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PART QB BRAZING

ARTICLE XI
BRAZING GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

QB-100 GENERAL Pressure Vessel Code or the ASME B31 Code for
Pressure Piping.
Section IX of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel
However, other Sections of the Code state the condi-
Code relates to the qualification of welders, welding
tions under which Section IX requirements are manda-
operators, brazers, and brazing operators, and the proce-
tory, in whole or in part, and give additional require-
dures that they employ in welding and brazing according
ments. The reader is advised to take these provisions
to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code and
into consideration when using this Section.
the ASME B31 Code for Pressure Piping. It is divided
Brazing Procedure Specifications, Procedure Qualifi-
into two parts: Part QW gives requirements for welding
cation Records, and Brazer or Brazing Operator Per-
and Part QB contains requirements for brazing.
formance Qualifications made in accordance with the
QB-100.1 The purpose of the Brazing Procedure requirements of the 1962 Edition or any later Edition
Specification (BPS) and Procedure Qualification Record of Section IX may be used in any construction built
(PQR) is to determine that the brazement proposed to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code or the
for construction is capable of providing the required ASME B31 Code for Pressure Piping.
properties for its intended application. It is presupposed Brazing Procedure Specifications, Procedure Qualifi-
that the brazer or brazing operator performing the cation Records, and Brazer or Brazing Operator Per-
brazing procedure qualification test is a skilled workman. formance Qualifications made in accordance with the
That is, the brazing procedure qualification test estab- requirements of the Editions of Section IX prior to
lishes the properties of the brazement, not the skill of 1962, in which all of the requirements of the 1962
the brazer or brazing operator. Briefly, a BPS lists Edition or later Editions are met, may also be used.
the variables, both essential and nonessential, and the Brazing Procedure Specifications and Brazer /Brazing
acceptable ranges of these variables when using the Operator Performance Qualification Records meeting
BPS. The BPS is intended to provide direction for the the above requirements do not need to be amended to
brazer or brazing operator. The PQR lists what was include any variables required by later Editions and
used in qualifying the BPS and the test results. Addenda.
Qualification of new Brazing Procedure Specifications
QB-100.2 In performance qualification, the basic or Brazers /Brazing Operators and requalification of
criterion established for brazer qualification is to deter- existing Brazing Procedure Specifications or
mine the brazer’s ability to make a sound brazed joint. Brazers /Brazing Operators shall be in accordance with
The purpose of the performance qualification test for the current Edition (see Foreword) and Addenda of
the brazing operator is to determine the operator’s Section IX.
mechanical ability to operate the brazing equipment.

QB-100.3 Brazing Procedure Specifications (BPS)


QB-101 Scope
written and qualified in accordance with the rules of
this Section, and brazers and operators of automatic The rules in this Section apply to the preparation
and machine brazing equipment also qualified in accord- of Brazing Procedure Specifications, and the qual-
ance with these rules may be used in any construction ification of brazing procedures, brazers, and brazing
built to the requirements of the ASME Boiler and operators for all types of manual and machine brazing

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QB-101 2001 SECTION VI QB-141

processes permitted in this Section. These rules may tion from the specified horizontal and vertical flow
also be applied, insofar as they are applicable, to other planes in accordance with column 1 of QB-461 is
manual or machine brazing processes, permitted in permitted during brazing.
other Sections.

QB-121 Flat-Flow Position


QB-102 Terms and Definitions
The joints in position suitable for applying brazing
Some of the more common terms relating to brazing filler metal in rod, strip, or other suitable form under
are defined in QW/QB-492. These are in substantial the flat-flow conditions are shown in sketches (1)
agreement with the definitions of the American Welding through (5) of Line A in QB-461. The maximum
Society given in its document, A3.0-89, Standard Weld- permitted angular deviation from the specified flow
ing Terms and Definitions. plane is ±15 deg.
Wherever the word pipe is designated, tubes shall
also be applicable.
QB-122 Vertical-Downflow Position
QB-103 Responsibility The joints in a position suitable for applying brazing
QB-103.1 Brazing. Each manufacturer1 or contractor1 filler metal in rod, strip, or other suitable form under
is responsible for the brazing done by his organization, the vertical-downflow conditions are shown in sketches
and shall conduct the tests required in this Section to (1) through (4) of Line B in QB-461. The brazing
qualify the brazing procedures he uses in the construc- filler metal flows by capillary action with the aid of
tion of the brazed assemblies built under this Code gravity downward into the joint. The maximum permit-
and the performance of brazers and brazing operators ted angular deviation from the specified flow plane is
who apply these procedures. ±75 deg.

QB-103.2 Records. Each manufacturer or contractor


shall maintain a record of the results obtained in brazing QB-123 Vertical-Upflow Position
procedure and brazer or brazing operator performance
qualifications. These records shall be certified by the The joints in position suitable for applying brazing
manufacturer or contractor and shall be accessible to filler metal in rod, strip, or other suitable form under
the Authorized Inspector. Refer to recommended Forms the vertical-upflow conditions are shown in sketches
in Nonmandatory Appendix B. (1) through (4) of Line C in QB-461. The brazing
filler metal flows by capillary action through the joint.
The maximum permitted angular deviation from the
QB-110 BRAZE ORIENTATION specified flow plane is ±75 deg.

The orientations of brazes with respect to planes of


reference are classified in accordance with QB-461 into QB-124 Horizontal-Flow Position
four positions2 (A, B, C, and D in column 1), based
The joints in a position suitable for applying brazing
on the basic flow of brazing filler metal through joints.
filler metal in rod, strip, or other suitable form under
These positions are flat flow, vertical downflow, vertical
the horizontal-flow conditions are shown in sketches
upflow, and horizontal flow.
(1) and (2) of Line D of QB-461. The brazing filler
metal flows horizontally by capillary action through
the joint. The maximum permitted angular deviation
QB-120 TEST POSITIONS FOR LAP, BUTT,
from the specified flow plane is ±75 deg.
SCARF, OR RABBET JOINTS
Brazed joints may be made in test coupons oriented
in any of the positions in QB-461 and as described
QB-140 TYPES AND PURPOSES OF TESTS
in the following paragraphs, except that angular devia-
AND EXAMINATIONS
1
Wherever these words are used in Section IX, they shall include QB-141 Tests
installer or assembler.
2
In the following paragraphs the word position is synonymous with Tests used in brazing procedure and performance
flow position. qualifications are as follows.

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QB-141.1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS QB-152

QB-141.1 Tension Tests. Tension tests, as described be used, provided QB-151.1(c) and QB-151.1(d) are
in QB-150, are used to determine the ultimate strength complied with.
of brazed butt, scarf, lap, and rabbet joints. (c) When multiple specimens are used in lieu of full
thickness specimens, each set shall represent a single
QB-141.2 Guided-Bend Tests. Guided-bend tests, tension test of the full plate thickness. Collectively, all
as described in QB-160, are used to determine the of the specimens required to represent the full thickness
degree of soundness and ductility of butt and scarf of the brazed joint at one location shall comprise a set.
joints.
(d) When multiple specimens are necessary, the entire
QB-141.3 Peel Tests. Peel tests, as described in QB- thickness shall be mechanically cut into a minimum
170, are used to determine the quality of the bond and number of approximately equal strips of a size that
the amount of defects in lap joints. can be tested in the available equipment. Each specimen
of the set shall be tested and meet the requirements
A02 QB-141.4 Sectioning Tests. Sectioning tests, i.e., of QB-153.
the sectioning of test coupons, as described in QB-
180, are used to determine the soundness of workman- QB-151.2 Reduced Section — Pipe. Reduced-sec-
ship coupons or test specimens. Sectioning tests are tion specimens conforming to the requirements given
also a substitute for the peel test when the peel test in QB-462.1(b) may be used for tension tests on all
is impractical to perform, e.g., when the strength of thicknesses of pipe or tube having an outside diameter
brazing filler material is equal to or greater than the greater than 3 in. (76 mm). The specimens may be
strength of the base metals. tested in a support fixture in substantial accordance
with QB-462.1(f).
QB-141.5 Workmanship Coupons. Workmanship (a) For thicknesses up to and including 1 in. (25 mm),
coupons, as described in QB-182, are used to determine a full thickness specimen shall be used for each required
the soundness of joints other than the standard butt, tension test.
scarf, lap, and rabbet joints. (b) For pipe thicknesses greater than 1 in. (25 mm),
QB-141.6 Visual Examination. Visual examination full thickness specimens or multiple specimens may
of brazed joints is used for estimating the soundness be used, provided QB-151.2(c) and QB-151.2(d) are
by external appearance, such as continuity of the brazing complied with.
filler metal, size, contour, and wetting of fillet along (c) When multiple specimens are used in lieu of full
the joint and, where appropriate, to determine if filler thickness specimens, each set shall represent a single
metal flowed through the joint from the side of applica- tension test of the full pipe thickness. Collectively, all
tion to the opposite side. of the specimens required to represent the full thickness
of the brazed joint at one location shall comprise a set.
(d) When multiple specimens are necessary, the entire
thickness shall be mechanically cut into a minimum
QB-150 TENSION TESTS number of approximately equal strips of a size that
can be tested in the available equipment. Each specimen
QB-151 Specimens
of the set shall be tested and meet the requirements
Tension test specimens shall conform to one of the of QB-153.
types illustrated in QB-462.1(a) through QB-462.1(f),
and shall meet the requirements of QB-153. QB-151.3 Full-Section Specimens for Pipe. Tension
specimens conforming to the dimensions given in QB-
QB-151.1 Reduced Section — Plate. Reduced-sec- 462.1(e) may be used for testing pipe with an outside
tion specimens conforming to the requirements given diameter of 3 in. (76 mm) or less.
in QB-462.1(a) and QB-462.1(c) may be used for
tension tests on all thicknesses of plate. The specimens
may be tested in a support fixture in substantial accord-
ance with QB-462.1(f). QB-152 Tension Test Procedure
(a) For thicknesses up to and including 1 in. (25 mm), The tension test specimen shall be ruptured under
a full thickness specimen shall be used for each required tensile load. The tensile strength shall be computed by
tension test. dividing the ultimate total load by the least cross-
(b) For plate thicknesses greater than 1 in. (25 mm), sectional area of the specimen as measured before the
full thickness specimens or multiple specimens may load is applied.

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QB-153 2001 SECTION IX QB-162.1

QB-153 Acceptance Criteria — Tension Tests QB-462.2(a). For subsize first surface bends, see QB-
161.3.
01 QB-153.1 Tensile Strength. Minimum values for
procedure qualification are provided under the column QB-161.2 Transverse Second Surface Bend. The
heading “Minimum Specified Tensile, ksi” of QW/QB- joint is transverse to the longitudinal axis of the speci-
422. In order to pass the tension test, the specimen men, which is bent so that the second surface becomes
shall have a tensile strength that is not less than: the convex surface of the bent specimen. In general,
(a) the specified minimum tensile strength of the the second surface is defined as the surface opposite
base metal in the annealed condition; or to that from which the brazing filler metal is placed
(b) the specified minimum tensile strength of the or fed, but definitely is the surface opposite to that
weaker of the two in the annealed condition, if base designated as the first surface, irrespective of how the
metals of different specified minimum tensile strengths brazing filler metal is fed. Transverse second surface
are used; or bend specimens shall conform to the dimensions shown
(c) if the specimen breaks in the base metal outside in QB-462.2(a). For subsize first surface bends, see
of the braze, the test shall be accepted as meeting the QB-161.3.
requirements, provided the strength is not more than QB-161.3 Subsize Transverse Bend. In those cases
5% below the minimum specified tensile strength of where the wall thickness of the tube or pipe is less
the base metal in the annealed condition. than 3⁄8 in. (10 mm) and the diameter-to-thickness ratio
(d) the specified minimum tensile strength is for full does not permit the preparation of full-size rectangular
thickness specimens including cladding for Aluminum guided-bend specimens, the 11⁄2 in. (38 mm) wide
Alclad materials (P-No. 104 and P-No. 105) 0.499 in. standard guided-bend specimen shown in QB-462.2(a)
(12.5 mm) and less. For Aluminum Alclad materials may be replaced by three subsize specimens having a
0.5 in. (13 mm) and greater, the specified minimum width of 3⁄8 in. (10 mm) or 4t, whichever is less.
tensile strength is for both full thickness specimens
that include cladding and specimens taken from the core. QB-161.4 Longitudinal-Bend Tests. Longitudinal-
bend tests may be used in lieu of the transverse-bend
tests for testing braze metal or base metal combinations,
which differ markedly in bending properties between
(a) the two base metals; or
QB-160 GUIDED-BEND TESTS
(b) the braze metal and the base metal.
QB-161 Specimens
QB-161.5 Longitudinal First Surface Bend. The
Guided-bend test specimens shall be prepared by joint is parallel to the longitudinal axis of the specimen,
cutting the test plate or pipe to form specimens of which is bent so that the first surface becomes the
approximately rectangular cross section. The cut sur- convex surface of the bent specimen. The definition
faces shall be designated the sides of the specimen. of first surface is as given in QB-161.1. Longitudinal first
The other two surfaces shall be designated the first surface bend specimens shall conform to the dimensions
and second surfaces. The specimen thickness and bend given in QB-462.2(b).
radius are shown in QB-466.1, QB-466.2, and QB-466.3.
Guided-bend specimens are of five types, depending on QB-161.6 Longitudinal Second Surface Bend. The
whether the axis of the joint is transverse or parallel joint is parallel to the longitudinal axis of the specimen,
to the longitudinal axis of the specimen, and which which is bent so that the second surface becomes the
surface (first or second) is on the convex (outer) side convex surface of the specimen. The definition of the
of the bent specimen. The five types are defined as second surface is given in QB-161.2. Longitudinal
follows. second surface bend specimens shall conform to the
dimensions given in QB-462.2(b).
QB-161.1 Transverse First Surface Bend. The joint
is transverse to the longitudinal axis of the specimen,
QB-162 Guided-Bend Test Procedure
which is bent so that the first surface becomes the
convex surface of the bent specimen. In general, the QB-162.1 Jigs. Guided-bend specimens shall be bent
first surface is defined as that surface from which the in test jigs that are in substantial accordance with QB-
brazing filler metal is applied and is fed by capillary 466. When using the jigs in accordance with QB-466.1
attraction into the joint. Transverse first surface bend or QB-466.2, the side of the specimen turned toward
specimens shall conform to the dimensions shown in the gap of the jig shall be the first surface for first

200
QB-162.1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS QB-182

surface bend specimens (defined in QB-161.1), and the either by clamping Section A and striking Section B
second surface for second surface bend specimens with a suitable tool such that the bending occurs at
(defined in QB-161.2). The specimen shall be forced the fulcrum point (see QB-462.3), or by clamping
into the die by applying load on the plunger until the Section A and Section B in a machine suitable for
curvature of the specimen is such that a 1⁄8 in. (3.2 mm) separating the sections under tension. The separated
diameter wire cannot be inserted between the specimen faying surfaces of joints shall meet the following criteria.
and the die of QB-466.1, or the specimen is bottom (a) The total area of discontinuities (unbrazed areas,
ejected, if the roller type of jig (QB-466.2) is used. flux inclusions, etc.) shall not exceed 25% of the total
When using the wrap around jig (QB-466.3) the side area of any individual faying surface.
of the specimen turned toward the roller shall be the (b) The sum of the lengths of the discontinuities
first surface for first surface bend specimens, and the measured on any one line in the direction of the lap
second surface for second surface bend specimens. shall not exceed 25% of the lap.
(c) No discontinuity shall extend continuously from
QB-163 Acceptance Criteria — Bend Tests one edge of the joint to the other edge, irrespective
of its direction.
The joint of a transverse-bend specimen shall be
completely within the bent portion of the specimen
after testing. QB-180 SECTIONING TESTS AND
The guided-bend specimens shall have no open dis- WORKMANSHIP COUPONS
continuities exceeding 1⁄8 in. (3.2 mm), measured in
QB-181 Sectioning Test Specimens
any direction on the convex surface of the specimen
after bending. Cracks occurring on the corners of the The dimensions and configuration of the sectioning
specimen during testing shall not be considered, unless test specimens shall conform to the requirements of
there is definite evidence that they result from flux QB-462.4. Each side of the specimen shall be polished
inclusions, voids, or other internal discontinuities. and examined with at least a four-power magnifying
glass. The sum of the length of unbrazed areas on
either side, considered individually, shall not exceed
QB-170 PEEL TESTS 20% of the length of the joint overlap.
QB-171 Specimens
QB-182 Workmanship Coupons
The dimensions and preparation of the peel test
specimen shall conform to the requirements of QB- The dimensions and configuration of the workmanship
462.3. coupon shall conform to the nearest approximation
of the actual application. Some typical workmanship
coupons are shown in QB-462.5. Each side of the
QB-172 Acceptance Criteria — Peel Test
specimen shall be polished and examined with at least
In order to pass the peel test, the specimens shall a four-power magnifying glass. The sum of the length
show evidence of brazing filler metal along each edge of unbrazed areas on either side, considered individually,
of the joint. Specimens shall be separated or peeled shall not exceed 20% of the length of the joint overlap.

201