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Core Literacy Curriculum:

Grade 9
Core Literacy Curriculum: Grade 9
Universal Expectations for the MPS Grade 9 Classroom Environment
• Organized for whole and small group instruction and independent work
• Classroom arrangement emphasizes student interactions, in addition to teacher-directed interactions
• Teacher encourages productive, accountable talk by having areas and times available for students to work together
• Smooth efficient transitions between activities
• All students have access to district-adopted resources
• Classroom library is well-stocked with age-appropriate fiction and nonfiction materials written on a variety of reading levels
• Books are arranged by themes, types of writing, or other common organizational structure. Resources are labeled to allow
students easy access to maintain and use library independently. Books are arranged attractively and invitingly
• Display of recent student work/projects with accompanying written explanation
• Display of signs, labels for each item and quotations
• Posted directions for activities or use of equipment
• Materials/tools for recording language, including pencils, pens, markers, paper, charts, logs, writers’ notebooks, books,
computers, etc.
• Work stations or space for reading, writing, researching, and listening activities
• Reference materials related to literature or content area units/topics
• Audiovisual/technology equipment and materials available for student use
Grade 9: RtI Tier 1 (Core)
Grade 9: RtI Tier 1 (Core)
District Literacy Programs and Assessments

Grade 9 Literacy Programs and Resources Grade 9 Literacy Assessments

English Language Arts Formative:

• Progress monitoring (See following pages)
Board-approved District Adoption: • Classroom Assessments Based on Standards (CABS)
• Prentice Hall Literature, and Writing and Grammar –
Communication in Action – Gold Level (2005) Benchmark:
• Universal Screener
1. MAP
• End of unit tests
• Wisconsin Knowledge and Concepts Examination
(WKCE) OR Wisconsin Alternate Assessment (WAA)
• Evidence in language arts portfolio per Common Course
Plan – English 9
• Assessing Comprehension and Communication in English
State to State (ACCESS) for English Language Learners

Home/Community Literacy Connections

see Appendix B
English Language Arts Instructional Block - Grade 9
Reading, Writing, Speaking, Listening, and Using Assessment
Evidence Resources

Common Core Standards for English Language Arts

The standards listed here focus on what is essential but do not describe all that can or should be taught.
Reading Standards • District-adopted
By the end of grade 9 students will: Common Course Evidence resources (including
Reading Standards for Literature By the end of Grade 9(two Prentice Hall – Gold)
Key Ideas and Details semesters) students will create a • Selected variety of novels
1. Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says portfolio of proficient work, (see English 9 Common
explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. including: Course Plan for details)
2. Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze in detail its development over • Models of writing from a
the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific  Letter/message of Request variety of topics, authors,
details; provide an objective summary of the text.  Research Project and genres, including
3. Analyze how complex characters (e.g., those with multiple or conflicting motivations)  Evidence of Collaboration fiction and nonfiction
develop over the course of a text, interact with other characters, and advance the plot or / Small Group Discussion (mentor texts)
develop the theme.  Media Product • Writing tools (including
Craft and Structure  Oral Presentations digital tools)
4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text, including  Character Sketch • Writing process
figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word  Creative Product (writing • Writing strategies based
choices on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language evokes a sense of time and place; or other media) on best practices in
how it sets a formal or informal tone).  Reading/Literature writing
5. Analyze how an author’s choices concerning how to structure a text, order events Analysis (using media) • Elements of curriculum
within it (e.g., parallel plots), and manipulate time (e.g., pacing, flashbacks) create such  Narrative Writing alignment
effects as mystery, tension, or surprise.  Persuasive Writing • Writing supplies
6. Analyze a particular point of view or cultural experience reflected in a work of  Descriptive Writing • Writing resources such as
literature from outside the United States, drawing on a wide reading of world literature.  Expository Writing dictionaries and
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas  Persuasive Writing thesauruses
7. Analyze the representation of a subject or key scene in two different artistic mediums,  Reflective Writing • District-adopted rubrics
including what is emphasized or absent in each treatment (e.g., Auden’s “Musee des * Students will employ technology to • Visuals and other media
Beaux Arts” and Breughle’s Landscape with the Fall of Icarus). access, organize, create, revise, and • Discovery Education
8. (Not applicable to literature) publish works Streaming
9. Analyze how an author draws on and transforms source material in a specific work • Anchor papers and
(e.g., how Shakespeare treats a theme or topic from Ovid or the Bible or how a later writing exemplars
author draws on a play by Shakespeare). • MPS Writing Guides
• MPS Portal Resources

Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity Reading Strategies/Approaches:

10. By the end of grade 9, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and Question-Answer-Relationships
poems, in the grades 9-10 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed Criteria for Evidence of Effective (QAR) (Raphael & McKinney,
at the high end of the range. Reading Abilities 1983; Raphael & Wonnacott, 1985;
(Adapted from Burke, 1999) Raphael, Highfield & Au, 2006)
Reading Standards for Informational Text • Demonstrates ability to fluently Student generated questions
Key Ideas and Details navigate all aspects of the text (Duke & Pearson, 2002; Harvey &
1. Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says • Shows a confident Goudvis, 2007)
explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. understanding of authorial intent Double-Entry Journals
2. Determine a central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the • Accurately and simultaneously (Berthoff, 1981; Tovani, 2000)
text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an processes multiple layers and “I wonder” questions (Tovani,
objective summary of the text. different meanings of text 2000)
3. Analyze how the author unfolds an analysis or series of ideas or events, including the • Pays extra attention that allows Three-Minute Pause (Buehl,
order in which the points are made, how they are introduced and developed, and the attention to finer distinctions or 2001)
connections that are drawn between them. larger context of the work (e.g., Text factors including narrative
Craft and Structure relation of this text to other genres, text structure and text
4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including the writers or different eras) features (Harvey & Goudvis, 2007)
figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of • Monitors progress of Story Plans (also called story
specific word choices on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language of a court opinion understanding and employs grammars/maps) (Templeton,
differs from that of a newspaper). effective strategies to fill in gaps 1997; Trebasso, 2002)
5. Analyze in detail how an author’s ideas or claims are developed and refined by • Self-assesses and possesses the Story Weave Map (CORE,
particular sentences, paragraphs, or larger portions of a text (e.g., a section or chapter). ability to accurately articulate a 2000)
6. Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how an author picture of current performance as Character Map (Project CRISS,
uses rhetoric to advance that point of view or purpose. a reader 2007)
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas • Knows what to do to improve Figuring Out New Words From
7. Analyze various accounts of subject told in different mediums (e.g., a person’s life Context chart (Project CRISS,
story in both print and multimedia), determining which details are emphasized in each Other Reading Evidence: 2007)
account. • Independent reading Context clues (Putting Reading
8. Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether record/ log First, 2006)
the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false • Rubric (see criteria above) Word parts/affixes (Putting
statements and fallacious reasoning. • Checklist Reading First, 2006)
9. Analyze seminal U.S. documents of historical and literacy significance (e.g., • Teacher observation with Dictionaries and other reference
Washington’s Farewell Address, the Gettysburg Address, Roosevelt’s Four Freedoms anecdotal notes aids (Putting Reading First, 2006)
speech, King’s “Letter from Birmingham Jail”), including how they address related • Cloze passages Concept of Definition Map
themes and concepts. • CABS (Schwartz & Raphael, 1985, 1988)
Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity • Story map Vocabulary Map (Project
10. By the end of grade 9, read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 9-10 • Response to reading CRISS, 2007)
text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the • Graphic organizer Vocabulary Flash Cards (Project
range. • Independent reading log CRISS, 2007)
• Learning log Frayer Model (Frayer, Fredrecik
• Short-cycle assessments & Kausmeither, 1969; Buehl,
• Multi-Source Research 2001)
Guide Semantic Feature Analysis
• Inquiry Chart (I-Chart) (Anders & Bos, 1986)
• Conclusion-Support Notes Text factors including narrative
genres, text structure and text
Writing Standards features (Harvey & Goudvis, 2007)
Text Types and Purposes
1. Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using
valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence. Writing Approaches and
a. Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, Strategies (Graham and Perin,
and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among claim(s), 2007)
counterclaims, reasons, and evidence. • Writing Strategies
b. Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly, supplying evidence for each while • Summarization
pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the • Collaborative Writing
audience’s knowledge level and concerns. Writing: • Specific Product Goals
c. Use words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, Common assessment tools: • Word Processing
and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and • MPS Writing Rubrics • Sentence Combining
evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims. • MPS Research Rubrics • Prewriting
d. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms • Inquiry Activities
and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing. • Process Writing
e. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the Approach
argument presented. • Study of Models
2. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, • Writing for Content
and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and Areas
analysis of content.
a. Introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts, and information to make Six Traits of Effective Writing Students in grade nine will
important connections and distinctions; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (Spandel, 2009) review and enhance the following
(e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension. • Ideas skills that writers use (Tomkins,
b. Develop the topic with well-chosen, relevant, and sufficient facts, extended • Organization 2010)
definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate • Voice Structuring Skills
to the audience’s knowledge of the topic. • Word Choice Mechanical Skills
c. Use appropriate and varied transitions to link the major sections of the text, create • Sentence Fluency and Language Skills
cohesion, and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts. Variety Reference Skills
d. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to manage the complexity of • Conventions Computer Skills
the topic.
e. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms Focus on Effective Sentence
and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing. Construction and Revision
f. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the Students will pay particular
information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of attention to the purposeful revision
the topic). of sentences. Teachers will employ
3. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective Killgallon’s (1998) Four Types of
technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences. Sentence Composing to help
a. Engage and orient the reader by setting out a problem, situation, or observation, student create increasingly
establishing one or multiple point(s) of view, and introducing a narrator and/or sophisticated and fluent sentences.
characters; create a smooth progression of experiences or events. The four types are:
b. Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description, reflection, and Sentence Unscrambling
multiple plot lines, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters. Sentence Imitating
c. Use a variety of techniques to sequence events so that they build on one another to Sentence Combining
create a coherent whole. Sentence Expanding
d. Use precise words and phrases, telling details, and sensory language to convey a vivid
picture of the experiences, events, setting, and/or characters.
e. Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on what is experienced, observed,
or resolved over the course of the narrative. Categories of Strategies
Production and Distribution of Writing (Tompkins, 2010)
4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style • Generating
are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing • Organizing
types are defined in standards 1-3 above). Other assessment evidence: • Visualizing
5. Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or • Student questions • Monitoring
trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific • Student comments • Playing with Language
purpose and audience. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of • Illustrations and other • Revising
Language standards 1-3 to and including grades 9-10). visuals • Proofreading
6. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or • Observations during • Evaluating
shared writing products, taking advantage of technology’s capacity to link to other whole group, small group,
information and to display information flexibly and dynamically. and conferences
Research to Build and Present Knowledge • Short-cycle assessments Four Types of Revision
7. Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question • On-demand writing (Tompkins, 2008)
(including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry • Peer feedback (written and • Additions
when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating oral) • Substitutions
understanding of the subject under investigation. • Presentations • Deletions
8. Gather relevant information form multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using • Multimedia evidence • Moves
advanced searches effectively; assess the usefulness of each source in answering the • Traditional and online
research question; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of publishing in various
ideas, avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation. forms
9. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and • Content in Writers’
research. Notebooks
a. Apply grades 9-10 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Analyze how an author • Contents of Portfolios Speaking, Listening, and Media
draws on and transforms source material in a specific work [e.g., how Shakespeare treats (both process and Strategies/Approaches
a theme or topic form Ovid or the Bible or how a later author draws on a play by showcase) • Literature Circles (Daniels,
Shakespeare]”). • Progress logs 2002)
b. Apply grades 9-10 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., “Delineate and • Student self-assessment • Socratic Seminar (Metzger,
evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is • Student self-reflection 1998; Tredway, 1995)
valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and fallacious • Student goals • Writing Circles (Vopat, 2009)
reasoning”). • Inquiry Circles (Harvey and
Range of Writing Speaking, Listening, and Media Daniels, 2009)
10. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and • Informative, Persuasive, • Authentic Forms (Zemelman,
revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, and Demonstrative Oral & Daniels, and Hyde, 2005)
purposes, and audiences. Impromptu Presentations • Fishbowl (Baloche, Mauger,
• Debates Willis, Filinuk, and Michalsky,
Speaking and Listening Standards • Listening Assessments 1993)
Comprehension and Collaboration • Discussion Assessments • Social Interaction (Spiegel,
1. Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one), • Notes 2005)
in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 9-10 topics, texts, and issues, • Summaries • Tapping Students’
building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively. • Design and Creation of Understanding (Langer, 1992,
a. Come to discussions prepared; having read and researched material under study; Media Product Spiegel, 2005)
explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence from texts and other research (Presentation or Tangible
on the topic or issue to stimulate a thoughtful, well-reasoned exchange of ideas. Artifacts)
b. Work with peers to set rules for collegial discussion and decision-making (e.g., • Oral Rubrics
informal consensus, taking votes on key issues, presentation of alternate views), clear • Listening Rubrics Language
goals and deadlines, and individual roles as needed. • Discussion Rubrics Strategies/Approaches:
c. Propel conversations by posing and responding to questions that relate to the • Media Rubrics Think, Pair, Share (Lyman,
discussion; and clarify, verify, or challenge ideas and conclusions. • Technology Rubrics 1981)
d. Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives, summarize points of agreement and • Research Conventions Think, Ink, Pair, Share
disagreement, and, when warranted, qualify or justify their own views and understanding Rubrics (Billmeyer, 2003)
and make new connections in light of the evidence and reasoning presented. Looping (Elbow, 1998)
2. Integrate multiple sources of information presented in diverse media or formats (e.g., Collaborative Learning (Johnson
visually, quantitatively, orally) evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source. Language: and Johnson, 1999)
3. Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric, Accurate use of conventions in Reciprocal Teaching (Palincsar,
identifying any fallacious reasoning or exaggerated or distorted evidence. writing and speaking 1994)
Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas Discussion Webs (Alvermann,
4. Present information, findings, and supporting evidence clearly, concisely, and 1991)
logically such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, • MPS Writing Rubrics – Reflection Journal (Zemelman,
development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and task. Conventions Daniels, and Hyde; 1993)
5. Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and MPS Vocabulary List for Grade
interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, Nine – English language arts
and evidence and to add interest. Marzano - Six Step Process
6. Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal (2004)
English when indicated or appropriate. (See grades 9-10 Language standards 1 and 3 for Frayer Model (Frayer, Frederick,
specific expectations.) and Kausmeither, 1969; Buehl,
Language Standard Language: Talk Aloud (Baumann and
Conventions of Standard English Appropriate use of on-level Schmitt, 1986)
1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English grammar and usage vocabulary Explicit Modeling (Roehler and
when writing or speaking. Duffy, 1991)
a. Use parallel structure. • MPS Language Rubrics Implicit Modeling (Roehler and
b. Use various types of phrases (noun, verb, adjectival, adverbial, participial, Duffy, 1991)
prepositional, absolute) and clauses (independent, dependent; noun, relative, adverbial) Read Aloud (Allen, 2000)
to convey specific meanings and add variety and interest to writing or presentations. Think Aloud (Clark, 1984;
2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English capitalization, Meichenbaum, 1985)
punctuation, and spelling when writing. Word Learning Strategies
a. Use a semicolon (and perhaps a conjunctive adverb) to link two or more closely (Graves, 2006):
related independent clauses. • Use Context Clues
b. Use a colon to introduce a list or quotation. • Analyze Word Parts
c. Spell correctly. • Check a Dictionary
Knowledge of Language Word Consciousness (Scott and
3. Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different Nagy, 2004)
contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully Word Study (Allen, 2007):
when reading or listening. • Word Posters
a. Write and edit works so that it conforms to the guidelines in a style manual (e.g., MLA • Word Maps
Handbook, Turabian’s Manual for Writers) appropriate for the discipline and writing • Possible Sentences
type. • Dramatizing Words
• Word Sorts
Vocabulary Acquisition and Use • Word Chains
4. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and • Semantic Feature
phrases based on grades 9-10 reading and content, choosing flexibly form a range of Analysis
a. Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence, paragraph, or text; a word’s
position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
b. Identify and correctly use patterns of word changes that indicate different meanings or
parts of speech (e.g., analyze, analysis, analytical; advocate, advocacy).
c. Consult the general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries,
thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or
clarify its precise meaning, its part of speech, or its etymology.
d. Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by
checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).
5. Demonstrate understandings of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances
in word meanings.
a. Interpret figures of speech (e.g., euphemism, oxymoron) in context and analyze their
role in the text.
b. Analyze nuances in the meaning of words with similar denotations.
6. Acquire and use accurately general academic and domain-specific words and phrases,
sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness
level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a
word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.
Block Structure and Instructional Methods
Instructional Groupings:
Whole Group: Strategic, Explicit Instruction
Small Group: Teacher-Guided Instruction, Literacy Work Stations,
Universal Approaches, Skills, and Strategies
and Integrated Literacy Work Stations – Application and Practice
Whole Group: Sharing and Wrap Up
Elements of Effective Adolescent Literacy Program (Biancarosa and Snow,
Introduction (5 minutes) 2004)
Goal = Connect • Direct, explicit comprehension instruction
• Effective instructional principles embedded in content
• Motivation and self-directed learning
The teacher will:
• Text-based collaborative learning
• Strategic tutoring
• Articulate learning intention for the lesson and discuss purposes behind them (what
• Diverse texts
we are doing and why).
• Intensive writing
• Ask students to demonstrate their understanding of the learning intention in written
• A technology component
or oral form.
• Ongoing formative instruction
• Extended time for literacy
Whole Group (10 minutes)
• Professional development
Goal = Build • Ongoing summative assessment of students and programs
• Teacher teams
The teacher will:
Strategies for Assessment For Learning (Stiggins, Arter, Chappuis and
• Introduce the lesson. Chappuis, 2004)
• Explain the goal of the reading or writing lesson; explain the strategy or skill • Provide a clear and understandable vision of the learning target
through direct instruction, active engagement, and shared reading. • Use examples of strong and weak work
• Co-create, with students, anchor charts with visuals to use as resources during • Offer regular descriptive feedback
independent work and as artifacts of learning. Topics include: close reading, • Teach students to self-assess and set goals
Socratic Seminar, quick writes, dialectical journals, marking texts, self-editing and • Design lessons to focus on one aspect of quality at a time
peer editing, jigsaw, and role playing; reading and writing genre features; • Teach students focused revision
comprehension strategies; vocabulary, fluency, and word studies; grammar studies • Engage students in self-reflection, and let them keep track of and
through mentor texts and student work to illustrate teaching points; grammar and share their learning
language usage practice linked to authentic student writing.
• Ask students to record learning in learning logs. Design Units to Focus on Understanding (Wiggins and McTighe, 2004)
• Provide additional information and/or clarification to enhance understanding and • Communicate intended enduring understandings
support transfer by asking students to engage in accountable talk during lessons • Articulate big ideas
through Think-Pair-Share, Think-Write-Pair-Share, Turn and Talk, and other • Design engaging and relevant essential questions
cooperative learning activities. • Adopt, adapt, or create authentic performance tasks; strategically
• Ask students to reflect on their learning and discuss how they will apply the employ other balanced assessment evidence
content of the lesson. • Construct engaging and effective aligned learning experiences

Characteristics of Successful Teaching and Learning (Applebee, 2002)

Whole Group Shared Reading (5-10 minutes) • Engage students in higher-order talk and writing about the
Goals = Build and Share disciplines of English
• Read aloud to share writing, not only as reading for enjoyment but to teach • Ensure cohesiveness of curriculum and instruction
effective reading habits. Teacher routinely and explicitly will: • Use diverse perspectives to deepen discussion and enhance learning
• Think aloud. • Align curriculum with assessment
• Share questions, possible strategies to use, and how to use them. • Scaffold skills and strategies needed for new and difficult tasks
• Question for listening comprehension. • Provide special help to struggling readers and writers
• Support continuous advancement of vocabulary skills and strategies.
• Model comprehension strategies. Key Classroom-Based Practices (Adler and Rougle, 2005)
• Dialogic instruction (Nystrand, 1997)
Explicit Small Group and Independent Reading Work (15-25minutes; may alternate • Envisionment building (Langer, 1995)
with writing or occur daily in [double] blocked class) • Curriculum as conversation (Applebee, 1996)
Goals = Reach and Practice
Differentiated Instruction During Small Group Instruction (Hall,
The teacher will: Strangman, and Meyer; 2003); Differentiation (Tomlinson, 1999)
• Content
• Confer with students or guide small collaborative groups of students. • Process
• In conferences, assist students as they reflect on their learning, set goals, and • Product
monitor progress.
• In collaborative groups, meet with students who are working together. Comprehension Strategies (Burke, 1999)
• Provide short, guided lessons (5-10 minutes). Lessons should be clearly focused, • Self-monitoring
aligned to learning intention, and appropriately scaffolded for students. • Rereading
• Use reciprocal teaching instructional strategies. • Questioning texts
• Use a variety of purposeful grouping formats for students who need more support • Setting reading purpose
(e.g., literature groups, Turn and Talk). Students participate in both • Activating background knowledge
homogeneous and heterogeneous groupings to meet different purposes.
• Offer frequent, multiple opportunities to interact with one another and use oral Reading Strategies
language purposefully during whole and small group and independent time. Retelling (Morrow, 1985)
• Strategically monitor time to ensure students are able to engage in both small Book Talks (Raphael, et. al., 1997, CORE, 2000)
group and independent work time each class period. Comparison graphic organizers such as the story map, Venn diagram or
• Integrate speaking, listening, discussing, media, technology, and research. semantic feature analysis (Templeton, 1997; Trebasso, 2002; Venn, 1880;
• During independent work time, monitor and assist as students independently Anders & Bos, 1986)
read, practicing whole and small group lesson strategies or skills. They may also Perspective Entries (Project CRISS, 2007)
partner read, use literature circles, and increase the volume of their reading. Point of View (Lukens, 2006)
• Help students carefully select independent reading materials, based on reading Picture Walk/Text Walk (Clay, 1985; Goldenberg, 1991; DeFord, Lyons &
and language levels, concept knowledge, cultural backgrounds, interests, and Pinnell, 1991; Hiebert & Taylor, 1994)
support books offer, and consider these characteristics for small group reading Text factors including narrative genres, text structure and text features
materials. (Harvey & Goudvis, 2007)
• Monitor as students independently read “just-right” books and write responses to Comparison graphic organizers such as the story map, Venn diagram or
reading and literature in their learning logs. semantic feature analysis (Templeton, 1997; Trebasso, 2002; Venn, 1880;
• Make certain access to materials, including novels, short texts, chart paper, Anders & Bos, 1986)
graphic organizers, learning logs, and sticky notes. Repeated readings (Samuels, 1979)
Independent reading
(Allington, 2000 & Krashen, 2004)
Explicit Small Group and Independent Writing Work Period (15-25minutes; may Elements of the Mini-lesson (Tompkins, 2008)
alternate with reading or occur daily in [double] blocked class) • Introduce the topic
Goals = Reach and Practice • Share examples [use mentor text]
• Provide information
The teacher will: • Guide practice
• Assess learning
• Guide students as they engage in a writing process—independently, in writing
circles with writing partners, or with the teacher.
• Assist and connect students to consult appropriate mentor texts aligned to the focus
of their writing.
• Confer with individual students, asking questions to help them think through how
to improve their writing. During frequent writing conferences the teacher will: Best Practices in Writing (Zemelman, Daniels, and Hyde, 2005; Graham,
• Read some student writing and ask questions to encourage students to talk about MacArthur, and Fitzgerald (eds.), 2007; MPS and Milwaukee Writing Project,
their writing processes and language and grammar use. 2008)
• Pose well-constructed questions designed to promote student thinking and learning • Writers’ Workshop
by identifying various approaches to problem solving, employing student-owned • Writing Process
and in-progress strategies. • Writing Strategies
• Based on students’ questions, evidenced-based needs, and interests, adjust what to • Six Traits of Effective Writing
teach or reinforce from recent focus lessons. • Authentic Forms
• Help students reflect on their writing by posing strategic questions and talking with • Writing-Reading Connection
them about their writing processes and set goals for next steps. • Effective Feedback
• Reinforce one strategy or concept clearly by: supporting students in using • Teacher as Writer
information from other focus lessons; connecting students to writing mentors;
and/or providing guided practice, to allow students to employ writing strategies
with teacher guidance and support. Writing Process (Graves, 1994)
• Integrate speaking, listening, discussing, media, technology, and research. • Prewriting
• Drafting
• Revising
Whole Group – Sharing and Reflection (5-10 minutes) • Editing
Goals = Reconnect and Wrap Up • Publishing / sharing with an audience (Elbow, 2002)
• Self assessment, goal setting, and use of portfolios (Stires, 1991)
The teacher will:
Features of Effective [Literacy] Instruction (Langer, Close, Angelis, and
• Reconvene whole group to include all members of the class. Preller, 2000)
• Briefly revisit learning intention. Class will share written pieces and articulate • Students learn skills and knowledge in multiple lesson types
learning in written and oral forms (via formal and information and presentations). • Teachers integrate test preparation into instruction
• Integrate listening, speaking, presentation, media, and technology skills into the • Teachers make connections across instruction, curriculum, and life
sharing session. • Students learn strategies for doing the work
• Provide appropriate feedback. • Students are expected to be generative thinkers
• Preview next step in learning. • Classrooms foster cognitive collaboration
Available Accommodations and Modifications to Provide Access to the Core Curriculum (*)
English Language Learners: Students with Disabilities (per IEP)*

Content Objective(s) Assistive technology (writing)

Language Objective(s) • Adapted writing utensils
Key Vocabulary • Adapted paper
Supplementary Materials • Positioning devices
• Hand held dictionary/spell check
Preparation Scaffolding Grouping Options • Recorders
Adaptation of Content Modeling Whole class • Portable word processors
Links to Background Guided practice Small groups • Digital graphic organizers
Links to Past Learning Independent practice Partners • Digital note takers
Strategies incorporated Comprehensible input Independent • Adapted/alternative computer hardware
• Alternative software
Integration of Processes Application Assessment • Talking/graphic word processors
Reading Hands-on Individual • Word prediction
Writing Meaningful Group • Advanced reading/writing supports
Speaking Linked to objectives Written • Voice recognition
Listening Promotes engagement Oral • Sound amplification systems

**NOT an exhaustive list