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IMPERATIVUL

- nu se poate forma decat pentru persoana a II-a sg si pl din infinitivul scurt al verbului
- nu are nevoie de subiect
- pentru celelalte persoane se formeaza din
let + pronume personal in AC + V infinitiv scurt

- imperativul negativ are in fata negatia “don’t”


- pentru subliniere se poate pune “do” si la persoana a II-a
Ex: Do sit down! (stai dracului jos!)

! propozitiile impersonale care contin un pronume nehotarat (somebody, someone, etc.)


ca subiect, vor putea pune subiectul si in fata si dupa verb
Ex: Someone give us a helpful hand!
Answer the phone, someone!

! orice propozitie imperativa are tag question in viitor


Ex: Listen carefully, won’t you?

Tag-ul se poate folosi si in afirmativ


Ex: Just write your exercise, will you?

! orice propozitie imperativa devine in vorbirea indirecta infinitiv lung


Ex: Come here! => He told me to come.

PASSIVE VOICE (DIATEZA PASIVA)

- in diateza activa, subiectul face actiunea


- in diateza pasiva, actiunea facuta de subiect se repercuteaza asupra acestuia

Subiectul din diateza activa devine complement de agent, iar CD din diateza activa
devine subiect in pasiva.
Ex: 1) I write the letter.
S CD

2) The letter is written by me.


S C agent

Diateza pasiva presupune un verb “to be”, iar verbul de baza va fi la forma:
V III + by + C agent

! o propozitie care are atat CD cat si CI are 2 forme de pasiv, fiecare complement
devenind pe rand subiect
Ex: I give him my book.
CI CD
devine
The book is given to him by me.
S
He is given the book by me.
S
Aspectul si timpul predicatului din activa se mentin in pasiva.
! complementul de agent poate sa lipseasca daca este un pronume
Ex: I read the book.
The book is read (by me). – poate sa lipseasca

! daca subiectul este impersonal (somebody / someone), el poate de asemenea sa


lipseasca

DIATEZA ACTIVA DIATEZA PASIVA

1) I eat an egg. An egg is eaten.


2) I am eating an egg. An egg is being eaten.
3) I have eaten an egg. An egg has been eaten.
4) I have been eating an egg. -
5) I ate an egg. An egg was eaten.
6) I was eating an egg. An egg was being eaten.
7) I had eaten an egg. An egg had been eaten.
8) I had been eating an egg. -
9) I shall eat an egg. An egg will be eaten.
10) I’m going to eat an egg. An egg is going to be eaten.
11) I am to eat an egg. An egg is to be eaten.
12) I’m about to eat an egg. An egg is about to be eaten.
13) … I should eat an egg. … an egg would be eaten.
14) I shall have eaten an egg. An egg will have been eaten.

! atentie la prepozitiile care se aseaza la final (vor rezulta 2 prepozitii una dupa alta)
Ex: They sent for the doctor.
The doctor was sent for by them.

Everybody laughed at him.


He was laughed at by everybody.

! anumite verbe (to eat, to feel, to wear, to wash, to sell, to read, to perform) nu pot avea
forma pasiva cand vrei sa spui ca sunt de foarte buna calitate / se vand singure / se
poarta singure, etc.
Ex: These books sold quickly. (si nu have been sold)
The shoes wore comfortably. (si nu have been worn)

! verbul “to grow” nu poate avea sens de diateza pasiva pentru ca este de la sine

INFINITIVUL

Este de 2 feluri:
a) – scurt (fara “to” in fata) – care este prezent (to come) si perfect (to have come)
b) – lung (cu “to” in fata)

Utilizare:
1) dupa verbele modale
Ex: I can do it.
2) dupa verbele de perceptie (to see, to hear, to feel) + (to make, to let, to help, to get)
Ex: Let her go!

3) dupa expresiile
had best
had better
would rather
had rather
would sooner
had sooner
need hardly
! conditia este sa fie acelasi subiect ca sa punem infinitivul scurt
Ex: I would rather go there.
He would rather go there.
diferit de
I would rather you didn’t go there.

4) alte utilizari ale infinitivului

a) pronume/subst in AC + infinitiv - se foloseste dupa


1) verbe de perceptie
Ex: I saw her cross the street.

2) verbe de dorinta (to want, to desire, to intend, etc.)


Ex: I want you to understand the lesson.

3) verbe care arata o activitate mentala (to believe, to consider, to expect)


Ex: I imagine him to be right.
I know her to live in this flat.

4) verbe care exprima permisiunea (to allow, to order, to warn, to oblige)


Ex: My mother allowed us to leave.

5) in constructii impersonale (it is difficult, it is important, it is necessary)


Ex: It is difficult to understand this problem.
It is difficult for her to understand this problem.

6) dupa verbele (to advise, to convince, to choose, to enable, to challenge)


Ex: She advised me not to leave.

b) pronume/subst in N + infinitiv - se foloseste dupa


1) anumite verbe in diateza pasiva
to believe
to expect
to hear
to imagine
to know
to notice
to say
Ex: You are known to be a very good teacher.
2) anumite verbe in diateza activa
to chance
to appear
to happen
to prove
to seem
Ex: You happened to be there.
You seem to know the answer.

3) in constructiile impersonale
to be lucky
to be unlucky
to be fortunate
to be unfortunate
to be likely
to be sure
to be negative / positive
Ex: I’m lucky to be your friend.

Alte ulitizari ale infinitivului


1) in ordine / comenzi
Ex: Go and close the window!

2) pentru a exprima un scop


Ex: I went to the doctor to cure my desease.

3) dupa adjective (brave, curageous, foolish, generous, kind)


Ex: It’s kind of her to say this.

4) dupa numeralul ordinal


Ex: He is the first to come.

5) dupa adjectiv la superlativ


Ex: He is the best to do it.

6) dupa adjectivele de genul (dangerous. hard, difficult)


Ex: It si difficult to get there.

7) dupa “the only”


Ex: He is the only person to understand me.

8) dupa “too”
Ex: It’s too hot to breathe there.

9) dupa “enough”
Ex: You are clever enough not to do it again.

10) in proverbe
Ex: To forgive is to forget.

11) in vorbirea indirecta (dupa imperativ)


GERUNZIUL
Forma: V + ing
Are mai multe valori:
1) substantiv
Ex: Reading is important.

2) participiu prezent (in constructia timpurilor continue)


Ex: I’m doing my homework.

3) gerunziu
Ex: Reading, I understood all my problems.

Urmatoarele verbe cer gerunziu:


admit
advise
anticipate
avoid
begin
consider
continue
delay
denny
detest
dislike
enjoy
escape
excuse
finish
forgive
forget
hate imagine
intend
involve
like
love
mind
miss
omit
postpone
practise
recollect
remember
regret
resist
risk
save
start
stop
suggest
try
understand
Expresii cu verbe:
accuse of
aim at
agree with
approve of
consist in
count on
excuse from
insist on
prevent from
rely on
result in
succeed in
think of
be afraid of
be agreeable of
be annoyed at
averse to
be capable of
be intent on
be interested in
be responsible for
be suitable for
be surprised at
be tired of
get used to / be used to
get accustomed to / be accustomed to
go on
keep on
give up
put off
can’t help
can’t stand
it’s no good / it’s no use
be looking forward to
be worth
feel like

Expresii cu substantive:
appology for
art of
change of
dissapointment at
experience in
habbit of
necessity of
objection to
opportunity of
pleasure of
possibility of
process of
reason for
right of
skill in
surprise at
way of

Dupa prepozitiile:
as
than
like
as well as
Ex: Living here is like dying little by little.

Atentionari / indicatoare:
no parking / no smoking

CORESPONDENTA TIMPURILOR
1) daca in principala avem prezent, in secundara putem avea orice
Ex: I know she is / will be / was here.

2) daca in principala avem viitor, in secundara avem prezent


a) simplu – daca depinde de un program
b) continuu – daca depinde de subiect
c) perfect – daca a inceput intr-un moment anterior

3) daca in principala avem trecut, in secundara avem 3 raporturi:


a) simultaneitate (actiuni paralele) => in secundara avem trecut
Ex: While I was dancing, he took my hand.
b) anterioritate => in secundara avem past perfect
Ex: I told him I had met her before.
c) posterioritate => in secundara avem future in the past
Ex: I told him I should go there.
! pt adevaruri universal valabile nu se respecta regula cu trecutul
Ex: He told me that the sun rises from East.