wood must have the following characteristics before preservatives are applied to

 Wood must be well seasoned

 Wood must be cut to size before applying preservatives

1) Painting & Dipping

 Simplest method

 Preservatives applied by mean of brush (several times)

 Timber can also be immersed in tank full of liquid (preservative)

 Penetration should hardly exceed (1/16 inch)

 Duration of immersion and temperature of preservative solution

►increased ► to increase penetration'

2) Pressure Process (Full Cell Process)

 A higher degree of penetration can be obtained by forcing the preservative

into the wood

 Timber placed inside a chamber

 Air drawn out to create a vacuum

 Thus the cells are completely (almost) empty to receive the preservative

 Preservative material may be creosote oil or zinc chloride

 Preservatives pumped under a pressure of 100 to 200 psi at 120oF

 The excess preservative is removed by creating a low vacuum

 Timber preserved by this method are used in piles in saltish water, poles,

3) The Empty Cell Process

 Similar to the full cell process but no initial vacuum is created

 No attempt is made to remove the air from the cells

 The preservatives applied under a pressure of 200 psi

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 The excess preservatives drains away

 A deeper penetration of preservatives ► achieved


Mangkono is known to be the hardest of Philippine hardwood species.

It is a medium-sized tree reaching a diameter of 60 centimeters or more with bright

red, rounded flowers at the end of the branches. The leaves are simple, relatively
thick and alternating.

This tropical evergreen is also called the Philippine ironwood and dubbed
“luxurious timber” worldwide because it is the country.
The extreme hardness of the ironwood tree makes it suitable for certain uses.
Ironwood tree’s ability to resist decay makes it an ideal material for shipbuilding
and railroad track making. It is also used for the handles of tools, poles, wharves
and bridges.


A type of strong thin wooden board consisting of two or more layers glued
and pressed together with the direction of the grain alternating, and usually sold in
sheets of four by eight feet.


In 1797 Samuel Bentham applied for patents covering several machines to

produce veneers. In his patent applications, he described the concept of laminating
several layers of veneer with glue to form a thicker piece – the first description of
what we now call plywood.[3] Bentham was a British naval engineer with many
shipbuilding inventions to his credit. Veneers at the time of Bentham were flat
sawn, rift sawn or quarter sawn; i.e. cut along or across the log manually in different
angles to the grain and thus limited in width and length.

About fifty years later Immanuel Nobel, father of Alfred Nobel, realized that several
thinner layers of wood bonded together would be stronger than a single thick layer
of wood. Understanding the industrial potential of laminated wood, he invented the
rotary lathe

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Increase Stability

Plywood offers all the advantages of the parent wood plus has additional strength
and stability because of its laminated structure.

High Impact Resistance

Plywood has high tensile strength, derived from the cross lamination of panels.
This distributes force over a larger area and reduces tensile stress. Therefore able
to withstand overloading by up to twice its designated load. This is useful where
the seismic activity or cyclonic winds occur. These plywood properties are effective
when used as a flooring or concrete formwork.

High Strength

Plywood combines the structural strength of the timber from which it is

manufactured. This is in addition to the plywood properties obtained from its
laminated design. Cross-graining allows the plywood sheets to resist splitting and
provides uniform plywood strength for increased stability. It is cost effective when
used in structural applications such as flooring, formwork, shear walls, etc.

Panel Shear

Due to its cross laminated structure; plywood has a panel sheer nearly twice that
of the solid wood.Therefore it is the highly effective material used in gussets portal
frames, as bracing panels and webs of fabricated beams.

Chemical Resistance

Plywood does not corrode and therefore can be used in chemical works and
cooling towers as a cost effective, durable material.

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Plywood can be manufactured to fit every requirement. The veneer thickness

varies from a few millimeters to inches. The number of veneers used also ranges
from three to several, increasing the thickness of the sheet. The extra layers add
more plywood strength. Thin veneers are used to increase flexibility for use in
ceilings and paneling.

Fire Resistance

Plywood can be treated with a fire resistant chemical coating. It is combined with
non-combustible materials such as fibrous cement or plasterboard. This makes it
ideal for use in fire resistant structures.

Plywood has high thermal and sound insulation. Insulation plywood can greatly
reduce heating and cooling costs. This makes it useful insulating material for
ceilings, flooring, roofing, and wall cladding.


Softwood Plywood
This is the most common plywood product, made of softwood veneer, usually fir.
The layers are stacked at a right angle to each other and glued together with
resinous glues. Softwood plywood usually comes in 4’ x 8’ sheets, although 5’ x 5’

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 25

sheets are also available. A large number of grades are available, depending upon
the intended application. Please see the page on CDX plywood for an explanation
of the grading system. Softwood plywood is used most commonly in the building
trades for wall and roof sheathing and for sub-floors. It is also used in construction
of crates and boxes.

Hardwood Plywood
Most commonly used for cabinet and furniture making, where a smooth, attractive
surface is required for finishing. Hardwood plywood is manufactured the same as
softwood plywood, except the exterior layers (face and reverse) are made of
hardwood. Common hardwood plywood available includes: ash, oak, red oak,
birch, maple and mahogany. It is typically AB grade plywood.

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Cabinet Grade Plywood
Essentially the same thing as
Hardwood plywood, some people
prefer this term. Generally
speaking, the term cabinet grade
plywood is used to refer to ash and
birch hardwood plywood

Marine Plywood
Designed for use in the construction of boats, marine plywood is specially treated
to resist rotting in high-moisture environments. Marine plywood is manufactured
with no core gap caused by cracks or knotholes, to prevent water from becoming
trapped in those voids. Water Boiled Proof (WBP) glue, similar to what is used on
exterior plywood is used to bond the layers together. This feature certainly affects
the price. Marine plywood costs about three times the cost of standard plywood.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 27

Particle Board
Particle board is made of sawdust, shavings and tiny pieces of wood which are
mixed with glue and pressed into sheets. It is the most economical, but the weakest
of all sheet goods. Particle board is commonly used under laminates on
countertops and for shelving. Most inexpensive furniture uses vinyl covered
particle board for large surfaces, usually trimmed with solid wood.

Medium Density Fiberboard

MDF differs from Particle Board in that it is created from individual wood fibers,
instead of sawdust and wood chips. This creates an extremely flat board (flatter
than softwood plywood made from veneers) consistent in material thickness and
density, with no voids. Due to its very smooth finish, MDF is excellent for painting
or vinyl veneer coating. MDF is slightly stronger than Particle Board and is taking
over the furniture market from the latter. It has the greatest weight when comparing
to other types

Oriented Strandboard (OSB)

osb, plywood, closeup, texture, wood, sheet, abstract, backgrounds, blur, board,
brown, chip, chipboard, closeup, dirty, fiber, flat, floor, grained, hardwood, material,

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 28

multi-layered, natural, panel, pattern, perspective, plank, rough, splinters, surface,
texture, timber, wall


Hydrothermal Conditioning
The logs are conditioned in water basins. Conditioning involves softening the wood
by exposure of the peeler blocks to both heat and moisture by way of soaking in
hot water vats. Than the logs undergo the debarking process after which they are
divided according to its quality and length.

Manufaturing of Wet Veneers

The logs are peeled in a rotary peeling machine by a knife mounted parallel to the
log’s axis. In this way we get a continuous wet veneer sheet, which is cut to sizes
defined by production process. Standard thickness of veneers is 1.5 mm, but
depending on client’s specification it is possible to peel veneers of different
thickness too.

Manufacturing of Dry Veneers

Wet veneers undergo the drying process in a roller system through the length of
the dryer. The output of this process are dry veneers. The veneers are sorted
(quality control), repaired (the defected places are repaired by removing the defect
and inserting a patch or wedge) and jointed along or across the fibers so as to
make sheets of the required size.

In this production phase veneers are laid-up in assemblies (an assembly – plies of
veneers with glue coating every second veneer). Number of plies is determined by
the final thickness of plywood. As result of exposure to high temperature and
pressure the glue between the plies hardens and the plywood is ready.

Trimming the plates to smaller formats according to clients’ orders. Trimming is
proceeded on modern packet saws, which guarantee precise cutting.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 29

Plywood undergoes the thickness calibration in order to get the plates of similar
thickness and sand them. For surface polishing a four-shaft mechanical polishing
machine is used. First two shafts are equipped with sand paper of granulation 60
when the other two – with granulation 100.

Plywood Processing
 Depending on the processing type, the surface of plywood might be coated

 film, as result of pressing phenolic or melamine film to plywood surface. A

modern panel coating line is used for this process.

 varnish, plywood surface is coated on varnishing line with the UV-hardened


 oil, plywood is coated with mineral oil, while the edges might be painted with
acrylic paint or oil, depending on clients needs,

 polypropylene, as result of pressing 1.6 mm thickness polypropylene on the

plywood surface.

Quality Control
Quality control of finished product is based on European Standards or standards
delivered by the customer. Both surfaces of plywood are visually inspected by
employees of quality control department. At this stage also final mesurements are
made. Defective items are reclassified. They are not used for realisation of
customer’s order.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 30

Republic of the Philippines

Technological University of the Philippines

Graphics Department

Subject: BMMC – Building Materials & Methods of Construction
Course: BGT - AT – 1A
SY: 2018-2019 / 2nd SEMESTER



(by Llanita)
a. History
a. Sedimentary Rocks b. Kinds of Limestone
b. Igneous Rocks c. Types of Limestone
c. Metamorphic Rocks
d. Common Building
IV. MARBLE (by Medalla)
e. Characteristics of a Good a. Production
Building Stones b. Kinds of Marbles


Mendoza) Carandang)
a. Properties and Uses a. Processes of Stone
b. Types of Artificial Stones b. Properties of Stone
c. Natural Stone vs. c. Uses of Stones
Artificial Stone d. Products and Materials
d. Appearance e. Application and Uses
e. Price

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 31


Leader: Llanita, Eddie Jr. S.


Carandang, Edalyn Joy G.

Medalla, Alvin John B.

Mendoza, John Ariel C.

Mesana, Joshua B.

April 2019
Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 32

Building stones are the naturally occurring massive, dense rock which can
be cut or shaped into blocks or slabs for use in wall, paving, roofing materials or
other construction works. They have been used as building material since very
early period of our civilization. Be it igneous, metamorphic or sedimentary,
a building stone is chosen for its use, durability, attractiveness, economy or other
properties as desired.

3 Main Types of Rocks


Sedimentary rock is one of the three main rock groups and is formed in four
main ways: by the deposition of the weathered remains of other rocks (known as
'clastic' sedimentary rocks); by the accumulation and the consolidation of
sediments; by the deposition of the results of biogenic activity; and by precipitation
from solution.
Sedimentary rocks cover 75% of the Earth's surface. Four basic processes
are involved in the formation of a clastic sedimentary rock: weathering (erosion)
caused mainly by friction of waves, transportation where the sediment is carried
along by a current, deposition and compaction where the sediment is squashed
together to form a rock of this kind. Sedimentary rocks are formed from overburden
pressure as particles of sediment are deposited out of air, ice, or water flows
carrying the particles in suspension.
As sediment deposition builds up, the overburden (or 'lithostatic') pressure
squeezes the sediment into layered solids in a process known as lithification ('rock
formation') and the original connate fluids are expelled.
The term diagenesis is used to describe all the chemical, physical, and
biological changes, including cementation, undergone by a sediment after its initial
deposition and during and after its lithification, exclusive of surface weathering.

Sedimentary rocks are formed by the accumulation of sediments. There

are three basic types of sedimentary rocks.

 Clastic sedimentary rocks such

as breccia, conglomerate, sandstone, siltstone, and shale are formed from
mechanical weathering debris.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 33

 Chemical sedimentary rocks, such as rock salt, iron ore, chert, flint,
some dolomites, and some limestones, form when dissolved materials
precipitate from solution.

 Organic sedimentary rocks such as coal, some dolomites, and

some limestones, form from the accumulation of plant or animal debris.

The land around you, no matter where you live, is made of rock. If you live
in a place that has good rich soil, the soil itself is finely broken down or weathered
People that live in a desert region can easily find rocks on the surface. These rocks
lay on a surface of clay that is also a product of weathering rock. Weathering is the
process of breaking down rocks and minerals into smaller pieces by water, wind,
and ice.
Sedimentary rocks are formed from the breaking apart of other rocks (igneous,
metamorphic, or sedimentary rocks) and the cementation, compaction and
recrystallization of these broken pieces of rock.
Sedimentary rocks are formed from broken pieces of rocks. These broken
pieces of rock are called sediments. The word "Sedimentary" comes from the root
word "Sediment". Sedimentary rocks are usually formed in water. Streams and
rivers carry sediments in their current. When the current slows around a bend or
the river empties into a lake, or ocean, or another river the sediments fall out
because of gravity. The larger sediments fall out first and the lightest sediments
fall out last.
In the spring the lake receives an influx of water from the mountain snow
melt. This snow melt carries with it a large amount of sediment that becomes
suspended in the lake water. As the sediment settles out during the summer and
especially in the winter, if the lake becomes frozen over, the sediments come to
rest on the bottom. The heaviest and largest particles settle out first and the lightest
sediments such as silts and clays settle out last. The number 1 shows sediment
that would have been laid down during 1994, number 2 in 1995, and number 3
would have been laid down in 1996. The gray area above the 3 would be the latest
layer being laid down at the present time. This laying down of rock-forming material
by a natural agent is called deposition. Natural agents of deposition are water, ice,
gravity, and wind.
Sediment is deposited in flat, horizontal layers with the oldest layers on the
bottom and the younger layers laying on and over the older layers. Geologists use
this knowledge to read layers of sedimentary rock like the pages in a book. They
can date layers by the fossils that are found in them. If a layer has a fossil in it that

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 34

is known to be 50 million years old the layer itself must be at least 50 million years
old and the layers below it have to be older than 50 million years.
The size of sediment is defined by the size of the particles that make up the
sediment. The largest sediment size is called a boulder. Boulders have a diameter
that is larger than 256 millimeters (about 10 inches). Cobbles are the next largest
sediment, they are 64 - 256 mm in diameter (about 3-10 inches). Pebbles are next
in size and are 4-64 mm in diameter (about 1/6-3 inches). The next sizes of
sediments are very small, granules are 2-4 mm, sand 1/16-2mm, silt 1/256-1/16
mm, and the smallest sediment size is clay which is less than 1/256 of a millimeter
in diameter. Sedimentary rocks are formed in three ways from these different sized
A sedimentary rock is a layered rock that is formed from the compaction,
cementation, and the recrystallization of sediments.
Compaction is the squeezing together of layers of sediment due to the great weight
of overlying layers of rock. This squeezing of the layer results in reducing the
thickness of the original layer. When the layers are reduced in thickness the pore
spaces around the sediments are also reduced, which leads to a tighter packing
of the layers.
Cementation is the changing of sediment into rock by filling spaces around
the sediments with chemical precipitates of minerals. binding the sediments, and
forming solid rock. Calcite and silicaare common minerals that cement the
sediments together.
Recrystallization is the third way that sedimentary rocks are
formed. Recrystallization is theformation of new mineral grains that are larger than
the original grains. As the sediments recrystallize they arrange themselves in a
series of interlocking crystals that connect the other grains together into a solid

Sedimentary rocks form a thin layer of rock over 75 per cent of the Earth's
surface. They are the site of very important resources such as ground water, coal,
oil, and soil. Shale, sandstone, and limestone are the most common types of
sedimentary rocks. They are formed by the most common mineral that is found on
or near the surface of the Earth. The mineral that forms these sedimentary rocks
is feldspar.
Running water, such as the mountain stream above, sorts and transports
more sediment than any other agent of deposition.

Clastic sedimentary rocks are made of pieces of rock or mineral grains that
have been broken from preexisting rock. These particles and grains have become
solid rock by the processes of compaction or cementation of sediments. Some

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 35

clastic rocks are conglomerate, shale, breccia, gray and red sandstone, siltstone,
and graywacke.

Non-clastic sedimentary rocks form from the precipitation (Precipitation is

the separating of a solid from a solution) of minerals from ocean water or from the
breakdown of the shells and bones of sea creatures. Sea animals such as coral
produce calcium carbonate solutions that harden to form rock. As the chemicals,
that comes from the mineral or biological precipitation, mix with sediments on the
floor of the ocean or lake they crystallize and grow in the spaces around the
sediment. When these crystals grow large enough to fill the spaces they harden
and form a solid rock.
Some non-clastic rocks are limestone, chert, dolostone, gypsum, halite (rock salt),
diatomite, and chalk.

Organic sedimentary rocks form from the buildup and decay of plant and
animal material. This usually forms in swamp regions in which there is an abundant
supply of growing vegetation and low amounts of oxygen. The vegetation builds
so quickly that new layers of vegetation bury the dead and decaying material very
quickly. The bacteria that decay the vegetation need oxygen to survive. Because
these decaying layers are buried so fast the bacteria use up what oxygen there is
available and cannot finish the decomposition of the vegetation. The overlaying
layers become so heavy that they squeeze out the water and other compounds
that aid in decay.
This compressed vegetation forms coal. The longer and deeper that coal is buried
makes it of higher quality. Peat is the first stage of coal formation. Lignite is the
next grade of coal followed by bituminous and the highest grade, anthracite.
Anthracite is actually a metamorphic rock. It forms during mountain building when
compaction and friction are extremely high. This form of coal burns very hot and
almost smokeless. It is used in the production of high grade steel.


Igneous rocks are formed from the solidification of molten rock material.
There are two basic types.

Intrusive igneous rocks crystallize below Earth's surface, and the slow
cooling that occurs there allows large crystals to form. Examples of intrusive
igneous rocks are diorite, gabbro, granite, pegmatite, and peridotite.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 36

Extrusive igneous rocks erupt onto the surface, where they cool quickly to
form small crystals. Some cool so quickly that they form an amorphous glass.
These rocks include andesite, basalt, dacite, obsidian, pumice, rhyolite, scoria,
and tuff. Welded Tuff is a rock that is composed of materials that were ejected from
a volcano, fell to Earth, and then lithified into a rock. It is usually composed mainly
of volcanic ashand sometimes contains larger size particles such as cinders. The
specimen shown above is about two inches (five centimeters) across.

Igneous rocks (from the Greek word for fire) form from when hot, molten
rock crystallizes and solidifies. The melt originates deep within the Earth near
active plate boundaries or hot spots, then rises toward the surface. Igneous rocks
are divided into two groups, intrusive or extrusive, depending upon where the
molten rock solidifies.

Intrusive Igneous Rocks: Intrusive, or plutonic, igneous rock forms

when magma is trapped deep inside the Earth. Great globs of molten rock rise
toward the surface. Some of the magma may feed volcanoes on the Earth's
surface, but most remains trapped below, where it cools very slowly over many
thousands or millions of years until it solidifies. Slow cooling means the individual
mineral grains have a very long time to grow, so they grow to a relatively large
size. Intrusive rocks have a coarse grained texture.

Extrusive Igneous Rocks: Extrusive, or volcanic, igneous rock is produced

when magma exits and cools above (or very near) the Earth's surface. These are
the rocks that form at erupting volcanoes and oozing fissures. The magma,
called lava when molten rock erupts on the surface, cools and solidifies almost
instantly when it is exposed to the relatively cool temperature of the atmosphere.
Quick cooling means that mineral crystals don't have much time to grow, so these
rocks have a very fine-grained or even glassy texture. Hot gas bubbles are often
trapped in the quenched lava, forming a bubbly, vesicular texture.


Metamorphic rocks have been modified by heat, pressure, and chemical

processes, usually while buried deep below Earth's surface. Exposure to these
extreme conditions has altered the mineralogy, texture, and chemical composition
of the rocks.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 37

There are two basic types of metamorphic rocks.

Foliated metamorphic rocks such as gneiss, phyllite, schist,

and slate have a layered or banded appearance that is produced by exposure to
heat and directed pressure.

Non-foliated metamorphic rocks such as hornfels, marble, quartzite,

and novaculite do not have a layered or banded appearance.

When humans feel a lot of heat, they sweat. When a rock experiences heat
and pressure, it becomes a metamorphic rock. Metamorphic rocks start as another
type of rock, like an igneous or sedimentary rock, or even a different
metamorphic rock. The process of creating the new rock is metamorphism — you
can think of these rocks as shapeshifters!

Metamorphic rocks form through high heat and pressure deep inside the
Earth or between tectonic plates. The process makes existing rocks more dense
and compact. The rocks are essentially cooked and the chemicals in them
rearranged so that the final rock looks a lot different than the old rock. There are
some variations in the process, so scientists have identified names for the types
of metamorphism.

Types of Metamorphism

a. Contact metamorphism (or thermal metamorphism) is when

hot magma comes into contact with cooler rock.

b. Hydrothermal metamorphism occurs when hot fluids or gasses

interact with rocks.

c. Shock metamorphism happens when meteorites hit the Earth’s

surface (lots of pressure!).

d. Dynamic metamorphism is the creation of metamorphic rocks

between tectonic plates. It happens at plate boundaries.

There are a few other types, but the main point is that metamorphism
involves high temperatures and/or pressure to change the structure of a rock.
All rocks form by different minerals coming together in different ways, so it
can be confusing to tell them apart. An easy rule of thumb is that igneous rocks

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 38

form from fully melted rock from magma that is then cooled. Sedimentary
rocks are made up of pieces of rock or animal skeletons. The pieces stick together
through a process usually connected to water-like erosion.
Metamorphic rocks, on the other hand, are both of these types of rocks and
even old metamorphic rocks that have broken up into pieces. In the
Earth’s crust and upper mantle, these rocks are transformed by heat and
pressure. They do not melt, because then they would be igneous rocks. Although
the differences seem small, they are important to know how to identify each rock

A Metamorphic rock is a result of a transformation of a pre-existing rock.

The original rock is subjected to very high heat and pressure, which cause obvious
physical and/or chemical changes. Examples of these rock types include marble,
slate, gneiss, schist.
They can be formed by pressures deep inside the Earth, by tectonic
processes such as continental collisions, or when they are heated up by an
intrusion of hot molten rock called magma from the Earth's interior.
Metamorphosis means change or transformation. Metamorphic rock always
starts as another kind of rock – usually sedimentary rock, such as shale, chalk,
limestone or sandstone. Intense pressure or heat may cause the stones undergo
metamorphosis and harden and develop new crystals.


1. Granite
Classification: Igneous, siliceous variety
Composition: Quartz, feldspar and mica (Granite containing high
percentage of quartz is very refractory; as the proportion of quartz
decreases as that of feldspar increases, the stone becomes easier to work
Specific gravity: 2.64 and absorption less than 1%
Crushing strength: 110 to 140 MN/m2.
Colour depends upon that of feldspar and may be brown/ grey/ green or
ornamental columns/plinths;
construction of sea walls, bridge piers;
large pieces are used as building blocks;
Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 39
smaller pieces as road metals or railway ballast;
chippings are used for the manufacture of concrete or artificial stones.
may be used as damp-proof course and external cladding of walls.

2. Basalt or trap
Classification: Igneous, siliceous variety
Composition: Silica alumina and feldspar
Crushing strength 70 to 80 MN/m2
Specific gravity = 2.96
Basalt is rough, lightweight and grey to black in colour.
It has good sound absorption and insulation; heat insulation and heat
reserve capacities.
It is environmentally green building material. Basalt is acid and alkali
Suitable for paving sets and as road metal
Used for manufacture of artificial stones
Used as aggregate in concrete

3. Slate
Classification: Metamorphic rock formed from shale (Argillaceous variety)
Composition: Alumina mixed with sand or carbonate of lime
Specific gravity = 2.8
It can be split into thin sheets
Crushing strength 60 to 70 MN/m2
It is non-absorbent
Sheets of slate are strong under transverse loading and quite impervious to
water hence they make ideal good roof covering.
For making electrical switch boards
Suitable for use in cisterns, urinal partitions etc.
Can be set into walls to provide a rudimentary damp-proof membrane.

4. Gneiss
Classification: Metamorphic rock, sometimes called stratified or bastard
granite with somewhat laminated structure. Syenite is a rock similar to
granite but composed mainly of feldspar instead of quartz.
Composition: Quartz and feldspar

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 40

can be readily split into slabs
is more easily worked than granite.
For street paving

5. Sandstone
Classification: Sedimentary rock (Siliceous variety)
Composition: Quartz and/or feldspar cemented by lime, mica, magnesium,
aluminium, oxide or iron or by a mixture of these materials. Sometimes
fragments of limestone, mica or feldspar are also present.
Specific gravity = 2.25
Crushing strength = 35 to 40 MN/m2
Flagstone: sandstone of thin-bedded variety
Grit: rock composed of angular sharp edged sand grains
Free stone: sandstone that can be cut easily with mallet and hammer into
blocks for building
Durability of sandstone depends upon the nature of cementing material. The
quality of sandstone is poor if it is porous or contains lime or clay.
Sandstones are generally weak in abrasion.
They hold considerable water and allow percolation through them.
Fine grained are used for ashlar work, mouldings, carvings etc.
Rough and coarse grained are used for rubble work; for slabs and tiles.

6. Limestone
Classification: Sedimentary rock of calcareous variety.
Composition: Pure state contains CaCO3 but frequently mixed with
MgCO3 and small amount of silica and alumina. Limestones containing 10%
or more of magnesia are called as magnesian and those having over 45%
of it are termed as dolomites.
Specific gravity = 2.6
Crushing strength = 52 MN/m2
in blast furnaces, bleaching and tanning industries
for stone masonry for walls and paving set in floors
for manufacturing lime and cement
quarry waste is used as road metal

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 41

7. Marble
Classification: Metamorphic rock (changed from limestone or dolomite) of
calcareous variety.
Composition: CaCO3 is the main constituent.
Specific gravity: 2.72
Crushing strength 50 to 60 MN/m2
for carving and decoration works
for steps, wall linings, electrical switch boards, table slabs and columns.

8. Quartzite
Classification: Metamorphic rock of siliceous variety originally sandstone.
Composition: Silica
Dense, hard and glassy structure.
Highly resistant to chemical weathering.
Orthoquartzite is very pure quartz sandstone, often 99% SiO2.
as road metal/ railway ballast
in concrete
in rubble masonry
for heavy construction like retaining walls, bridge piers, dams etc.

9. Kankar
It is an impure limestone containing 30% of clay and sand available in grey
or khaki colour and have porous structure.
for preparing hydraulic lime
as road metal
in foundations of buildings

10. Laterite
Sedimentary, argillaceous rock of Sp. gr. = 2.2
It is a material of low compressive strength of 2 to 4 MPa.
It is sandy claystone containing high percentage of iron oxide.
A calcareous laterite with lime content called kankar.
Uses: as building stones; as road metal.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 42

11. Moorum
It is a decomposed laterite.
for surfacing fancy paths and garden walks (due to its rich red colour)
it serves as a fine blindage for metalled rods.

12. Gravel
It is a mixture of rounded water worn pebbles of any kind of stone with sand.

13. Chalk
It is pure, white limestone. It is used for manufacture of Portland cement
and for marking and as a colouring matter.it is unsuitable for building

14. Shingles
Broken shingles are used in concrete and as road metal or railway ballast
or in concrete.


Some of the characteristics or properties of good building stones are as follows:

Appearance and colour: Stones with much iron should be discouraged as the
formation of iron oxides disfigures them and brings about disintegration.

Weight: Building stones must be heavy

Porosity and absorption: Stones with much pores are unsuitable because of
water seeping into pores with acids and fumes destroy the stone. Water may
freeze at colder climate and hence split the stone.

Fineness of grains: Fine grained are suitable for moulding works.

Compactness: Stone’s durability is decided by its compactness.

Resistance to fire: Stone should be homogenous in composition and free form

calcium carbonate or oxide of iron.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 43

Electrical resistance: The electrical resistance decreases when it gets wet. A
stone should be non-absorbent (like Slate) to have steady and high electrical

Hardness and toughness: A good building stone must be hard and tough.
Hardness may be tested by scratching by pen knife and toughness by subjecting
it to hammer action.

Strength: Building stones should be strong in compression.

Durability: Compact, homogeneous stones having negligible water absorption are


Seasoning: The stones after quarrying and dressing should be left for a period of
6 to 12 months.


Artificial stone is called a building material that

replaces natural stone surfaces usually external
and internal walls. The artificial stones are
produced lightweight aggregates so that they have
little weight compared to natural stones. The lower
weight, lower cost and our variety of products are
important advantages that have made popular the
use of these materials.
Artificial stones are about 2-4 cm thick and are
manufactured in
a variety of
designs. The general characteristics are usually
copied from nature and produced natural stones.
The designs can be squared stones or irregular
shaped or rounded, even imitation bricks. Each
design can be produced in one or more colours.
Our company ensures that the back side of the
stone to be highly anomalous to achieve better
adhesion with adhesives.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 44

Artificial stones are placed on vertical surfaces (walls) using special glues. Artificial
stones are light weight due to the fact that it is made of lightweight materials and
in having small thickness. So because of their light weight and use strong glue,
very good adhesion to the walls is achieved.
Artificial stones started being manufactured in the early 1960s in the USA. The first
products seemed artificially, but the development of the technology of the
manufacturers has created stones which are very difficult to distinguish from the

Artificial stone, which is also called casted

stone, is constructed from cement, sand,
and natural aggregate such as crushed
stone. it is possible to provide certain
surface textures to artificial stones.

Sometimes, specific pigments used to

achieve certain color. The addition of
pigments shall not exceed 15% by volume.

Artificial stone can be cast into complicated and considerably detailed forms and
various sizes can be manufactured. Added to that, it can be reinforced to increase

Finally, it is worth mentioning that artificial stones are casted easily and


• Made with white cement, sand and natural aggregates of crushed stone

• Can be moulded into most intricate Forms

• Cast into any size

• Can be reinforced to desired higher strength

• Desired colouring may be achieved

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 45

• Desired finish may be achieved


• Table tops

• Interior and Exterior Wall Cladding

• Outdoor floor paving

• Fire place


1. Concrete Block - A concrete block is

primarily used as a building material in the
construction of walls. Concrete block walls
are used for a variety of reasons. Retaining
walls are one of the most popular uses, as
concrete blocks provide the strength
necessary keep water or earth away from
certain areas. Block walls can be used on
both residential and commercial properties,
making them extremely versatile.

Retaining walls are one of the most popular uses, as concrete blocks
provide the strength necessary keep water or earth away from certain areas. Block
walls can be used on both residential and commercial properties, making them

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 46

extremely versatile. Decorative concrete blocks can also create a very timeless
look, making them a great choice for any property.

Concrete blocks can also

be used as security
barriers. The blocks can
be lined up side by side
to keep people and
vehicles out of certain
areas, or they can be
stacked to create a larger
wall-like barricade.
These security barriers
can be used at special events, buildings, or even on job sites, and are a simple
and effective way to create the security you need.

As stated before, concrete block is

an extremely versatile product.
When it comes to outdoor
landscaping, there are endless
possibilities to what you can do with
it. Whether you want to create a
minimalist bench, steps, or plant
holders, this building material offers
a great vehicle to make those
projects happen.

2. Ransom Stone - Ransom stone is

manufactured by blending silica
soda with cement to provide fancy
and ornamental flooring.

It is also called chemical stone which its

compression strength is at least 32 MPa.
Ransom stone is manufactured by
blending silica soda with cement to
provide fancy and ornamental flooring.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 47

3. Artificial / cultured marble -
Cultured marble is a man-made
product that contains polyester
resins and crushed marble dust.
The finished cultured marble
product gets sealed with a gel coat.
As a result, cultured marble is glossy
in appearance with subtle, uniform
veins and colour.

Artificial marble is mainly comprised of

natural marble, stone meal, shell, glass,
and etc. Produced from advanced
manufacturing systems, radiation
elements are almost completely
removed from raw stone materials
during the production process. Marbles
made with such process are safer and
healthier, giving user a peace of mind, a
truly green and environmentally friendly
construction material.

Artificial marbles are vacuum

pressed with high pressure from
natural raw materials, it increases
the product's strength dramatically,
so that some products are even
stronger than natural stones.
Because special ingredient mixing
technique is used in the
synthesizing process, artificial
marbles are free of uneven
coloration problems in renovating
with natural stone, it is especially suited for large area layering projects.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 48


Understanding the Difference between Natural Stone and Manufactured

Stone Cladding

Natural stone veneer is made from real stone quarried from the earth. The
large pieces are then sliced into thin profiles to create veneers. Natural stone
veneer features imperfections, textures and tonal variation that has formed over
thousands of years.

Manufactured cultured stone veneer, on the other hand, is a man-made

product designed to resemble natural stone. This product is typically made of
concrete and aggregate materials that have been pressed into molds.

From afar, it may be hard to distinguish between natural stone and

manufactured stone veneer. However, there are some pros and cons of each
cladding material that set the two apart.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 49


Advancements in technology have

meant manufactured stone veneers
can offer a realistic aesthetic,
especially from a distance. There is
also a wide variety of styles, patterns
and colors to choose from whether
you’re looking to try match the real
thing or embrace the man-made

However, look more closely and the

cultured stone veneer doesn’t stand up against the authenticity of natural stone.
You’ll often spot several identical stones in the cladding and may even discover
some of the stones have a hand-painted finish in an effort to achieve a unique look.

As natural stone veneer is a quarried product, there are no two pieces the same.
The color variations are rich and the texture beckons you to run your hand across
the surface. These characteristics are what make this product unique and of an
unrivalled appearance.


As man-made cultured veneers have

advanced in appearance, the cost-saving
benefit of high-quality manufactured cladding
products over natural stone has been virtually

The costs to transport both natural stone

and manufactured cultured stone veneer are
relatively similar even though the man-made
cladding is slightly more lightweight.

Depending on the type of cladding

product you choose, the installation cost of
manufactured stone can be slightly less due to the repetitive method of installation.
It’s often considered as an easier option too and may be the best if you’re looking
to tackle this project without a professional.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 50

The maintenance cost of natural stone is generally less than the man-made
product as it can easily be pressure washed clean. Most manufactured stone won’t
be able to withstand high pressure or manual scrubbing so is more labor intensive.


One of the main

considerations when choosing
between manufactured stone
cladding and natural stone veneer is
the durability of the product. Both
products are considered to fare well,
however, there are some differences
between the two’s performance long

As many of the natural stone

cladding ranges are considered less porous than manufactured stone, this can
enhance their durability. Manufactured stone can deteriorate over time, especially
when exposed to natural elements such as rain, sunlight, dirt and wind.

Perhaps one of the main difference

between natural stone veneer and
manufactured stone cladding when it
comes to durability is its performance
under sunlight. As manufactured stone is
typically tinted with a paint, the colours are
will fade and discolour after being
exposed to light over a few years. This is
particularly the case in outdoor
applications. If colour is a driving factor in
choosing a cladding material, natural
stone veneer should be your first


Both cladding materials are highly

versatile whether you are using the stone
to create impact with a feature wall or to
complete your façade. One of the main

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 51

advantages of using a manufactured stone veneer is that it can be fixed to a variety
of substrates that don’t need to be structural such as masonry or wood frame. This
is because they are the lightest option of the two.

However, man-made stone does come with a limitation of where the

cladding is best installed. Exposure to particular elements such as harsh-
chemicals can cause the veneer to deteriorate over time. Most manufactured stone
veneers won’t be the best option to use in or around swimming pools, for example,
as chlorine can cause the product to discolor and weaken. This could lead to water
damage and affect the structural integrity of the substrate it is adhered to.


Artificial stone panels

courtesy of Robinsons

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 52

Artificial stone panels courtesy of Wilcon Depot



Fogelsonger Quarry workers, c. 1890 ... On display at the Buffalo Niagara

Heritage Village Museum in November 2017

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 53

 Fogelsonger had one of the most well-known quarries in the region. His
property included a geologically significant portion of the Onondaga
escarpment, one of several large quarries between Buffalo and
Rochester. The Onondaga escarpment was the remains of a large coral
reef. Many fossils are represented in great numbers here. You can still see
the strata of limestone rock on the walls of the underpass of the Expressway
under Main Street. It was discovered that a special layer of the stone could
be burned down to produce "hydraulic cement," a waterproof mortar that
would harden under water and remain waterproof.

 The value of the local limestone deposits were so important in the building
of the Erie Canal in the early 1820s that many of the grist mills, such as that
belonging to John Fogelsonger, were converted to cement mills. This
quarry was run by the Fogelsonger family for over 50 years until it was sold
in 1887; in 1855, four Fogelsonger families lived on the property, all in stone
houses, of course [219 Park Club Lane].

 The quarry on James Youngs' property, known as "Lime Ledge," covered

220 acres and according to a report from one of Young's sons, the "quarry
produced the strongest and whitest of lime." There were four lime kilns on
the property, and some of the remains can still be seen.

 Location: Onondaga limestone is found throughout the Onondaga


Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 54

 Definitions:

 Onondaga: eastern Finger Lakes region of west-central New York

 limestone: a common sedimentary rock consisting mostly of calcium

carbonate, used as a building stone and in the manufacture of lime, carbon
dioxide, and cement.

Chert: (chert)

A siliceous rock of chalcedonic or opaline silica occurring in limestone Flint: the

colloquial name for chert. Onondaga limestone. The dark stone is chert, also
known as flint

Escarpment: a steep slope or long cliff that results from erosion or faulting and
separates two relatively level areas of differing elevations

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 55

Niagara escarpment:

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 56

Course: a row of stones

Ashlar: cut, rectangular stone used in walls

Rubble: irregular, uncut stone used in walls

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 57


 There are chunks of black flint (chert) embedded in the gray-colored

limestone. Because the chert is much harder than the limestone, limestone
is hard to "dress" (trim). The village of Black Rock was named after a large
black rock near the Niagara River shoreline. The rock
was Onondaga limestone with a large percentage of chert.

 Quarriers have to use explosives to separate the rock

Black flint (chert)


 Was used primarily for foundations.

 There are a few houses in the Kensington district in Buffalo that are
constructed of limestone.

 Today, Onondaga limestone is used primarily for crushed stone in cement

aggregate and in riprap (a loose assemblage of broken stones erected in
water or on soft ground as a foundation).

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 58

Onondaga limestone wall in Scajaquada Expressway near Parkside

The base rock of the Buffalo Lighthouse is Onondaga limestone

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 59

1st story: Onondaga limestone which was probably quarried from the back yard,
accounting for the slope.
2nd story: clapboard


Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 60

Hayes Hall on UB's Main Street campus is built of two types of limestone

Onondaga escarpment:

 In Western New York, Onondaga escarpment parallels Route 5 and

continues east and it crosses under the Peace Bridge into Ontario and can
be seen along the northern shore of lake Erie. The Onondaga Limestone
underlies the rest of Western New York in the subsurface across NY to the
Hudson River Valley and down into Pennsylvania. It is a very extensive rock

 Extends east to Albany. South of Albany, the escarpment is part of the

Heiderbergs Mt.

 In South Central New York State, the height of the escarpment varies from
10' to 245'. There are large deposits of gas and oil in this section.

 Onondaga escarpment waterfalls in Western NY along Route 5:

Scajaquada Creek in Forest Lawn Cemetery, Glen Falls in Williamsville,
Akron Falls

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 61

The Stone Houses of Amherst, New York

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 62

Twin belfries and cupolas with lanterns

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 63



 Limestone is one of those materials that is extremely versatile. It is formed

though a variety of means (evaporative, marine), and many of its forms have
practical use in modern day construction. Limestone, by definition is a rock
that has at least fifty percent calcium carbonate within it. This allows for the
rock to usually very cheap in bulk and is sturdy enough for building. Here
are a few varieties of Limestone, including their qualities and what they’re
used for.


 Chalk is a soft variety of limestone with a very fine texture, usually seen in
white or light gray. It mainly forms from the shells of dead microscopic
marine organisms such as foraminifers. It can also be formed from the
calcified remains of marine algae.


Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 64


 Coquina is another form of Limestone, which looks like a poorly put together
rock that is composed of broken shell debris. While, coquina itself is not
used in modern architecture, it is often quoted as natural land decoration.

Use: They constructed its masonry buildings using native rocks, among them
large coquina flagstones from which they made blocks and bricks for floors, walls,
and stairways.


 Tavertine is a form of limestone that is deposited by mineral hot springs. It

often has a fibrous look to it and is colored in white, tan, rusty or even cream-
colored. Tavertine is one of the most commonly used materials in modern
architecture, this day.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 65

 Because there are so many different types of Limestone, there are also
different types of materials that can be made out of them. Again, we will list
a few things Limestone can make, although there are many more things that
can be made.

Travertine is one of several natural stones that are used for paving patios and
garden paths. ... Travertine is one of the most frequently used stones in
modern architecture. It is commonly used for façades, wall cladding, and flooring.

Traventine use:

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 66

Dimension Stone

 Dimension stone is Limestone that is often cut into slabs and blocks of
specific sizes for use in construction and architecture. You can find it being
used for floors, window sills, as stairs, or an exterior of a building, making it
a “jack of all trades” if you will.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 67


 Limestone can also be used in roofing granule mixtures by crushing

limestone into a fine particle. It is often paired with asphalt for roofing
because of it’s weather and heat resistant qualities.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 68


Marble is a metamorphic rock

composed of recrystallized carbonate
minerals. Marble is typically not
foliated, although there are
exceptions. In geology, the term
"marble" refers to metamorphosed
limestone, but its use in stonemasonry
more broadly encompasses
unmetamorphosed limestone.

Marble is commonly used for sculpture and as a building material. Marble

is a rock resulting from metamorphism of sedimentary carbonate rocks. The
resulting marble rock is typically composed of an interlocking mosaic of carbonate
crystals. Construction marble is a stone which is composed of calcite, dolomite or
serpentine which is capable of taking a polish. The term "marble" is used for any
crystalline calcitic rock (and some non-calcitic rocks) useful as building stone.


Italy Belgium

For the past years, marble has been used and became one of the most
successful in the world market. Italy and Belgium are one of the few countries that
produces the most marbles in the world. Of course, our local marble scene is not
losing its tracks. Romblon, Philippines produces the most stocks of marbles here
in the Philippines.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 69



Large parts of the island

substance of Romblon consist of pure
marble. Here, the marble is cracked
always only by hand from the mountain
and later on processed as well by
hand, according to customer's wish.

Romblon Marble is usually used

as decorative stuff. Depending on the
size of the souvenir it would usually
cost as low as Php 50 and as high as
Php 1,000.

Most of the marble that Belgium
produces comes from the southern part of the
country called Wallonia. Cities such as
Tournai, Namur, Dinant, and other cities
extracts different kinds of Marbles.

Rouge De Rance

Rouge de Rance (Red of

Rance) are red limestone from the
town of Rance in the province of
Hainaut (Wallonia, Belgium). These
limestones are commonly referred to
as "red marble", although they are not
real marbles but sedimentary rock.
The red "marble" of Rance knew a

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 70

large popularity as a prestigious building
material for decorative use. It became most
renowned since the 17th century because of
its prolific use in the Royal Chateau of

A square meter of Rouge de Rance

marble slab with a thickness of 1.8 cm.
usually costs around Php 2,000 per piece.

Royal Chateau of Versailles

Noir Belge

Noir Belge (Belgian Black) is a black limestone found on several sites

in Belgium. Some Noir Belge marble deposit belongs to a fine-grained calcareous
sedimentary formation and located on the northern border of Namur sedimentary

Good "Belgian Black" is dug as

an inconspicuous grey stone but
becomes immaculately deep black and
shining as it is polished. Its relative
scarcity is due to the difficult exploiting
conditions. Today it is one of the most
expensive marbles in the world. Since
Renaissance the "Noir Belge" marble
was widely used as a decorative construction material. Due to its immaculate
velvety black appearance and its remarkable high gloss, it was preferred by
Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 71
artisans across Europe. Noir Belge was
also applied to large decorative
structures such as stairs, floorings,
altars, fireplaces.

A square meter of Noir Belge

marble slab with a thickness of 3 in.
usually costs around Php 5,000 –
10,000 per piece.

Royal Chateau of Versailles


As one of the
biggest producers of marbles in
the world, Italy has made its
name as the “Marble Capital of
the World.” They are the
leading extractors and
producers of marbles for quite
some time now. They produce
the very famous Carrara
Marble, Pavonazzo Marble,
and a lot more.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 72

Carrara Marble

Carrara marble is a
type of white or blue-grey
marble of high quality,
popular for use in sculpture
and building decor. It is
quarried in the city of Carrara
located in the province of
Massa and Carrara in the
Lunigiana, the northernmost
tip of modern-day Tuscany, Italy. Carrara marble has been used since the time of
Ancient Rome. Carrara Marble usually costs around Php 110,000 – 380,000 per
slab depending on the size.

Carrara Marble used as stair railings. Carrara Marble being quarried.

Pavonazzo Marble

It is a white marble originally from Docimium, or modern Iscehisar,

Turkey. The name derives from the Italian word for peacock. "In natural stone
trade, Pavonazzo is often simply called a Marble." It is one of the many varieties
of Carrara marble, distinguished by black/gray-veined white marble. Pavonazzo
Marble usually costs around Php 500–10,000 per slab.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 73

Red Verona Marble

Red Verona Marble is a variety of

limestone rock which takes its name
from Verona in Northern Italy.

It has been quarried from Red

Ammonitic facies of Verona or the
sedimentary Scaglia Rossa.

Red Verona Marble usually costs

around Php 1,000 – 5,000 per slab
depending on the size.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 74


• Selection of Site for Quarrying of Stones.

(i) Availability of sound rock: A quarry can be opened up only where a sound
rock that can yield good quality building stones exists in the considerable

(ii) Distance from the areas of construction: Quarrying is commonly a

commercial operation. The quarry must not be located far away from the
area where constructional activities are going on.
(iii) Distance from main roads: Stones extracted from a quarry have to be
transported to the nearby towns and cities. Naturally, the quarry must be
located near to the main network of roads leading to those towns and cities.

(iv) Availability of water and dumping space: In quarrying operations,

considerable man power is employed. Water is an important necessity for
the work force. It must be available in sufficient quantity near the quarry site.

(v) Another factor is drainage system: Ground water and surface water have
to be quickly drained. It should be possible to provide adequate drainage at
the quarry site.


• (i) Selection of Method for quarrying: At present, quarrying can be done

either by manual methods or by machines.

• (ii) Preparation of a layout: In accordance with the method selected for

quarrying of stones, a scheme or layout for quarrying will be prepared.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 75

• (iii) Removal of the over burden: The surface of natural rock beds are
invariably covered by some thickness of soil or lose material.


Quarrying of Stones Without Blasting.

• In these methods, blocks of rocks are broken loose from their natural
outcrops by men using hand tools or special purpose channeling machines.

• No explosive material is used at any stage in this method of quarrying of

stones. Soft rocks and also those rocks which have layered structure are
easily quarried by these methods.
The Wedge Method of Quarrying:

• It is consists of digging a few holes at carefully selected places on the rock.

These holes are dug either manually using chisels and hammers by the
skilled workers.

• Or, in major quarrying, these holes may be drilled by special machines

called hammer drills.


• this method of quarrying, involves the use of big machines called

Channelizers which have reciprocating cutting tools and are power driven.

• When single large blocks of costly stones like marbles and limestones are
required, this method is most suitable.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 76


• It is an old, crude method which may be useful locally for obtaining small
quantities of stones. Rocks are heated for a few hours by burning heaps of
firewood over their surface.

• Such a process results in expansion of the upper layers and their cracking
and separating from the lower layers.

Quarrying of Stones by Blasting.

• This method consists of using explosives for breaking stones from very hard
rocks. It has been observed that quarrying of granites, basalts, traps,
quartzites, and sandstones by wedging and other methods is very laborious
and costly.

• These hard rocks, however, can be loosened economically and easily by

using explosives. The basic principle of this method is to explode a small
quantity of an explosive material at a calculated depth within the rocks.

(1) Drilling of blast-holes:

• A blast-hole is a hole of suitable diameter and depth driven at a properly

selected location on a rock for being charged with an explosive.
• In mechanical drilling, machines such as hammer drills, percussive drills or
rotary drills are used depending on the nature of the rock.

• In the quarrying by blasting, the diameter, depth, number, and spacing of

boreholes require very careful considerations for getting the most beneficial

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 77

(2) Charging of Blast-hole:

• The loading or charging of the blast-holes with pre-determined quantities of

the selected type of explosive is to be done with great care and caution.

• (i) The holes are first cleared of all the obstructions and irregularities with
the help of wooden romping rods.

• (ii) Explosive in the form of powder packs or cartridges is then inserted in

small quantity at a time.

• (iii) When blasting powder is used as an explosive charge, a fuse is

• (iv) The hole is then summed. Stemming consists of filling the remaining
2/3 to 1/2 depth of blast-hole (above the last compacted layer of explosive)
with inert and non-combustible material like powdered clay, rock and, sand.

• (v) It is also customary to put the safety fuse (for firing) at the beginning of
stemming operation.

• (vi) Sometimes stemming is done in layers alternating with explosive layers.

This becomes almost necessary in deep holes involving the use of large
quantities of an explosive in each shot.

(3) Firing of the Shot:

• A Safety fuse is essentially a thin strain of gun powder properly wrapped in

a cotton thread. When ignited, it burns from one end to the other end at a
fixed speed, generally 100-130 seconds per meter.

• An electrical detonator is a specially designed metallic cap which contains

a highly sensitive charge filled in it; Over the charge hangs a thin copper
filament which conducts an electric charge.


1. Hand Carving
• Before the development of metal carving tools, harder stones were used to
shape soft stones like chalk or soapstone. The hand carving process today

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 78

has remained largely unchanged and remains a physical process - though
steel chisel, tools and mason’s hammers are used to subtract material away
from a larger stone blocks.

2. Letter Cutting

• Letter cutting is similar to hand carving,

but uses the chisel at different angles to
make letterforms. It is typically used to
make gravestones, plaques or lettering on

3. Sand Blasting

• Sand Blasting is the process of forcing sand through an air compressed

pressure nozzle to shape another surface. Sandblasting can also be done
with other abrasives, such as glass, plastic or for a lighter finish, baking

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 79

4. Diamond Cutting

• Diamond allows tools such as saws, drills and grinders to cut through
particularly hard surfaces, such as stone. An industrial circular diamond saw
for example, has diamond tips embedded all around the edge. This is used
to cut away parts of unwanted stone: transforming large boulders into slabs
of various sizes and other workable pieces.

5. Stone Polishing

• Stone can be rough, flat, matt, smooth or polished into a high gloss finish
similar to glass. To achieve this there are a number of different stone
polishing machines and techniques that can be used. This includes grinding
- a process similar to sanding, where large metal discs or diamonds sand
out roughness and imperfections. The next stage is buffing, where polishing
powders and compounds such as silicon carbide are pushed over the

6. Flaming

• A more advanced stone carving process is flaming the surface using a jet
torch. Here, high temperatures with a combination of cold water chip away
at the stone causing it to flake away. Using torches on stone can be used
to remove any previous tool marks, leaving a natural “flame finish” - or by
applying the heat for longer will actually carve into the stone.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 80

7. Water Jet Cutting

• Water Jet Cutting is a process where high speed water is used to create
accurate profiles cut or etched from virtually any material. Abrasive Water
Jet Cutting machines can cut virtually all materials, including stone from
1mm to 150mm thick varying in size from the intricate up to a 4m by 2m

8. CNC Machining

• We’ve saved one of our favourites to last here as CNC machines have
impressive role when it comes to stone. 2-axis routers, 3-axis lathes, 4-axis
wire cutters, 5-axis mills - whatever 3D forms you thought you could CNC
in wood or metal, you are also likely to achieve in stone.

• Like diamond saws, often the CNC tools in stone have diamonds embedded
on them so that they can cut through the material. Typically CNC Machines
are used to make stone pillars, stone sculptures and bespoke architectural

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 81


 Structure: Stones may be stratified or unstratified. Structured stones should be

easily dressed and should be suitable when creating a super structure. Unlike
unstratified stone which are hard and difficult to dress and are preferred for
foundation works.

 Texture: Fined grained stones look attractive and mostly used in carving. They
have a homogenous distribution and usually strong and durable.

 Density: Denser and compact stones are stronger while light weight ones are
weaker. Stones with a specific gravity of 2.4 or less are considered unsuitable for

 Appearance: Stones with uniform and attractive colour are durable if their grains
are compact. Marble and granite are great in appearance when polished and are
mostly used for facades, floors and benches.

 Strength: It is important to look into the strength of stone before selecting it as a

building block specifically their crushing strength to make sure that they can be
safely used.

 Hardness: Stone’s hardness is a very important especially when considering to

use it as a flooring and pavement. Testing the stone’s hardness using the Dory’s
testing machine is one way of finding the coefficient of hardness. Coefficient of
hardness for road works should be at least 17 and it should not be less than 14
when it is to be used on building works.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 82

 Percentage Wear: This is an essential property of stone that can be measured
by attrition test. This is to be considered when selecting aggregate for road works
and railway ballast. A good stone must not show wear of more than 2%.

 Porosity and Absorption: All stones absorb water because pores and capillaries
are found in all stones. To test the percentage of water absorption by a stone, an
absorption test should be performed by immersing the stone under water for 24
hours. The percentage of absorption alone will be a great indicator on how porous
the stone is. This can be measured and compared using weight by weight method.

 Weathering: The good appearance of stones can be lost with rain, wind and all
other external factors. Stones that have good weather resistance should be used
for facade works.

 Toughness: A stone’s resistance to impact is called toughness. Toughness is

determined by performing an impact test. For road works, toughness index that is
more than 19 is preferred. 13 to 19 toughness indexes are considered medium
tough and less than 13 toughness index is a poor stone.

 Resistance: Argillaceous materials are poor in strength but they are very good in
resisting fire. Sandstone resist fire better.

 Ease of Finishing: The cost of finishing plays an important role when it comes to
the cost of stone masonry to a very great extent. An engineer should consider
sufficient strength rather than high strength when selecting stone for building works
because it’s finishing is easy with lesser strength.

 Seasoning: The process of removing moisture from pores is called seasoning.

Stones obtained from quarry contain moisture in the pores. If this moisture is
removed, the stone’s strength is improved.


• For the construction of foundations, walls, columns and arches in stone

• For flooring, walls, benches, vanities, fireplaces, etc..
• Stone slabs for damp proof courses, lintels and as roofing materials.

• Stones with good appearance for facade works of buildings like polished
marble and granite.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 83

• For paving roads, footpaths and open spaces around the buildings.
• For construction of piers and abutments of bridges and dams.

• Crushed stones for providing base course for roads and they form a
finishing coat when mixed with tar. They are also used as inert material in
concrete, for making artificial stones and building blocks and as railway

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 84

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 85
Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 86
Republic of the Philippines
Technological University of the Philippines
Graphics Department

Subject: BMMC – Building Materials & Methods of Construction
Course: BGT - AT – 1A
SY: 2018-2019 / 2nd SEMESTER

Ferrous and Non Ferrous Construction Materials
I. Carbon Steel (by Virtudazo)

A. Carbon Steel Alloys

B. History
C. Carbon Steel Types
D. Steels for Strength
II. Alloy steel (by Ong)

A. Chromium
B. Nickel
C. Manganese
D. Other Alloying Elements
III. Tool & HSLA Steel (by Alamares)

A. Tool Steel Groups

B. Classification of HSLA Steel
IV. Aluminum & Beryllium (by Gonzalez)
V. Copper & Magnesium (by Tagra)
VII. Nickel & Refractory Metals (by Mateo)
VIII. Titanium & Zirconium (by Catapang)

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 87


Leader: Virtudazo, Paul Macintosh E.

Alamares, Sophia D.

Catapang, Francis

Gonzales, Kenth Patrick

Mateo, Gabriel M.

Ong, Althea Mae A.

Tagra, Jomel

April 2019
Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 88


With the carbon increasing from 0.06% to 0.95%. The range of both carbon and
manganese contents in carbon steels allows for development of a very wide range
of strength, toughness and wear resistance values. Increases in carbon and
manganese result in increased strength and hardness following heat treatment,
and the optimum combinations of strength, hardness, toughness and wear
resistance may be obtained within the appropriate carbon steel analysis ranges.

We may consider steels up to 0.3% as low carbon, then to 0.6% as medium

carbon. and above this value as high carbon.


Carbon steel first appeared around the year 500 AD in Damascus steel swords as
well as Japanese swords. They were prized for their sharp edges and sturdiness
compared to other weapons of the era. The composition of these swords was very
similar to modern carbon steel, yet superior in several mysterious ways.

It is believed that the first instances of carbon steel were created by mistake as
swordsmiths used iron ore as the primary metal for crafting swords. Because iron
required extreme heat to smelt it, smiths used coal to generate it, which brought
with it trace elements of carbon into the molten metal. The result: a new iron alloy,
carbon steel.

In the centuries since 500 AD, the methods of producing carbon steel stayed much
the same. Blast furnaces were used to create cast-iron–iron with 3% to 5% carbon
content–first by the Chinese around the 6th Century BC and then in Europe
throughout the Middle Ages. Metalsmiths came to understand that the higher
carbon content was the cause of brittleness within the steel.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 89


Henry Bessemer was a prolific English inventor who had over 125 patents–mostly
in the production of glass, iron and steel industries–to his name, but his most
famous invention was the process that bears his name.

The Bessemer process uses a pear-shaped vessel to blow oxygen through pig
iron to combine with excess carbon, and remove it from the molten iron. This
process led to faster and cheaper steel production for a world hungry for steel for
its railroads, bridges, and weapons.

There are four types of carbon steel based on the amount of carbon present in the
alloy. Lower carbon steels are softer and more easily formed, and steels with a
higher carbon content are harder and stronger, but less ductile, and they become
more difficult to machine and weld.

LOW CARBON STEEL – Composition of 0.05%-0.25% carbon and up to 0.4%

manganese. Also known as mild steel, it is a low-cost material that is easy to
shape. While not as hard as higher-carbon steels, carburizing can increase its
surface hardness.

MEDIUM CARBON STEEL – Composition of 0.29%-0.54% carbon, with 0.60%-

1.65% manganese. Medium carbon steel is ductile and strong, with long-wearing

HIGH CARBON STEEL – Composition of 0.55%-0.95% carbon, with 0.30%-

0.90% manganese. It is very strong and holds shape memory well, making it ideal
for springs and wire.

VERY HIGH CARBON STEEL - Composition of 0.96%-2.1% carbon. Its high

carbon content makes it an extremely strong material. Due to its brittleness, this
grade requires special handling.


Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 90

Carbon steel angle is a hot rolled, low carbon, low alloy steel, that has been
shaped into a 90 degree angle. It is available in a variety of sizes, making it ideal
for structural applications, general fabrication, machining, and repairs.
A36, A529-50, A572-50, and A588 angle carbon steel.



ASTM A36 angle is one of the most widely used carbon steels by the construction
industry. It is a low-cost material compared to specialty steels and exhibits the
strength required for structural applications. In addition, it is weldable, formable,
and machinable. Galvanizing the steel increases its resistance to corrosion.
ASTM A36 steel angle is used in a range of industrial applications, including:
Machinery and Equipment Frames (Braces and Corners)
Transportation Frames and Corners
Support frames that require welding, riveting or bolting on bridges and buildings
General structural use in construction
A529-50 Steel Angle

ASTM A529-50 carbon steel angle is stronger than the more common A36 steel
angle and meets a 50K minimum yield strength. It is easy to weld, rivet and bolt,
as well as machine and fabricate.

ASTM A529-50 steel is generally used in the construction of buildings, bridges,

and other structures for support and structural components.

2. ASTM A572-50 ANGLE

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ASTM A572-50 is a high-strength, low-alloy (HSLA) columbium-vanadium steel. It

has a higher yield and tensile strength, as compared to ASTM A36. The higher
tensile strength of A572-50 allows reduction of section thickness and weight when
manufacturing parts, therefore lowering the overall weight of the part. It is easy
to weld, form, and machine when using appropriate techniques.
ASTM A572 is also available in grades 42, 55, 60 and 65.

A572-50 is used in transportation and other applications that require increased

strength at a lower weight. For transportation operations, it provides added payload
capacity with a lower increase in equipment weight, reducing operating costs.
A572-50 is also used in the construction of bridges and buildings.



ASTM A588 is a high-strength, low-alloy (HSLA) steel containing small added

amounts of copper, chromium and nickel. It is often left unpainted as it develops a
weathered, orange-brown surface that is resistant to atmospheric corrosion, and
thus leads to a longer life for weather-exposed applications. Its strength-to-
weight ratio, and overall strengthening properties are similar to those of A572
ASTM A588 is used in applications where savings in weight and/ or added
durability (for corrosion resistance) are important. Such applications include:
bridges, buildings, freight cars, construction equipment, smoke-stack liners,
precipitators, transmission towers, and streetlight poles.


Carbon steel structural beams are manufactured in two configurations. Both are
constructed with a vertical web in the center of the beam, with horizontal flanges
on top and bottom. The structure of the beam provides superior load-bearing

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STANDARD AMERICAN BEAMS – Also known as Junior Beams, S Beam, or I
Beams have tapered flanges for increased strength of the flanges.


known as W Beams or H Beams have non-
tapered flanges that are wider than the
standard S or I beams.

I- and H- beams are widely used in the

construction industry to provide support for
buildings and load-bearing walls. They are
available in a variety of standard sizes and
selected based on the applied load for the
required application. I-beams may be used
both as beams and as columns.


Applications for I-beams include:

 Construction support beams for commercial and residential construction

 Support frames and columns for trolley ways, lifts and hoists
 Mezzanines and platforms
 Trailer and truck bed framing
Applications for H-beams include:

 Construction support beams for commercial and residential construction

 Mezzanines and platforms
 Bridges
 Trailer and truck bed framing
 Machine bases


Steel channel is a hot-rolled carbon steel channel shape. Constructed using a

vertical web and top and bottom horizontal flanges with inside radius corners, it is
available in a wide range of sizes and thicknesses. The shape provides superior
structural support, making it an ideal product for frames and braces used for
machinery, enclosure, vehicle, building and structural support applications.

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Plate has been defined as a metal sheet with a thickness of .2300" or more; sheet
is defined as metal that is thicker than foil and less than .2300". Due to its higher
thickness, carbon steel plate is used for products that require durability and
strength but do not require the lower weight of a thinner metal sheet.

Over the years, certain dimensional limitations have been established. Carbon
steel plate, compared to bar, strip and sheet, is defined as:

Selecting floor plates was once a rather simple task as a flat piece of carbon steel
was the only offering. To meet demands of safety and appearance, steel
producers developed a method to roll a plate with a raised lug pattern. This raised
lug pattern often takes on a diamond shape, making it commonly referred to as
diamond plate. Since this product can be rolled in almost any grade or
specification, the user now has many selections to choose from to satisfy their
application’s needs. Selections are now available which provide special
cleanability (or paint-holding characteristics), better resistance to impact, the ability
to support heavy loads with a minimum or weight and protections against chemical
or atmospheric corrosion.

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 Floor plates
 CQ Steel Floor Plate
 A786 Floor Plate


Carbon steel sheet is material produced from coil and is most commonly found in
thicknesses less than .180. Steel retains its original shape and form, and must be
treated before or during fabrication to provide the desired flatness. In addition,
different alloys exhibit different properties of hardness, strength, temperature
resistance and corrosion resistance.
It is used in many diverse applications, including:
Architectural and construction framing, structural framing and ductwork

Cabinets, enclosures and frames for machinery, medical devices, electronics and


 Hot Rolled
 Cold Rolled Steel
 Galvanized
 Galvannealed
 Aluminized


Hot rolled sheets are produced at elevated

temperatures on rolling mills and generates a material
that is resistant to work hardening and exhibits
reduced levels of deformation residual
stress. Material rolled in the hot rolled condition can

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require more extensive leveling practices, such as temper passing or stretcher
leveling downstream to eliminate coil memory.


Cold rolling is used to further treat hot rolled steel sheet

to increase its strength and its strength-to-weight ratio
and enable it to hold tighter tolerances during fabricating
and machining. In addition, cold rolling is used to smooth
and finish the surface of hot rolled steel.

■ Cold rolled steel sheet is used for engineered products that require tight
tolerances and coated surfaces.

■ Appliances, including stoves, ovens, refrigerators, washers, dryers and

small appliances
■ Exposed automotive and aircraft components
■ Building frames
■ Deep-drawn shells
■ Stamped parts
■ Machinery Parts

Galvannealed sheet is carbon steel sheet coated with
zinc on both sides using a continuous hot dip
process. The zinc coating is harder than a regular
galvanized coating and is more resistant to scratching
and manufacturing damage. However, the harder
coating is susceptible to powdering if the sheet is
severely formed during fabrication.
■ Products manufactured using galvannealed steel sheet include:
■ Vehicle components that require corrosion-resistance
■ Signs
■ Exterior partitions, covers, cabinets

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■ Vending machines.


Galvanized steel sheet is carbon steel sheet coated with

zinc on two sides. The process used to do this is known
as the continuous hot dip process. This process results
in a layer of zinc which adheres tightly to the base steel
and has a spangled, or snowflake-type,
appearance. The layer of zinc acts as a sacrificial

■ alvanized sheet can be used bare, prepainted or postpainted. It is easy to

fabricate and stamp and is used for applications that require corrosion
resistance. These include:
■ HVAC equipment
■ Automotive parts
■ Electrical boxes
■ Enclosures and housings
■ Prefab and metal buildings
■ Roofing
■ Outdoor signs
■ Playground equipment
■ Equipment and machinery.


Aluminized steel is carbon steel coated, through the hot-

dip process, with an aluminum-silicon alloy. The
aluminum coating provides resistance to high
temperatures and a bright appearance. The silicon
promotes better adherence of the coating to the base

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Carbon steel pipe is highly resistant to shock and vibration making it ideal to
transport water and other fluids under roadways. The high-tensile strength in
addition to its elasticity and ductility allow carbon steel pipes to be used safely
under high-pressure conditions.


Carbon steel bars are available in round, square, flat, and hexagon bars in the hot
rolled or cold drawn condition. While hot rolled and cold drawn bars have the same
general shape, they are very different in their dimensional characteristics.

HOT ROLL BARS – Produced on rolling mills that leave surface imperfections that
include scale, seams, flat spots, ridges, etc.

COLD DRAWN BARS – Hot rolled bars that have had secondary processes
applied to improve the surface finish and to size the bar more precisely.


HSS (hollow structured sections) refers to a metal profile that is hollow and tubular.
This hollow structural tube (or HSS) is used as a structural element in buildings,
bridges and other structures, and in a wide variety of manufactured products. It's
produced in round, square and rectangular shapes in a broad range of sizes and
HSS or hollow structural steel tubing has many benefits including:
■ aesthetic appeal
■ high strength-to-weight ratios

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■ uniform strength
■ cost effectiveness
■ recyclability


As-Welded Mechanical. Tubing is probably the most popular and versatile tubular
product. It is ideally suited to applications where concentricity and uniformity of wall
thickness are important.


Carbon steel grating is a heavy duty grating that can be used where open flooring
is needed for air, light and heat transmission. It does not exhibit good corrosion
resistance, so should not be used in applications that are exposed to corrosive
elements. The grating selection is based on load requirement, corrosion
resistance, durability, and cost.


Usually heat-treated alloys that provide strengths at least equal to those of as-
rolled steel. Heat-treated constructional alloy steels and the ultrahigh-strength
steels are used in applications where high strength can be converted to a weight-
saving advantage over other steels.

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Alloy steel is steel that is alloyed with a variety of elements in total amounts
between 1.0% and 50% by weight to improve its mechanical properties. An alloy is
a combination of metals or of a metal and another element. Alloys are defined by
a metallic bonding character.[1] An alloy may be a solid solution of metal elements
(a single phase) or a mixture of metallic phases (two or more solutions).
These steels have various elements added in small quantities to improve the
material strength, hardenability, temperature resistance, corrosion resistance, and
other properties. Any level of carbon can be combined with these alloying


Discovery, History and Sources

In 1797, the French professor of chemistry, Louis-Nicolas Vauquelin discovered

chromium oxide. It is named after the Greek word chroma (χρωµα) meaning
colour. Chromium is the 13th most abundant element in the Earth’s crust, with an
average concentration of the order of 400 ppm. 14 million tonnes of marketable
chromite ore were produced in 2002.


South Africa accounted for 46% of production whilst Kasakhstan and India
represented 36%, Brazil, Finland, Turkey and Zimbabwe together provided 14%
of the total production whilst 12 smaller producer countries added the balance of
4%. At the present consumption levels, demonstrated reserves will last for several

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 100

centuries and less economical identified resources are sufficient to double that
Physical Properties:

Chromium is a silver-grey transition metal with a relative atomic mass (12C=12) of

51.996, an atomic number of 24, and a melting point of 1,875°C and a density of
7.190 kg/dm3. It is in group VI of the periodic table. Chromium has a body-centred-
cubic (b.c.c.) crystal structure.

Metallurgical Applications for Chromium:

About 85% of the chromite mined is used in

metallurgy, namely stainless steels, low-alloy
steels, high-strength alloy steels, tool steels and
high-performance alloys such as chromium-
cobalt- tungsten (or molybdenum) alloys, nickel-
chromium-manganese-niobium tantalum (or
titanium) alloys, nickel-chromium molybdenum
alloys, cobalt-chromium alloys and some
Maraging steels(high-strength alloy irons of the
precipitation hardening type). Due to its strength
and its high resistance to corrosion, chromium is often used in plating and metal

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The properties that distinguish stainless steels i.e.

Fe-Cr-(Mo) alloys and Fe-Cr-Ni-(Mo) alloys from
other corrosion-resistant materials depend
essentially on chromium. The high degree of
reactivity of chromium is the basis for the
effectiveness of chromium as an alloying element in
stainless steels. The resistance of these metallic
alloys to the chemical effects of corrosive agents is
determined by their ability to protect themselves
through the formation of an adherent, insoluble film
of reaction products that shields the metal substrate from uniform and localized
attack. The protective film called passive layer or passive film. It is a very fine layer
on the surface, of the order of1.0 to 2.0 nm, which reduces the corrosion rate to
negligible levels and has a structure similar to chromite.


Discovery, History and Sources:

In 1751, the Swedish mineralogist and chemist Axel Fredrik Cronstedt discovered
nickel as an impurity in an ore-containing niccolite (nickel arsenide). He reported it
as a new element and proposed the name of nickel for it. Thiselementis24th in the
order of abundance in the Earth’s crust with an average concentration of 80 ppm.

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Physical Properties:

Metallurgical Applications for Nickel:

About 65% of nickel production is used in stainless steels, compared to 45% ten
years ago. High-performance alloys (nickel-based), cobalt-based and iron-nickel-
based high performance alloys) represent another growing metallurgical end-use
for nickel.

The Role of Nickel in Stainless Steels:

In stainless steels, nickel has no direct influence on

the passive layer but exerts a beneficial effect,
particularly in sulfuric acid environments. Thanks to
nickel austenitic stainless steels, i.e. Fe-Cr-Ni(Mo)
alloys, exhibits wide range of mechanical properties
that are unparalleled by any other alloy system today.
For instance, these alloys exhibit excellent ductility
and toughness, even at high strength levels and
these properties are retained up to cryogenic

Nickel promotes the resistance to corrosion of the nickel-based alloys as compared

with the iron-based alloys under conditions where the passive layers may be
absent, or may be destroyed locally or uniformly. For example, pitting corrosion
tends to progress less rapidly in high-nickel alloys.

In Fe-Ni alloys, their original features can be explained by two major phenomena.
A one is the abnormally low expansion in compositions close to INVAR (36% Ni)
due to a large spontaneous volume magnetrostriction and exceptionally high
electrical permeability resulting from the disappearance of various anisotropiesin
the vicinity of 80% Ni.

Nickel forms the base of high temperature super alloys because of its ability to
develop an adherent oxide and precipitation hardening phases based on Ni3Al.

Nickel is a moderate strengthener, and consequently large amounts can be added

to low-alloy steel before strength increases to an undesirable level. In low-alloy
steel, nickel appears to have a greater overall, beneficial effect on toughness
transition temperature than any other substitution alloying element.

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Molybdenum was discovered by Carl Welhelm Scheele, a Swedish chemist, in
1778 in a mineral known as molybdenite which had been confused as a lead
compound. Molybdenum was isolated by Peter Jacob Hjelm in 1781.


 It is a chemical element with symbol “Mo” and atomic number 42.

 It does not occur naturally as free metal on Earth; it is found only in various
oxidation states in minerals.
 This element has the sixth-highest
melting point of any element.
 It is the 54th most abundant element in
the Earth’s crust.
 Silvery-white metal.
 High-melting point.

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Uses of Molybdenum:

 It increases the strength of metals that are used in infrastructures.

 It is used to make metals lighter.
 It protects metals from corrosion.
 It is an essential in the human body.


Prices for molybdenum are

closely related to copper.
The industrial metal is often
produced as a by-product
of copper, meaning that
molybdenum output tends
to rise and fall depending
on how much copper is
being produced. With
copper prices on the
decline it’s possible that
production of both metals
could be headed for a

The countries that produces Molybdenum the most are China (130, 000 MT), Chile
(58, 000 MT), and USA (44, 600 MT).

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Vanadium was discovered twice, according to the Royal Society of Chemistry. In

1801, Andrés Manuel del Rio, a professor of mineralogy in Mexico City, discovered
it in a specimen of vanadate but was later lost in a shipwreck. In 1830, vanadium
was rediscovered by Swedish chemist Nils Gabriel Sefstrôm as he was analyzing
samples of iron from a mine in Sweden. The element was finally isolated in 1867
by the English chemist Sir Henry Enfield Roscoe.

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What Is Vanadium?

 It is a chemical element with symbol “V” and atomic number 23.

 Rarely exists as a free element in nature.
 It is the 20th most abundant element in the Earth’s crust.
 Medium-hard
 Steel-blue metal

Uses of Vanadium:

 Shock- and corrosion-resistant steel additive called ferrovanadium.

 It is used to make extremely tough tools.
 It is used to make nuclear reactors.


The silvery-grey metal is mainly used to make ferrovanadium, an alloy of iron and
vanadium that is used in the production of steel and other alloys. China is the

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 107

leading producer of ferrovanadium, but many Chinese manufacturers have been
shut down recently due to increased environmental requirements. These
shutdowns helped spark last year’s price increase, although interest in vanadium
redox batteries also helped the industry receive some buzz.

The countries that produces Vanadium the most are China (43, 000 MT), Russia
(16, 000 MT), and South Africa (13, 000 MT).


Manganese was recognized by the Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele

At the beginning of the 19th century both British French metallurgists began to
considering the use of manganese in steelmaking.

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What Is Manganese?
An atomic number of 25
Chemical element with a symbol of “Mn”
It is the 12th most abundant element in the Earth’s crust.

Characteristics and Uses:

 Brittle
 Hard
 Gray-white or Silvery

Manganese steel, also called Hadfield steel

or mangalloy.

Manganese is renowned for its high impact strength and resistance to abrasion in
its hardened state, the steel is often described as the ultimate work hardening
It also develops a favorable wear pair with alloy steels so manganese steels can
be used as a bushing material in demanding mining applications.

Manganese steel also finds applications at extremely low temperatures due to its
persistent toughness even at these temperatures. One application of manganese
steel that is not a wear component is in the construction of safes.
The presence of manganese increases the hardenability
It increases tensile strength, hardness, hardenability and resistance to wear
A deoxidizer and degasifies and reacts with sulfur to improve forge ability.
It decreases tendency toward scaling and distortion.

Grades of Manganese:
The Standard Grade of Manganese Steel (Hadfield’s Manganese) – has roughly
12% manganese and 1.15% carbon.

The second family of manganese steels with elevated manganese and carbon
levels emerged. – has a manganese level near 19% and carbon around 1.45%

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The third family of manganese steel with relatively low manganese levels ( Lean
Manganese Steel) – has manganese levels of 5% to 7% and carbon 1%.
Molybdenum is also added up to 1.5%

Work Hardening:

The hardness of manganese steel in the solution annealed and water quenched
condition is normally around 220 HB. It is possible to strain harden this material to
approximately 500 HB.

In order to achieve this high hardness level, the impact loading must be high while
the material wearing away from gouging abrasion is limited.


Manganese steels can be produced by any of the conventional steel making


 Molding
 Heat Treatment
 Cleaning
 Welding
 Machining

Manganese Producing Countries:

 South Africa -5.3 million MT

 China – 2.5 million MT
 Australia – 2.2 million MT
 Gabon – 1.6 million MT
 Brazil – 1.2 million MT
 India – 790, 000 MT
 Ghana – 550, 000 MT
 Ukraine – 380, 000 MT
 Malaysia – 270, 000 MT
 Kazakhstan – 230,000 MT

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Tungsten was derived from the Swedish word means “Heavy Stone”.

In 1779, Irish chemist Peter Woulfe deduced existence of a new element, tungsten
from his analysis of the wolframite.

Tungsten was isolated as tungstic oxide in 1781 in Sweden by Carl Wilhelm

Scheele from the mineral scheelite
It was finally isolated by brothers Fausto and Juan Jose de Elhuyar in 1783

What Is Tungsten?
Tungsten was derived from the Swedish word meaning “Heavy stone”.
The element symbol is W comes from the original name Wolfram.
Tungsten is known as the strongest naturally occurring metal on Earth.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 111

Characteristics and Uses:

 Very hard
 Dense
 Silvery-white
 Lustrous metal
 It adds strength to steel over a
wide temperature range
 It is commonly used to electrical
wires and heating and electrical
 It is used in heavy metal alloys because of its hardness and in high-
temperature applications such as welding.
 It is highly resistant to corrosion.

Tungsten Producing Countries:

 China – 79,000 MT
 Vietnam – 7,200 MT
 Russia – 3,100 MT
 Bolivia – 1,100 MT
 United Kingdom – 1,100 MT
 Austria – 950 MT
 Portugal – 680 MT
 Rwanda – 650 MT
 Spain – 570 MT

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Silicon was discovered by Jöns Jacob Berzelius, a Swedish chemist, in 1824 by

heating chips of potassium in a silica container and then carefully washing away
the residual by-products. Silicon is the seventh most abundant element in the
universe and the second most abundant element in the earth's crust.

Silicon is a hard, relatively inert metalloid and in crystalline form is very brittle with
a marked metallic luster.

Melting point- 1410 °C
Boiling point- 3265 °C

Silicon is one of the most useful elements to mankind. Most is used to make alloys
including aluminum-silicon and ferro-silicon (iron-silicon). These are used to make

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 113

dynamo and transformer plates, engine blocks, cylinder heads and machine tools
and to deoxidize steel.
Silicon is also used to make silicones.

The element silicon is used extensively as a semiconductor in solid-state devices

in the computer and microelectronics industries. Silicon is used for electronic
devices because it is an element with very special properties. One of its most
important properties is that it is a semiconductor. This means that it conducts
electricity under some conditions and acts as an insulator under others.

Granite and most other rocks are complex silicates, and these are used for civil
engineering projects.

Sand (silicon dioxide or silica) and clay (aluminium silicate) are used to make
concrete and cement.



Tool steel refers to a variety of carbon

and alloy steels that are particularly well-
suited to be made into tools. Their
suitability comes from their distinctive
hardness, resistance to abrasion, and
deformation, and their ability to hold a
cutting edge at elevated temperatures.
As a result, tool steels are suited for use
in the shaping of other materials. Tool
steels are used for cutting, pressing,
extruding, and coining of metals and
other materials.

The presence of carbides in their matrix plays the dominant role in the qualities
of tool steel. The four major alloying elements that form carbides in tool steel are:
• Tungsten • Chromium

• Molybdenum • Vanadium

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 114



Gets its name from its defining property of having to be water quenched. W-
grade steel is essentially high carbon plain-carbon steel. This group of tool steel is
the most commonly used tool steel because of its low cost compared to others.

Its hardenability is low, so W-group tool steels must be subjected to a rapid

quenching, requiring the use of water

Typical applications for various carbon compositions are for W-steels:

 0.60–0.75% carbon: machine parts, chisels, setscrews; properties include

medium hardness with good toughness and shock resistance.
 0.76–0.90% carbon: forging dies, hammers, and sledges.
 0.91–1.10% carbon: general purpose tooling applications that require a good
balance of wear resistance and toughness, such as rasps, drills, cutters, and
shear blades.
 1.11–1.30% carbon: files, small drills, lathe tools, razor blades, and other light-
duty applications where more wear resistance is required without great
toughness. Steel of about 0.8% C gets as hard as steel with more carbon, but
the free iron carbide particles in 1% or 1.25% carbon steel make it hold an edge
better. However, the fine edge probably rusts off faster than it wears off, if it is
used to cut acidic or salty materials.


The cold-work tool steels include the O series (oil-hardening), the A series (air-
hardening), and the D series (high carbon-chromium). These are steels used to
cut or form materials that are at low temperatures. This group possesses high
hardenability and wear resistance, and average toughness and heat softening
resistance. They are used in production of larger parts or parts that require minimal
distortion during hardening.

 Oil-hardening: O series
This series includes an O1 type, an O2 type, an O6 type and an O7 type. All
steels in this group are typically hardened at 800°C, oil quenched, then tempered
at < 200°C.

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 Air-hardening: A series
The first air-hardening-grade tool steel was Mushet steel, which was known
as air-hardening steel at the time.
Modern air-hardening steels are characterized by low distortion during heat
treatment because of their high-chromium content. Their machinability is good, and
they have a balance of wear resistance and toughness (i.e. between the D and
shock-resistant grades).
 High carbon-chromium: D series
The D series of the cold-work class of tool steels, which originally included types
D2, D3, D6, and D7, contains between 10% and 13% chromium (which is
unusually high). These steels retain their hardness up to a temperature of 425 °C
(797 °F). Common applications for these tool steels include forging dies, die-
casting die blocks, and drawing dies. Due to their high chromium content, certain
D-type tool steels are often considered stainless or semi-stainless, however their
corrosion resistance is very limited due to the precipitation of most of their
chromium and carbon constituents as carbides.


The high shock resistance and good hardenability are provided by chromium-
tungsten, silicon-molybdenum, silicon-manganese alloying. Shock-resisting group
tool steels (S) are designed to resist shock at both low and high temperatures. A
low carbon content is required for the necessary toughness (approximately 0.5%
carbon). Carbide-forming alloys provide the necessary abrasion resistance,
hardenability, and hot-work characteristics. This family of steels displays very high
impact toughness and relatively low abrasion resistance and can attain relatively
high hardness (HRC 58/60).

4. High-Speed Group (M & T-Group Tool Steel)

A subset of tool steels commonly used as cutting tool material. It is often used
in power-saw blades and drill bits. It is superior to the older high-carbon steel tools
used extensively through the 1940s in that it can withstand higher temperatures
without losing its temper (hardness).

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5. HOT-WORKING GROUP (H-Group Tool Steel)

Hot-working steels are a group of steel used to cut or shape material at high
temperatures. H-group tool steels were developed for strength and hardness
during prolonged exposure to elevated temperatures. These tool steels are low
carbon and moderate to high alloy that provide good hot hardness and toughness
and fair wear resistance due to a substantial amount of carbide.


 P-type tool steel is short for plastic mold steels. They are designed to meet
the requirements of zinc die casting and plastic injection molding dies.
 L-type tool steel is short for low alloy special purpose tool steel. L6 is
extremely tough.
 F-type tool steel is water hardened and substantially more wear resistant
than W-type tool steel.


HSLA Steel is a type of alloy

steel that provides better
mechanical properties or greater
resistance to corrosion than
carbon steel. It varies from other
steels in that they are not made
to meet a specific chemical
composition but rather to
specific mechanical properties.
They have a carbon content between 0.05–0.25% to retain formability and
weldability. Other alloying elements include up to 2.0% manganese and small
quantities of copper, nickel, niobium, nitrogen, vanadium, chromium, molybdenum,
titanium, calcium, rare earth elements, or zirconium. Copper, titanium, vanadium,
and niobium are added for strengthening purposes. These elements are intended
to alter the microstructure of carbon steels, which is usually a ferrite-pearlite
aggregate, to produce a very fine dispersion of alloy carbides in an almost pure
ferrite matrix.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 117

They are used in cars, trucks,
cranes, bridges, roller coasters
and other structures that are
designed to handle large
amounts of stress or need a
good strength-to-weight ratio.
HSLA steel cross-sections and
structures are usually 20 to 30%
lighter than a carbon steel with
the same strength. HSLA steels
are also more resistant to rust than most carbon steels because of their lack of
pearlite – the fine layers of ferrite (almost pure iron) and cementite in pearlite.

Military armour plate is mostly made from alloy steels, although some civilian
armour against small arms is now made from HSLA steels with extreme low
temperature quenching.


 Weathering Steels: steels which have better corrosion resistance. A

common example is COR-TEN.

 Control-Rolled Steels: hot rolled steels which have a highly deformed

austenite structure that will transform to a very fine equiaxed ferrite structure
upon cooling.

 Pearlite-Reduced Steels: low carbon content steels which lead to little or

no pearlite, but rather a very fine grain ferrite matrix. It is strengthened by
precipitation hardening.

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 Acicular Ferrite Steels: These steels are characterized by a very fine high
strength acicular ferrite structure, a very low carbon content, and good
hardenability.These steels have a ferrite microstruture that contain small,
uniformly distributed sections of martensite. This microstructure gives the
steels a low yield strength, high rate of work hardening, and good

 Microalloyed Steels: steels which contain very small additions of niobium,

vanadium, and/or titanium to obtain a refined grain size and/or precipitation



 To be enlightened about the uses of Aluminum and Beryllium in

 To be enlightened about Aluminum and Beryllium Metals.
 To have a brief overview of the Physical and Chemical Properties of
Aluminum and Beryllium.


It is a chemical element with symbol Al and

atomic number 13.It is a silvery-white, soft,
nonmagnetic and ductile metal in the boron
group. By mass, aluminum makes up about
8% of the Earth's crust.

Physical & Chemical Properties

 Melting point: 660 °C (for AL 99,99

acc. to composition / alloying higher
resp. lower)

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 Boiling point: 2500 °C (acc. to composition /
alloying higher resp. lower)
 Density: 2,70 g/cm³
 Relative atomic mass 26,98
 Oxidation number: 3
 Atomic radius: 143,1 pm
 Ionic radius: 57 pm (+3)
 Electrical conductivity: 36 m/Ohm·mm²

Aluminum Valuable in Construction

 High Strength to Weight Ratio

 Air Tightness
 Easier to work with than most other materials.
 high reflexivity
 100% Recycable

What is Beryllium?

 Beryllium is a chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Be
and atomic number 4.
 It is a steel grey, strong, light-weight yet brittle, alkaline earth metal.
 It has one of the highest melting points of the light metals.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 120

Beryllium Valuable in Construction

 Outstanding strength (when

 High melting-point, high
specific heat
 Excellent thermal properties
 Electrical conductivity
 Reflectivity
 Low neutron absorption
 High neutron-scattering cross-
 Transparency to X-rays.


Shiny, reddish copper was the first metal manipulated by humans, and it
remains an important metal in industry today.
In the Roman era, copper was principally mined on Cyprus, the origin of the
name of the metal, from aes сyprium (metal of Cyprus), later corrupted
to сuprum (Latin), from which the words derived, coper (Old English) and copper,
first used around 1530.
Today, copper ore comes from huge open-pit mines.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 121

The Morenci mine, in southeastern Arizona, is
expected to produce approximately 225 million
pounds of copper in 2014.

Sometimes copper is found surrounded by rock or

in nuggets. Copper is also found combined with
other elements in copper ore. Heat and acids are
used to separate the copper from the ore.

Copper in rock Copper Ore


The Bronze Age 3000-750 BC

• Milestone In History
• First Large Scale Use of Metals
• Stronger & Harder Than Plain Copper
• Stronger Tools, Weapons, Armor
• Bronze Age Replaced by Iron Age

Iron Age

Much later, in the Iron Age, people invented a way to raise temperatures even
higher to extract iron from iron ore, which is even harder than bronze.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 122

Middle Ages:

The invention of printing in the 15th century increased the demand for copper
because of the ease with which copper sheets could be engraved or etched for
use as printing plates.
Copper had other important uses at sea, as copper sheathing of the hulls of
wooden ships was introduced in the middle of the 18th century.

 Excellent electrical and thermal conductor

 Excellent corrosion resistance
 Excellent Workability
 Antimicrobial
 An abundant element
 Electrical and thermal conductor
 Corrosion resistance
 Workability


Copper is Good
for Recycling

 Copper is recyclable without any loss of quality, both from raw state and
from manufactured products.

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 The process of recycling copper is roughly the same as is used to extract
copper but requires fewer steps.

Magnesium is a silvery-white metals that ignites easily in air and burns with
bright light. Magnesium is highly flammable, especially when powdered or shaved
into thin strips, though it is difficult to ignite in mass or bulk.

Magnesium may also be used as an igniter for thermite, a mixture of aluminium

and iron oxide powder that ignites only at a very high temperature.

Controlling the quantity of these metals improves corrosion resistance.

Sufficient manganese overcomes the corrosive effects of iron.

This prevents the formation of free hydrogen gas, an essential factor of corrosive
chemical processes.

Because of low weight and good mechanical and electrical properties,

magnesium is widely used for manufacturing of mobile phones, laptop and tablet
computers, cameras, and other electronic components.


 Dicovered by Alex Cronstedt in mine at Sweden, and was announced

named nickel at 1754.
 Hard and malleable, nickel resist corrosion and maintains its mechanical
and physical properties even when subected ot extreme high

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 124

Separation of Nickel to the Ore

 Crushing- Crushes the the

rocks that contains nickel
and copper to make it to
smaller pieces.
 Ball mills- Machine that
adds water and grind to
make Slurry(Slushie semi
 Floting tanks- Uses a fine
chemistry to make the
nickel and copper flot
(using bobbles).
 Slurry filter- Fliterize the
Slurry to get the
consentrated nickel and
 Purification- Making the
consentrated nickel and
copper pure.

Smelting- is the extraction of

metal from ore using melting and heating.
Refining- is the process of increasing the grade or purity of metal.


 Jet engines
 Electricity generation
 Batteries
 Coins
 Cars
 Mobile phones
 Cutlery

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 125


The term “refractory metal” is used to describe a group of metal elements that
have exceptionally high melting points and are resistant to wear corrosion, and

 High Melting point that can resist about 3632°F (2000°C).

 High in strength at high temperatures, in combination with their hardness,
that they are capable to used for a cutting and drilling tools.
 Very resistant in thermal shock.
 High densities as well as good electrical and heat conducting properties.
 High resistance to Creep.
 Corrosion resistance.

All of these five elements share a few key properties, such as a high level of
hardness at room temperature and a high melting point, especially when
subjected to temperatures higher than 3,600°F (2,000°C).

 Molybdenum
 Niobium and Tantalum
 Tungsten
 Rhenium


 It has high melting point, a low

coefficient of thermal expanssion
and a high level of thermal
 It was used in producing ribbons
and wires for lighting industry,
semiconductor base plate for power
electronics, glass melting, furnaces
and coating of flat screens.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 126

Niobium & Tantalum

 It is a shiny, white and turning

shade of blue, green, or yellow.
 It has a wide rage of uses from
use in hypoallergenic jewellery
to jet engine and to
superconducting magnets Etc.
 This two has a large similarly to
its properties and was found in
the same ore.

 Tungsten is a steel-gray heavy metal

that is hard and dense, with highest
melting point of any metals.
 It was used in incandescent light
bulbs, some of the fluorescent bulbs
and use in electrical furnace.

 Containing alloys that are unique with

high melting point, high in elasticity and
excellent at high temperature.


Titanium [1791]

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 127

A hard, shiny and strong metal.

1. Titanium is recognized for its high strength-to-weight ratio.

2. Titanium can be alloyed with iron, aluminium, vanadium, and molybdenum,

among other elements.

3. Titanium has high passivity.

4. It is as strong as steel and twice as strong as aluminum.


• Titanium is absolutely immune to environmental attack, regardless of


• It withstands urban pollution, marine environments, and is failure-proof in

even more aggressive environments.


 Aerospace Jet engine parts, satellites, missiles.

 Vessel Submarines, propellers, valves and pipes.
 Medical Artificial joints, dental implants, surgical instruments
 Sports Golf heads, hiking sticks, ice skates
 Architecture Roofing, exterior walls, ornaments, fences, pipes.

Physical Attributes:

 Light Weight
The specific gravity of titanium is 4.51 g/cm3 - about 60% that of steel, half that
of copper and 1.7 times that of aluminium. Being such a lightweight metal, titanium
imposes less burden on structure. It is easily fabricated and permits ease of

 Environmentally Safe

Due this its relative inertness in most atmospheres, titanium is considered

environmentally friendly. It is 100% recyclable and the product of a renewable

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 128

 Greatest Strength

Titanium is durable and shock resistant. This means titanium is more flexible
than other architectural metals during earthquakes and other periods of violent

 Aesthetic Qualities

As a building material titanium is available in its natural finish or it can be

anodised to a spectacular range of colours. And due to its outstanding corrosion
resistance, titanium requires no corrosion preventive coating.

Zirconium [1791]

Zirconium is a silver-gray transition metal, a type of element that is malleable and

ductile and easily forms stable compounds. It is also highly resistant to corrosion.
Zirconium and its alloys have been used for centuries in a wide variety of ways.


• Colored glazes • Flashbulbs

• Bricks • Lamp filaments

• Ceramics • Artificial gemstones

• Abrasives • Deodorants

Zirconium Pricing
Zirconium metal powder/zirconium powder/(ZrO2) = US $6-35 / Kilogram

99.6% purity zirconium metal plate = US $45-80 / Kilogram

Zirconium metal r60702 Zirconium bar = US $50-70 / Kilogram

High Purity Zirconium ingot Metal = US $80-130 / Kilogram

Zirconium pipe/zirconium price/zirconium metal = US $40-70 / Kilogram

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 129

Republic of the Philippines
Technological University of the Philippines
Graphics Department

Subject: BMMC – Building Materials & Methods of Construction
Course: BGT - AT – 1A
SY: 2018-2019 / 2ᶮᵈ SEMESTER

I. History of Glass and the Process of Glass Making
(by Estudillo)

II. Raw Materials and Machines Used in Making Glass

(by Raboy)

III. Properties of Glass (by Egdalino)

IV. Types of Glass (by Del Castillo)

a. Normal or Float Glass

b. High Performance Glass
c. Processed Glass
d. Glass Based on Principal Constituent

V. Uses and Application of Glass in Construction, Architecture

and Decoration (by Malapad)

VI. Uses and Application of Glass in Everyday Use and

Jewelries (by Tome)

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 130


Leader: Egdalino, Jover


Del Castillo, Roshiel Anne L.

Estudillo, Femejela

Malapad, Erika

Raboy, Ben C’zar

Tome, John Drexler

April 2019

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 131

• Generally believed that it was discovered 4,000 years ago in Mesopotamia.

• The Roman historian Pliny attributed the origin of glassmaking to

Phoenician sailors. They propped a cooking pot on some blocks of Natran
(an alkali substance), and made a fire, to their surprise, the beach sand
under the fire melted and ran in a liquid stream that later cooled and
hardened into glass. It is around 5000 B.C.

• By the time of crusades, glass manufacturing was developed in Venice and

it became glassmaking center of the western world.
• 1291 Glassmaking equipment was transferred to the island of Murano.

• 15TH CENTURY Venetian glass blower, Angelo Barovier, created Cristallo,

nearly colorless, transparent glass.

• LATE 15TH CENTURY Many Venetians went to Northern Europe where they
established factories and brought the art of Venetian glassblowing.
• 1608 The first glass factory in the U.S was built in Jamestown, Virginia.
• 1674 An English glassmaker George Ravenscroft invented lead glass.

• EARLY 1800S There was a great demand for window glass which was
called Crown Glass.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 132


• 1820 The age of blowing individual bottles, glasses and flasks was ended
by the invention of a hand-operated machine.
• 1870 The first semi-automatic bottle machine was introduced.
• 1890 glass use, development, and manufacture began to increase rapidly.

• 1902 Colburn invented the Sheet glass drawing machine which made
possible the mass production of Window glass.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 133

• 1904 American Engineer Michael Owens patented automatic bottle blowing

• 1959 New revolutionary float glass production was introduced by Sir Alistair
Pikington by which 90% of flat glass is still made today.

• 1984 First fluoride was discovered by Marcel and Michael Poulain and
Jacques Lucas in Rennes France.



Heated liquid glass, ‘gobs’, are poured into a mold called the Parison or the
blank. A puff of air blown down into the base of the blank mould pushes the liquid
glass to form the neck. A second blast of air is then applied through the already
formed neck pushing the liquid into the walls of the Parison mold. this mold is then
transferred to the final mould where the glass is reheated to be able to take the
final molds shape. This final molding is usually done with a combination of
compressed air or vacuum.


Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 134

The gobs are delivered into the parison mold and instead of air a plunger
pushes the glass to give shape. The finals stages are the same as the blow & blow
method where the blank shape is transferred into a blow mold for the final shape.

In 1904 the Westlake machine was initially designed to manufacture light bulbs at
an increased pace. One of the pioneering directors were William L. Libbey, Michael
Owens, \Waldridge and Donovan. Later the machines concept has been used to
produce domestic glassware at incredible speeds and numbers.


Starting by gathering the ‘gobs’ from the furnace the machine mimics the
movements and method of a hand blower. The machine forms the Parison mold
and blows to form the item in a cast iron mold. this is just one of the actions now
multiply that by as many as you can as long as it is an even number because the
spindles worked in pairs. All these molds, blowers and spindles along with the gobs
and cooled glass move in circular motion around a central column.

The glass is gathered by vacuum into a pair of blank molds and each
exchange the blank glass to each other’s spindles. The spindles are up when this
happens and then they rotate and swing down as air is blown into the Parison
giving the glass a profile and a distribution. Thereafter another blow of air is
required in the wetted mold to take the final shape of the bottom half of the glass

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 135

The molded glass is taken by the spindle and transferred to a stemming
machine. This machine reheats and stretches the neck to the required
specifications. Then the almost finished glass moves to the burn-off stage where
oxygen powered gas flames remove the waste glass also referred to as ‘moil’. The
finished product is left to cool down and harden. All this is done at breakneck
speeds at times producing more than 75,000 units in a single working day.

The age old technique of glass blowing was said to be invented by the
Syrians in the 1st century B.C. and has since been developed over the centuries
to create the beautiful art form it is today. The process involves wetting the edge
of a blowpipe (blow tube) and dipping it into a furnace that has molten liquid glass.
The desired amount (glob) then sticks on to the pipe (spooling) and the 'glass
smith', 'glassblower', or 'gaffer' blows air through the other end of the pipe to make
the desired shape.



This involves spooling hot liquid glass onto a blowpipe and blowing short
puffs of air from one end stretching the glass glob. The method dates back to the
1st century B.C. and a skilled glass smith can make any shape he or she can
imagine. This is, therefore, one of the most popular methods for artistic purposes.
In addition to blowing, the glass smith can swing the pipe to cool the glass and
manipulate the shape.

During blowing the thin layers of glass cool faster and become more viscous
than the thicker layers, allowing the final product to have a uniformed thickness.
The ancient method of glass blowing was done with clay blowpipes 30-60cms thick
as this was the ideal length to be simple to handle, easy to manipulate and it was
reusable several times.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 136


This method involves spooling the blowpipe with liquid glass, placing the
glob in an open shut mold and blowing so that the glass takes the shape of the

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 137

interior of the mold. This made it possible to mass produce glass and encourage
the widespread distribution of glass products.

In earlier days the mold was made using wood, however metal is now
considered the best material for the mold. Single piece molds are used for making
functional vessels for storage and transportation whereas the multi piece mold is
used for more sophisticated surface modelling texture and design.


The basics to modern glass blowing is more or less the same since it first
started all those years ago. The process has been, however, streamlined to be
more effective. Modern glassblowing has evolved to use three furnaces.

The first furnace has a crucible of molten glass. It is attached to the area
where the raw materials and recycled glass can constantly feed it. The second
furnace is called the glory hole where the glass smith can reheat the article of glass
he is working with in between steps.The third furnace is called the lehr or the
annealer and it is used to cool the glass slowly over a period of days to weeks
depending on the size of the articleore or less the same since it first started all
those years ago. The process has been, however, streamlined to be more
effective. Modern glassblowing has evolved to use three furnaces.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 138


The molten glass is fed onto a float bath of a molten tin. This tin bath is 4-8
meters wide and up to 60n meters long. To prevent the tin surface from oxidizing
with the atmospheric oxygen, the tin bath is placed under a protective gas. The
glass floats like an endless ribbon on the tin. At the entrance where the glass first
makes contact with the tin surface, the temperature of the liquid metal is about
6,000 degrees celcius.Tin is the only metal that remains in a liquid state at 6,000
degrees celcius. Immediately after the exit from the float chamber, special rollers
take up the glass and feed it into the annealing lehr from whiuch it exits at about
2,000 degrees celcius.

After cooling to room temperature, on an open roller track, it is cut, packed,

and stored either for shipment or for further processing into products such as safety
glass, reflective glass, self-cleaning glass, mirrors, or double glazed

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 139

Glass Manufacturing Process

The glass – float glass as we know - is manufactured by the PPG process. This
process was invented by Sir Alistair Pilkington in 1952 and is the most popular and
widely used process in manufacturing architectural glass in the world today.

The raw materials that go into the manufacturing of clear float glass are:
SiO2 – Silica Sand
Na2O – Sodium Oxide from Soda Ash
CaO – Calcium oxide from Limestone / Dolomite
MgO – Dolomite
Al2O3 – Feldspar

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 140

The above raw materials primarily mixed in batch helps to make clear glass. If
certain metal oxides are mixed to this batch, they impart colours to the glass giving
it a body tint.

For e.g.
NiO & CoO – to give grey tinted glasses (Oxides of Nickel & Cobalt)
SeO – to give Bronze tinted glasses (oxide of Selenium)

Fe2O3 – To give Green tinted glasses (oxides of iron which at times is also present
as impurity in Silica Sand)
CoO – To give blue tinted glass (oxides of Cobalt)

Apart from the above basic raw material, broken glass aka cullet, is added to the
mixture to the tune of nearly 25% ~ 30% which acts primarily as flux. The flux in a
batch helps in reducing the melting point of the batch thus reducing the energy
consumed to carry out the process.

It consists of the following steps:

Stage 1- Melting & Refining:

Fine grained ingredients closely controlled for quality, are mixed to make a batch,
which flows into the furnace, which is heated up to 1500 degree Celsius.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 141

Stage 2 - Float Bath:

Glass from the furnace gently flows over the refractory spout on to the mirror-like
surface of molten tin, starting at 1100 deg Celsius and leaving the float bath as
solid ribbon at 600 deg Celsius.

Stage 3 - Coating (for making reflective glasses):

Coatings that make profound changes in optical properties can be applied by

advanced high temperature technology to the cooling ribbon of glass. Online
Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) is the most significant advance in the float
process since it was invented. CVD can be used to lay down a variety of coatings,
a few microns thick, for reflect visible and infra-red radiance for instance. Multiple
coatings can be deposited in the few seconds available as the glass flows beneath
the coater (e.g. Sunergy)

Stage 4 - Annealing:

Despite the tranquillity with which the glass is formed, considerable stresses are
developed in the ribbon as the glass cools. The glass is made to move through the
annealing lehr where such internal stresses are removed, as the glass is cooled
gradually, to make the glass more prone to cutting.

Stage 5 - Inspection:

To ensure the highest quality inspection takes place at every stage. Occasionally
a bubble that is not removed during refining, a sand grain that refuses to melt or a
tremor in the tin puts ripples in the glass ribbon. Automated online inspection does
two things. It reveals process faults upstream that can be corrected. And it enables
computers downstream to steer round the flaws. Inspection technology now allows
100 million inspections per second to be made across the ribbon, locating flaws
the unaided eye would be unable to see.

Stage 6 - Cutting to Order:

Diamond steels trim off selvedge – stressed edges- and cut ribbon to size dictated
by the computer. Glass is finally sold only in square meters.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 142


Glass Density:
The density of building glass is around 2500 kg per cubic meter at 20 0 C
temperature, which gives flat glass a mass of 2.500 kg per square meter per mm
of thickness.

Glass Compressive Strength and Tensile Strength

The compressive strength of glass is 1000 N per Sq.mm (10197.2 Kg per
Sq.cm) at 200 C temperature, which is very high. It means 10 tonnes of load is
required to break a 1 cm cube of glass.
The tensile strength of glass is significantly lower than that of compressive
strength. The resistance to tensile strength (deflection) is 40 N per Sq.mm (407.88
Kg per Sq.cm) at 200 C temperatures for annealed glass and 120 to 200 N per
Sq.mm (1223.66 to 2039.43 Kg per Sq.cm) at 20 0 C temperature for toughened

Glass Young’s Modulus or Modulus of Elasticity

The young’s modulus (Force per unit area) of any material is a measure it’s
the stiffness. Larger the value of young’s modulus means stiffer the glass. The
young’s modulus of glass is 70 GPa at 200 C temperature (The young’s modulus
of concrete is 30 to 50 GPa at 200 C temperature).

Glass Poisson’s Ratio

Poisson’s Ratio is directly related to elongation and contraction of material
when load is applied in one direction, and it is also known as lateral contraction co-
efficient. The cross section area of glass decreases as it is stretched. The
Poisson’s ratio of glass is 0.22.

Glass Linear Expansion or Co-efficent of Thermal Expansion:

Linear expansion is a stretch per unit length for a variation of 10 C
temperature. The co-efficient of linear thermal expansion is 9 x 10-6 m/ 0 C.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 143

The user can effectively choose correct application for glass after referring above
mentioned points. Based on the important properties & characteristics it is
considered as best future material for building construction.

Hardness and Brittleness

It is a hard material as it has greater impact resistance against applied load.
But at the same time it is brittle material as its breaks immediately when subjected
to load.

Weather Resistance
It is weather resistant as it can withstand the effect of rain, sun and wind. It
can absorb, reflect and refract light as it enables us to control and manipulate
natural light to influence our daily activities and frame of mind.
It has greater dimensional stability as it has low thermal expansion value.
(I.e. Its change in volume with respect to temperature change as compared to other
materials is very low.)

It is an excellent insulator against heat, electricity and electromagnetic
radiation. It has a good insulating response against visible light transmission.
Certain special type of glass has high resistance against ultra-violet,
infrared and x-ray transmission. It has an excellent resistance against sound
transmission, provided used with proper thickness.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 144

Chemical Resistance:
It can withstand the effect of the chemical reaction under different
environment conditions or acidic effects.
It has excellent resistance to most chemicals, including solutions of
inorganic alkalies and acids, such as ammonia and sulfuric acid.

Color and Shape Varieties:
It can be blown, drawn and pressed to any color, shape, and varieties.
Nowadays so many color and shape varieties are available in the market
depending upon their use, dimensional requirements, and safety requirement.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 145




 has a natural greenish hue or

 clear and transparent
annealed glass
 also known as flat glass
 also used for further
processing to other glass

Size and Thickness:

 available from 2mm to 20mm

thickness ranges.
 Width – 715mm to 3600mm
 Length – 914mm to 6100mm
 have a weight range of 6 to 36

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 146


 Most commonly used in glass

 architectural exteriors and interiors
of the building.
 Wide application in residential
structures such as doors, tabletops,
stairs, bottles, glass partitions,
furniture articles, etc.


 The body-tinted glass is float

glass in which melted
colorants are added for
tinting and solar-radiation
absorption properties
 increases the aesthetics of a
building by providing vibrant
and colorful look.
 Coatings of various metal
oxides are applied on the
surface of float glass to
produce a tinted glass.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 147


Iron Green, Brown, Blue

Carbon, Sulphur Brown, Amber

Manganese Purple

Cobalt Blue, Green, Pink

Chromium Dark green, Yellow, Pink

Copper Blue, Red, Green

Nickel Yellow, Purple



 also called active coating or hard coating

 done when the glass is in the molten state and is on float line for the
cooling process. As the glass is in the molten state, the coating fuses with
the glass very tightly.


 also called passive coating or soft coating

 done after the glass is manufactured. The coating is applied in vacuum
chambers at room temperature.
 Offline coated tinted glass has less resistance to scratches as compared
to online coated tinted glass.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 148


 decorative and translucent

glass with textures or patterns
on one face of the glass for
diffusing light and
obstructing visibility from
the outside.

Size and Thickness:

 thickness of 4 mm and 6 mm
 The standard size of the glass
sheet is 2160 mm X 1650 mm.


 useful for providing privacy

to interiors of the house, thus
extensively used in exterior
windows and bathroom

 extensively used in glass

partitions in homes as well as
in corporate offices to
maintain the confidentiality.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 149


 also known as Georgian Wired Glass; invented by Frank Shuman.

 Wire mesh is inlaid in the glass to protect from shattering and breaking
out under stress.
 low cost fire resistance glass hence it is used to protect against the
harmful effects of smoke and flame. (fire-rated glass or fireproof glass)
 The wire mesh is available in square grids as well as diamond grids.

Size & Thickness:

 Thickness - ranging from 6 mm to 19 mm

 The standard size of glass sheets is 1370 mm x 1370 mm.
 The maximum size of wired glass sheet available is 1981 mm x 2540 mm.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 150



 a special oxide coated glass which

transfers less amount of the heat in
the building and also helps in
reducing the glare of light entering.

 For tropical countries like India, this

type of glass is very suitable as it
helps in reducing the amount of air-
conditioning required.


 skyscrapers as glass facades in modern buildings

 conservatory roofs
 air conditioned malls and showrooms, etc.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 151


 Low Emissivity Glass has excellent thermal insulation properties.

 It allows only visible light to enter the room and thus gives protection from
UV and infrared rays.

 In cold climates, they help in maintaining the temperature of interior, and
provide energy efficient solution.


 Combines the features of

both Solar Control Glass
and Low E Glass
 Cuts up to 60% of solar
heat entering the room and
also provides thermal
 Most suitable to use in
countries where difference
in temperature is more

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 152



 also known as heat proof

glass / sound proof glass /
bullet proof glass /
insulating glass / safety
 made by sandwiching a layer
of polyvinyl butyral (PVB)
between two or more layers of
 It has more thickness and is
UV proof and soundproof.


 skylight glazing
 automobile windshields
 Aquariums
 bridges etc.

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 also known as tempered glass

 a strong glass which is heated to a uniform temperature and rapidly
cooled to increase the strength.
 used for escalator side panels, handrails, balustrades, staircase handrails
and viewing partitions of sports complexes, resorts, and airports, mobile
screen protectors etc.


 also called as heat treated glass

 processed with heat treatment for
durability and safety reasons.
 Its mechanical strength is twice
that of normal annealed glass and
half of fully tempered glass.
 used for structural glazing as they
safeguard against thermal

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 It reflects more amount of

natural light, hence
preventing visibility from
one side and providing
 A coating of metal oxide
(silver, aluminum, gold,
chromium, etc.) is applied to
one side of the clear or body
tinted glass in order to
increase the amount of
reflection by the glass.

Size and Thickness:

 thickness ranging from 3
mm to 12 mm.
 standard size of glass
sheets available is 250
mm X 250 mm, and the
maximum size is 3210
mm X 2250 mm.
 Custom made sizes are
also available on request.


 most commonly used in

glass facades of offices,
commercial structures and
industrial buildings.
 glass spandrels, overhead
and sloped glazing, entrance
doors, store fronts, etc.
 an ideal choice in
application, where view from
one side is to be obstructed

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 has a milky translucent or obscure surface, rather than transparent

surface in float glass.
 One surface of the glass is etched and has a rough finish, through which
diffusion of light occurs. (a.k.a. ETCHED GLASS)
 used as a decorative glass where privacy is required, such as shower
cubicles, conference rooms, office partitions, windows and doors of
bedrooms, dressing rooms, etc.

Size & Thickness:

 thickness ranging from 3 mm

to 19 mm.
 The standard size of a
frosted glass sheet is 1320
mm x 2140mm.

Various companies emboss their

logo into the glass by using frosted
glass, to promote their brands.

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 Generally, hydrofluoric acid is used

in glass etching. The acid reacts with
the glass and corrodes the surface.
After the etching process is done, the
glass is washed thoroughly. The part
of the surface on which acid was
applied, becomes translucent and
appears frosted. The etching is
permanent and upon touching,
fingerprint marks do not remain on the
 can be produced in various degrees of
transparency as required by the
customer, such as light, moderate
and opaque.

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 produced by blasting sand or husk on the surface of the glass through a

high-velocity machine. Due to high-velocity impact, abrasion of glass
occurs on the point of
contact. The surface is
rendered rough and
 The degree of
translucency can be
altered by changing the
velocity and type of
 Designs can be created
by masking the part
which is to be
transparent and then
blasting the surface.


 A.k.a Insulated Glazing Unit (IGU)

 made by two or more
panes of glass
separated by a cavity
and the edges are
 The cavity is
generally filled by a
non-conducting gas
such as dehydrated
air, argon, etc.
 They provide
excellent thermal and
sound insulation

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Size & Thickness:

 Standard
Thicknesses: 11 mm
to 25 mm for
Residential &
Commercial use
 Maximum Thickness:
33 mm for sloped

Laminated glass or
toughened glass
incorporated with insulated
glass unit is used in safety


 used in buildings with high heating or cooling requirements, also buildings

that need the temperature and humidity controlled, other environments
that need regulated atmosphere and prevention of condensation and in
windows where sound insulation is priority

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 Also called as ceramic frit glass

 used when it is important to mask a part or whole of glass for privacy or
hiding the background
 used for curtain walls, shower installations, glass doors, spandrels, and
partitions, stair rails, conference room, etc.

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 also known as back painted glass (BPG)

 obtained by painting the back surface of the glass with high quality paint.
Generally, they are always viewed from the front surface which is not

 extensively used in architectural spandrels, contemporary cupboards,
furniture, kitchen countertops, backsplashes, washrooms of cinemas,
hotels, restaurants, etc.



 also known as soda ash glass, soda glass, commercial glass or soft
 obtained from the fusion of a mixture of silica, lime, soda and alumina.
 most common type of glass produced in the world.
 Widely used for glazing of doors, windows, and for making ordinary
glassware such as glass bottles,
containers, etc.

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 also known as hard glass or Bohemian glass

 has a high melting point and hence can withstand high thermal stresses.
 has good resistance towards acids and alkalis as compared to soda lime
 used for making laboratory apparatus and combustion tubes,
window glass, electric bulbs, plate glass, bottles, jars, and to make
glassware which requires high-temperature resistance and chemical

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 also known as flint glass or lead glass

 obtained from the fusion of a mixture of silica, lead, and potash, in which
the content of lead is around 18-40%.
 used for high-quality glassware, cut glass, bulbs, lenses and prisms.
 Lead is also known to block x-
rays and gamma radiations, thus
they are used in making shields for
personnel working in the nuclear
science industry, x-ray rooms, etc.


 also known as Pyrex glass

 obtained from the fusion of
silica, borax, lime, and feldspar
 has good resistance to thermal
and electric shocks. They can
bear temperature difference of
165 0C without breaking
 used in packaging of medicines
and drugs, making of glass
cookware, microwave and
ovens, semiconductors,
flashlights, telescopes, etc.

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 also known as bottle glass

 prepared from cheap raw materials like sodium silicate, iron silicate and
calcium silicate
 available in different colors like green, brown and yellow
 allows less light to enter and thus prevents fading or degradation of
products stored in it
 mainly used to manufacture household bottles,
medicine bottles, glassware used for drinking,
packaging of drugs, etc.

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Glass is a hard substance which may be transparent or translucent and

brittle in nature. It is manufactured by fusion process. In this process sand is fused
with lime, soda and some other admixtures and then cooled rapidly. Glass is used
in construction purpose and architectural purpose in engineering.

Types of Glass and their Uses in Construction Works

The types of glass used in construction are:

 Float Glass

Float glass is made of sodium silicate and calcium silicate so, it is also called
as soda lime glass. It is clear and flat so, it causes glare. These glasses are
available from 2mm to 20mm thickness ranges. They have a weight range of 6 to
36 kg/m2. These are used as shop fronts, public places etc.

 Shatterproof Glass

Shatterproof glass is used for windows, skylights, floors etc. Some type of
plastic polyvinyl butyral is added in its making process. So, it cannot form sharp
edged pieces when it breaks.

 Laminated Glass

Laminated glass is the combination of layers of normal glass. So, it has

more weight than normal glass. It has more thickness and is UV proof and
soundproof. These are used for aquariums, bridges etc.

 Extra Clean Glass

Extra clean glass has two special properties, photocatalytic and hydrophilic.
Because of these properties, it acts as stain proof and gives beautiful appearance.
Maintenance is also easy.

 Chromatic Glass

Chromatic glass is used in ICU’s, meeting rooms etc. it can control the
transparent efficiency of glass and protects the interior from daylight. The

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 165

chromatic glass may be photochromic which has light sensitive lamination,
thermos-chromatic which has heat sensitive lamination and electrochromic which
has electric lamination over it.

 Toughened Glass

Toughened glass is strong glass which has low visibility. It is available in all
thicknesses and when it is broken it forms small granular chunks which are
dangerous. This is also called as tempered glass. This type of glass is used for fire
resistant doors, mobile screen protectors etc.

 Glass Blocks

Glass block or glass bricks are manufactured from two different halves and
they are pressed and annealed together while melting process of glass. These are
used as architectural purpose in the construction of walls, skylights etc. They
provide aesthetic appearance when light is passed through it.

 Insulated Glazed Units

Insulated glazed glass units contains a glass is separated into two or three
layers by air or vacuum. They cannot allow heat through it because of air between
the layers and acts as good insulators. These are also called as double glazed



Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 166

The Louvre Pyramid (Pyramide du Louvre) is a large glass and metal pyramid
designed by Chinese-American architect I.M. Pei, surrounded by three smaller
pyramids, in the main courtyard (Cour Napoléon) of the Louvre Palace (Palais du
Louvre) in Paris. The large pyramid serves as the main entrance to the Louvre
Museum. Completed in 1989,[1] it has become a landmark of the city of Paris.


Construction is finished for Japanese architect Toyo Ito’s Solar Powered

Stadium in Taiwan. The stadium’s roof is covered by 8,844 solar panels. The
stadium is located in Kaohsiung, Taiwan and it was built to coincide with the
opening of the World Games, to be held this July.

The “World Games Stadium” holds 55,000 spectators and it cost $150 million to
build. The stadium will hold the record for largest solar-powered stadium in the
world with it’s 14,155m2 roof. It could potentially generate 1.14 gigawatt hours of
electricity every year, enough to power up to 80% of the sorrounding

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The National Grand Theater, by Paul Andreu is a magnificent and gigantic

project finished a few months ago, complementing all the infrastructure been built
for the big sports event. The building is situated in the heart of Beijing on Chang
An Avenue next to the Great Hall of the People and about 500 meters from Tian
An Men Square and the Forbidden City. It is a curved building, with a total surface
area of 149,500 square meters, that emerges like an island at the center of a lake.
The titanium shell is in the shape of a super ellipsoid with a maximum span of 213
meters, a minimum span of 144 meters and a height of 46 meters). It is divided in
two by a curved glass covering, 100 meters wide at the base.

During the day, light flows through the glass roof into the building. At night, the
movements within can be seen from outside. The building houses three
performance auditoriums - a 2,416-seat opera house, a 2,017 seat concert hall
and a 1,040 theatre - as well as art and exhibition spaces opened to a wide public
and integrated into the city.

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Prague, the capital of the Czech Republic, is rich in a variety of sights,

especially historical ones. But there are also a great number of modern places of
interest. One of them is the Prague Dancing House, a highly original building
resembling and also inspired by two dancers – the immortally famous duo of Fred
Astaire and Ginger Rogers.

The Nationale Nederlanden building, known as the “Dancing House” or

sometimes “Fred and Ginger”, is one of the most significant landmarks in Prague
and definitely the most internationally renowned piece of post-1989 Czech
architecture. It is home to almost 3000 square meters of office premises, a
restaurant, a gallery, and a conference centre. Most importantly, there is a
sightseeing terrace on top of it, from which you can overlook the breathtaking
panorama of Prague.


• Glass vase for the dining table

One simple idea is to decorate with glass vases. Pictured here, the delicate
plants on the dining table create a point of attention and beautifies the space very

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 169

well. It is also worth noting other decorative pieces that emphasize the lightness in
this decoration. The glass pendant lamp, for example, exudes elegance and add
a modern touch to the environment.

• Glass coffee table

A glass coffee table is an excellent way of furnishing and decorating

with glass. By using a glass coffee table, you can also display decorative objects
on the coffee table.

• Staircase with tempered glass

Stairs are structures that always interfere directly in the decoration of the
house. Glass railings are a great addition to a staircase both aesthetically and
functionally. Here we have tempered glass that contrasts lightly with the other
materials, but without giving up the lightness in the decoration. For more ideas,
here are 8 ways you can use glass in a staircase.

• Glass cabinet

Keeping the room organized and well decorated is a challenge. After

all, all we want is to expose the objects we love most in a very personalized
song. And as a solution to this, the design of this glass cabinet, which can even be
made with aquariums, was great. In addition to spotting the spaces, the cabinet
still allows the valuation of small objects for decoration.

• Glass balcony railings

Glass balcony railings not only make the balcony seem larger and more
open, but can also add beauty to the facade of your home. Since glass has a
reflective quality similar to mirrors, it can add a decorative element to the facade.
We highly recommend getting a professional to help you out with this.

• Opaque glass kitchen cabinets

Opaque glass kitchen cabinets are ideal as you can't really see all
the things stored in the cabinet and it gives the kitchen a light and sophisticated
look. You can also consult with local interior designers if you need more advice.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 170

• Glass walls

Anyone who needs to create divisions of spaces at home, ends up

wondering what are the best ways to do this without losing important square
meters. And a good example of this kind of solution is undoubtedly in this
image. Here, the opaque glass allows an intelligent division, where the lightness
of the material and the passage of natural light allows the place to always be
pleasant. The result is modern and very inspiring.

• Glass partition door with details

We could not leave out the traditional doors of blasted glass. These
beautiful doors have the most variety of designs and can be made entirely in glass
or have boards in the middle of the structure, composing creative and elegant
solutions that can look great in bedrooms, bathrooms, kitchens and anywhere else
creativity allows.

• Glass bead curtains

Glass bead curtains can be hung anywhere to create a beautiful glow

in any room. For best effects, make sure to hang the glass bead curtains in a place
where there is light because this makes it really pretty.

• Glass shower box

Someone who believes that the toilet stall is only used to protect the
shower spatter is foolhardy. This piece can actually add value to the decor of the
space, even without undergoing modifications, such as sand jets and other
commonly used methods. The tip is to choose good coatings for the inner wall of
the bath area. A simple solution that certainly made all the difference.


Glass is an unlimited and innovative material that has plenty of applications.

It is an essential component of numerous products that we use every day, most
often without noticing it.

It is clear that modern life would not be possible without glass!

Glass is used in the following non-exhaustive list of products:

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 171

 Packaging (jars for food, bottles for drinks, flacon for cosmetics and
 Tableware (drinking glasses, plate, cups, bowls)
 Housing and buildings (windows, facades, conservatory, insulation,
reinforcement structures)
 Interior design and furnitures (mirrors, partitions, balustrades, tables,
shelves, lighting)
 Appliances and Electronics (oven doors, cook top, TV, computer screens,
 Automotive and transport (windscreens, backlights, light weight but
reinforced structural components of cars, aircrafts, ships, etc.)
 Medical technology, biotechnology, life science engineering, optical
 Radiation protection from X-Rays (radiology) and gamma-rays (nuclear)
 Fibre optic cables (phones, TV, computer: to carry information)
 Renewable energy (solar-energy glass, windturbines)

All of this is made possible by the countless properties of the glass substance.



- Personal ornaments, such as necklaces, rings, or bracelets, that are

typically made from or contain jewels and precious metal. Glass beads
and amulets were the first elements of jewelry to be produced from glass.
Glass used to make articles of jewelry, beginning with necklaces and
pendants. Polished glass beads were also set in rings, earrings and other

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 172


- a fragrant liquid typically made from essential oils extracted from flowers
and spices, used to impart a pleasant smell to one's body or clothes. Perfumes
are made of scented oils and liquids, including alcohol. The alcohol evaporates
over time, which is why the scent changes with time. Glass keeps the perfume
relatively stable.


- dishes, utensils, and glassware used for serving and eating meals at a
table. With its incomparable physical and chemical properties, glass is perfectly
suited to the conservation of food products, particularly liquids.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 173


- a container, typically made of glass or plastic and with a narrow neck, used
for storing drinks or other liquids. Glass is a pure, healthy and natural material,
making it particularly suitable for food and pharmaceutical products as well as for
perfume. It is perfectly neutral, protecting without altering the taste or odor of
whatever contents it receives. And it is totally impermeable, ensuring perfect
conservation for long periods.


- equipment in a home, workplace, studio, theater, or street for producing

light. Glass and light are inseparable. From time immemorial the refractory
properties and transparency of glass have been used to protect, intensify and
diffuse light.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 174


Fused-Glass Jewelry
this type of jewelry is usually used in pendants and earrings and is
considered to be a one-of-a-kind work of art.

Dichroic-Glass Jewelry
this type of glass jewelry is made in much the same way as fused-glass
jewelry, but it has its own distinct look. It is made of pieces of sparkling,
shimmering material that is then mounted onto clear or black glass.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 175

Glass Beads
These are tiny works of art that are strung together as bracelets or necklaces,
or mounted into glass-jewelry rings and earrings.

Murano Glass
Also called “Venetian glass” or “millefiori,” this type of glasswork was
developed centuries ago on an island off of Venice, Italy. The process of using
the ends of glass rods to make many small flowers inside the glass (the term
“millefiori” literally means “one thousand flowers”) makes this type of glass
unique and easy to spot.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 176

Sea Glass
Sea-glass jewelry (also called beach glass) has a loyal following of people
who have an affinity with the sea. True sea glass is made when a broken piece of
glass is thrown into the sea where it is tumbled and pounded by the sand and
waves until it emerges smooth and opaque on the beach.


CLEAR GLASS - PHP 1,007.00 / Square Meter

TINTED GLASS - PHP 212.00 / Square Meter
PATTERNED GLASS - PHP 213.00/ Square Meter
WIRED GLASS - PHP 901.00/ Square feet
SOLAR CONTROL GLASS - PHP 795.00/ Square Meter
LAMINATED GLASS - PHP 318.00/ Square Meter
TOUGHENED GLASS - PHP 106.00/ Square Meter
REFLECTIVE GLASS - PHP 159.00/ Square Meter
INSULATED GLASS - PHP 1,166.00/ Square Meter
CERAMIC PRINTED GLASS - PHP 339.00/ Square Meter
FROSTED GLASS - PHP 132.00/ Piece

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 177

Republic of the Philippines
Technological University of the Philippines
Graphics Department

Subject: BMMC – Building Materials & Methods of Construction
Course: BG - AT – 1A
SY: 2018-2019 / 2ᶮᵈ SEMESTER


1. History of Concrete (by Sangalang)

2. Concrete Mixture (by De Chavez)
3. Concrete Products (by Ofilada)
4. Concrete Additives (by Evano)

B. TILES (by Atienza)

1. Types of Tile Flooring

2. Types of Cement and Tile Patterns
3. Tile Sizes
4. Fixing Tiles

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 178


Leader: Atienza, Kenneth Bryan


De Chavez, Vhladimire

Evano, Nicole

Sanggalang, Jeremy

Ofilada, Kyla

Soriano, Kendrick

April 2019

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 179


What is concrete?
A heavy, rough building material that can be spread or poured into molds
and that forms a mass resembling stone on hardening.
What makes concrete, concrete?
Concrete is made up of three basic components: water, aggregate (rock,
sand, or gravel) and Portland cement. Cement, usually in powder form, acts as a
binding agent when mixed with water and aggregates.


3000BC Egypt
Around 3000 BC, the ancient Egyptians used mud mixed with straw to form
bricks. Mud with straw is more similar to adobe than concrete. However, they also
used gypsum and lime mortars in building the pyramids.

The Great Pyramid at Giza required about 500,000 tons of mortar, which
was used as a bedding material for the casing stones that formed the visible
surface of the finished pyramid.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 180

Khufu Pyramid Pyramids of Giza

700BC China
At this time, the northern Chinese used a form of cement in boat-building
and in building the Great Wall.
The construction materials of the Great Wall of China were mainly earth,
wood, stones, sand, and bricks, used depending on construction area and
construction site with different climate and local materials.
Due to the large quantity of materials required to construct the wall, the
builders usually obtained materials from local sources.
Wooden planks were used as the flank wall in some sections. With the
development of brick-making techniques (earth, chalk, lime, or gravel) bricks were
used from the Tang Dynasty (618 – 907 AD) onwards.

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200BC Rome
By 200 BC, the Romans were building very successfully using concrete, but
it wasn’t like the concrete we use today.
The Romans built most of their structures by stacking stones of different
sizes and hand-filling the spaces between the stones with mortar.

For the Romans’ grander and more artful structures, as well as their land-
based infrastructure requiring more durability, they made cement from a naturally
reactive volcanic sand called harena fossicia.
For marine structures and those exposed to fresh water, such as bridges,
docks, storm drains and aqueducts, they used a volcanic sand called pozzuolana.

The colosseum Ponte da Vila

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 182
1824 Invention of Portland Cement
It was named by Joseph Aspdin who
obtained a patent for it in 1824. Portland cement
is the most common type of cement in general
use around the world as a basic ingredient of
concrete, mortar, stucco, and non-specialty
It was developed from other types of
hydraulic lime in England in the mid - 19th
century, and usually originates from limestone

1836 Cement Testing

It was in Germany that the first systematic testing of concrete took place in.
The test measured the tensile and compressive strength of concrete. Another main
ingredient of concrete is aggregate and includes sand, crushed stone, clay, gravel,
slag and shale.

1867 Joseph Monier

Concrete that uses imbedded metal is called reinforced concrete or

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It was Joseph Monier who first invented reinforced concrete in 1849. He
was a Gardner who made flowerpots and tubs of reinforced concrete with the use
of iron mesh.
The reinforced concrete thus combined the tensile power of metal and the
compression strength of concrete for tolerating heavy loads. He received a patent
for this invention in the year 1867.

1889 Alvord Lake Bridge

The Alvord Lake Bridge was the first reinforced concrete bridge built in
America. It was built in 1889 by Ernest L. Ransome, an innovator in reinforced
concrete design, mixing equipment, and construction systems.
The bridge was constructed as a single arch 64 feet wide with a 20-foot span,
although the bridge was built in 1889 it can still be seen today.

1890 2019

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 184

1891 Concrete Street
Court Avenue is a small street in downtown Bellefontaine, Ohio, United
First paved in 1893, it is known for being the first street in the United States
to be paved with concrete.

1903 The Ingalls Building

The Ingalls Building, built in 1903 in Cincinnati, Ohio, is the world's first
reinforced concrete skyscraper.
The building was considered a daring engineering feat at the time, but its
success contributed to the acceptance of concrete construction in high-rise
buildings in the United States.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 185

1908 Concrete Homes
In 1899, using leftover heavy equipment, Edison founded a company
named Edison Portland Cement Company. Although at that time concrete (of
which cement is a major component) was rarely used, Edison’s promotion of
cement helped launh the industry.In 1908, the famous American inventor filed a
patent for the construction of buildings using a single placement of concrete.

Ultimately a massive failure, the idea was nonetheless way ahead of its time, and
some of his concrete houses still stand today.

1936 Hoover Dam

Hoover Dam is a concrete arch-gravity dam in the Black Canyon of the
Colorado River, on the border between the U.S. states of Nevada and Arizona.
It was constructed between 1931 and 1936 during the Great Depression and was
dedicated on September 30, 1935, by President Franklin D. Roosevelt

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 186

1970's-Fiber Reinforcement
Fiber-reinforced concrete (FRC) is concrete containing fibrous material
which increases its structural integrity. It contains short discrete fibers that are
uniformly distributed and randomly oriented. Fibers include steel fibers, glass
fibers, synthetic fibers and natural fibers – each of which lend varying properties
to the concrete.

1990 311 South Wacker Drive

The tallest reinforced concrete building was built in Chicago, Illinois. The
65-story building is known only by its street address, 311 South Wacker Drive.
311 South Wacker Drive is a post-modern 65-story skyscraper located in
Chicago, Illinois and completed in 1990. It is 961 feet (293 m) tall.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 187

2008 The tallest building in the world
The Burj Khalifa, known as the Burj Dubai prior to its inauguration in 2010,
is a skyscraper in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. With a total height of 829.8 m and
a roof height of 828 m. Burj Khalifa has been the tallest structure and building in
the world since its topping out in late 2008


Cement is a binder, a substance used for construction that sets, hardens,
and adheres to other materials to bind them together. It is seldom used on its own,
but rather to bind sand and gravel together. Cement mixed with fine aggregate
produces mortar for masonry, or with sand and gravel, produces concrete.


Ordinary Portland cement (OPC)

Ordinary Portland cement is the most widely used type of cement which is
suitable for all general concrete construction. It is most widely produced and used
type of cement around the world with annual global production of around 3.8 million
cubic meters per year. This cement is suitable for all type of concrete construction.

Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC)

Portland pozzolana cement is prepared by grinding pozzolanic clinker with
Portland cement. It is also produced by adding pozzolana with the addition of

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 188

gypsum or calcium sulfate or by intimately and uniformly blending portland cement
and fine pozzolana.

Rapid Hardening Cement

Rapid hardening cement attains high strength in early days it is used in
concrete where formworks are removed at an early stage and is similar to ordinary
portland cement (OPC).

Quick setting cement

The difference between the quick setting cement and rapid hardening
cement is that quick setting cement sets earlier while rate of gain of strength is
similar to Ordinary Portland Cement, while rapid hardening cement gains strength
quickly. Formworks in both cases can be removed earlier.

Low Heat Cement

Low heat cement is prepared by maintaining the percentage of tricalcium
aluminate below 6% by increasing the proportion of C2S. This makes the concrete
to produce low heat of hydration and thus is used in mass concrete construction
like gravity dams, as the low heat of hydration prevents the cracking of concrete
due to heat.

Sulphates Resisting Cement

Sulfate resisting cement is used to reduce the risk of sulphate attack on
concrete. This cement is used in construction exposed to severe sulphate action
by water and soil in places like canals linings, culverts, retaining walls, siphons.

Blast Furnace Slag Cement

Blast furnace slag cement is obtained by grinding the clinkers with about
60% slag and resembles more or less in properties of Portland cement. It can be
used for works economic considerations are predominant.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 189

High Alumina Cement
The compressive strength of this cement is very high and more workable
than ordinary portland cement and is used in works where concrete is subjected
to high temperatures, frost, and acidic action.

White Cement
It is prepared from raw materials free from Iron oxide and is a type of
ordinary portland cement which is white in color. It is costlier and is used for
architectural purposes such as precast curtain wall and facing panels, terrazzo
surface etc. and for interior and exterior decorative work like external renderings
of buildings, facing slabs, floorings, ornamental concrete products, paths of
gardens, swimming pools etc.

Colored cement
This type of cement is widely used for decorative works in floors.

Air Entraining Cement

This type of cement is especially suited to improve the workability with
smaller water cement ratio and to improve frost resistance of concrete.

Expansive Cement
Expansive cement expands slightly with time and does not shrink during
and after the time of hardening. This cement is mainly used for grouting anchor
bolts and pre stressed concrete ducts.

Hydrographic cement
Hydrographic cement is prepared by mixing water repelling chemicals and
has high workability and strength. It has the property of repelling water and is
unaffected during monsoon or rains. Hydrophobic cement is mainly used for the
construction of water structures such dams, water tanks, spillways, water retaining

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 190

 Sand- Found in riverbeds, free of salt and must be washed
 Fine aggregates- smaller than ¼ diameter stones.
 Course aggregates- bigger than ¼ diameter stones.

Concrete is a construction material composed of cement, fine aggregates
(sand) and coarse aggregates mixed with water which hardens with time. Portland
cement is the commonly used type of cement for production of concrete. Concrete
technology deals with study of properties of concrete and its practical applications.


Concrete Sand
Concrete is a type of course sand usually made of gneiss, trap rock, granite,
or limestone. It has earned its name because it’s the most common type used to
mix cement or hot asphalt. It can also be used as a leveling base layer for patios
or above-ground pools.
Crushed Stone
Crushed stone sand is made of granite or basalt rock and is created with
a three-stage crushing process. Your sand supplier may also call it a fine
aggregate or M sand. Its main purpose is as a mortar mix for plastering.
Utility Sand
Utility is a type of fine sand that is usually made of quartz. It is also often
called pipe sand because it is used to backfill pipes after laying them. It can also
backfill retaining walls or serve as a fill in for trenches.
Fill Sand
Fill is a type of fine sand that compacts well. It is used to backfill after
plumbing and electrical work, as a base material for concrete, and to fill large holes.
It’s also often used for horse arenas and golf courses.
Beach Sand
Beach sand is fine. Because it tends to absorb moisture, it’s not used in
construction such as in concrete. It is used in creating volleyball courts, patios, and
playgrounds as an attractive and soft surface.

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 Made of lightweight and heavyweight materials use in exterior and interior
load-bearing walls, firewalls, curtain, and panel walls, partitions etc.

 Made with both stone and lightweight aggregates.

 Foundations
 Elevator shafts
 Partition walls
 Public buildings, hospitals, sports centers, etc.


 Load bearing concrete hollow block are block that can or intended to carry
load aside from its own weight. Easier handling and facility for conducting
or steel reinforcement through the hollows.

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 Solid masonry

 Without steel reinforcement

 Very limited applications in modern wall construction

 Solid unreinforced masonry walls tend to be low and thick as a

consequence of their lack of tensile strength.


 Supports only its own weight

 Used for fences, wall partition, or divider and this is not intended to carry a

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 Made from sand, water, cement and pigment

 The curing process makes them sturdy enough to be transported and

laid within a few days of manufacture, and they get stronger over time.

 Made from solid concrete

 Used to cover the façade of a home, build fences, and enhance the overall
beauty of a home's exterior

 Quickly becoming popular alternatives to other home façade materials.

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 Used to stimulate stones from concrete methods

 Can be made from white/grey cements, manufactured or natural sands,

crushed stone or natural gravels, and gravels, and colored with mineral coloring


 A lightweight block which is outstanding in thermal and sound insulation


 They can be easily cut or sawed to any desired shape with woodworking
tools and are laid up in masonry cement-lime mortar

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 Used for sun baffles and for fences.



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Concrete additives are added to the mixture of water cement and aggregate
in small quantities to increase the durability of the concrete, to fix concrete behavior
and to control setting or hardening. They can either be liquid or powdered
additives. These additives are supplied in ready-to-use liquid form and are added
to the concrete at the plant or at the jobsite. Successful use of additives depends
on the use of appropriate methods of batching and concreting.
Concrete additives have various functions depending on what the
contractor wants to achieve. There are two main types of concrete additives which
are chemical and mineral. Chemical additives reduce the cost of construction,
modify properties of hardened concrete, ensure quality of concrete during
mixing/transporting/placing/curing, and overcome certain emergencies during
concrete operations.
Mineral additives make mixtures more economical, reduce permeability,
increase strength, and influence other concrete properties. Mineral admixtures
affect the nature of the hardened concrete through hydraulic or pozzolanic activity.
Pozzolans are cementitious materials and include natural pozzolans (such as the
volcanic ash used in Roman concrete), fly ash and silica fume. They can be used
with Portland cement, or blended cement either individually or in combinations.


Mineral Admixtures - Fly-ash Blast-furnace slag, Silica fume and Rice husk, Ash
Additives are generally classified according to the function that each performs.
These are:

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Chemical Admixture

Water Reducing
Water-reducing admixtures are chemical products that when added to
concrete can create a desired slump at a lower water-cement ratio than what it is
normally designed. Water-reducing admixtures are used to obtain specific
concrete strength using lower cement content. Lower cement contents result in
lower CO2 emissions and energy usage per volume of concrete produced. With
this type of admixture, concrete properties are improved and help place concrete
under difficult conditions. Water reducers have been used primarily in bridge
decks, low-slump concrete overlays, and patching concrete. Recent
advancements in admixture technology have led to the development of mid-range
water reducers.
These are used to reduce the quantity of mixing water required to produce
concrete of a certain slump, reduce water-cement ratio, reduce cement content, or
increase slump. They are used extensively on larger projects where reinforcing
steel requires high workability. Also used in precast and on site where the large
water reduction provides very high early strength and improved durability. Water
reducing additives usually reduce the required water content for a concrete mixture
by about 5 to 10 percent.

Accelerating Additives
Accelerating concrete admixtures are used to increase the rate of concrete
strength development or to reduce concrete setting time. Calcium chloride could
be named as the most common accelerator component; however, it could promote
corrosion activity of steel reinforcement. Nonetheless, concrete best practices,
such as proper consolidation, adequate cover and proper concrete mix design
could prevent these corrosion issues. Accelerating admixtures are especially
useful for modifying the properties of concrete in cold weather.
These are used to speed the rate of early hydration of the cement.
Accelerating admixtures are especially useful for modifying the properties of
concrete in cold weather. Calcium chloride (CaCl2) is the chemical most commonly
used in accelerating admixtures, especially for non-reinforced concrete.

Air entrained concrete can increase the freeze-thaw durability of concrete.
This type of admixture produces a more workable concrete than non-entrained

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concrete while reducing bleeding and segregation of fresh concrete. Improved
resistance of concrete to severe frost action or freeze/thaw cycles. Other benefits
from this admixture are:
• High resistance to cycles of wetting and drying
• High degree of workability
• High degree of durability

The entrained air bubbles act as a physical buffer against the cracking
caused by the stresses due to water volume augmentation in freezing
temperatures. Air entrainers admixtures are compatible with almost all the
concrete admixtures. Typically for every one percent of entrained air, compressive
strength will be reduced by about five percent.
Air-entraining admixtures are used to purposely introduce and stabilize
microscopic air bubbles in concrete. Based on special surfactants, these
admixtures cause tiny air bubbles < 0.3mm in diameter to stabilize within the
cement paste. This air helps to prevent the concrete from cracking and scaling as
a result of frost action. Air also increases cohesion in the mix, reducing bleed water
and segregation of the aggregate before the concrete can set.

Shrinkage Reducing
Shrinkage-reducing concrete admixtures are added to concrete during
initial mixing. This type of admixture could reduce early and long-term drying
shrinkage. Shrinkage reducing admixtures can be used in situations where
shrinkage cracking could lead to durability problems or where large numbers of
shrinkage joints are undesirable for economic or technical reasons. Shrinkage
reducing admixtures can, in some cases, reduce strength development both at
early and later ages.
Shrinkage-reducing admixtures have potential uses in bridge decks, critical
floor slabs, and buildings where cracks and curling must be minimized for durability
or aesthetic reasons. Concrete shrinks, mainly due to loss of excess water. This
causes internal stresses that lead to cracking or curling, especially in slabs. These
admixtures reduce the shrinkage stress.

Corrosion-inhibiting admixtures fall into the specialty admixture category
and are used to slow corrosion of reinforcing steel in concrete. Corrosion inhibitors

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can significantly reduce maintenance costs of reinforced concrete structures
throughout a typical service life of 30 – 40 years. Other specialty admixtures
include shrinkage-reducing admixtures and alkali-silica reactivity inhibitors.
Corrosion-inhibiting admixtures have little effect on strength at later ages but may
accelerate early strength development. Calcium nitrite based corrosion inhibitors
do accelerate the setting times of concretes over a range of curing temperatures
unless they are formulated with a set retarder to offset the accelerating effect.
Corrosion inhibitors are used in concrete for parking structures, marine
structures, and bridges where chloride salts are present. The chlorides can cause
corrosion of steel reinforcement in concrete. These admixtures work for many
years after the concrete has set, increasing the corrosion resistance of reinforcing
steel to reduce the risk of rusting steel causing the concrete to crack and scale.

Super Plasticizers
The main purpose of using superplasticizers is to produce flowing concrete
with a high slump in the range of seven to nine inches to be used in heavily
reinforced structures and in placements where adequate consolidation by vibration
cannot be readily achieved. The other major application is the production of high-
strength concrete at w/c's ranging from 0.3 to 0.4. It has been found that for most
types of cement, superplasticizer improves the workability of concrete. One
problem associated with using a high range water reducer in concrete is slump
loss. High workability concrete containing superplasticizer can be made with a high
freeze-thaw resistance, but air content must be increased relative to concrete
without superplasticizer.
They are based on Sulphonated Naphthalene or Melamine formaldehyde
condensates, Vinyl polymers or Polycarboxylate Ethers. These admixtures give a
much higher performance than the normal plasticizers. They are also known as
plasticizers or high-range water reducers (HRWR), reduce water content by 12 to
30 percent and can be added to concrete with a low-to-normal slump and water-
cement ratio to make high-slump flowing concrete. Flowing concrete is a highly
fluid but workable concrete that can be placed with little or no vibration or
compaction. The effect of Superplasticizers lasts only 30 to 60 minutes, depending
on the brand and dosage rate, and is followed by a rapid loss in workability. As a
result of the slump loss, Superplasticizers are usually added to concrete at the

Precautions in Use of Concrete Additives

Following simple precautions should be considered by the concrete
engineer when using the additives: firstly, one should confirm the quality with

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 200

relevant codes of practice to ensure that they are aware of the side effects of the
additives and whether they are beneficial or harmful, the concentration of the active
ingredient of the additives amongst other precautions.
Engineer should also make sure that the negative effects is not more that
acceptable limits; they are to also follow the manufacturer’s instructions regarding
the dosage and also conduct the relevant tests to make sure that the desired
effects are being obtained under the job-site conditions. Finally, they are to make
sure that the batching of the additives is accurate and there is no overdosing
particularly in case of very sensitive additives.
Concrete additives are used under different situations. They may be used
when properties cannot be made by varying the composition of basic material in a
mixture, to produce desired effects that are economical, and also to make concrete
that is of poor quality better.


Fly Ash
Fly ash is a byproduct from burning pulverized coal in electric power
generating plants. During combustion, mineral impurities in the coal (clay, feldspar,
quartz, and shale) fuse in suspension and float out of the combustion chamber
with the exhaust gases. As the fused material rises, it cools and solidifies into
spherical glassy particles called fly ash. Fly ash is collected from the exhaust gases
by electrostatic precipitators or bag filters. The fine powder does resemble portland
cement but it is chemically different.
Fly ash chemically reacts with the byproduct calcium hydroxide released by
the chemical reaction between cement and water to form additional cementitious
products that improve many desirable properties of concrete. All fly ashes exhibit
cementitious properties to varying degrees depending on the chemical and
physical properties of both the fly ash and cement. Compared to cement and water,
the chemical reaction between fly ash and calcium hydroxide typically is slower
resulting in delayed hardening of the concrete. Delayed concrete hardening
coupled with the variability of fly ash properties can create significant challenges
for the concrete producer and finisher when placing steel-troweled floors.

Blast Furnace
Blast furnace slag is a by-product from blast furnaces which is used to
produce iron. Blast furnace slag has been used extensively as a successful

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 201

replacement material for Portland cement in concrete materials to improve
durability, produce high strength and high performance concrete, and brings
environmental and economic benefits together, such as resource conservation and
energy savings. Construction wastes define as relatively clean and heterogeneous
building materials which are generated from various construction activities. Among
them, ceramic, brick, and marble wastes can be included. These kinds of wastes
can be used successfully as replacement materials in the cement mortar or
concrete mixing.

Silica Fume
Silica fume is a mineral admixture, composed of submicron particles (100
to 150 times smaller than a grain of cement) of amorphous silicon dioxide. Silica
fume powder is gray to off-white in color, and is available in several product forms
and packaging options. Our products include:
• Undensified Silica Fume
• Densified Silica Fume
When used in cementitious applications(concrete, shotcrete, repair
products and oil well grouts.), silica fume acts as both a filler - improving the
physical structure by occupying the spaces between the cement particles - and as
a “pozzolan” reacting chemically to impart far greater strength and durability to
In refractory and ceramic applications silica fume is used for its’ ability to
modified flow characteristics and for the unique particle packing ability.

Rice Husk Ash

The use of durability enhancing mineral admixtures or supplementary
cementing materials has gained considerable importance the last decade or so as
a key to long service life of concrete structures1. There are many mineral
admixtures that are used in way through out the world but rice husk ash stands out
as an eco-friendly, sustainable and durable option for concrete. This paper
attempts to bring out the effectiveness of rice husk ash as a versatile concrete
admixture and discusses some versatile application of rice husk ash concrete.
Rice husk is the outer cover of paddy and accounts for 20-25 % of its
weight”. It is removed during rice milling and is used mainly as fuel for heating in
Indian homes and industries. Its heating value of 13-15 MJ/kg1.2 is lower than
most woody biomass fuels. However, it is extensively used in rural India because
of its widespread availability and relatively low cost. The annual generation of rice

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 202

husk in India is 18-22 million tons and this corresponds to a power generation
potential of 1200 MW4. A few rice husk-based power plants with capacities
between I and 10 MW are already in operation and these are based either on direct
combustion or through fluidised bed combustion.


A tile is a thin object usually square or rectangular in shape. Tile is a

manufactured piece of hard-wearing material such as ceramic, stone, metal, baked
clay, or even glass, generally used for covering roofs, floors, walls, or other objects
such as tabletops. The word “tile” comes from the French word “tuile”, which is
derived from the latin word “tegula”, meaning a roof tile of baked clay. As for the
word “ceramic”, it comes from the greek word “keramikos”, which meant “of
pottery” or “for pottery”, and it is related to the Indo-European word “cheros”, which
meant “heat”.
The history of ceramic tiles begins with the oldest civilizations. It is known
that Egyptians on the 4th millennium b.c. already used to decorate their houses
with blue tile bricks.

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Different Types of Tile Flooring

1. Travertine - is a type of limestone that is a byproduct of natural artesian

springs, hot springs, and caves from around the world. A natural, porous
stone, its pits and rough texture are caused by air bubbles and organic
matter, and this is what gives travertine tiles such as varying colours.

2. Ceramic - are manufactured from clay materials that are quarried,

prepared, and then formed into a mould. They can be best characterised as
either porcelain or non-porcelain.

3. Marble - is a highly durable stone that exists in almost every colour due to
the variability of component minerals. Marble tiles have multiple finishes
from polished to honed and brushed to tumbled, making marble an ideal
choice for any room in your home.

4. Slate - is a metamorphic rock which can be found in large deposits all over
the world. Used in flooring for centuries, it comes in a range of colours, such
as blue/grey, green, red, orange, or brown. There are often veins of colours
running throughout the tile, meaning no tile is identical.

5. Faux Wood - is the hottest new trend in tiles, offering the natural beauty of
wood together with the durability of tile. While tiles present as wood, they’re
actually ceramic and come with the benefits of being more durable than
hardwood, more water-resistant, and free of termite risk. Faux wood
requires very little maintenance and offers unlimited design possibilities.

6. Granite - is a type of igneous rock that is very dense and hard. Its distinctive
appearance is due to speckled minerals found within the rock, and its
unique veining means no two granite floors are the same.

7. Onyx - is a translucent, calciferous stone similar in makeup to marble.

Because it’s one of the more fragile types of stone, it’s frequently produced
with a mesh, resin, or fibreglass backing to help give it strength as a tile.

8. Quartzite - is a durable, non-slip, and attractive stone that’s one of the most
popular choices of tile for the home. Quartzite can make a high-quality

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 204

alternative to paving in pool surrounds, driveways, and paths, and honed
for a smooth finish, quartzite tiles make an excellent addition in the kitchen.
Quartzite can also be crystalised and sealed with a darker shade to achieve
a dark marble-like finish.

9. Mosaic - are one of the most popular choices for decorative tiles or for
creating a feature. Consisting of small tiles, often square, mosaic tiles are
laid together to create a larger effect for a high visual impact. Mosaic tiles
can be made of varying materials, with stone, glass, and ceramic being the
most commonly used.

10. Sandstone - has a wonderfully earthy appeal and comes in a range of

colours, sizes and styles. Ideal for pool surroundings, walkways and patios,
sandstone gives your outdoors a rich, natural feel.

11. Terrazzo - is a composite material, consisting of marble, quartz, granite,

glass, and other suitable chips. It’s cured, ground, and then polished to a
smooth surface. Often used in public buildings because it’s long-lasting, it
can be refinished repeatedly ensuring it stays looking new. It is quite
slippery though, so it may not be a good choice for the family home.


Straight is the most common and simplest tiling pattern. The tiles are laid in
straight lines so the grout lines end up like a grid.

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Diagonal is similar to the straight pattern except the tiles are laid on a 45-
degree angle, turning square tiles into diamonds.

Herringbone is perfect for hallways or outdoor paths, as the “V” in the

pattern acts like arrows pointing you in the right direction, the herringbone pattern
is achieved by laying rectangular tiles in a zig-zag pattern.

Basket Weave is also using rectangular tiles. The basket weave pattern has two
tiles laid next to each other to form a square. The following pair of tiles are laid at
90 degrees to the first and so on. The horizontal and vertical tiles then alternate on
following rows.

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Windmill patterm is to create the windmill pattern, four rectangular tiles are
arranged around a square tile in the centre. Using a square tile and grout in a
contrasting colour to the rectangles really make this pattern stand out. It can look
busy on a floor but is good for a shower or as a border.

Pin Wheel (or Hopscotch) is similar to the windmill, this design uses a small
square tile surrounded by much larger square tiles to create the effect of a spinning

Stretcher bond uses square or rectangular tiles that are laid like bricks in a
wall. The end of each tile is lined up with the centre of the tiles that are both directly
above and below it. This creates a staggered, but cohesive look.

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Cobblestone is a pattern starts with rectangular tiles laid in the herringbone
style. Around the edges of these it has smaller square tiles to create a larger
pattern that is then repeated across the floor. This is a look suited to more
traditional styles.

English bond uses alternating rows of rectangular and square tiles. The
square tiles are centred on the rectangles and the ends of all the tiles line up
between rows.

English Cross Bond is similar to the English bond except that the
rectangular tiles in the alternating rows are staggered like the pattern in a stretcher

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 208


Tile Size Uses

A slab with an extraordinary

size that changes the rules of
floor paving and breaks free
from the optical interruptions of
joints to offer the aesthetics of
material in all its beauty.

Suggests a sense of wide-open

space, together with a very
contemporary style.


Ideal for the wood effect

ceramic, the 30x120 cm size
listel makes the result even
more realistic.


Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 209

The 20x120 size of floor tiles
perfectly combines with
ceramic parquet. Within a
design collection, this kind of
format brings a touch of
elegance to your indoor


Used above all for flooring

large areas in prestigious civil
and commercial construction


Is a size used mainly in wood-

effect tile collections,
reproducing the large top-of-
the-range contemporary
parquet strips.


In parquet-effect collections,
the large 15x90 size tiles
contribute to the illusion of
walking on real top-of-the-
range wood parquet strips.


Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 210

Is useful to highlight the
realisticness of the raw
material which inspired the
series and which cannot
expressed its authenticity
otherwise than a through a
large surface.


Rectangular 30x60 cm tiles can

be used either alone or in
combination with the 60x60
size, on floors and - above all -
on walls to play with shapes
and colours to great effect.


Is a long and rectangular

rectified size used for floors
and walls, it can be combined
in infinite flooring compositions.


Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 211

Fixing Tiles
There are a wide range of adhesives in the Bostik range, both powders and
pastes for wall and floor applications. Where the correct adhesive is used for the
given application a successful job should be completed. No adhesive, however,
should be used as anything other than a method of fixing a tile to a substrate.

They are not structural materials and they do not improve the substrate onto
which they are applied. If the substrate is poor, failures are likely to occur.

Fixing and Grouting should not be applied when the material, substrate or
ambient temperature is below 5oC. Doing so will significantly retard the setting
times. At temperatures in excess of 30oC it is likely that setting times will be
accelerated to such a level that the material becomes impossible to use.
All substrates should be sound, rigid and free from oils, chemicals and other
materials that can act as parting agents. Preparation of the various substrates
likely to be encountered are itemized elsewhere under the particular substrates
and the general preparation guide.

Adhesives should be mixed to a thick, smooth slump free consistency. Suggested
mix proportions should be given on the adhesive packaging. The use of a mechanical
stirrer for at least five minutes will help in obtaining a suitably useable mix.

For paste adhesives, contents of buckets should be stirred well before use.
Once mixed the adhesive should be applied to the correctly prepared substrate
surface, using the correct tools. The correct tool will be a notched trowel of some
description, suitable for both the material, the application and the application
method i.e. thin bed (up to 3 mm) or thick bed (over 3 mm).
Use of the correct tool will help to ensure a full bed of adhesive is applied
between the tile and the substrate. Combing the adhesive with a notched trowel
will form ribs, which will be squashed down to form a solid bed when the tiles are
Tiles should be applied to the adhesive with a twisting or sliding action to
bed them in fully. This should be undertaken generally within 20 minutes of mixing
the adhesive. Depending on the adhesive and substrate this open time may be
increased or reduced. The open time of an individual adhesive should be checked
before use.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 212

Subsequent tiles should be laid by placing the tile adjacent to the previous
tile and twisting away slightly. This ensures that a clean grout joint is formed to
enable later works to be completed satisfactorily. For walls, battens should be fixed
to the wall to give a guide line against which to tile.
It is good practice to remove a tile occasionally as fixing proceeds to check
that adequate contact and wetting is being maintained with the adhesive.

Thin bed solid bed for floors

For thin bed method of application the adhesive should be applied to the
substrate using the flat edged side of the trowel. A thin coat at a uniform thickness
of about 3mm is spread then ribbed using the notched side. The tiles should then
be pressed in to the ribbed adhesive, with a slight twisting action within the open
time of the adhesive.
In situations where the installation is subjected to frequent or occasional
wetting, and areas of high humidity the adhesive should be applied as a solid bed
by spreading the adhesive in a thin layer, or alternatively, as a ribbed bed, but to
ensure solid bedding a thin coating may be buttered over the backs of the tiles
before fixing.

Thick bed solid bed for floors

For thick areas or with uneven thickness of tiles such as slates,

consideration should be given to the use of a pourable thick bed adhesive where
the adhesive can be laid in a single application up to a thickness of 25mm. This
will help in giving full coverage in awkward positions or with uneven tiles.
For thick bed application in the case of surfaces that are not sufficiently true
or flat to permit thin bed fixing traditional floor adhesives may be applied as a
floated 3-6mm thickness not exceeding 12mm.
Before the adhesive is set, spare material should be removed from the
surface of the tile and the grout joints. A grout joint half filled with adhesive will
generally appear as a different colour to one which is correctly filled with grout. For
information on grouting see the relevant section.
If marble, mosaics, light coloured natural stone or thin tiles are used
consideration should be given to the colour of the adhesive. A grey adhesive might
result in such tiles looking dull once the materials have set.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 213

Republic of the Philippines
Technological University of the Philippines
Graphics Department

Subject: BMMC - Building Materials & Methods of Construction
Course: BGT - AT – 1A
SY: 2018-2019 / 2nd SEMESTER


By Villanueva:
 History of Adhesives
 History of Sealants

By Parale:
 Non -reactive Adhesives

By Del Rosario:
 Reactive Adhesives

By Eseo:
 Mechanism of Adhesion and Fracture

B. SEALANTS and GLAZING (by Capillan)

 Types of Sealants
 Difference Between Sealant and Adhesive
 Caulking
 Glass Glazing

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 214


Leader: Capillan, Ernest Lawrence

Members: Del Rosario, Jewish King

Parale, Dairic

Villanueva, Lyza Jane

Eseo, Abraham

April 2019

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 215



 Also known as paste or glue, is a material, typically liquid or semi-liquid, that

adheres or bonds items together.
 Adhesives cone from either natural or synthetic sources.

 The types of materials that can be bonded are vast but adhesives are
especially for bonding thin materials.

 The earliest known date for a simple glue is 200,000 BC and for a compound
glue 70,000 BC.


 The oldest known adhesive, dated to approximately 200,000 BC, is from

spear stone flakes glued to wood with birch-bark-tar, which was found in
central Italy.

 The earliest glues were made from various

plant-based materials.

 The oldest known compound glue was made

from plant gum and red ochre approximately
70,000 years BC, and was found in Sibudu
Cave, South Africa
 The Tyrolean Iceman had weapons fixed
together with the aid of birch-bark-tar glue.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 216

 6000-year-old ceramics show evidence of adhesives based upon animal
glues made by rendering animal products such as horse teeth.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 217

 Glue from animal parts came into being when ancient tribes discovered that
the bones, hides, skin, sinew and other connective tissues from animals
could be boiled in water to separate out collagen, the protein in these
tissues. The collagen as sticky and useful for holding things together.

 The Egyptians made much use of animal glues to adhere furniture, ivory,
and papyrus.

 In Medieval Europe, egg whites were used as glue to decorate illuminated

manuscripts with gold leaf.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 218

 From ancient and medieval records, fish glue was both a common and
important adhesive for many special applications; it was used from the time
of ancient Egypt to twentieth-century France, in painting media, coatings
and grounds, in the gilding of illuminated manuscripts, and in pastel fixatives

 In the late, 19th century in Switzerland, casein was first used as a wood glue.

 Casein-based glues, formulated from casein, water, hydrated lime

and sodium hydroxide were popular for woodworking including for aircraft.

 The popular Elmer’s School Glue was originally made from casein because
it was non-toxic and would wash out of clothing.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 219


 Sealants are used in construction to prevent fluids and other substances

from passing through material surfaces, joints, or openings. They can also
prevent the passage of air, sound, dust, insects, and so on, as well as acting
as a fire stopping component.


 Historically, materials such as plant resins, mud, grass and reeds were
used as sealants.

 Glazing putty was first used in the 17th century as a means of

sealing window glass into the panes. Sealants were first chemically
manufactured in the 1920s, in the form of acrylic, butyl and silicone

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Mechanism of Adhesion

 Adhesion, the attachment between adhesive and substrate may occur

either by mechanical means, in which the adhesive works its way into small
pores of the substrate, or by one of several chemical mechanisms.

Failure of the Adhesive Joints

Factors that contribute to failure the two adhered surfaces:

 Sunlight and heat may weaken the adhesive.

 Solvents can deteriorate or dissolve adhesive.

 Physical stresses may also cause the separation of surface

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1. Cohesive Fracture

 Is obtained if a crack propagates in the bulk polymer which constitutes the


2. Interfacial Fracture

 Occurs between the adhesive and adherent. In the most cases, the
occurrence of interfacial fracture for a given adhesive goes along with
smaller fracture toughness.

3. Other Types of Fracture

 Mixed type, which occurs if the crack propagates at some spot of adhesive
and in others in an interfacial manner

 Alternating crack path type which occurs if the cracks jump from one
interface to the other. This type of fracture appears in the presence of tensile
pre-stresses in the adhesive layer.

Design of Adhesive Joints

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Modes of Failure

 As a general design rule, the material properties of the object need to be

greater than the forces anticipated during its use. The engineering work will
consist of having a good model to evaluate the function. For most adhesive
joints, this can be achieved using fracture mechanics.

Mode of Joint

 Mode I is an opening or tensile mode where the loadings are normal to the

 Mode II is a sliding or in-plane shear mode where the crack surfaces slide
over on another in direction perpendicular to the leading edge of the crack.

 Mode III is a tearing mode or out-plane shear the stress acting parallel to
the plane of the crack and parallel to the crack front.

Increasing the joint resistance is usually obtained by designing its geometry

 The bonded zone is large

 It is mainly loaded in mode II

 Stable crack propagation will follow the appearance of a local fail


What is Non - reactive Adhesive?

• A non-reactive adhesive is one which does not use any chemical reaction
in the generation of the process of adhesion, like epoxies or cyanates (super
glue) yet still adhere by electrostatic or mechanical intercalation not reacting
chemically to adhere to the surface.

Drying Adhesives
• Solvent Base Adhesives
• Polymer Dispersion Adhesives

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Solvent – based Adhesives

• The performance of solvent-based

adhesives is largely determined by
the polymer system in the formulation.
The choice of adhesive type depends
on the specific substrates and
environmental resistance needed –
temperature resistance, oil and
plasticizer resistance, etc. Most
solvent based adhesives contain flammable solvents which require proper
precautions for safe handling. In addition, many organic solvents are
regulated due to environmental concerns with emissions.

Polymer Dispersion Adhesives

• Water-based dispersion adhesives

consist of solid adhesive dispersed in
an aqueous phase. These adhesives
contain water soluble additives such
as surfactants, emulsifiers, and
protective colloids that act as links
between the solid adhesive particles
and the aqueous phase. They prevent
the adhesive particles from sticking
together and separating during
storage. On drying, these additives
evaporate or are absorbed into the
adhesive. In order to obtain optimum
strength and performance, the
adhesive must be completely dry. Small amounts of residual moisture
combined with residual water-soluble additives weaken the film and lower
the resistance to moisture and water.

Pressure Sensitive Adhesive

• The special feature of pressure sensitive adhesives is that they do not

solidify to form a solid material but remain viscous. As a result, they remain
permanently tacky and have the ability to wet surfaces on contact. Bonds
are made by bringing the adhesive film in contact with the substrate and

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applying pressure. If inadequate pressure is applied or the processing
temperature is too low, bonding faults such as bubbles or detachment can
occur. Since these adhesives are not true solids, the strength of pressure
sensitive adhesives decreases when the temperature is increased.
Pressure sensitive adhesives also exhibit a tendency to undergo creep
when subjected to loads. They are typically formulated from natural rubber,
certain synthetic rubbers, and polyacrylates.

Foam Tape Structure Single Coated Structure

Transfer Tape Structure Double Coated Tape Structure

Contact Adhesives

• Contact adhesives provide the advantage of high initial strength. They are
based on polymers that exhibit the ability to bond to themselves as dry
adhesive films (auto-adhesion). Both surfaces to be bonded must be coated
and the adhesive dried. Coated surfaces bond immediately on contact so

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care needs to be taken in positioning the substrates prior to contact since
re-positioning is nearly impossible. Once the bond has been made, it is
typically pressed or rolled to insure complete contact. The high initial
strength of contact adhesives makes them ideal for a variety of laminating
applications. Because the adhesive is dried before bonding, contact
adhesives can be used to bond large areas of non-porous substrates.

Hot Adhesives

• Hot melt adhesives are generally 100% solids formulations based on

thermoplastic polymers. They are solid at room temperature and are
activated upon heating above their softening point, at which stage they are
liquid, and hence can be processed. After application, they retain the ability
to wet the substrate until they solidify. Upon solidification, they return to a
physical state that has structural integrity and can function as an adhesive.
The adhesive is applied by extruding, rolling, or spraying and joining is
carried out immediately after application or after reheating the solidified

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Reactive adhesives are typically characterized by the formation of
permanent bonds between substrates to provide resistance to chemicals, moisture
and heat. They are generally made out of two ingredients: monomer (resin) and
initiator. These adhesives exhibit high bond strength and long-term durability under
severe environmental conditions. The performance advantage of reactive
adhesives over hot melt or solvent borne adhesives is that they cure to a material
that resists melting. The resulted adhesive has excellent temperature and
environmental resistance, while maintaining high bond strength.

 Multi-part Adhesives

Multi-component adhesives harden by mixing two or more components

which chemically react. This reaction causes polymers to cross-link [ into acrylics,
urethanes, and epoxies - See thermosetting polymers.

The individual components of a multi-component adhesive are not adhesive

by nature. The individual components react with each other after being mixed and
show full adhesion only on curing. The multi-component resins can be either
solvent-based or solvent-less. The solvents present in the adhesives are a medium
for the polyester or the polyurethane resin. The solvent is dried during the curing

There are several commercial combinations of multi-component adhesives

in use in industry. Some of these combinations are:

Polyester Resin

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Polyurethane Resin Acrylic Polymers

 One Part Adhesives

One-part epoxy systems require no mixing and simplify processing. These

products are available in liquid, paste and solid (such as films/performs) forms.
Thermal curing, UV light cure and dual UV/heat curing systems are compounded
to meet demanding specifications.
One-part epoxy compositions are designed to eliminate waste, accelerate
productivity while alleviating concerns regarding mix ratios, weighing, working life
and shelf life.
One-part adhesives harden via a chemical reaction with an external energy
source, such as radiation, heat, and moisture.
Ultraviolet (UV) light curing adhesives, also known as light curing materials
(LCM), have become popular within the manufacturing sector due to their rapid
curing time and strong bond strength. Light curing adhesives can cure in as little
as one second and many formulations can bond dissimilar substrates (materials)
and withstand harsh temperatures. These qualities make UV curing adhesives
essential to the manufacturing of items in many industrial markets such as
electronics, telecommunications, medical, aerospace, glass, and optical. Unlike
traditional adhesives, UV light curing adhesives not only bond materials together
but they can also be used to seal and coat products. They are generally acrylic-
Heat curing adhesives consist of a pre-made mixture of two or more
components. When heat is applied the components react and cross-link. This type
of adhesive includes thermoset epoxies, urethanes, and polyimides.
Moisture curing adhesives cure when they react with moisture present on
the substrate surface or in the air. This type of adhesive includes cyanoacrylates
and urethanes.

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 Natural Adhesives
Until now most adhesives have been manufactured from petroleum-based
materials. However, they can also be obtained from renewable raw materials -- for
example from proteins, natural rubber, starch, or cellulose. Fraunhofer researchers
are working on new formulas for industrial applications.

Natural adhesives are made from organic sources such as vegetable starch
(dextrin), natural resins, or animals (e.g. the milk protein casein and hide-based
animal glues). These are often referred to as bio adhesives.

One example is a simple paste made by cooking flour in water. Starch-

based adhesives are used in corrugated board and paper sack production, paper
tube winding, and wallpaper adhesives. Casein glue is mainly used to adhere glass
bottle labels. Animal glues have traditionally been used in bookbinding, wood
joining, and many other areas but now are largely replaced by synthetic glues
except in specialist applications like the production and repair of stringed
instruments. Albumen made from the protein component of blood has been used
in the plywood industry. Masonite, a wood hardboard, was originally bonded using
natural wood lignin, an organic polymer, though most modern particle boards such
as MDF use synthetic thermosetting resins.

 Synthetic Adhesives

Synthetic adhesives are based on elastomers, thermoplastics, emulsions,

and thermosets. Examples of thermosetting adhesives are: epoxy, polyurethane,
cyanoacrylate and acrylic polymers. The first commercially produced synthetic
adhesive was Karlsons Klister in the 1920s. Adhesives may be found naturally or
produced synthetically. The earliest human use of adhesive-like substances was
approximately 200,000 years ago, when Neanderthals produced tar from the dry
distillation of birch bark for use in binding stone tools to wooden handles. The first
references to adhesives in literature first appeared in approximately 2000 BC

 Application of Adhesives

Applicators of different adhesives are designed according to the adhesive

being used and the size of the area to which the adhesive will be applied. The
adhesive is applied to either one or both of the materials being bonded. The pieces

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 229

are aligned, and pressure is added to aid in adhesion and rid the bond of air
Common ways of applying an adhesive include brushes, rollers, using films
or pellets, spray guns and applicator guns (e.g., caulk gun). All of these can be
used manually or automated as part of a machine.


 is a substance that is used to seal holes, cracks, or gaps.

 is a substance used to block the passage of fluids through the surface or
joints or openings in materials, a type of mechanical seal.
 Sealants are used in construction to prevent fluids and other substances
from passing through material surfaces, joints, or openings. They can also
prevent the passage of air, sound, dust, insects, and so on, as well as acting
as a firestopping component.

Difference of Adhesives and Sealants

 Adhesive Connects two objects to bond with each other strong with strong
 Sealant Connects two objects to block gaps with each other with a low or
medium level of adhesion.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 230

Materials that are Applicable in Putting Sealants
Timber Concrete Mortar Bricks

Main Functions of Sealants

 Fill a gap between two or more substrates.

 Form a barrier through which other substances cannot pass.
 Maintain sealing properties for the anticipated lifetime.

Properties of Sealants

 Elongation
 Compressibility
 Tensile strength
 Modulus of elasticity
 Tear resistance
 Fatigue resistance

Adhesive selection involves the following considerations:

 Substrates: What are you trying to bond? Are the surfaces the same or
dissimilar, porous or smooth? Are you covering a large area? Do you have
heat or solvent sensitive surfaces?

 Application restrictions: How do you intend to apply the adhesive-

examples: spray, roll, heat gun, cartridge, squeeze bottle?

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 231

 Use Requirements: How does the bonded piece get used? How much
strength is required? For example, bonding wood requires much more
strength than decorative paper crafts do. What kind of environments might
it see? Will it experience temperature extremes or water/steam?

One- and Two-Component Sealants, Sealant Tapes

Sealants are commonly classified is by their physical form. The three major classes

1. One-component sealants: Packaged in a cartridge. No special equipment is

required to apply one-component sealants; chemical technologies include acrylic
solvent-based, butyl solvent-based, latex water-based, silicone and urethane;

2. Two-component sealants: Composed of two parts — a base component and

an activator component. The activator is typically added to the base component
and mixed for a set period of time before application. Two-components require bulk
guns and mixing equipment to prepare and apply the sealant, and are typically
packaged in separate buckets; chemical technologies include epoxy-penetrating
solvent-based (supplied as two-component high-solid compounds), silicone, and

3. Sealant tapes: Similar to their PSA Tape "cousins", sealant tapes are supplied
as sealant on a flexible backing; types include butyl and silicone tapes (both
preformed shape) and urethane tape (supplied in a compressed state).


The development of new materials with diverse applications puts additional

challenges on processing technology. This is particularly so when different
materials have to be joined to make components which retain their individual
beneficial properties in the composite product. This raises the question: which
joining technique is able to join these different materials in such a way that their
specific properties are retained? Traditional joining techniques have well-known
disadvantages. With thermal techniques such as welding, the specific properties
of the material alter within the heat-affected zone. Mechanical techniques such as

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 232

riveting or the use of screws in their turn only allow force transfer at points; in
addition, it is necessary to drill holes in the work pieces that are being joined, and
this “damages” and hence weakens the materials. In contrast, it is anticipated that
bonding technology will assume an ever more important role in industry and the
handicraft sector in the future.

There are four key reasons for this:

With specialist application, bonding technology can be used to bond virtually any
desired combination of materials with each other, creating long-lasting bonds.

The use of bonding technology in production processes in general allows the

material properties of the substrates to be retained. Compared to welding and
soldering/brazing, the bonding process requires relatively little heat input. No
damage occurs, unlike when rivets or screws are used.

In product manufacture, the two aforementioned considerations enable the specific

material properties of substrates to be optimally utilized in components. This allows
new construction methods to be employed.

Panels- It is also possible to use bonding technology to introduce customized

additional properties into the component via the actual joining. In addition, the use
of bonding technology in industrial production can lead to time savings, can
accelerate the production process and hence give rise to specific economic
benefits. In shipbuilding, for example, the inside decks can nowadays be bonded
into the primary structure, so eliminating time consuming straightening work that
would be required if the inside decks were attached by welding.

Bonding Technology Also Has the Following Further Advantages

 Transfer of high lap shear stresses due to the large bonding areas
 Removal of unevenness on material surfaces; greater tolerances possible
using gap-filling adhesives.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 233

 Prevention of contact corrosion for metal bonds, in contrast to when rivets
or screws are used (the adhesive functions as an insulator.)

6 Key Reasons You Should Consider Adhesives and Sealants

 Improved Product Durability and Reliability

 Increased Product Performance
 Increased Design Flexibility
 Increased Product Quality
 Enhanced Product Aesthetics
 Improved Process Productivity and Reduced Manufacturing Costs

Types of Commonly Used Sealants

Cement Sealants
They are applied to concrete to protect it from surface damage, corrosion,
and staining. They either block the pores in the concrete to reduce absorption of
water and salts or form an impermeable layer which prevents such materials from

In past decades attempts to protect concrete have included sealers ranging

from wax to linseed oil. Today, high quality concrete sealers can block up to 99%
of surface moisture. There are two main sealer categories: topical sealers
(coatings) and penetrating sealers (reactive).

Topical Sealers
Topical Sealers can provide visual enhancement as well as topical
protection from stains and chemicals. They require a dry, clean surface during
application to gain adhesion. Topical sealers may alter the coefficient of friction
which can make substrates slick when wet – a condition that can be remedied by
adding anti-skid materials. Life span is generally 1-5 years, although high-end
epoxy/urethane systems can last significantly longer.
Penetrating Sealers
Penetrating sealers can be applied to dry or damp surfaces and should be
properly matched with substrate porosity in order to effectively penetrate the

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 234

surface and react. The chemical reaction bonds active ingredients within the
substrate blocking surface moisture. Penetrating sealers generally do not
significantly modify substrate appearance or traction. Lifespan is generally 5 years
or more.

Epoxy Sealers
Epoxy sealers form a high-build protective film on the concrete surface,
producing a hard, long-wearing, abrasion-resistant finish. They also offer excellent
water repellence. They are available clear or pigmented, if you wish to add color.
Most products impart a glossy finish. Epoxy sealers are much harder than acrylics.
Water-based epoxies bond well to concrete and provide a clear finish, but they are
nonporous and do not allow trapped moisture to escape. Epoxies are probably the
best choice for concrete countertops and food-preparation areas.
Typical applications for epoxy sealers include:

 Floors in high-traffic and food-preparation areas

 Cement-based overlays
 Concrete countertops

Silyl Modified Polymers (SMP)

(SMP, also silane-modified polymers, modified-silane polymers, silane
terminated polymers, etc.) One of the newest sealant
technologies. polymers terminating with a silyl group. SMPs are the main
components in solvent-free and isocyanate-free sealant
and adhesive products. Typically the sealant products manufactured with silyl
modified polymers have good adhesion on a wide range of substrate materials,
and have good temperature and UV resistance.


 Enable broad use in construction, industrial, DIY, automotive, marine and

transportation markets (not recommended for structural sealant glazing
 Excellent adhesion and movement capabilities; good UV and heat stability
 Paintable
 Provide exceptional bonding to plastics, metals, wood and stone

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 235

 Can exceed ± 50% joint movement capability (ASTM C 920) even in low
 Contain no solvent, contribute less VOC, and yield lower odors compared
to other chemistries.

Polyurethane Sealants

They are a quick drying and moisture-cured sealant that is used in many
industries including building, construction, and the automotive industry. It is
generally used for sealing joints in walls and floors. It works well on concrete, and
it also seals and bonds fiberglass panels.


When polyurethane sealant dries, it produces a very tough elastic-type seal.

It also seals and sticks well to masonry, wood and metals. It is highly compatible
with plastic and rubber. Urethane sealant is a clear interior sealant mainly used on
floors like terracotta tiles. Polyurethane can harden much quicker than urethane
and it can be used to mend vehicles, especially those made from fiber glass. It
seals and mends fiberglass extremely well, creating a very strong bond.


Polyurethane sealant proves to be an excellent resistor of water and ultra-

violet radiation. It offers a permanent elasticity in all weather conditions. Urethane
sealants are more designed for porous materials such as concrete, slate, and
terracotta. It is highly protective in heavy traffic areas and resistant to grease, oil,
gasoline and food splashes.

Silicone glue is a type of adhesive that contains silicon and oxygen atoms,
making it a good water-resistant solution. It is used in many areas because of its
stability, both chemically and thermally. Silicone glue is also resistant to weathering
and moisture, unlike many other adhesives.

This versatile substance comes in different forms that you can mix or use
as a single product. It can be formulated for use on a wide selection of surfaces
and can also be adapted for use with organic solvents and acidic chemicals. Able
to withstand hot and cold temperatures, silicone glue is a top choice in many
bonding applications.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 236

1. Home Repairs and Maintenance

Probably the most common and popular use for silicone glue is in home
repair projects, where it is especially useful for caulking joints and cracks. Water-
resistant silicone glue is regularly used to fill holes and to seal off any gaps and
seams. You can also use it to level surfaces.

2. Sealant and Bond for Glass

Silicone glue is an excellent sealant, surpassing the abilities of most other

adhesives. Known to be flexible and durable, it has strong binding properties that
can be applied to almost any surface, including plastic, metal, and glass.

Silicone glue is often used in sealing glass on aquariums. With its water-resistant
properties, it provides an ideal solution for glass tank manufacturers. It is also used
for glass-on-glass applications, including glass decorations and artworks.

3. Construction Sealants and Adhesives

Commonly used in commercial and home construction, silicone glue is used

as a sealant or adhesive on materials that will be exposed to extreme weather
conditions, including direct sunlight, rain, strong wind, or freezing temperatures.
This includes sealing glass windows in buildings, as well as sealing the gaps
between the glass windows and frames. Silicone glue is also used as a glazing
and bathroom sealant.

4. Automobiles, Electronic Devices, and Appliances

Silicone glue is used in manufacturing for a wide variety of goods, from

automobiles to appliances. Its ability to withstand extreme temperatures makes it
an ideal bonding agent or sealant for manufacturing durable goods.

Also effective for many automobile engine applications, it is often used in

car gaskets that have a high-temperature environment.

from automobiles, silicone glue is used in the manufacturing of electronic

devices and appliances. Here it is used as both a sealant and a bonding agent. It
is commonly used to seal cables and sensors in appliances and electronic devices.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 237

Mastic Sealant

Mastic is commonly used on construction projects as an adhesive and

sealant. It is a popular choice where one surface needs to be adhered to another
in a durable bond, or where the area needs to be protected.

The most common types of material that mastic sealant can be adhered to
include timber, aluminum, steel, marble, glass and various types of board, although
it can be used on nearly all materials.
Examples of uses for mastic sealant include:

 Bonding ceiling, wall and floor tiles.

 Bonding plywood panels.
 As a joint-sealer for windows and doors.
 Sealing the area around bathtubs and other sanitary appliances.
 As a filler for cracks in masonry and concrete.
 Mastic can be used outside because of its water-resistant, temperature-
resistant and UV-resistant properties. It is also capable of resisting
corrosion which makes it suitable for use with metals.

Although mastic will usually resist some applied pressure, it is not flexible
enough to accommodate large movements. Due to its viscosity, it is best applied
to thick rather than thinner areas of application, such as large gaps and cracks.
Before applying mastic, the area may not require priming, but it should be clean
and dry. It is best applied by using a caulking gun.

Bitumen Sealants
Bitumen based, rubber modified mastic sealants such as Bitumastic are
especially designed for roof waterproofing applications in combination with Torch
on Membranes. These kinds of sealants are mainly used for filling and sealing
gaps between flashings, penetrations, etc. to assure the waterproof performance
of the entire roof.

Bitumen is actually the liquid binder that holds asphalt together. The term
bitumen is often mistakenly used to describe asphalt.

A bitumen-sealed road has a layer of bitumen sprayed and then covered

with an aggregate. This is then repeated to give a two-coat seal.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 238

Republic of the Philippines
Technological University of the Philippines
Graphics Department

Subject: BMMC - Building Materials & Methods of Construction
Course: BGT - AT – 1A
SY: 2018-2019 / 2nd SEMESTER



(by Bersamin) (by Delos Reyes)
a. History of Waterproofing a. Meaning of Thermal
b. Waterproofing Solutions Insulation
c. Types of Waterproofing b. Common Materials in
Thermal Insulation
(by Bignayan and Faustino) IV. TERMITE CONTROL
a. Meaning of Damp (by Cosico)
a. Meaning of Termite
b. Types of Damp Proofing
b. Safety Measures
c. Materials in Damp
c. Termite Life cycle
d. Prevention and Control
d. Classification of Material
e. Chemicals used as
Anti-termite Agents

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 239


Leader: Faustino, Carl John D.


Bersamin, Earl James

Bignayan, Alliah

Cosico, Angelo

Delos Reyes, Arab Gwayne

April 2019

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 240


 Important element in protecting investment.

 Prevents water from leaking into unwanted areas where it can cause
 Formation of impervious barrier over surfaces of foundations, roof, walls
and other structural members of building.
 Its generally required for basement of structure, walls, bathrooms and
kitchen, balconies, decks, terrace or roofs, water tanks and swimming


 Part of human dwelling construction for over 13,000 years

 Third oldest trade, behind only carpentry and masonry.
 Desire to protect our shelters from the elements, and not surprisingly, vast
improvements over the ages.

Agrarian Revolution

 decrease in small hunters-gatherers groups as many formed larger social

units and stayed put in more permanent locations.
 More productive form of agriculture and excess grain from the harvests
needed to be stored, and protected form moisture.
 Waterproofing was necessary to prevent the produce from being spoilt.
Neolithic Revolution

 Rise of water transportation to allow exploration, fishing and trading.

 The primitive boats were sealed with bitumen emulsion from the surface of
peat bogs.
Egyptian Revolution (3600 BC)

 Built the 1st monolithic structures and the great pyramid of Giza remains the
largest an made masonry building in the world.
 A bitumen emulation had been applied in coats with dry reed fibre across in
cross layers.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 241


 Acrylic- based Technology

acrylic adhesives provide strength, immediate tack, and capacity to bond
to a broad variety of substrates.

 Rubber- based Technology

most cost-effective pressure-sensitive adhesives. They have great
overall adhesion and offer a unique mix of shear strength with high-tack
properties. In addition to the benefits of tack and shear, rubber-based
adhesives aggressively adhere to low- and high-surface energy materials.

 Polyurethane- based Technology

Polyurethane technology can be used in almost any formulation.


1. Cementitious Waterproofing Method

 Easiest method of waterproofing in construction.

 Easy to mix and apply.
 Used in internal areas such as toilet, it is not exposed to sunlight and
 Does not go through contact and expansion process.

Application of Cementitious Waterproofing:

 Water treatment plants

 Sewage treatment plants
 Bridges
 Dams
 Railways & subway system
 Marine cargo ports & docks
 River locks/ Channels & concrete dykes
 Parking structures & lots
 Tunnel

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 242

2. Liquid Waterproofing Membrane Method
 Thin coating which consists a primer coat and two coats of top
coats which are applied by spray, roller or towel.
 More flexible than cementitious waterproofing.
 It can be process of spray applied liquid membrane composed by the
polymer modified asphalt.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 243

3. Bituminous Coating Waterproofing Method
 Its flexibility and protection against water can be influenced by the
polymer grade as well as reinforcement of fire.
 It is also called as asphalt coating, excellent in protecting and
waterproofing agent.
 It is not suitable to expose to sunlight, it becomes very brittle and

4. Bituminous Membrane Waterproofing

 Popular method used for low sloped roofs due to their proven
 It has torch on membrane and self - membrane.
 Self - adhesive compounds comprise asphalt, polymers, and filler.
 The self - adhesive type has low shelf life as bonding properties of
the membrane reduces with time.
 Torch on membrane have exposed and covered types.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 244

5. Polyurethane Liquid Membrane Waterproofing Method
 Used for the flat roof area and exposed to weathering.
 It is more expensive than other methods.
 It can offer high flexibility.
 It is very sensitive to moisture content present.
Way of application
 Before application, one has to be very Careful evaluating the moisture
content of the concrete slab/

Waterproofing Materials
 Materials used to protect structural components, buildings, and installations
from the harmful effects f water and chemically corrosive fluids, such as
acids and alkalines.
 Waterproofing materials are subdivided by purpose into anti - seepage,
anticorrosion, and hermetic, and by basic material into asphalt, mineral,
plastic, and metallic.
 Asphalt waterproofing materials are used in the form of petroleum bitumens,
with mineral powder, sand, and crushed stone (asphalt mastics, mortars,
and concretes), obtained by heating, thinning the bitumens with volatile
solvents (bituminous lacquers and enamels), or emulsifying them in water
(bituminous emulsions, pastes, and cold asphalt).

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 245

 Mineral waterproofing materials are prepared with a base of cements, clay
and other mineral binding agent, they are used in anti - seepage protection
for painted (cement and silicate paintS) and plastered coatings (cement
gunite and plasters) and for large- scale waterproof structural components
(water repellent fills, aluminous cement joints, and gidration).
 Plastic waterproofing materials are used for painted (epoxide, polyster,
polyvinyl, and ethanol lacquers, and paints) plastered (polymers mortars,
concretes, and faizol) and flued (polyethylene, polyvinyl, chloride tapes,and
 Metallic waterproofing materials include brass, copper, lead, steel, and
stainless steel, sheets, they are utilized for surface waterproofing and
sealing of deformation joints in the more crucial cases (in storage tanks,
dams, and core walls). Aluminum and copper foil is used to reinforce
coatings and waterproof rolled roofing materials.

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Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 246


Damp proofing is a general term that covers methods and treatments used
to prevent damp from being absorbed through walls or floors into the interior of a

Any property can be subject to damp problems, especially older properties

which may have been constructed without a damp-proof membrane. Whether it’s
rising damp or penetrating damp, our property care specialists are experts at
identifying the types of damp within a property as well as potential problems.


The two types of protection methods for damp proofing residential and
commercial properties are Damp Proof Course (DPC) and Damp Proof Membrane

There is sometimes confusion between what a damp proof membrane is

and what a damp proof course is, particularly as they can be used together. We
advise linking the two to allow a building to be fully protected from the damp, wet
ground around it.

Damp proofing is accomplished in several ways including:

 A damp-proof course (DPC) is a barrier through the structure designed to

prevent moisture rising by capillary action such as through a phenomenon
known as rising damp. Rising damp is the effect of water rising from the
ground into property.The damp proof course may be horizontal or vertical.
A DPC layer is usually laid below all masonry walls, regardless if the wall is
a load bearing wall or a partition wall.

 A damp-proof membrane (DPM) is a membrane material applied to

prevent moisture transmission. A common example is polyethylene
sheeting laid under a concrete slab to prevent the concrete from gaining
moisture through capillary action. A DPM may be used for the DPC.

 Integral damp proofing in concrete involves adding materials to the

concrete mix to make the concrete itself impermeable.

Surface coating with thin water proof materials for resistance to non-
pressurized moisture such as rain water or a coating of cement sprayed on such
as shotcrete which can resist water under pressure.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 247

 Cavity wall construction, such as rainscreen construction, is where the
interior walls are separated from the exterior walls by a cavity.

 Pressure grouting cracks and joints in masonry materials.

What is a Damp Proof Course?

A damp proof course (DPC) is one of several damp proofing treatments

used to prevent damp problems developing within a property. Damp proof course
repair can be applied using a variety of different methods and is a long term
solution to preclude moisture from entering a property through walls. The build-up
of excess moisture within a building can eventually result in structural damage and
therefore pose a risk to your property.

Our property care specialists are experts at identifying the types of damp
within a property as well as potential problems and will apply the most suitable
treatment based on damp proof course regulations. All our injected damp proof
course treatments come with a 30 year damp proof course guarantee to ensure a
safe and stable property.

How Does a Damp Proof Course Work?

Rentokil’s damp proof course solution is a chemical damp course (water
based silicon fluid) which creates a barrier, effectively preventing moisture from
seeping into, and damaging, affected walls. Rentokil technicians are thoroughly
trained and experienced in installing a damp proof course. Damp proof course in
solid wall and suspended timber floor construction

What is a Damp Proof Membrane?

A damp proof membrane (DPM) is another common method used to

prevent rising damp from occurring within a property. Our damp proof membrane
sheets are made from materials such as polyethylene or butyl rubber and act as a
successful barrier to prevent damp from making it's way into a property. Our well-
qualified technicians have a great understanding in how to resolve damp issues
and are experienced in installing damp proof membranes for walls and floors within
a property.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 248

How Does a Damp Proof Membrane Work?

A sheet of material (impervious to water) laid in one piece that is placed

beneath the concrete floor of a property to prevent groundwater seeping upwards
through the concrete base. A common example is polyethylene sheeting laid under
a concrete slab.

Damp Proofing Walls

The build-up of excess moisture within a building can lead to damp walls
which can eventually result into a handful of problems. If you notice signs of damp
on walls within your property, then we strongly advise you act fast to resolve the
issue. Damp on internal walls is unsightly, unhealthy and is the primary cause of
wood decay in a building, which can put your property at risk of structural damage.

Our property care specialists have many years’ experience in treating damp
walls and are experts at applying the appropriate damp proof course based on
your requirements. Damp proofing internal walls come as a second nature to us
so you can be sure your property is in safe hands.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 249

Damp Proofing Concrete Floor

We offer professional damp concrete floor treatments to help eliminate

rising damp from within a property. This can be caused by the lack, breakdown or
bridging of a physical damp course, or the absence or damage of a damp proof

Our damp proof membranes for concrete floors are an effective solution to
counter rising damp and at Rentokil, our property care specialists are registered
TrustMark contractors and proud members of the PCA so you know that your
property is in safe hands.

Remedial Damp Protection

Issues with your current damp protection can occur due to subsidence or the
result of long term deterioration which allows damp to rise through the walls. If you
begin to notice:

 Peeling paint or wallpaper

 Discolouration

 Decaying skirting boards and timber floors

 Salt staining

 Crumbling plaster
Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 250
Our Certificated Surveyor in Remedial Treatment can conduct a professional
damp survey to identify the cause of damp. Rentokil's remedial damp proof course
can then be installed to ensure your property is damp protected.

Why Damp Proofing is Important?

Damp proofing works as a long term prevention to moisture decay. When it

comes to walls and foundations, damp proofing prevents moisture and water
passing through into interior spaces. Moreover, a healthy and fit for purpose damp
proofing course will help prevent timber decay and structural damage by stopping
moisture from reaching timbers within the property and thus helping to prevent
outbreaks of dry rot and wet rot.


1. Property of the Material

An effective damp proofing material should have the following properties:
a. It should be impervious.

b. It should be strong and durable and should be capable of withstanding

both dead as well as live loads without damage.
c. It should be dimensionally stable

d. It should be free from deliquescent salts like sulphates chlorides and

e. The material should be reasonably cheap.

f. The material should be such that it is possible to carry out leak proof
joining work.

2. Classification of Material

The materials commonly used to check dampness can be divided into the following
four categories:

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 251

a) Flexible material

Material like bitumen felts (which may be Hessian based or fibre/glass fibre
based), plastic sheeting (polythene sheet) etc
b) Semi rigid materials
Materials like mastic asphalts or combination of materials or layers.
c) Rigid materials
Materials like first class bricks, stones, slates, cement concrete etc
d) Grout materials
Grout consists of cement slurry and acrylic based chemical or polymers.

3. Material used for damp proofing

Following are the materials, which are commonly used for damp proofing.

a. Hot Bitumen

This is a flexible material and is placed on the bedding of concrete or mortar.

This material should be applied with a minimum thickness of 3 mm.
Liquid binder that holds asphalt together.

b. Mastic Asphalt

This is a semi rigid material and it forms an excellent impervious layer for
damp proofing. The good asphalt is very durable and completely impervious
material. It can withstand only very slight distortion. It is liable to squeeze out in
very hot climates or under very heavy pressure. It should be laid by experienced
men of the specially firms.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 252

A composite mix of aggregate, sand, stone dust, and bitumen.

c. Bituminous Felts

This is a flexible material. It is easy to

lay and is available in rolls of normal wall width.
It is laid on a layer of cement mortar. An
overlap of 100 mm is provided at the joints and
full overlap is provided at all corners. The laps
may be sealed with bituminous if necessary.
The bitumen felt can accommodate slight
movement. But it is liable to squeeze out under
heavy pressure and it offers little resistance to
sliding. The material is available in rolls and it
should be carefully unrolled, especially in cold

d. Metal Sheets
The sheets of lead, copper and
aluminum can be used as the membranes of
damp proofing.

The lead is a flexible material. The

thickness of lead sheets should be such that
its weight is not less than 200 N/m2. The
lead can be dressed to complex shapes
without fracture and it possesses high
resistance to sliding action. It is impervious

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 253

moisture and it does not squeeze out under
ordinary pressure. It resists ordinary corrosion.
The surfaces of lead coming in contact with
lime and cement are likely to be corroded and
hence a coating of bitumen paint of high
consistency should protect the metal.

The copper is flexible material. It

possesses higher tensile strength than that of
lead. It is impervious to atmosphere and it does
not squeeze out under ordinary pressure. It
possesses high resistance to sliding action.
The external wall, especially of stones, is likely
to be stained when a damp proof course of copper is adopted. The surfaces of
copper coming in contact with mortars are likely to be affected. But for normal use,
the metal does not require any protective coating.

The aluminum sheets can also be used for damp proofing. But they should
be protected with a layer of bitumen.

e. Combination of Sheets and Felts

A lead foil is sandwiched between asphalt and bituminous felt. This is known
as the lead core and it is found to be economical, durable and efficient.

f. Stone

The two courses of sound and dense stones such as granite, slates etc laid
in cement mortar with vertical breaking joint can work as an effective damp
proofing course. The stones should extend for full width a damp proofing course.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 254

The s stones should extend for full width of wall. Something the stones can be
fixed, as in case of roof surfaces, on the exposed face of wall etc.

g. Bricks

The dense bricks, absorbing

water less than 4.5% of their weight, can
be used for damp proofing at place
where the damp is not excessive. The
joints are kept open. Such bricks are
widely used when damp proofing course
is to inserted in an existing wall.

h. Mortar

The mortar to be used for bedding layers can be prepared by mixing 1

part of cement and 3 part of sand by volume. A small quantity of lime is added to
increase the workability. For plastering work, the water proof mortar can be
prepared. It is prepared by mixing 1 part of cement and 2 part of sand and
pulverized alum at rate of 120 N/m3 of sand. In water to be used, .75 N of soft
soap is dissolved per litre of water and soap water is added to dry mixed. The
mortar thus prepared is used to plaster the surfaces. Alternatively, some patented
water proofing material such as pudlo, cido, dempro etc may be added to cement

i. Cement Concrete

A cement concrete layer in proportional 1:2:4 is generally provided at the

plinth level to work as a damp proofing course. The depth of cement concrete layer
varies from 40 mm to 150 mm. It stop the rise of water by capillary action and it
found to be effective at places where the damp is not excessive.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 255

j. Plastic Sheets

The material is made of black

polythene having a thickness of
about 0.55 mm to 1 mm with usual
width of wall and it is available in roll
lengths of 30 m. this treatment is
relatively cheap but it is not

Thermal Insulation
Thermal insulation is the process of insulating material from transferring
heat between the materials that are in thermal contact. Thermal insulation is
measured by its thermal conductivity. Low thermal-conductive materials are used
for thermal insulation. Besides thermal conductivity, density and heat capacity are
also important properties of insulating materials.

Corrosion under insulation is prevalent in petrochemicals and other

industries where pipes and equipment are insulated from heat. Corrosion normally
occurs on the insulation materials underlying piping or equipment. It also affects
the insulation of jacket materials.
Thermal insulation is the process of retarding the flow of heat from
transferring between adjacent surfaces. Specially engineered methods or
processes, and appropriate object shapes and materials are needed to achieve
thermal insulation.

Thermal insulation materials, known as insulators, are installed in

commercial buildings to improve the energy consumption of the buildings' cooling
and heating systems. They are also installed in industrial systems to control heat
gain or heat loss on process piping and equipment, steam and condensate
distribution systems, boilers, and other process equipment.

For thermal insulation, the flow of heat through the insulation material needs
to be resisted. Therefore, the insulation material working as an insulator should
inhibit the flow of heat between the adjacent surfaces of contacting materials by
any heat transfer mechanism.

In petrochemical industries, corrosion of steel is caused by the thermal

insulation of pipes and other equipment. It is considered severe because it

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 256

eventually causes plant failure and accidents. Corrosion under thermal insulation
is serious and remains hidden under the jacket until it gets aggravated and causes
plant shutdown.

The rusting (oxidation) of carbon steel and chloride stress-corrosion

cracking are two common types of corrosion that occur under thermal insulation.
The presence of water or moisture and chloride ion causes this corrosion. This
corrosion can be controlled with an appropriately designed and installed jacket,
using a high-quality vapor retarder and quality painting where needed.


a. Mineral Wool

Mineral wool covers quite a few types of insulation. It could refer to either
glass wool which is fibreglass manufactured from recycled glass or rock wool
which is a type of insulation made from basalt. Mineral wool can be purchased in
batts or as a loose material. Most mineral wool does not have additives to make it
fire resistant, making it poor for use in situation where extreme heat is present.
Mineral wool has an R-value ranging from R-2.8 to R-3.5.

b. Fiberglass

This is an extremely popular insulation material. One of its key advantages

is value. Fibreglass insulation has a lower installed price than many other types of
insulating materials and, for equivalent R-Value performance (i.e., thermal
resistance), it is generally the most cost-effective option when compared to
cellulose or sprayed foam insulation systems. Because of how it is made, by
effectively weaving fine strands of glass into an insulation material, fibreglass is
able to minimise heat transfer. It is essential when installing fibreglass that the
necessary safety equipment is worn, as glass powder and tiny shards of glass are
formed, which could potentially cause damage to the eyes, lungs, and skin.
Fibreglass is an excellent non-flammable insulation material, with R-values
ranging from R-2.9 to R-3.8 per inch.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 257

3. Cellulose

Cellulose insulation is perhaps one of the eco-friendliest forms of insulation.

Cellulose is made from recycled cardboard, paper, and other similar materials and
comes in loose form. Cellulose has an R-value between R-3.1 and R-3.7. Some
recent studies on cellulose have shown that it might be an excellent product for
use in minimizing fire damage. Because of the compactness of the material,
cellulose contains next to no oxygen within it. Without oxygen within the material,
this helps to minimize the amount of damage that a fire can cause.

So not only is cellulose perhaps one of the eco-friendliest forms of insulation, but
it is also one of the most fire resistant forms of insulation. However, there are
certain downsides to this material as well, such as the allergies that some people
may have to newspaper dust. Also, finding individuals skilled in using this type of
insulation is relatively hard compared to, say fiberglass. Still, cellulose is a cheap
and effective means of insulating.

4. Polyurethane Foam

While not the most abundant of insulations, polyurethane foams are an

excellent form of insulation. Nowadays, polyurethane foams use non-
chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) gas for use as a blowing agent. This helps to decrease
the amount of damage to the ozone layer. They are relatively light, weighing
approximately two pounds per cubic foot (2 lb./ft^3). They have an R-value of
approximately R-6.3 per inch of thickness. There are also low density foams that
can be sprayed into areas that have no insulation. These types of polyurethane
insulation tend to have approximately R-3.6 rating per inch of thickness. Another
advantage of this type of insulation is that it is fire resistant. approximately R-3.6
rating per inch of thickness. Another advantage of this type of insulation is that it
is fire resistant.

5. Polystyrene

It is a waterproof thermoplastic foam which is an excellent sound and

temperature insulation material. It comes in two types, expanded (EPS) and
extruded (XEPS) also known as Styrofoam. The two types differ in performance
ratings and cost. The costlier XEPS has an R-value of R-5.5 while EPS is R-4.
Polystyrene insulation has a uniquely smooth surface which no other type of
insulation possesses.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 258

Typically, the foam is created or cut into blocks, ideal for wall insulation. The foam
is flammable and needs to be coated in a fireproofing chemical called
Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD). HBCD has been brought under fire recently
for health and environmental risks associated with its use.

Treating termites before construction starts can help you defend against
possible claims in the future as they frequently dwell where there is a high
concentration of moisture and dampness. In old houses, these are frequent
problems because they tend to live in obstructed or blocked water supply and
sewerage pipes. Several projects' construction specification require protection for
termites in their finishing, and several others request a termite free environment.


Termite treatment in pre-construction stages includes several procedures

that must be done to ensure an area of termite-free construction. Treating the soil
before any slab placement with insecticides is the most common method of termite
treatment. It will form a chemical barrier between the ground slab and masonry
that will prevent the insects from approaching the building. The chemical treatment
can be done as follows:
Treat the bottom and sides of an excavation with chemical products prior to
the onset of foundation work.

Make holes in the earth and fill them with chemical products where slabs on
grade will be built.
Use chemicals where walls and floors intersect.

Treat the perimeter of the construction by making holes filled with chemicals
surrounding structure.

Fill an area with chemical products in pipe beddings to secure the future of
the piping

Use specific anti-termite chemicals to treat the portion of the buildings were
wooden products such as cabinets, doors, and others will be placed.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 259


We cannot always take measures during pre-construction, but there will be

means to react and catch up with a different approach.

Start with an assessment of the entire area. Determine the extent of the
damage (if any), the location of the termites, access points to the structure, and
their spread in the area. The following tips should be kept in mind:
As in the pre-construction process, make holes and filled them with
chemicals, to create a barrier around the house.

Treat the floors and walls by drilling holes and filling them with chemicals.
All walls or the vast majority should be treated to ensure that no more spreading
will continue.

Apply chemicals on all points of contacts of wood with the ground or with
any part of the building.
Also, treat any voids in masonry with anti-termite treatment.

Change and replace wood products or furniture that have high impact and
presence of termites, beyond any limit of reparation.

Safety Measures

When all measurements have been taken, perform these simple steps to
ensure that your area keeps free of termites.

Keep drains and gutters clean to avoid leakage. Make sure that there are
no blocked lines, no filtration nor broken pipes with excess moisture around them.
Eliminate all sources of moisture. Do not leave unattended areas where
there is a high concentration of humidity. Clean those areas periodically.

Apply chemicals as soon as you detect areas where termites are


Remove wood products that have had the presence of moisture or have
been in contact with water for a prolonged time.
Eliminate wood contact with the ground
Do no bury direct pieces of wood in the ground for any use.
Fill junctions or voids.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 260


Termites are small, ant-like insects. However, they differ from ants in that
they feed off the cellulose in wood. Working largely unseen under the surface, they
can tunnel through the wooden structural members in buildings and completely
destroy them. Wood that comes in contact with the soil, such as the exterior trim
or cladding on your home, provides a perfect point of entry for a termite colony.

Termites are social insects that live in colonies where labor is divided
among a caste system. They have reproductives and soldier castes. In many
termite societies there is also a distinct worker caste, but the typical duties of
workers (nest building and food gathering and feeding the reproductives and
soldiers) are handled by nymphs as well. Workers and nymphs do all the work
soldiers sole job is to defend the colony.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 261

Winged adults are often called swarmers, they are primary reproductives.
They emerge from the colonies on colonizing flights during certain seasons in the
year. After the flights, the male(king) and female(queen) will pair up, lose their
wings and construct a small cell in moist soil. They will mate, lay eggs, and rear
the first group of workers. In colonies where the primary reproductives are not
present, secondary reproductives (without color or functional wings)often occur in
large numbers.

The three castes (workers, soldiers and reproductives) systems that have
different functions.



These immature termites develop into workers,

soldiers or reproductives. As the nymphs become
larger, they also begin to damage wood.


These termites protect the colony. They have

enlarged jaws called mandibles, which they use
to defend the colony. They look like workers, but
their heads are enlarged and darker colored than
the workers. They comprise only 1 to 3 percent of
the foraging termite population

Subterreaan Worker

These are the termites that cause most of the

damage by eating wood and building tunnels, but
they also maintain the colony, build and repair the
nest, forage for food, and help care for the young.
Workers are the most numerous of the three

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 262

Winged reproductive

Reproductive can be a queen, king

or alate. Reproductives can be primary or
secondary. Primary reproductives have
flown out from other colonies. The
secondary termites are found in mature
colonies and serve as replacements if
something happens to the primary reproductives.

Alates (Swarmers) Winged reproductives (alates) are coal black to pale

yellow-brown, flattened and about 1/4 to 3/8 inch long, with pale or smoke-gray to
brown wings. Alates are also known as "swarmers." Swarmers leave a mature
colony during warm temperatures and rain. They leave their parent colony to mate
and establish new colonies. They become the king and queen in the new colonies.
Swarmers are matured from larger nymphs with wings. They have two pairs of long
narrow wings, equal size.

The king and queen termites remain underground or within wood after they
have started their colony. They survive a long time, and can live up to ten years,
producing thousands of termites.


These "supertermites" were introduced to the coastal regions of the United

States after WWII.

Formosan termites are 1/2-inch long; the winged reproductives are pale
yellow to brownish yellow, and the hairy wings have two dark veins at the leading
The soldiers have an oval head with massive toothless mandibles which
cross at the tips. Formosan termites have been found in the Gulf Coast states,
along the eastern seaboard north to North Carolina, as well as in Tennessee,
California, and Hawaii.

Formosan termites are subterranean termites which usually live in the

ground, build mud tubes, and construct carton nests which consist of soil and wood
cemented together with saliva and feces.

The carton nests of Formosan termites retain moisture and enable colonies
and satellite colonies to establish aerial nests and survive without maintaining

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 263

contact with the soil. Swarms appear on warm and rainy days, around dusk, and
continue into the evening. Formosan swarmers are often attracted to light.



Average Colony Size 100,000 up to 1 million. Ten million or more. The

largest known single Formosan termite colony was found in a public library building
in Algiers, Louisiana. The colony exceeded 70 million termites within a nest
weighing approximately 600 pounds.
Aggressiveness Moderately aggressive; a typical colony will consume
about 7 pounds of wood per year. Termite shields (properly installed) are
reasonably effective in helping to control. Percentage of soldiers in a typical colony
is less than 2%, making them somewhat vulnerable to outside predators like ants.
Extremely aggressive; a typical colony will consume over 1,000 pounds of
wood per year. Termite shields are less effective. Formosan subterranean termites
will go through thin sheets of metal, mortar, PVC pipe, electric power lines and
telecommunications lines to get to wood or cellulosic material. This termite will eat
wood, paper, books, furniture — anything cellulosic. A typical colony has 10% to
20% soldiers and therefore is much less vulnerable to outside natural predators.
Adaptability Moderately adaptable; more limited range; species is ground-
dependent for water, making it easier to detect via mud tubes. If present in the
structure, they are usually concentrated at the first-floor level. Prefers wet dead
wood. Will not ordinarily infest living trees. Extremely adaptable; not ground-
dependent for moisture; can live off water condensation even at attic level. Builds
carton nests in walls and roofs; carton nest serves as a satellite home, trap-ping
and conserving water. Very difficult to detect in closed structures until severe
damage has been done. Also attacks and causes severe damage in a broad
species range of living trees; they prefer hardwoods like oak, gum and maple, but
will attack softwoods including Southern Pine. Much more adaptable to varying soil
types, climates, and settings — urban to the wild.

Mobility Moderate to low; ground dependent; and relatively weak flyers in

the alate (flying stage) form. Very mobile; move around extensively when
disturbed; not ground dependent. Ablates are proportionately stronger flyers.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 264

state of Louisiana has been hit very hard with Formoson Subterranean
Termites. For a much greater understanding of these subterranean termites go to:
Louisiana State University


Mechanical Alternation

Avoid moisture accumulation near the foundation. Divert water away with
properly functioning downspouts, gutters and splash blocks. Ground near the
foundation needs to be sloped or graded in order for surface water to drain away
from the building. Termites and ants are attracted to moisture.

Reduce humidity in crawl spaces with proper ventilation. Crawl spaces

should have ventilation openings in the foundation at the rate of two square feet
per 25 linear feet of foundation wall. One vent needs to be within five feet of each
exterior corner of the building.This helps keep the ground dry and unfavorable for
termites. Prevent shrubs, vines and other vegetation from growing over and
covering the vents. It is important to have maximum cross-ventilation. Install
polyethylene sheeting over 75 to 85 percent of the soil surface in crawl spaces to
reduce excess moisture.

There should be no contact between the building woodwork and the soil or
fill. Exterior woodwork should be located a minimum of 6 inches above ground and
beams in crawl spaces at least 18 inches above ground to provide ample space to
make future inspections.

Before and during construction, never bury wood scraps or waste lumber in
the backfill, especially near the building. Be sure to remove old form boards, grade
stakes, etc. left in place after the building was constructed. Remove old tree
stumps and roots around and beneath the building. Never stack or store firewood
lumber or other wood products against the foundation or within the crawl space.
Prevent trellises, vines, etc. from touching the house. (Prevent any potential hidden
paths of termite entry into the structure which could bypass any termiticide soil
barrier already in place.)

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 265


Soil Treatments

Application of termite treatments to the soil and adjacent to the building

forming a continuous barrier.

Foundational Treatments:

Foundational treatment is the application of termiticide to a foundation

setting up a barrier against the termites. The objective is to place termiticide in all
cracks at the footing as well as through the cracks in the foundation wall which
may lead to the ground outside. Treating the inside of hollow concrete walls is an
example of foundational treatment. The foundations are generally of three types:
Slab, Basement, and Crawl space.

All three types of construction will require specialized treatment to form this
chemical barrier. Treatment outside the structure may involve trenching and
treating or rodding to treat the soil on the outside of the foundation, rodding
beneath slabs, or vertical drilling and treating of outside slabs, stoops or porches.
Treatments inside may involve trenching and treating the soil along foundation
walls in crawl spaces, vertical drilling and treating slab foundations, rodding around
bath traps and other utility openings, or treating wood directly. Concrete Slab
Construction: It is possible to trench around the outside of a slab after it has been
poured, but this alone usually will not give satisfactory control because the termite
colony may be entering the structure from the soil under the slab. For more
information on chemical treatments for subterranean termites go to:

Chemical Treatments
Homeowners are not equipped to treat under slabs after the slab foundation
is completed. A professional pest control operator usually is needed to do subslab
chemical injections

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 266

Wood Treating:

Borates (disodium octaborate tetrahydrate) such asTimbor or Boracare

and/or pressure-treated wood (chromated copper arsenate) protects against
termites and wood decay fungi. However, even railroad ties, telephone poles and
pressure treated wood, over time, can be subject to termite attack. Mud tubes can
be built over the surface or entry gained through cut and cracked ends.


MANILA, Philippines - Termites cause major, permanent damage to your

home if they are undetected. Every year, millions of pesos in costly damages
happen to homeowners due to termite infestation.

There are two types of termites: the subterranean termite and the drywood
termite. Subterranean termites live in a nest or colony underground. This colony
may be near or some distance away but the termites will be able to reach your
house through the underground passages they build.

Drywood termites, on the other hand, make nests inside the wooden structures of
your house. Whether subterranean or drywood, both kinds of termites can damage
your house. Of the two, it’s the subterranean termites that present a trickier
Drywood termites can be eliminated by preserving and protecting the
wooden portions of your property with Solignum wood preservative. As for
subterranean termites, they will continue to be a threat as long as they have access
to your home.

The best way to defend against subterranean termites is to use an effective,

convenient, and cost-effective soil termiticide, which is Hometrek from Jardine.
Hometrek protects your house from the attack of termites by creating a barrier that
blocks the termites’ passage.

Hometrek has several advantages. It kills termites who try to breach the soil
barrier. Hometrek is also safe to use, having passed the FDA standards for
environmental safety. It does not contaminate ground water.

How do you know when your house is infested with termites? It’s not so
easy to detect their presence because they stay hidden inside the walls,
foundations, beams and other wooden structures in the house. Once damaged
wood portions of the house become obvious, it’s usually at a point where

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considerable destruction has occurred. There are some signs of termite infestation
that a homeowner can look out for including:

 Damaged wooden portions of the house. Damage can be obvious: wood

has gaping holes where termites have eaten through. Sometimes,
however, the damage is inside the wood so the surface looks fine. So you
can knock on the wood and check for a dull thud, a hollow sound.

 Mud tubes. Mud tubes are passages that subterranean termites use to go
from their nests to your home. You may see these mud tubes in the exterior
or interior of your house.

 Shed insect wings. When you find shed insect wings around your house, it
could mean that a swarm of termites has been to your house. It’s possible
that flying termites have landed near your home and are going to build a
nest. When you suspect that your home is threatened by a termite
infestation, be sure to use Hometrek and other Jardine products for total
termite protection.


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Republic of the Philippines
Technological University of the Philippines
Graphics Department

Subject: BMMC – Building Materials & Methods of Construction
Course: BGT - AT – 1A
SY: 2018-2019 / 2ᶮᵈ SEMESTER

By Arevalo:
1. What is Paint?
2. History of Paint
By Bolaños:
3. Uses of Paint
4. Process of How to
Make a Paint
By Impas:

5. Types of Paint


By Nicolas:
1. Types of Coating
By Ricafrente:
2. Tools/Materials
3. Application/Classification

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 273


Leader: Arevalo, Johnmar


Ricafrente, Godfrey

Bolaños, Bryan

Nicolas, Norberto

Impas, Cristian Josua

April 2019

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 274


- is a substance composed of solid coloring matter suspended in a liquid

medium and applied as a protective or decorative coating to various
surface, or to canvas or other materials in producing a work of art.


Invention of Paint (100,000BC)

Tens of thousands of years ago, humans discovered that combining

coloured earth with a sticky liquid resulted In something with creative potential.
Coloured rocks, earth and minerals could be ground into powders and
mixed with a binding medium such as egg or animal fat to make paint. By using
paints coloured with yellow, red and black earths or clays, patterns and stories
could be created on rocks and inside caves.

Cave Paintings (Neolithic Age 4000-2500BC)

Coloured paintings in caves in Lascaux, southern France

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Around 20,000 years ago paintings were made using yellow and red earths,
and whites and blacks from bone and charcoal.

Now that early people had paint, they found surfaces on which to express
themselves. Astonishing early paintings of animals are prevented in the caves of
Altamira in Spain and Lascaux in southern France. In addition to charcoal, a much
richer black was made from a type of coal called pyrolusite. These minerals began
to be transported further afield as societies grew more sophisticated.

Classical World (500-300BC)

In ancient Greece and Egypt, materials were imported from all over Europe
and Asia to make paint and decorate templates.

Sand, lime, and copper ore were mixed together and heated to between
850C and 1000C to make a greenish blue pigment called Egyptian blue. A lively
red was produced by mixing dangerous mercury with sulphur and roasting them
together. White was made by sealing strips or coils of lead in earthenware pots
with vinegar and covered by manure. Although the classical palette was still
limited, the painter had more colours to play with.

Ultramarine Blue (900s)

European palettes lacked an intense blue until the mineral lapis lazuli was
Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 276
A method of separating the brilliant blue powder from the semi-precious
stone reached Europe from Afghanistan, where lapis lazuli was and still is mined.
This colour, called ultramarine blue meaning “from beyond the seas”, was as
expensive as gold leaf, and patrons would pay artist separately to use it. In the
early renaissance the main binding medium was egg yolk, which created a quick
drying matt paint. This meant the paint had to applied with a distinctive technique
using small brush strokes.

Invention of Oil Paint (1400s)

In the early 15th Century, oils replaced egg as a binding medium and
transformed painting.

The Flemish painter Jan van Eyck was credited with inventing oil paint, but
oils were already in use before his time. His true invention entailed building up oil
paint layers from fast-drying to slow-drying, and opaque to transparent. These
innovations enabled painters to create more detailed work. Oil paint could be
mixed more easily and applied in big strokes or layers. In the 16th Century artists
also began to paint on canvases which could be larger and more easily transported

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World Travel (1500s)

Dried cochineal insects were used to make red pigment.As European

exploration continued, trade routes opened up across the globe, accelerating the
discovery of new colours.

Traders transported new pigments and dyes around the world. In the early
16th Century the Spanish brought cochineal to Europe – a red dye which had been
used by Aztecs and was made in Oaxaca in what was then called New Spain, now
Mexico. The red dye was extracted from female cochineal insects living on cacti
and was used to create a beautiful crimson, a so-called red lake pigment, which
was extensively used in European painting.

Chemistry of Colour (1700s)

Alchemists at work in a chemistry lab, painted in the 1700s.

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As science and the understanding of chemistry advanced, entirely new
colours were made using complex chemical reactions.

The first modern synthetic pigment, Prussian blue, was discovered in the
early 1700s by accident when a chemist was trying to make red. It was long-lasting
and intensely coloured, but darker than ultramarine. Over the next 100 years many
more artificial colours were introduced. Even lapis lazuli blue was synthesized with
an identical but artificial version. New chemical processes continued to drive down
prices and increase the range of colours.

Industrialization (1800s)By the end of the 19th Century almost any colour
could be purchased for a relatively low price.

Throughout the 1800s, traditional methods of producing colours declined as

cheaper, reliable, standardized chemical methods replaced them. Most artists and
their apprentices no longer mixed their own paints but bought them ready-made
from professional “colourmen”. New green pigments like emerald green, were used
in wallpapers to decorate Victorian homes. However these new popular pigments
often contained poisons, such as arsenic.

Non-toxic Paint (20th Century)

By the 20th Century, non-toxic paints were developed which helped artists
become even more creative.

Safer alternatives were developed such as titanium white which replaced

lead white. Viridian green took over from arsenic-containing emerald green. As the
use of paint increased, the search for durability and a wide range of colours was
led by manufacturers of industrial paints who were making glossy enamel and
house paints. Artists like Picasso and Pollock started to use them for their colour
range, fluidity, matte or gloss effect. They also liked their industrial look and feel.

Acrylic Paint (World War II)

Acrylic paint was invented in the 1940s and transformed painting, quickly
replacing oil in everyday paint.

Water-based acrylic paint was cheap, held colour well, dried quickly and
was water resistant when dry. For some applications, it was much more suitable
than oils. Artists such as Roy Lichtenstein used them in combination with oil paints.

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Others such as Helen Frankenthaler and Louis Morris preferred synthetic acrylic
paints for their richness of colour, and the watercolour effects they could obtain by
diluting them and letting them stain the raw canvas.

Modern Day

Today we take for granted the availability of cheap, bright paint in any

The palette of paint colours continues to grow thanks to developments in science,

including innovations such as iridescent and fluorescent paints.

Traditional paints – including some which are toxic – are still available, though they
are mostly difficult to source, and better, cheaper, and safer alternatives now exist.
Today we can choose from an almost infinite number of safe, durable, vibrant

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colours to express our artistic imagination – a far cry from the limited yellow, red
and black earths our ancestors used on cave walls.

Who Invented the Paint?

In 1866, Sherwin-Williams in the United States opened as a large paint-

maker and invented a paint that could be used from the tin without preparation. It
was not until the stimulus of World War II created a shortage of linseed oil in the
supply market that artificial resins, or alkyds, were invented.


Different Types of Paint and Their Uses

a. Primer
As the name suggests, a primer is used to treat a surface before paint is
applied. Often underutilized by those looking at doing a bit of DIY, primer needs to
match the paint finish for the paint to be long-lasting and have the highest-quality
finish. A primer is often absorbed by the surface on which it is applied, and be sure
to couple oil-based paints with oil-based primer.

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b. First-Coat Paint

Much like the primer, the first-coat paint is also used to treat the surface on
which you place your decorative coating/paint finish. A first-coat often
complements the paint finish or specialized coating by affording added colour and
protection. Again, oil coats are used when acting as a first-coat for oil-based
finishes. First-coats are applied more than once to provide an even coat and colour

c. Finish Coats

The final coat, a finish coat provides the decorative surface and colour
expected from the paint project. Finish coats are also important as they must
protect the structure from external elements and damage; for this reason, finish
coats are weather resistant. There are many kinds of finish coats for a range of
distinct results:

 Eggshell Finish

An eggshell finish is especially popular when it comes to contemporary

interior design. It provides a semi-gloss finish and is hard-wearing, so it can take
a beating before being wiped clean.

 Satin

Satin finish is also incredibly popular as it offers the finest range of pastel
colours. It is not a very hard-wearing paint, and is quite expensive, so it is primarily
used for interior surfaces.

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 Gloss:

Gloss finishes are like satin finishes, but with an added sheen. Available in
latex of solvent-based mixtures, gloss paints come in a range of specialised
formulas, making it perfect for exterior and interior application.

 Matte:

Matte is also ultra-modern and ‘in-fashion’, offering a great depth of colour.

However, it is known for being extremely difficult to clean, so is almost exclusively
used indoors.

d. Metal Paints

If you’re looking for a little more gloss in your paint, metal paints afford you
both colour and a high-quality finish. Some may consider the paint garish and
expensive, but it is also known for its protective qualities.

e. Other Speciality Paints

There are many other different types of paint with various uses. These
different types of paints have had additives applied, allowing them to be used in
specialised conditions. A good example is paints specifically made for bathroom

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 283

and kitchen applications, making them a little more resistant to water damage and
fungal growth.


Ingredients in Paint

There are four main components in paint, they are resin, additives,
solvent, and pigment. The resin is the binder that holds all the pigments together.
It allows the product to adhere to the surface is it painted too. A water based paint
uses acrylic emulsion polymers to bind. Common acrylic polymers come in a wide
variety of types and combinations, such as methyl and butyl methacrylate.
Inexpensive paints use polyvinyl acetate to bind.

Additives are used to enhance the properties of the substance. It makes it

glide on the wall with a brush. It also makes it mold and scuff resistant. Without
additives, the drying time would not be as fast as it is and there would be sag
resistance. Solvents act as a carrier that helps bind the pigments and resin
together. These agents can be organic, like mineral turps, or the manufacturer can
use plain water.

Lastly, pigments are used to give paint its color and sheen. They are placed
into two groups, prime and extender. The prime pigments will include colors like
white, green oxide, yellow and red. In the other group of extenders, it includes
calcium carbonate, talc, mica, and barytes to name a few.

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The Manufacturing Process

There are five critical parts in the manufacturing process of paint, they are
a measurement of ingredients, preparation and pigment dispersion, Let-down,
laboratory testing, and canning. Paint is manufactured in large lots. Using
calibrated vats, the ingredients are measured and weighed on scales. Pigments
are added next. These powders are small and stick together forming clumps. They
are broken down by the resin and additives that keep them from sticking together,
which is called dispersion. Mixers are used to combine and disperse the pigments.

In the let-down stage, the resin, solvent, and additives are combined in a
large vat. The mill-base is stirred in during this phase. Any final additions are added
during this stage, if necessary. The finished product is tested in a laboratory.
Before manufacturing is approved, critical ingredients are tested. They will ensure
it is sufficiently mixed and no further processing is needed. They check the
viscosity, tint strength, color, gloss, dry time, and overall appearance.

When the batch is complete, it can be canned. Two samples are taken
during this phase. A retained sample is kept and stored for future references, and
then there is the final inspection sample. The final sample is inspected to
guarantee conformance to standards. Once the final sample has been completed,
it can be dispatched.


a. Exterior Paints

Exterior paints are designed to be applied to stucco and other exterior surfaces
with the intent to withstand sun, wind, water and mildew. This is done by increasing
the amount of resin and pigment in the paint as well as using more resilient
additives. With the added strength comes VOC, or volatile organic compounds,
which outgas from paint. While the majority of these compounds outgas in the first
48 hours, small amounts will continue to outgas for years making it less ideal for
interior work. Exterior paints can be applied to a variety of substrates simply by
changing the sheen. For stucco and other masonry surfaces a flat sheen is best,
this allows the stucco to ‘breath. When it rains the exterior of your house acts as a
sponge absorbing small amounts of water. The flat paint allows the water to
escape from stucco and brick without bubbling your paint. For wood trim, a low
sheen paint gives it added protection from water to keep the wood from cracking

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 285

due to repeated wet/dry cycles. For metal or high traffic areas a semi gloss is used.
The semi gloss keeps water from getting in and makes it more abrasion resistant.

b. Interior Paints
Interior paints are designed to withstand abrasion and to be low or zero
VOC. Interior paints are designed to be more delicate than exterior paints because
the occupy the same space as we do. By todays standards a Low VOC paint is
has the same VOC levels as a Zero VOC paint from just 10 years ago. And the
zero VOC paints of today, which still have minuet levels of VOCs, are the most
gentle to date. One thing to note is zero VOC paint comes at a trade off. Low VOC
paints have far superior abrasion resistance than zero VOC paints, so while its
gentler on the air you have to be gentler on it. Which brings me to my next point,
interior paints are designed to be scrubbed. The level of scrubbing is directly
related to the level of gloss in the paint. Flat paints have the least ability to wash
but are easiest to touch up. While high gloss has the best ability to wash but are
the hardest to apply. In ‘dry’ areas of the home such as living and bedrooms a low
sheen paint is a nice in between. And in ‘wet’ areas such as the kitchen and
bathrooms a semi-gloss is ideal. Now a low sheen paint can be used in bathrooms
and kitchens to maintain consistency throughout the home.


A. For Walls:

a. Distemper Paint

- is an ancient type of paint made of water, chalk, and pigment. It is bound

with either an animal glue or the adhesive qualities of casein, a resin that
comes from solidified milk. The primary problem with distemper paint is that
it is not durable.

b. Luster Paint

Royale Lustre is an extremely durable and highly washable luxury paint.

formulated to be virtually odourless. Its non yellowing property ensures walls
remain beautiful for years. weather it's a smooth finish or Dana pattern.

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c. Enamel Paint

- an opaque or semitransparent glassy substance applied to metallic or other

hard surfaces for ornament or as a protective coating.

C. For Metals

Emulsion Paint

- a fine dispersion of minute droplets of one liquid in another in which it is not

soluble or miscible. a water-based paint used for walls.

D. For Wood

a. Wood Finish

Wood stain is a type of paint that is formulated to be very

"thin", meaning low in viscosity, so that the pigment soaks into a material such
as wood rather than remaining in a film on the surface.


A. Texture Paint

- a paint of heavy consistency and coarse grain consisting usually of gypsum

and sand with water-thinned binder and used for creating a rough patterned
effect on a wall.

B. Cement Paint

Cement Paint is otherwise known as concrete paint, cement paint is durable

and water resistant. The main ingredients of the paint are white Portland cement,
lime, and some pigments. Apart from that, this paint contains water repellents,
fungicides, fillers, and accelerators. It comes in the form of a white powder that is
mixed with water, before application.

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What is coating?

A coating is a covering that is applied to the surface of an object,

usually referred to as the substrate. The purpose of applying
the coating may be decorative, functional, or both. The coating itself may be an all-
over coating, completely covering the substrate, or it may only cover parts of the
substrate. An example of all of these types of coating is a product label on many
drinks bottles- one side has an all-over functional coating (the adhesive) and the
other side has one or more decorative coatings in an appropriate pattern (the
printing) to form the words and images.

What is the difference between coating and painting?

As nouns the difference between coating and paint. is that coating is a thin
outer layer while paint is a substance that is applied as a liquid or paste, and dries
into a solid coating that protects or adds color/colour to an object or surface to
which it has been applied.

What are the functions of coating?

Adhesive – adhesive tape, pressure-sensitive labels, iron-on fabric

Changing adhesion properties
Non-stick PTFE coated- cooking pans
Release coatings for example silicone-coated release liners for many self-
adhesive products
primers encourage subsequent coatings to adhere well (also sometimes have anti-
corrosive properties)
Optical coatings
Reflective coatings for mirrors
Anti-reflective coatings example on spectacles
UV- absorbent coatings for protection of eyes or increasing the life of the substrate
Tinted as used in some coloured lighting, tinted glazing, or sunglasses
Catalytic e.g. some self-cleaning glass
Light-sensitive as previously used to make photographic film

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 Metallic
 Organic
 Inorganic


Metal coatings are coatings that are applied to metal in order to protect the
metal and reduce wear and tear by coating the metal, an extra layer of protection
is provided. Metal coatings are often made from polymers,such as epoxy,
polyurethane, and moisture cure urethane
 Anodizing.
-Anodizing is an electrochemical process that converts the metal surface into a
decorative, durable, corrosion-resistant, anodic oxide finish. Aluminum is ideally
suited to anodizing, although other nonferrous metals, such as magnesium and
titanium, also can be anodized.
 Galvanizing
-Galvanization or galvanizing is the process of applying a protective zinc coating
to steel or iron, to prevent rusting.
 Plating
-Plating is a surface covering in which a metal is deposited on a conductive
surface. ... Jewelry typically uses plating to give a silver or gold finish.
 Powder Coatings
-Powder coating is a type of coating that is applied as a free-flowing, dry
powder. The main difference between a conventional liquid paint and a powder
coating is that the powder coating does not require a solvent to keep the binder
and filler parts in coating and is then cured under heat to allow it to flow and form
a "skin".


Organic coatings are a complex mixture of polymers, fluid carriers, pigments,

corrosion inhibitors, and additives, and represent the oldest and most widely used
method for delaying the onset of corrosion.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 289

 Surface Coating
A coating is a covering that is applied to the surface of an object, usually
referred to as the substrate. The purpose of applying the coating may be
decorative, functional, or both. The coating itself may be an all-over coating,
completely covering the substrate, or it may only cover parts of the substrate
 Protective Coating
-Protective coatings are a simple way to reduce corrosion, by limiting the exposure
of the metal to a corrosive environment. Paint is a very common protective coating,
but tar, pitch, bitumen and plastics are also used.


Inorganic coatings encompass “surface conversion, anodizing, enameling,

metallic coatings and more” (“Inorganic coatings”). These coatings are created
through a chemical action that changes the surface layer of metal into a metallic
oxide film or compound to reduce corrosion.

 Enameling
Enamel can be used on metal, glass, ceramics, stone, or any material that
will withstand the fusing temperature. In technical terms fired enamelware is an
integrated layered composite of glass and another material (or more glass). The
term "enamel" is most often restricted to work on metal, which is the subject of this
article. Enamelled glass is also called "painted", and overglaze decoration to
pottery is often called enamelling.

 Anodic Coating
-For example the protection of low-carbon iron part from atmospheric corrosion by
a coating may use either an anodic coating (nickel) or cathodic one (aluminum or

 Polymer Coating
A polymer coating is a paint or coating that is made with polymers.
A polymer is a substance that contains a molecular structure that mainly contains
a large number of similar units.This includes synthetic organic materials such as
resins and plastics.

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 Ceramic Coating
-A Ceramic Coating (such as Opti-Coat Pro, C.Quartz, and Ceramic Pro) is a liquid
polymer that is applied by hand to the exterior of a vehicle.

Other types of Coating

 Stainless Steel Coating

Stainless steels are used because of their corrosion resistance in a wide
variety of service environments, usually without additional coatings. ... Roughening
of stainless steel surfaces prior to coating is essential and can usually be achieved
by abrasive blasting, light hand abrasion or chemical etching.

In architectural or structural the industrial coating is the most used

 Industrial Coating
Industrial coatings are essentially a type of paint that is applied on various
derivatives like concrete or steel. It’s caked on in a way that is designed to be both
aesthetic as well as protective. There are many different kinds of industrial
coatings. Some examples include resins, Xylan-Dry film lubricants, xylene, and
The total application process includes first a primer, and then the full coating, and
finally, a sealant.

Uses of Industrial Coating

The main reason for applying a coating is to protect the part that’s underneath
it in some way, especially from various types of corrosion. Aesthetics are
sometimes important too though, so that is not something that should be

Specifically, the most common use of industrial coatings is to prevent

concrete or steel from corroding. A secondary common use is to make these
materials more resistant to fire or other problems. Polymers are frequently used as
an industrial coating.

Some common polymers used as a coating include moisture cure urethane,

epoxy, fluoropolymer, and polyurethane. Of course there are as many application
processes as there are

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 291

materials used as coatings, but one of the most common processes is the
Excalibur coating process.

Brands and Prizes for Coating

Nippon odourlite undercoat STD 5L-1502.00
Nippon timbershade base accent 5L- 1460.00
Hudson polyeutherene floor varnish -347.00
Zar exterior polyeutherene gloos/quart- 962.00
Zar interior polyeutherene nt.flat/gal.- 2525.00
Dr. Seal concrete f.coating ylw gal.- 1679.00

Automotive Parts and Powder Coating

steel rim 13"-18" -1,200
aluminum rim 13"-18"- 1640
Aluminum rim 19"-24" -2,250
steel valve cover v6-v8 -820
aluminum vavlve cover v6-v8- 1,000

Patio Furniture
round table (40diam.) -4,100
Rectangle (25"-35") -1800
chair -2000
bar stool- 2670


Boysen 1075 acrytex primer 4L -749.45
Pioner epoxy primer gray 4L -1249.75
Boysen2100 Epoxy Enamel WHT w/curing agent 4L -1026
Boysen 2950 chrome green 4L W/C. agent 2910 –1186

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 292



It is a type of pressure-sensitive tape

made of a thin and easy-to-tear paper, and
an easily released pressure-sensitive
adhesive. It is available in a variety of widths.
It is used mainly in painting, to mask off areas
that should not be painted. The adhesive is
the key element to its usefulness, as it allows
the tape to be easily removed without leaving
residue or damaging the surface to which it is


Rollers can be used to paint large, flat

surfaces in much less time than it would take
using a brush. Selecting a roller cover
depends on the type of paint (latex or oil) and
the surface you're painting (smooth, rough or
textured). Sherwin-Williams Roller Covers
are available in multiple fabric types
(synthetic, natural or blend) to match the type
of paint used and in several pile depths
appropriate for different surfaces.

Paint rollers are available with different size widths, the correct width will
depend upon the size and the strength of the user. Sizes are 4 Inches for narrow
or detailed painting to 15 Inches for large surfaces and 24 Inches for large floor
areas. The most common width is 9 inch as this is a good average size.


 Synthetic covers (nylon, dacron or polyester) - ideal for most latex paints.

 Natural covers (mohair or sheepskin) - should be used with oil-based paints.

If used with latex paints, the water in the paint may swell the fibers, causing
them to become matted.
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 Blended covers (polyester / wool blend) - combines the extra pickup of wool
with polyester for longer life. Can be used with all paints.


Pile depth refers to the thickness of the roller cover's fiber nap. It's essential
to choose the right pile depth for the surface you're painting. Sherwin-Williams
offers six pile depths to meet almost any painting project:

 Very Smooth – for metal doors and plaster

 Smooth – for drywall

 Semi-Smooth – for drywall

 Semi-Rough – for rough wood and acoustic tile

 Rough – for textured ceilings and stucco finishes

 Very Rough – for concrete block, brick and fences


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Types of Brushes

 Natural-bristle brushes made with animal hairs are used for applying oil
base paints, varnishes, shellac, polyurethane and other oil base finishes.

 The natural "flagging" (splitting or fuzzy tips) of these brushes creates split
ends in the bristles that hold more paint and help assure a smooth paint
release and finish.

 Blended nylon/polyester brushes are easy to clean and work well with all
types of latex paints. The combination of nylon's durability and polyester's
shape retention is the mark of a high-quality brush - one that also produces
a high-quality paint finish. What's more, these durable brushes are built to
handle numerous projects. So, with proper care, nylon / polyester brushes
should last for years.

 Polyester brushes are best for latex paints. These brushes hold their shape
and stiffness in any paint and apply paint smoothly and evenly.

Brush Sizes

Sherwin-Williams paintbrushes are available in widths from 1 to 4 inches. The

size you select is up to you, but a good rule of thumb is:

 1" to 2" – window and other small trim

 3" – glossy paints for doors and cabinets

 4" – large, flat areas

Brush Styles

 Angled Sash- Features slanted bristles and holds more

paint than its thin counterpart. Excellent for cutting in at
the ceiling or painting trim.

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 Thin Angle Sash- Slanted
bristles and a thin profile
produce a good, straight line for
trimming in corners and edges.

 Flat Sash- Bristles are straight

across and used primarily for
applying paint over flat areas.

 Wall- A thick flat brush that

holds a larger amount of paint.
Excellent for painting larger
surface areas.


Paint trays are handy tools to have around.

Instead of dipping into the paint can to reload a
roller or brush, just dispense a small quantity of
paint into a tray. The long, wide surface easily
accommodates all sizes of paintbrushes and

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 296


If you have large or several rooms to

paint, those are the tools to get. Pour a
couple of gallons of paint into the bucket, mix
well and drop the screen over the bucket lip.
It makes quick easy work of dipping,
screening off the sleeve and applying paint to
the wall.


A ladder is a vertical or inclined set of

rungs or steps. There are two types: rigid
ladders that are self-supporting or that may
be leaned against a vertical surface such as
a wall, and rollable ladders, such as those
made of rope or aluminium, that may be hung
from the top.


It is made to handle any paint or heavy

duty home improvement project. Made from
100% cotton duck canvas fabric, this will
protect floors, carpets, furniture or equipment,
absorb paint spills, traps dust, and debris for
faster clean-up. With double-stitched seams
and heavy-duty rot-resistant thread, this
canvas drop cloth is washable and reusable.

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Republic of the Philippines
Technological University of the Philippines
Graphics Department

Subject: BMMC - Building Materials & Methods of Construction
Course: BGT - AT – 1A
SY: 2018-2019 / 2nd SEMESTER


By Santos:

I. What is Plastic?
II. History of Plastic
III. Properties of Plastics as a Construction Material

By Rivera:

IV. Types of Plastic

V. Plastic Manufacturing Process

By Rimando:

VI. What is synthetic?

VII. History of Synthetic Materials

By Malasig:

VIII. Types of Synthetic Polymers

IX. Uses of Synthetic Polymers
X. Classification of Polymers

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 302


Leader: Rivera, Leonora P.


Santos, Laarnie Christian S.

Rimando, Gene Chael

Malasig, Joven Karl G.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 303

April 2019

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 304


It is material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic

organic compounds that are malleable and so can be molded into solid objects.

Plastics are derived from natural, organic materials such as cellulose, coal,
natural gas, salt and, of course, crude oil. Crude oil is a complex mixture of
thousands of compounds and needs to be processed before it can be used.
Plastics is versatile, hygienic, lightweight, flexible and highly durable. It
accounts for the largest usage of plastics worldwide and is used in numerous
packaging applications including containers, bottles, drums, trays, boxes, cups
and vending packaging, baby products and protection packaging.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 305


1284 – Oldest surviving historical record of

naturally made plastic compounds from horn
and tortoiseshell.

1823 – Macintosh discovered rubber. He used it

to protect cotton from moisture.

1845 – Inventor Bewley produces natural

rubber from plant gutta percha. This plant
became used regularly during 19th century,
especially to produce insulation for
underwater telegraph cables.

1862 – Londoner Alexander Parkes unveiled first

man-made plastic compound. He named it
"Parkesine”, but it quickly disappeared from
public use because of high costs.

1869 – Failure of Parkesine led to the creation of

Xylonite by the hands of Daniel Spill. His
company also went bankrupt after few years.

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1897 – Two German researches developed
Galalith, a type of plastic that is still in use today
(mostly as plastic buttons).

1907 –New York chemist Leo H. Baekeland

created first fully synthetic plastic product called
Bakelite. It was received with great enthusiasm,
and was used in everything, from jewelry to cars
and airplanes. Original pieces of Bakelite plastics
are now considered rare and precious.

1920 – Creation of Polyvinyl chloride, or PVC.

This invention brought to the close tradition of
cultivating plants who gave us natural rubber.
PVC is most commonly used plastic product
of the modern world.

1927 – After patent for Bakelite expired, Catalin

Corporation started producing plastic “Catalin” with the
same formula as Bakelite. Their 15 new colors proved
to be very successful.

1931 – Plexiglas, strong

and transparent type of plastic was invented in two
different laboratories. It instantly becomes success.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 307

1938 – Chemist Roy Plunkett discovered
Teflon, very durable and resistant plastic
that is today most commonly used in

1948 – ABS was made, plastic which is

today used in millions of products – from
Lego pieces to golf club heads, musical
instruments, car parts, and piping.

1953 – American chemist Daniel Fox invented

a new type of polycarbonate resin
thermoplastic that was very durable and
almost bulletproof. Named “Lexan”, this
plastic became instant hit and is used even
today in various modern products, such as
iBook, iPod and many others.

1954 – Styrofoam becomes available.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 308

1965 – Chemist Stephanie Kwolek develops
light, extremely resistive and durable plastic
compound that is today known under the
name of Kevlar. Today, this plastic is used by
military and police in bullet resistive
protective wear.

1998 – Bakelite bracelet under the name of

“Philadelphia bracelet" reached the price of
17 thousand dollars at Treadway/Toomey

2003 – A sustainable European PVC

recycling system, Recovinyl, was established.

2013 - Recovinyl recycles more than one million

PVC-U window frames per year in the UK.


Each plastic material has its own peculiar properties to suit its uses. The
success of plastic as an engineering material will depends up on the selection of
variety of plastic.
Following are the general properties of plastic:

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 309

1. Appearance of Plastics

In the market there are so

many types of models of plastics are
available such as transparent, colored
etc. suitable pigments are added in
the process of manufacturing of
plastic material to get these different
properties. So, these will give good
appearance to the structure and
makes it attractive.
2. Chemical Resistance of Plastics

Plastics offer great resistance against chemicals and solvents. Chemical

composition of plastics during manufacturing will decide the degree of chemical
resistance. Most of the plastics available in the market offer great corrosion
resistance. So, corrosive metals are replaced by plastic in the case of water
carrying pipes, etc.

3. Dimensional Stability

Thermo-plastic types of plastics can be easily reshaped and reused. But in

the case of thermo-setting type plastics, it is not possible to reshape or remold the

4. Ductility of Plastics
Ductile nature of plastic is very low. When tensile stress is acting on plastic
member they may fail without any prior indication.

5. Durability of Plastics
Plastics with enough surface hardness are
having good durability. Sometimes, plastics
may affect by termites and rodents especially
in the case of thermo-plastic types, however
it is not a serious problem because of no
nutrition values in plastic.

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6. Electric Insulation

Plastics are good electric insulators. So, they are used as linings for electric
cables and for electronics tools.
7. Finishing

Any type of finishing treatment van be given to the plastics. Mass production
of plastic particles with uniformity of surface finish is done by having technical
control during manufacturing.
8. Fire Resistance

The resistance to temperature or fire for varieties of plastics considerably

varies depending upon the structure. Plastics made of cellulose acetate are burnt
slowly. PVC made plastics do not catch fire easily. Plastics made of phenol
formaldehyde and urea formaldehyde are fire proof materials.
9. Fixing

Fixing of plastic materials is so easy. We can bolt, drill or glued to fix plastic
material position.

10. Humidity

The plastics made up of cellulosic

materials are affected by the presence of
moisture. The plastics made of poly vinyl
chloride (PVC pipes) offers great
resistance against moisture.
11. Maintenance
Maintaining of plastics are so simple. Because they do not need any surface
finishing coats or paints etc.
12. Melting Point

Generally, plastics have very low melting point. Some plastics may melt at
just 50oC. So, they cannot be used in the positions of high temperature. Thermo
setting type of plastics are having high melting point than thermo plastic type
plastics. However, thermo setting types are cannot used for recycling. To improve
the heat resistance of the plastics, glass fiber reinforcement is provided in its

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 311

13. Optical Property

There are so many types of plastics. Some

plastics are transparent which allows light in its
original direction and some are translucent
nothing but semi-transparent which allows light
but changes light ray’s direction

14. Recycling of Plastics

Disposal of plastics in the
environment causes severe pollution.
But it is not a serious problem
because of its recycling property. We
can use plastic waste disposal
conveniently to produce drainage
pipes, fencing, hand rails, carpets,
benches etc.

15. Sound Absorption

By the saturation of phenolic

resins, we can produce acoustic
boards. These acoustic boards are
sound absorbents and provide sound
insulation. Generally, for theatres,
seminar halls this type of acoustic
ceilings are used.

16. Strength

Practically we can say that plastic is strong material but ideal section of
plastic which is useful for structural component is not designed yet. Generally, by
reinforcing fibrous material into plastic improves its strength. If the strength to
weight ratio of plastic is same as metals, then also we cannot give preference to
plastics because of various reasons like, heavy cost, creep failure may occur, poor
stiffness and sensitive against temperature.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 312

17. Thermal Property

The thermal conductivity of plastics

is very low and is like wood. So, foamed
and expanded plastics are used as
thermal insulators.

18. Weather Resistance

Most of the plastics except some

limited varieties are capable of resistance
against weathering. But, major problem
is plastics when the plastics are exposed
to sunlight, they are seriously affected by
ultra violet rays and gets brittle. To
prevent this, plastics are incorporated by
fillers and pigments which helps to
absorb or reflect the UV rays to surface.

19. Weight of Plastics

The Plastics have low specific gravity generally ranges from 1.3 to 1.4. So,
they are light in weight and easily transportable to any place in a large quantity.



 Flooring

Plastic materials like polyvinyl chloride

(PVC) and polyethylene are used to make
flooring less prone to wear and tear. It also
decreases the sound pollution level and
can be cleaned easily.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 313

 Roofing

To protect the outer surface of the

roof from damage, two layers of different
plastic materials are required. The upper
part is made of colored thermoplastic
olefin or vinyl while the lower part
consists of polyurethane foam which
consumes less energy and keeps the
interior of a house cooler.

 Insulation

Polyurethane spray is frequently used

for insulation when constructing green or
low energy buildings. Rigid polyurethane
foam is known for its high thermal
resistance which promotes temperature
consistency. Polyurethane foam is also
popular because it is lightweight, chemical
resistant, and flame retardant. Due to its
closed cell nature, polyurethane insulation
performs as an air barrier, resulting in
significant energy savings.

 Wall

A structural insulated panel (SIP) is a

sandwich of expanded polystyrene
amidst two slim layers of oriented strand
board. This type of pre-fab, composite
wall board can be transferred to the work
place easily for a task and provide good
support to columns and other associated
essentials during renovation.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 314

 Pipes

Commonly made up of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), CPVC, acrylonitrile butadiene

styrene (ABS) or polyethylene,
plastic pipes are flexible and very
light in weight, making them easy
to install. All these plastic
materials are also highly chemical
and water resistant, making them
suitable for many extreme

 Windows

Polycarbonate is used to manufacture building

windows. This plastic material is strong, clear and
very light in weight. Polycarbonate windows are
considered more burglar-proof than regular glass
windows. Two plastics materials, vinyl and
fiberglass, are used commonly in the production of
window frames. Fiberglass is extremely strong
while vinyl is quite durable and inexpensive.

 Doors

Some construction projects use doors made

from a stiff polyurethane foam core with a fiber
reinforced plastic (FRP) coating. The sandwich
structure of these doors makes them incredibly

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 315

• Polyethylene Terephthalate (PETE or PET)
• High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE)
• Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)
• Low-Density Polyethylene (LDPE)
• Polypropylene (PP)
• Polystyrene or Styrofoam (PS)
• Miscellaneous plastics (includes: polycarbonate, polylactide, acrylic,
• acrylonitrile butadiene, styrene, fiberglass, and nylon)


It is the most common thermoplastic polymer resin of the polyester family

and is used in fibers for clothing, containers for liquids and foods,
thermoforming for manufacturing, and in combination with glass fiber for
engineering resins. (RECYCABLE)
Soda bottles, Water bottles, Salad dressing bottles, Medicine jars, Peanut butter
jars, Jelly Jars, Combs, Bean bags, Rope, Tote bags, Carpet, Fiberfill material in
winter clothing
Repurposed to Make:

textiles, pillow stuffing, life jackets, storage containers, clothing, boat sails, auto
parts, sleeping bags, shoes, luggage, winter coats

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 316


It is a thermoplastic polymer produced from the monomer ethylene.It is

sometimes called "alkathene" or "polythene" when used for HDPe pipes.[ With a
high strength-to-density ratio, HDPE is used in the production of plastic bottles,
corrosion-resistant piping, geomembranes and plastic lumber.(RECYCABLE).

Milk jugs, Juice containers, Grocery bags, Trash bags, Motor oil container,
Shampoo and conditioner bottles, Soap bottles, Detergent containers, Bleach
containers, Toys
Repurposed to Make:
Plastic crates, lumber, fencing


It is the world's third-most widely produced synthetic plastic polymer,

after polyethylene and polypropylene. (RECYCABLE)

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 317


Some tote bags, Plumbing pipes, Grocery bags, Tile, Cling films, Shoes, Gutters,
Window frames, Ducts, Sewage pipes
Repurposed to Make:
Flooring, mobile home skirting


• is a thermoplastic made from the monomer ethylene. It was the first grade
of polyethylene, produced in 1933 by Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI)
using a high pressure process via free radical polymerization.


Cling wrap, Sandwich bags, Squeezable bottles for condiments such as honey and
mustard, Grocery bags, Frozen food bags, Flexible container lids

Repurposed to Make:
Garbage cans, lumber

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 318


• is a thermoplastic polymer used in a wide variety of applications. It is

produced via chain-growth polymerization from the monomer propylene.

• J. Paul Hogan and Robert L. Banks of Phillips Petroleum Company

discovered polypropylene in 1951. At the time, they were simply trying to
convert propylene into gasoline, but instead discovered a new catalytic
process for making plastic. (NOT RECYCABLE)

Plastic diapers, Tupperware, Kitchenware, Margarine tubs, Yogurt containers,
Prescription bottles, Stadium cups, Bottle caps, Take-out containers, Disposable
cups and plates.

Repurposed to Make:
Ice scrapers, rakes, battery cables


• Is a synthetic aromatic hydrocarbon polymer made from

the monomer styrene.

• Since polystyrene is lightweight and easy to form into plastic materials, it

also breaks effortlessly, making it more harmful to the environment.
Beaches all over the world are littered with pieces of polystyrene,

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 319

endangering the health of marine animals. Polystyrene accounts for about
35% of US landfill materials. (NOT RECYCABLE)

Disposable coffee cups, Plastic food boxes, Plastic cutlery, Packing foam, Packing
Repurposed to Make:
Insulation, license plate frames, rulers


• The remaining plastics include: polycarbonate, polylactide, acrylic,

acrylonitrile butadiene, styrene, fiberglass, and nylon. (NOT RECYCABLE)

Plastic CDs and DVDs, Baby bottles, Large water bottles with multiple-gallon
capacity, Medical storage containers, Eyeglasses, Exterior lighting fixtures
Repurposed to Make:

Plastic lumber (which is often used in

outdoor decks, molding, and park benches

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 320

Recycling CODES for Plastic and SYMBOLS

Polyethylene Terephthalate

High-Density Polyethylene

Polyvinyl Chloride

Low-Density Polyethylene


Polystyrene or Styrofoam

Miscellaneous Plastics (polycarbonate,

polyctide, acrylic, acrylonitrile butadiene,
styrene, fiberglass, and nylon)

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 321



It is a common process used for both thermoplastic and thermoset stock

shape materials. Compression molding is accomplished by placing the plastic
material (can be a granular or pelletized form) in a mold cavity to be formed by
heat and pressure. The process is someone similar to making waffles. The heat
and pressure force the materials into all areas of the mold. The heat and pressure
cycle of the process will harden the material and then it can be removed

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 322


Transfer molding is different

from compression molding in that the
mold is enclosed [Hayward] rather
than open to the fill plunger resulting
in higher dimensional tolerances and
less environmental impact.


Material for the part is fed into a heated barrel, mixed (Using a helical
shaped screw), and injected (Forced) into a mould cavity, where it cools and
hardens to the configuration of the cavity.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 323


It is a manufacturing process used to make pipes, hoses, drinking

straws, curtain tracks, rods, and fibre. The granules melt into a liquid which is
forced through a die, forming a long 'tube like' shape. The shape of the die
determines the shape of the tube. The extrusion is then cooled and forms a solid
shape. The tube may be printed upon, and cut at equal intervals. The pieces may
be rolled for storage or packed together. Shapes that can result from extrusion
include T-sections, U-sections, square sections, I-sections, L-sections and circular


It is the process of forming a molten tube (referred to as the parison or

preform) of thermoplastic material (polymer or resin) and placing the parison or
preform within a mold cavity and inflating the tube with compressed air, to take the
shape of the cavity and cool the part before removing from the mold.


Calendering is a finishing process applied to textiles and plastic. During

calendering rolls of the material are passed between several pairs of heated
rollers, to give a shiny surface. Extruded PVC sheeting is produced in this manner
as well other plastics. Calendering is a final process in which heat and pressure
are applied to a fabric by passing it between heated rollers, imparting a flat, glossy,
smooth surface. Lustre increases when the degree of heat and pressure is

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 324

Calendering is applied to fabrics in which a smooth, flat surface is desirable,
such as most cotton, many linens and silks, and various man-made fabrics.


Thermoforming is a manufacturing process where a plastic sheet is

heated to a pliable forming temperature, formed to a specific shape in a mold, and
trimmed to create a usable product. The sheet, or "film" when referring to thinner
gauges and certain material types, is heated in an oven to a high-enough
temperature that permits it to be stretched into or onto a mold and cooled to a
finished shape. Its simplified version is vacuum forming.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 325


It involves a heated hollow mold which is filled with a charge or shot weight
of material. It is then slowly rotated (usually around two perpendicular axes),
causing the softened material to disperse and stick to the walls of the mold. In
order to maintain even thickness throughout the part, the mold continues to rotate
at all times during the heating phase and to avoid sagging or deformation also
during the cooling phase.


It is the technique/process of manufacturing a material in multiple layers,

so that the composite material achieves improved strength, stability, sound
insulation, appearance or other properties from the use of differing materials. A
laminate is a permanently assembled object by heat, pressure, welding,
or adhesives.


 made by chemical synthesis, especially to imitate a natural product.

 any of various man-made textile fibers including usually those made from
natural materials (such as rayon and acetate from cellulose or regenerated
protein fibers from zein or casein) as well as fully synthetic fibers (such as
nylon or acrylic fibers) — compare polymer.
 derived from Petroleum oil, and made by scientists and engineers.
Examples of synthetic polymers include nylon, polyethylene, polyester,
Teflon, and epoxy


In the very beginning, attempts at creating synthetic fabrics were really just
attempts at recreating natural fabrics and possibly improving them, or at least
driving down their production costs. Audemars, a Swiss-born chemist, received the
first patent for artificial silk in the 1800s. He made the fabric from the bark of
mulberry trees. This progressed into Sir Joseph Swan creating rayon around the
same time using a similar process to Audemars. Rayon, a hugely popular synthetic
fabric today, is incredibly soft, moisture-absorbing and easily dyed. A variation of
rayon called modal has also gained popularity recently

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 326

Also in the 1800s, PVC was discovered, though it was an accident and the
first PVC patent wasn’t filed until 1913. PVC is used as a water-resistant
coating for fabrics, which is very important for fabrics that are meant for outdoor
use. Manufacturers often opt for PVC because of its durability. In most cases,
these early fabrics are still in use today, though most have been substantially
improved over the years.

Synthetic fabrics designed slightly more recently include spandex, nylon,

and polyester. Nylon, invented in 1935 in a DuPont Chemicals laboratory,
was introduced to the market around 1940 in the form of hosiery. It gained
popularity pretty much instantly because stockings had previously been made of
silk and nylons were able to offer an inexpensive alternative. In 1941, polyester
was invented by chemists at the Calico Printer’s Association. In the intervening
years, polyester has become a huge part of the fabric landscape.


Vests for Military, police and K-9 dogs

Synthetic rubber making tires, o rings and gasket materials.

“The materials of modern pneumatic tires are synthetic rubber,

natural rubber, fabric and wire, along with carbon black and other chemical
compounds. They consist of a tread and a body.”

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 327

Synthetic Fiber Rolls

Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC) - the world's third-most widely produced

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 328

High Density Poly Ethylene (HDPE)

-Plastic cutting boards

Containers of many shapes and colors:

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 329


Low-density Polyethylene (LDPE)

Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET)

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 330


Where it is invented:
- International Inventions Exhibition in
London by Sir Joseph Swan.
- tree bark

- Early 1880s

Sir Joseph Swan

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 331


Synthetic Polymers are human-made polymers. From the utility point of

view they can be classified into four main
categories: thermoplastics, thermosets, elastomers and synthetic fibers. They are
found commonly in a variety of consumer products such as money, glue, etc.
A wide variety of synthetic polymers are available with variations in main
chain as well as side chains. The back bones of common synthetic polymers such
as polythene, polystyrene and poly acrylates are made up of carbon-carbon bonds,
whereas hetero chain polymers such as polyamides, polyesters, polyurethanes,
polysulfides and polycarbonates have other elements (e.g. oxygen, sulfur,
nitrogen) inserted along the backbone. Also silicon forms similar materials without
the need of carbon atoms, such as silicones through siloxane linkages; these
compounds are thus said to be inorganic polymers. Coordination polymers may
contain a range of metals in the backbone, with non-covalent bonding present.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 332

Inorganic Polymers:

 Polysiloxane
 Polyphosphazene

Organic Polymers:

 Low-density Polyethylene (LDPE)

 High-density Polyethylene (HDPE)
 Polypropylene (PP)
 Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)
 Polystyrene (PS)
 Nylon, Nylon 6, Nylon 6,6
 Teflon (Polytetrafluoroethylene)
 Thermoplastic Polyurethanes (TPU)


There are various synthetic polymers developed so far. Let us study in brief
about few of the synthetic polymers used in everyday life.


Nylon belongs to the synthetic

polymers family and is also known as
polyamides. It was produced on February
28 in the year 1935 by person naming
Wallace Carothers at the DuPont’s
research facility. Nylon is widely used
polymers. The backbone of it called as
amide causes it to become hydrophilic than
other polymers. Nylon gets engaged in
hydrogen bonding with water, not like the
pure hydrocarbon polymers which make
most of the plastics.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 333

Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)

Polyvinyl Chloride or
PVC is third-most majorly
produced plastics coming
after polypropylene and
polyethylene. This PVC is
used for construction
purposes as it is known to be
stronger and cheaper than
other alternatives like copper
or iron. PVC is also used in
the clothing, electrical cable
insulation including many other applications replacing rubber.

Low-Density Polyethylene

The Low-Density Polyethylene

polymers are the most common kind of
synthetic polymers, which are widely
used in households. LDPE is a kind of
thermoplastic which is prepared from
the monomer called ethylene.


Polypropylene also
called as polypropene is a kind
of thermoplastic synthetic
polymer which is used in variety
of applications such as
packaging, labeling, stationery,
textiles, plastics and in reusable
containers, laboratory
equipments and etc.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 334


High – density
Polyethylene (HDPE)


Some of the uses are given below:

1. The polymer called Polyethylene is used in plastic bags and film wraps.
2. Polyethylene is utilized in the bottles, electrical insulation, toys, etc
3. Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) is used in siding, pipes, flooring purposes.
4. The synthetic polymer Polystyrene is used in cabinets and in packaging.
5. Polyvinyl acetate is used in adhesives and latex paints.

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 335


Synthetic fibers are fibers made by humans with chemical synthesis, as

opposed to natural fibers that humans get from living organisms with little or no
chemical changes. They are the result of extensive research by scientists to
improve on naturally occurring animal fibers and plant fibers. In general, synthetic
fibers are created by extruding fiber-forming materials through spinnerets into air
and water, forming a thread. These fibers are called synthetic or artificial fibers.
Some fibers are manufactured from plant-derived cellulose and are
thus semisynthetic, whereas others are totally synthetic, being made from crudes
and intermediates including petroleum, coal, limestone and water.

Common Synthetic Fibers include:

 Nylon (1931)
 Modacrylic (1949)
 Olefin (1949)
 Acrylic (1950)
 Polyester (1953)

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 336

Specialty Synthetic Fibers include:

 Rayon (1894) artificial silk

 Vinyon (1939)
 Saran (1941)
 Spandex (1959)
 Vinalon (1939)
 Aramids (1961) - known as Nomex, Kevlar and Twaron
 Modal (1960's)
 Dyneema/Spectra (1979)
 PBI (Polybenzimidazole fiber) (1983)
 Sulfar (1983)
 Lyocell (1992) (artificial, not synthetic)
 PLA (2002)
 M-5 (PIPD fiber)
 Orlon
 Zylon (PBO fiber)
 Vectran (TLCP fiber) made from Vectra LCP polymer
 Derclon used in manufacture of rugs

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 337

Building Materials & Methods of Construction | 338


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Quality Logo Products, Inc. · 724 North Highland Avenue · Aurora, Il
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