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INDUSTRIAL & POWER PLANT ENGINEERING Prepared By:

MODULE 1: BASIC ENGINEERING CONCEPTS-THERMODYNAMICS Engr. Jessie Ledesma

BASIC ENGINEERING CONCEPTS


A. PRINCIPLES, CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS
Thermodynamics – is that branch of physical science that treats of various phenomena of energy and the related properties of
matter, especially of the laws of transformation of heat into other forms of energy and vice versa.
- is the study of heat and work and those properties of substance that bear a relation to heat and work.
Working Substance – a substance to which heat can be stored and from which heat can be extracted.
System of Units:
Newton’s Second Law states that “the acceleration of a particular body is directly proportional to the resultant force acting
on it and inversely proportional to its mass”.
F F ma
aα , or a=k , therefore F =
m m k
Force (F) – Resultant force acting on the body. N, lbf, kgf
Weight (W) – the force acting on the body in a gravitational field, equal to the product of its mass and the gravitational
acceleration of the field. N, lbf, kgf
mg
W =
k
Mass (m) – mass of the body. It is the property of matter that constitutes one of the fundamental physical
measurements or the amount of matter a body can contain. kgm, lbm
Volume (V) – the amount of space occupied by or contained in a body and is measured by the number of cubes a body
3 3 3
contained. ft , gallons, cm , m
k – Proportionality constant
• System of units where k is unity but not dimensionless:
2
o CGS System: 1 dyne force accelerates 1 gram mass at 1 cm/s
2
o MKS System: 1 Newton force accelerates 1 kg mass at 1 m/s
2
o FPS System: 1 lb force accelerates 1 slug mass at ft/s

g m • cm kg m • m slug • ft
k =1 k =1 k =1
dyne • s 2 newtons • s 2 lb f • s 2
• System of units where k is not unity:
If the same word is used for both mass and force in a given system, k is neither unity nor dimensionless.
2
o CGS System: 1 gram force accelerates 1 gram mass at 980.66 cm/s
2
o MKS System: 1 kg force accelerates 1 kg mass at 9.8066 m/s
2
o FPS System: 1 lb force accelerates 1 lb mass at 32.174 ft/s

g m • cm kg m • m lbm • ft
k = 980.66 k = 9.8066 k = 32.174
g f • s2 kg f • s 2 lb f • s 2
Relationship between kgf and N:
kg m • m kg m • m
k = 9.8066 and k =1
kg f • s 2 newtons • s 2
kg m • m kg • m
∴ 9.8066 =1 m 2
kg f • s 2
N •s
So 1kg f = 9.8066 N
Relationship between lbm and slug:
slug • ft lbm • ft
k =1 and k = 32.174
lb f • s 2 lb f • s 2
lbm • ft slug • ft
∴ 32.174 =1
lb f • s 2
lb f • s 2
So 1 slug = 32.174lbm
Acceleration (a) – unit of force that produces unit acceleration in a body of unit mass.
INDUSTRIAL & POWER PLANT ENGINEERING Prepared By:
MODULE 1: BASIC ENGINEERING CONCEPTS-THERMODYNAMICS Engr. Jessie Ledesma

Fluid Thermodynamics Properties:


Density (ρ) – is an intensive thermodynamic property that is usually used to determine the mass of the substance or
system. It is the mass (not weight) per unit volume
m
ρ=
V
V 1
Specific Volume (υ) – is the volume of unit mass substance,
υ= =
it is also defined as the reciprocal of density.
m ρ
Specific Weight (γ) – is the force of gravity on unit volume of the substance.
W mg
γ = ; where W =
V k
mg ρg
∴γ = =
Vk k
Specific Gravity (SG) – is the ratio of the specific weight of a certain substance to that of the specific weight of water at
standard condition. It is also defined as the ratio of density of substance to that of the density of water.
γS ρ
SG = = S
γ W ρW
Pressure (P) – is an intensive thermodynamic property and basically defined as the force per unit area.
F W
P= =
A A
Measuring Pressure
o By Using a Manometer
o By Using a Pressure Gage
• Gauge Pressure (Pg) – is the pressure of a substance measured by a device (pressure gage).
• tmospheric Pressure (PATM) – is the force exerted by the column atmospheric air per unit area. It is also the pressure
of the atmosphere at a given certain location.
ƒ Standard atmospheric pressure at the surface of the earth, sea level:
1 atm = 29.92” Hg = 760 mm Hg = 101.325 kPa = 14.7 psi
2
1 atm = 760 torr = 1.0332 kg/cm = 34 ft H2O
Some Pressure Conversion
1 Bar = 100 kPa = 0.10 MPa
Hydrostatic Pressure
F W
P=
=
A A
mg (ρV )g ρAhg
P= = =
kA kA kA
⎛ ρg ⎞
P=⎜ ⎟h = γh
⎝ k ⎠

• Absolute Pressure (Pabs) – is the algebraic sum of the barometric pressure or atmospheric pressure and the gauge
pressure.
Pabs = Patm ± Pg ( - ) Æ If below atmospheric pressure (Vacuum)
( + ) Æ If above atmospheric pressure
Temperature (t) – it is the degree of hotness or coldness of a body.
O O
Temperature Relation between degrees Fahrenheit ( F) and degrees Centigrade ( C)

°C =
5
(°F − 32) = (°F − 32) 9
° F = °C + 32 = 1.8°C + 32
9 1.8 5
INDUSTRIAL & POWER PLANT ENGINEERING Prepared By:
MODULE 1: BASIC ENGINEERING CONCEPTS-THERMODYNAMICS Engr. Jessie Ledesma

Conversion of Temperature Difference


5 Δ° F 9
Δ°C = Δ° F = Δ° F = Δ°C = 1.8Δ°C
9 1.8 5
Absolute Temperature (T) – it is measured from absolute zero temperature.
° K = °C + 273 ° R = ° F + 460
Absolute Zero Temperature – is the temperature at which all molecular motion ceases.
Energy Concepts:
o Potential Energy (PE) – energy due to its position or elevation measured with respect to a certain datum line.
mg
PE = Wz = z
k
ΔPE = P2 − P1 =
mg
(z 2 − z1 )
k
o Kinetic Energy (KE) – energy or stored capacity for performing work possessed by a moving body by virtue of
its momentum.

KE = Ws =
m 2
2k
V ΔKE =
m 2
2k
(
V2 − V12 )
o Internal Energy (U, u) – is the energy of a body or a substance that is the sum of the energies of all its
molecules; it is also the sum of the various forms of energy that a molecule has.
o Work (W) – It is defined as the energy in transmission. It is the product of the displacement of the body and the
component of the force in the direction of the displacement.
Non-Flow Work (WNF)
It is a work done to or by the system by a non-flow closed system during a reversible process
without flowing of a working substance or through a moving boundary.
The work done which is represented
by the area under the curve.
If the process is expansion work is positive.
If the process is compression it is negative.

dW = pdV
2
W NF = ∫ pdV
1

Flow Work (WF)


Work or flow energy is work done in pushing a fluid across a boundary, usually into or out of a
system.
WF = FL = pAL
WF = pV
ΔWF = WF 2 − WF 1
ΔW = p 2V2 − p1V1
o Heat (Q) – it is defined as energy in motion, it moves from a higher temperature body into a lower temperature
body. Q is positive when heat is added to the body or system and it is negative if heat is extracted.
O
o Specific Heat (C) – the heat required to change the temperature of 1 kg of a substance 1 C.
o Enthalpy (H, h) – it is the composite property applicable to all fluids and is defined by:
h = u + pv and H = mh = U + pV
Classification of Systems:
i. Closed System – is one in which mass does not cross over.
ii. Open System – is one in which mass crosses its boundaries.
B. LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS
a. FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS – Deal with the law of Conservation of Energy. It states that “Energy can neither
be created nor destroyed, it just transforms into another forms”.
LAW OF CONSERVATION OF ENERGY
INDUSTRIAL & POWER PLANT ENGINEERING Prepared By:
MODULE 1: BASIC ENGINEERING CONCEPTS-THERMODYNAMICS Engr. Jessie Ledesma

ENERGY ENTERING THE SYSTEM = ENERGY LEAVING THE SYSTEM

PE1 + KE1 + WF 1 + U 1 + Q = PE 2 + KE 2 + WF 2 + U 2 + W
Q = ΔPE + ΔKE + ΔWF + ΔU + W
H = U + WF = U + pV
But:
h = u + pV
∴ Q = ΔPE + ΔKE + ΔH + W

( )
Q = m( z 2 − z1 ) + m V22 − V12 + m(H 2 − H 1 ) + W
1
2
b. SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS – deals with the direction of flow of heat energy that is from higher
temperature body to lower temperature body, and the property known as “entropy”.
i. Kelvin-Planck Statement – “No cyclic process is possible whose sole result is the flow of heat from a single
heat reservoir and the performance of an equivalent amount of work”
ii. Clausius Statement – “it is impossible to construct a cyclic device that will cause heat to be transformed from
a low-temperature reservoir to a high-temperature reservoir without the input of work.
iii. Concept of Entropy – it is the measure of the microscopic
⎛ dQ ⎞
disorder of molecules of a substance. It remains constant
in an adiabatic reversible process. It is given by the
ΔS = S 2 − S1 = ⎜ ∫ ⎟
⎝ T ⎠ rev
following relation:
c. THIRD LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS – deals with the restriction of all physical systems to the temperature regime
O O
that excludes absolute Zero. It states “At absolute zero, the entropy of a pure substance (in equilibrium at 0 K or R) is
some ‘perfect’ crystalline form becomes zero”
ZEROTH LAW – law concerning thermal equilibrium and is the basis for temperature measurement. It states that “when two
bodies, isolated from other environment, and are in thermal equilibrium with a third body, the two are in thermal equilibrium
with each other”.

C. IDEAL GASES - it is a substance that has the equation of state.


Boyle’s Law - If the temperature of a given quantity of gas is held constant, the volume of the gas varies inversely with the
absolute pressure during a change of state. 1 C
Vα or V = pV = C or p1V1 = p 2V2
p p
Charles Law - If the pressure on a particular quantity of gas is held constant, then, with any change of state, the volume will vary
directly as the absolute temperature. V V V
Vα T or V = CT =C or
1
= 2
T T1 T2
If the volume of a particular quantity of gas is held constant, then, with any change of state, the pressure will vary
directly as the absolute temperature. p p1 p2
=C =
pαT or p = CT T or T1 T2
Equation of State or Characteristic Equation of a Perfect Gas
Combining Boyle’s and Charles’ Laws:
p1V1 p 2V2 pV
= = C , a constant = mR ∴ pV = mRT
T1 T2 T
Basic Properties of an Ideal Gas:
R kJ ft − lb kg air
R= ; ; ; MWair = 28.97
MW kg − ° K lb − ° R mole of air
kJ ft − lb
R = 8.3143 ; R = 1545
kg Mole • ° K lb Mole • ° R
Specific Heat:
heat ( EnergyUnits )
C=
(mass)(ChangeOfTemperature)
In differential quantities,
dQ
C= ; dQ = mcdT
mdT
Constant Volume Specific Heat: (it is a change of the molecular internal energy for a unit mass or one mole
of a substance per degree change of temperature with the volume remains constant.)
Btu
cV = 0.171
du dU dQ lb − ° F
cV = = =
dT mdT mdT kcal
cV = 0.171
dQ = dU = mcV dT ⎯⎯→ Integrate kg − °C
QV = ΔU = mcV ΔT cV = 0.716
kJ
kg − °C
INDUSTRIAL & POWER PLANT ENGINEERING Prepared By:
MODULE 1: BASIC ENGINEERING CONCEPTS-THERMODYNAMICS Engr. Jessie Ledesma

Constant Pressure Specific Heat: (is the change of enthalpy for a unit mass or one mole substance per
degree change of temperature between two states without changing the pressure.)
dh dH dH dQ
cp = ; dh = ;∴ c p = = Btu
dT m mdT dT c P = 0.24
dH = dQ = dU + dW lb − ° F
kcal
dH = dU + pdV = mc p dT ⎯
⎯→ Integrate c P = 0.24
kg − °C
QP = ΔH = mc p ΔT
kJ
QP = ΔU + pΔV = H 2 − H 1 cP = 1
kg − °C
Ratio of specific Heat: (Relationship of cV and cP)
cp ΔH kR
k= = cP =
cv ΔU k −1
c P = cV + R R
cV =
k −1
PROCESSES OF IDEAL GASES
9 Constant Volume (Isometric Process) – an isometric process is a reversible constant volume process. A constant
volume process may be reversible or irreversible.

Relation between p and T: Non-flow Work


T2 p 2 2
= W NF = ∫ pdV = 0
T1 p1 1

Change of Internal Energy Heat Transfer


ΔU = mcV (T2 − T1 ) Q = mcV (T2 − T1 ); ∴ Q = ΔU
Change of Enthalpy Change of Entropy
T2 dQ dQ
ΔH = mc p (T2 − T1 ) ΔS = mcV ln ; dS = ; cV =
T1 T mdT
Reversible Steady Flow V=C
Q = ΔPE + ΔKE + ΔU + ΔWF + W 2
− ∫ Vdp = WSF + ΔKE
Where : Q = ΔU ; ΔPE = 0; ΔKE = 0
1

V ( p1 − p2 ) = WSF + ΔKE ; ΔKE = 0


WSF = − ΔWNF = V ( p1 − p2 )
Irreversible Non-flow V=C
WSF = V ( p1 − p2 )
Q = ΔU + W NF
9 Constant Pressure (Isobaric Process) – an isobaric process is an internally reversible process of a substance
during which the pressure remains constant.
INDUSTRIAL & POWER PLANT ENGINEERING Prepared By:
MODULE 1: BASIC ENGINEERING CONCEPTS-THERMODYNAMICS Engr. Jessie Ledesma

Relation between V and T: Non-flow Work


T2 V2 2
= W NF = ∫ pdV = p (V2 − V1 )
T1 V1 1

Change of Internal Energy Heat Transfer


ΔU = mcV (T2 − T1 ) Q = mc p (T2 − T1 ); ∴ Q = ΔH
Change of Enthalpy Change of Entropy
T2 dQ
ΔH = mc p (T2 − T1 ) ΔS = mc p ln ; dS =
T1 T
Steady Flow P=C
2
Q = ΔPE + ΔKE + ΔH + W − ∫ Vdp = WSF + ΔKE
1

Where : Q = ΔH ; ΔPE = 0 0 = WSF + ΔKE


WSF = −ΔKE WSF = − ΔKE
9 Constant Temperature (Isothermal Process) – an isothermal process is an internally reversible constant
temperature process of a substance.

Relation between V and P: Non-flow Work


p1 V2 2 V2
= W NF = ∫ pdV = p1V1 ln
p 2 V1 1 V1
Change of Internal Energy Heat Transfer
ΔU = 0 Q = ΔU + W NF ; ∴ Q = W NF
Change of Enthalpy Change of Entropy
p1 Q
ΔH = 0 ΔS = mR ln ; ΔS =
p2 T

Steady Flow P=C


2
− ∫ Vdp = WSF + ΔKE ; pdV + Vdp = 0
Q = ΔPE + ΔKE + ΔH + W 1
2
Where : ΔPE = 0; ΔKE = 0 − ∫ Vdp = WSF + ΔKE ; ΔKE = 0
1
WSF = Q V2
WSF = p1V1 ln
V1
9 Constant Entropy (Isentropic Process) – an isentropic process is a reversible adiabatic process. Adiabatic simply
means that there is no heat. A reversible adiabatic is one of constant entropy.
INDUSTRIAL & POWER PLANT ENGINEERING Prepared By:
MODULE 1: BASIC ENGINEERING CONCEPTS-THERMODYNAMICS Engr. Jessie Ledesma

Relation between p, V and T: Non-flow Work

p1V1 = p 2V2 = C
k k 2
W NF = ∫ pdV
k −1 1
k −1
T2 ⎛ V1 ⎞ ⎛p ⎞ k p 2V2 − p1V1 mR(T2 − T1 )
=⎜ ⎟⎟ = ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ W NF = =
T 1 ⎜⎝ V2 ⎠ ⎝ p1 ⎠ 1− k 1− k
Change of Internal Energy Heat Transfer
ΔU = mcV (T2 − T1 ) Q=0
Change of Enthalpy Change of Entropy
ΔH = mc P (T2 − T1 ) ΔS = 0
1
Steady Flow S=C 2
Q = ΔPE + ΔKE + ΔH + W − ∫ Vdp = WSF + ΔKE ; C = p k V
1

Where : ΔPE = 0; ΔKE = 0 2


− ∫ Vdp = WSF + ΔKE
WSF = ΔH
1
2 k ( p2V2 − p1V1 ) 2
− ∫ Vdp = = k ∫ pdV
1 1− k 1

9 Polytropic Process – a polytropic process is an internally reversible process during which:


pV n = C ; and p1V1 = p 2V2 = piVi
n n n
where n is any constant.

Relation between p, V and T: Non-flow Work

p1V1 = p 2V2 = C
n n 2
W NF = ∫ pdV
n −1 1
n −1
T2 ⎛ V1 ⎞ ⎛p ⎞ n p 2V2 − p1V1 mR(T2 − T1 )
=⎜ ⎟⎟ = ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ W NF = =
T 1 ⎜⎝ V2 ⎠ ⎝ p1 ⎠ 1− n 1− n
Change of Internal Energy Heat Transfer
k −n
ΔU = mcV (T2 − T1 ) Q = mc n (T2 − T1 ); c n =
1− n
Change of Enthalpy Change of Entropy
T2
ΔH = mc P (T2 − T1 ) ΔS = mc n ln
T1
Steady Flow S=C
2
Q = ΔPE + ΔKE + ΔH + W − ∫ Vdp = WSF + ΔKE
1
Where : ΔPE = 0; ΔKE = 0 2
− ∫ Vdp = WSF + ΔKE
WSF = Q − ΔH 1
2 n( p2V2 − p1V1 ) 2
− ∫ Vdp = = n ∫ pdV
1 1− n 1
INDUSTRIAL & POWER PLANT ENGINEERING Prepared By:
MODULE 1: BASIC ENGINEERING CONCEPTS-THERMODYNAMICS Engr. Jessie Ledesma

CURVES FOR DIFFERENT VALUES OF n


Polytropic processes are all inclusive in that many of the prior equations can be obtained by choosing proper values of
n.

ISOMETRIC ISOBARIC ISOTHERMAL ISENTROPIC POLYTROPIC


PROCESS k n
V=C P=C T=C pV =C pV =C
k −1 n −1
k −1 n −1
T2 p T2 V2 T2 ⎛ p 2 ⎞ k ⎛V ⎞ T2 ⎛ p 2 ⎞ n ⎛V ⎞
P, V, T
= 2 = p1V1 = p 2V2 =⎜ ⎟ = ⎜⎜ 1 ⎟⎟ =⎜ ⎟ = ⎜⎜ 1 ⎟⎟
relation
T1 p1 T1 V1 T1 ⎜⎝ p1 ⎟⎠ ⎝ V2 ⎠ T1 ⎜⎝ p1 ⎟⎠ ⎝ V2 ⎠
2
∫1
pdV
0 p (V2 − V1 ) p1V1 ln
V2 p 2V2 − p1V1 p 2V2 − p1V1
W NF V1 1− k 1− n
V2 k ( p 2V2 − p1V1 ) n( p 2V2 − p1V1 )
V ( p 2 − p1 )
2
− ∫ Vdp 0 p1V1 ln
1 V1 1− k 1− n
m ∫ cV dT m ∫ cV dT m ∫ cV dT m ∫ cV dT
ΔU
mcV (T2 − T1 ) mcV (T2 − T1 )
0
mcV (T2 − T1 ) mcV (T2 − T1 )

m ∫ cV dT m ∫ c P dT m ∫ TdS
m ∫ c n dT
mcV (T2 − T1 ) mc P (T2 − T1 )
Q V 0
p1V1 ln 2 mc n (T2 − T1 )
V1
n ∞ 0 1 k -∞ to +∞

⎛k −n⎞
c (specific c n = cV ⎜ ⎟
heat)
cV cP ∞ 0 ⎝ 1− n ⎠
k =C
m ∫ c P dT m ∫ c P dT m ∫ c P dT m ∫ c P dT
ΔH 0
mc P (T2 − T1 ) mc P (T2 − T1 ) mc P (T2 − T1 ) mc P (T2 − T1 )
cV dT cPdT Q c n dT
m∫ m∫ m∫
T T T T
ΔS 0
T T V2 T
mcV ln 2 mc P ln 2 mR ln mc n ln 2
T1 T1 V1 T1
Mixture Involving Ideal Gas
INDUSTRIAL & POWER PLANT ENGINEERING Prepared By:
MODULE 1: BASIC ENGINEERING CONCEPTS-THERMODYNAMICS Engr. Jessie Ledesma

a. Mass or Gravimetric Analysis:


ma mb mc
mT = ma + mb + mc 1= + +
b. Volumetric or Molal Analysis: mT mT mT
V V V
V = Va + Vb + Vc 1= a + b + c
V V V
c. Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressure:
V V V
P = Pa + Pb + Pc Pa = a P; Pb = b P; Pc = c P
d. Specific Heat of Mixture
V V V
ma mb mc ma mb m
cP = cPa + cPb + cPc cV = cVa + cVb + c cVc
mT mT mT mT mT mT
D. GAS CYCLES
Heat Engine or thermal engine is a closed system that exchanges only heat and work with its surrounding and that operates in
cycles.
Elements of a thermodynamic heat engine with a fluid as the working substance:
1. A working substance, matter that receives heat, rejects heat and does work.
2. A source of heat (Hot body, heat reservoir or just called source), from which the working substance receives heat.
3. A heat sink (receiver, cold body or just called sink), to which the working substance can reject heat.
4. An engine, where in the working substance may do work or have work done on it.
BASIC WORKING CYCLE FOR VARIOUS APPLICATION
Steam Power Plant Rankine Cycle
Gasoline Engine (Spark-Ignition) Otto Cycle
Diesel Engine (Compression) Diesel Cycle
Gas Turbine Bryton Cycle
Refrigeration System Refrigeration Cycle
A thermodynamic cycle occurs when the working fluid of a system experiences a number of processes that eventually return the
fluid to its initial state.
CARNOT CYCLE - it is the most efficient thermodynamic cycle/engine that operates between two temperature levels.
Components of Carnot Heat Engine

pV and TS Diagram of Carnot Cycle

Cycle Processes
Process 1 – 2: Isothermal Heat Addition process Process 2 – 3: Adiabatic or Isentropic Turbine Expansion
process
Process 3 – 4: Isothermal Heat Rejection process Process 4 – 1: Adiabatic or Isentropic Compression process
Analysis of Carnot Cycle Processes:
1. Heat Added, Consider Heater (Process 1 – 2)
a. From TS Diagram:
2 2
Q A = ∫ TdS =T ∫ dS =TΔS1− 2 = TH ( S 2 − S1 )
1 1
b. From pV Diagram:
2 p2 p V
Q A = − ∫ Vdp = − p1V1 ln = mRTH ln 1 = mRTH ln 2
1 p1 p2 V1
2. Heat Rejected, Consider Cooler (Process 3 – 4)
a. From TS Diagram:
INDUSTRIAL & POWER PLANT ENGINEERING Prepared By:
MODULE 1: BASIC ENGINEERING CONCEPTS-THERMODYNAMICS Engr. Jessie Ledesma

4 4
QR = ∫ TdS =T ∫ dS =TΔS 3− 4 = TL ( S 4 − S 3 )
3 3
b. From pV Diagram:
4 p4 V
QR = − ∫ Vdp = − p3V3 ln = −mRTL ln 3
3.
3
Net Work of the system/cycle p3 V4
st
The 1 law states that, “When the system is undergoing a cyclic change, the net heat added
is equal to the net work produce”
a. From TS Diagram:
Wnet = Qnet = ∑ Q = Q A + QR = TH ( S 2 − S1 ) + TL ( S 4 − S 3 )
where : S1 = S 4 ; S 2 = S 3
so Wnet = Qnet = TH ( S 2 − S1 ) + TL ( S1 − S 2 )
∴ Wnet = Qnet = (TH − TL )( S 2 − S1 )
b. From pV Diagram:
V2 V
Wnet = Qnet = ∑ Q = QA + QR = mRTH ln − mRTL ln 3
V1 V4
⎡ V V ⎤
Wnet = Qnet = mR ⎢TH ln 2 − TL ln 3 ⎥
⎣ V1 V4 ⎦
k −1 k −1
⎛V ⎞ T ⎛V ⎞
where : ⎜⎜ 3 ⎟⎟ = H = ⎜⎜ 4 ⎟⎟ ; consider processes 2 − 3 & 4 − 1
⎝ V2 ⎠ TL ⎝ V1 ⎠
V V
∴ 2 = 3
V1 V4

∴Wnet = Qnet = mR ln
V2
[TH − TL ]
V1

4. Cycle Thermal efficiency

mR ln
V2
[TH − TL ]
Wnet V1 T − TL
eth = x100% = x100% = H x100%
QA V2 T
mRTH ln H
V1
Wnet (T − TL )( S 2 − S1 ) T − TL
eth = x100% = H x100% = H x100%
QA TH ( S 2 − S1 ) TH
5. Mean Effective Pressure of the Cycle: (average constant pressure acting on the piston on one
stroke that will do net work of a single cycle)

PM =
Work per Cycle W
= net =
∫ pdV
Volume Displacement VD VD
where : VD = Vmax − Vmin = V3 − V1
V2
mR(TH − TL ) ln
V1
PM =
V3 − V1
6. Ratio of Expansion, Ratio of compression
Volume at the end of exp ansion
Expansion Ratio =
Volume at the beginning of exp ansion
V2 V3 V3
Isothermal exp ansion ratio = Isentropic exp ansion ratio = Overall exp ansion ratio =
V1 V2 V1
Volume at the beginning of compressio n
Compressio n Ratio =
Volume at the end of compressio n
V3 V4 V3
Isothermal compressio n ratio = Isentropic compressio n ratio , rk = Overall compressio n ratio =
V4 V1 V1